Publications by authors named "Hui Yin"

213 Publications

circNFIX facilitates hepatocellular carcinoma progression by targeting miR-3064-5p/HMGA2 to enhance glutaminolysis.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(8):8697-8710. Epub 2021 Aug 15.

Department of Infectious Diseases, He'nan Provincial People's Hospital, People's Hospital of Zhengzhou University, People's Hospital of He'nan University Zhengzhou, He'nan Province, China.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is acknowledged to be a fatal malignant cancer around the world. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) function as crucial regulators in the pathological procession of HCC. Here, we elucidated the biological function of a novel circRNA, circNFIX, in HCC tumorigenesis. qRT-PCR was performed to determine the expressions of circNFIX, miR-3064-5p, and HMGA2. circNFIX stability was evaluated after treatment with ribonuclease R. The growth and invasion of HCC cells were assessed by CCK8 and transwell assays. Protein levels were measured by Western blotting. The levels of glutaminolysis metabolites were evaluated by commercial kits. Dual-luciferase report assay, RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) assay and RNA pull-down assay were performed for validating the interaction between miR-3064-5p and circNFIX/HMGA2. Tumor growth was detected using xenograft assay. Our results showed that circNFIX was remarkably up-regulated in HCC and was associated with a poor survival. Knockdown of circNFIX repressed proliferation, invasion and glutaminolysis of HCC cells. Moreover, circNFIX directly sponged miR-3064-5p to release HMGA2 expression, and thus conferred the malignant development of HCC. In conclusion, circNFIX serves as a competing endogenous RNA to accelerate HCC progression via regulating miR-3064-5p/HMGA2 axis, suggesting a therapeutic strategy for HCC intervention.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8430108PMC
August 2021

Cadmium Isotope Fractionation during Adsorption and Substitution with Iron (Oxyhydr)oxides.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 09 9;55(17):11601-11611. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Key Laboratory of Arable Land Conservation (Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtse River), Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China.

Cadmium (Cd) isotopes have great potential for understanding Cd geochemical cycling in soil and aquatic systems. Iron (oxyhydr)oxides can sequester Cd via adsorption and isomorphous substitution, but how these interactions affect Cd isotope fractionation remains unknown. Here, we show that adsorption preferentially enriches lighter Cd isotopes on iron (oxyhydr)oxide surfaces through equilibrium fractionation, with a similar fractionation magnitude (ΔCd) for goethite (Goe) (-0.51 ± 0.04‰), hematite (Hem) (-0.54 ± 0.10‰), and ferrihydrite (Fh) (-0.55 ± 0.03‰). Neither the initial Cd concentration or ionic strength nor the pH influence the fractionation magnitude. The enrichment of the light isotope is attributed to the adsorption of highly distorted [CdO] on solids, as indicated by Cd K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine-structure analysis. In contrast, Cd incorporation into Goe by substitution for lattice Fe at a Cd/Fe molar ratio of 0.05 preferentially sequesters heavy Cd isotopes, with a ΔCd of 0.22 ± 0.01‰. The fractionation probably occurs during the transformation of Fh into Goe via dissolution and reprecipitation. These results improve the understanding of the Cd isotope fractionation behavior being affected by iron (oxyhydr)oxides in Earth's critical zone and demonstrate that interactions with minerals can obscure anthropogenic and natural Cd isotope characteristics, which should be carefully considered when applying Cd isotopes as environmental tracers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c06927DOI Listing
September 2021

The trend in primary health care preference in China: a cohort study of 12,508 residents from 2012 to 2018.

BMC Health Serv Res 2021 Aug 3;21(1):768. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Foreign Language Faculty, Shanghai University of Medicine & Health Sciences, Shanghai, 201318, China.

Background: Residents' preference for primary health care (PHC) determined their utilization of PHC. This study aimed to assess the determinants of PHC service preference among the residents and the trend in PHC service preference over time in China.

Methods: We employed the nationally representative longitudinal data from 2012 to 2018 based on the China Family Panel Studies. The analysis framework was guided by the Andersen model of health service utilization. We included a total of 12,508 individuals who have been successfully followed up in the surveys of 2012, 2014, 2016, and 2018 without any missing data. Logistic regressions were performed to analyze potential predictors of PHC preference behavior.

Results: The results indicated that individuals' socio-economic circumstances and their health status factors were statistically significant determinants of PHC preference. Notably, over time, the residents' likelihood of choosing PHC service represented a decreasing trend. Compare to 2012, the likelihood of PHC service preference decreased by 18.6% (OR, 0.814; 95% CI, 0.764-0.867) in 2014, 30.0% (OR, 0.700; 95% CI, 0.657-0.745) in 2016, and 34.9% (OR, 0.651; 95% CI, 0.611-0.694) in 2018. The decrease was significantly associated with the changes in residents' health status.

Conclusions: The residents' likelihood of choosing PHC service represented a decreasing trend, which was contrary to the objective of China's National Health Reform in 2009. We recommend that policymakers adjust the primary service items in PHC facilities and strengthen the coordination of service between PHC institutions and higher-level hospitals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-021-06790-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8336283PMC
August 2021

Complex analysis of the personalized pharmacotherapy in the management of COVID-19 patients and suggestions for applications of predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine attitude.

EPMA J 2021 Jul 16:1-18. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, 410078 Hunan People's Republic of China.

Aims: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is rapidly spreading worldwide. Drug therapy is one of the major treatments, but contradictory results of clinical trials have been reported among different individuals. Furthermore, comprehensive analysis of personalized pharmacotherapy is still lacking. In this study, analyses were performed on 47 well-characterized COVID-19 drugs used in the personalized treatment of COVID-19.

Methods: Clinical trials with published results of drugs use for COVID-19 treatment were collected to evaluate drug efficacy. Drug-to-Drug Interactions (DDIs) were summarized and classified. Functional variations in actionable pharmacogenes were collected and systematically analysed. "Gene Score" and "Drug Score" were defined and calculated to systematically analyse ethnicity-based genetic differences, which are important for the safer use of COVID-19 drugs.

Results: Our results indicated that four antiviral agents (ritonavir, darunavir, daclatasvir and sofosbuvir) and three immune regulators (budesonide, colchicine and prednisone) as well as heparin and enalapril could generate the highest number of DDIs with common concomitantly utilized drugs. Eight drugs (ritonavir, daclatasvir, sofosbuvir, ribavirin, interferon alpha-2b, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and ceftriaxone had actionable pharmacogenomics (PGx) biomarkers among all ethnic groups. Fourteen drugs (ritonavir, daclatasvir, prednisone, dexamethasone, ribavirin, HCQ, ceftriaxone, zinc, interferon beta-1a, remdesivir, levofloxacin, lopinavir, human immunoglobulin G and losartan) showed significantly different pharmacogenomic characteristics in relation to the ethnic origin of the patient.

Conclusion: We recommend that particularly for patients with comorbidities to avoid serious DDIs, the predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine (PPPM, 3 PM) strategies have to be applied for COVID-19 treatment, and genetic tests should be performed for drugs with actionable pharmacogenes, especially in some ethnic groups with a higher frequency of functional variations, as our analysis showed. We also suggest that drugs associated with higher ethnic genetic differences should be given priority in future pharmacogenetic studies for COVID-19 management. To facilitate translation of our results into clinical practice, an approach conform with PPPM/3 PM principles was suggested. In summary, the proposed PPPM/3 PM attitude should be obligatory considered for the overall COVID-19 management.

Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s13167-021-00247-0.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13167-021-00247-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8283099PMC
July 2021

The modifying effects of adiposity on the cardiovascular safety of sulphonylureas.

Diabetes Obes Metab 2021 Jul 12. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Centre for Clinical Epidemiology, Lady Davis Institute, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Québec, Canada.

Aims: To determine whether adiposity modified the effect on the cardiovascular safety of sulphonylureas as a first-line therapy compared with metformin among patients with type 2 diabetes.

Materials And Methods: Using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, we conducted a cohort study among 13 862 new sulphonylurea users matched on body mass index (BMI) and propensity score, in a 1:1 ratio, to new metformin users between April 1, 1998 and December 31, 2016. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), individual components of MACE (myocardial infarction [MI], ischaemic stroke, cardiovascular mortality), and all-cause mortality, comparing use of sulphonylureas with use of metformin, overall and within BMI categories (≤24.9 kg/m , 25.0-29.9 kg/m , ≥30 kg/m ).

Results: Compared with metformin, sulphonylureas were not associated with an increased risk of MACE either overall (HR 1.08, 95% CI 0.94-1.23) or by BMI category. Similar findings were observed for MI and ischaemic stroke. By contrast, sulphonylureas were associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.04-1.48), primarily among obese patients (HR 1.52, 95% CI 1.08-2.13), and not among normal-weight patients (HR 1.00, 95% CI 0.72-1.39; P-interaction 0.21). Similar results were observed for all-cause mortality (HR 1.47, 95% CI 1.32-1.62), where an increased risk was observed among obese patients (HR 1.83, 95% CI 1.49-2.25), but not normal-weight patients (HR 1.18, 95% CI 0.99-1.42; P-interaction: 0.006).

Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that adiposity may have a modifying effect on the association between sulphonylureas and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality compared with metformin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dom.14494DOI Listing
July 2021

Groundwater Depths Affect Phosphorus and Potassium Resorption but Not Their Utilization in a Desert Phreatophyte in Its Hyper-Arid Environment.

Front Plant Sci 2021 7;12:665168. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Xinjiang Key Laboratory of Desert Plant Roots Ecology and Vegetation Restoration, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi, China.

Nutrients are vital for plant subsistence and growth in nutrient-poor and arid ecosystems. The deep roots of phreatophytic plants are necessary to access groundwater, which is the major source of nutrients for phreatophytes in an arid desert ecosystem. However, the mechanisms through which changes in groundwater depth affect nutrient cycles of phreatophytic plants are still poorly understood. This study was performed to reveal the adaptive strategies involving the nutrient use efficiency (NUE) and nutrient resorption efficiency (NRE) of desert phreatophytes as affected by different groundwater depths. This work investigated the nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) concentrations in leaf, stem, and assimilating branch, as well as the NUE and NRE of the phreatophytic The plant was grown at groundwater depths of 2.5, 4.5, and 11.0 m during 2015 and 2016 in a desert-oasis transition ecotone at the southern rim of the Taklimakan Desert in northwestern China. Results show that the leaf, stem, and assimilating branch P concentrations of at 4.5 m groundwater depth were significantly lower than those at 2.5 and 11.0 m groundwater depths. The K concentrations in different tissues of at 4.5 m groundwater depth were significantly higher than those at 2.5 and 11.0 m groundwater depths. Conversely, the NRE of P in was the highest among the three groundwater depths, while that of K in was the lowest among the three groundwater depths in 2015 and 2016. The N concentration and NUE of N, P, and K in , however, were not influenced by groundwater depth. Further analyses using structural equation models showed that groundwater depth had significant effects on the P and K resorption of by changing soil P and senescent leaf K concentrations. Overall, our results suggest groundwater depths affect P and K concentrations and resorption but not their utilization in a desert phreatophyte in its hyper-arid environment. This study provides a new insight into the phreatophytic plant nutrient cycle strategy under a changing external environment in a hyper-arid ecosystem.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.665168DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8216241PMC
June 2021

Quantification of closed cracks in railway using eddy current pulsed thermography.

Appl Opt 2021 Jun;60(17):5195-5202

Rolling contact fatigue cracks are common defects in rail, and they are also the source of various rail defects. When such defects occur, crack closure is caused due to interaction forces between wheels and rails during train running. In this study, eddy current pulsed thermography was applied for quantitative closed crack detection based on the isotherm analysis of temperature distributions. The differences between point-contact crack and opening crack in eddy current and temperature profile were compared in the simulation study. The angle crack test blocks with different closure depths were tested, and the simulation conclusions were consistent with experimental results. Therefore, the proposed method is an effective approach to quantify closed crack.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.425594DOI Listing
June 2021

Evaluation of the quality of mammographic breast positioning: a quality improvement study.

CMAJ Open 2021 Apr-Jun;9(2):E607-E612. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health (Rouette, Azoulay), McGill University; Centre for Clinical Epidemiology (Rouette, Yin, Azoulay), Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Jewish General Hospital, Montréal, Que.; Department of Medicine (Elfassy), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont.; Gerald Bronfman Department of Oncology (Bouganim, Azoulay), McGill University; iMD Research (Lasry), Montréal, Que.

Background: Although there are concerns that inadequate breast positioning in mammographic examinations may lead to cancers being missed, few studies have examined the quality of breast positioning, especially in the Canadian context. Our objective was to assess the quality of breast positioning in mammographic examinations in a Quebec-wide representative sample of technologists.

Methods: This quality improvement study was part of a professional inspection launched by the Ordre des technologues en imagerie médicale, en radio-oncologie et en électrophysiologie médicale du Québec among its members. The inspection was conducted between May and July 2017 on a proportionate stratified random sample of all active technologists certified in mammography in Quebec. Each technologist provided images from 15 consecutive mammographic examinations they performed in the previous 6 months. The quality of positioning was then evaluated by senior technologists using a quality assessment tool specifically developed for this inspection. A technologist was deemed to have failed the professional inspection when at least 7 of the 15 mammographic examinations were scored as critical failures. Proportions were calculated accounting for sampling weights and correction for finite population.

Results: Among the 520 technologists certified in mammography in Quebec, 76 technologists (14.6%) were randomly selected for the professional inspection and contributed images from 1127 mammographic examinations. Thirty-eight technologists (weighted percentage 50.3%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 37.6% to 63.0%) failed the professional inspection. Overall, 492 mammographic examinations (43.7%, 95% CI 38.6% to 48.8%) had at least 1 image scored as a critical failure.

Interpretation: Half of the technologists performing mammographic examinations in Quebec who participated in this study failed the inspection, and a substantial proportion of their mammographic examinations demonstrated critical failures in breast positioning. Overall, our findings are concordant with those of previous studies and highlight the need for additional investigations assessing the quality of breast positioning in mammographic examinations in other jurisdictions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.9778/cmajo.20200211DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8191588PMC
August 2021

Neuroprotection of -benzyl Eicosapentaenamide in Neonatal Mice Following Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury.

Molecules 2021 May 22;26(11). Epub 2021 May 22.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Bioactive Substances, School of Biosciences and Biopharmaceutics, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510006, China.

Maca () has emerged as a popular functional plant food because of its medicinal properties and nutritional value. Macamides, as the exclusively active ingredients found in maca, are a unique series of non-polar, long-chain fatty acid -benzylamides with multiple bioactivities such as antifatigue characteristics and improving reproductive health. In this study, a new kind of macamide, -benzyl eicosapentaenamide (NB-EPA), was identified from maca. We further explore its potential neuroprotective role in hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Our findings indicated that treatment with biosynthesized NB-EPA significantly alleviates the size of cerebral infarction and improves neurobehavioral disorders after hypoxic-ischemic brain damage in neonatal mice. NB-EPA inhibited the apoptosis of neuronal cells after ischemic challenge. NB-EPA improved neuronal cell survival and proliferation through the activation of phosphorylated AKT signaling. Of note, the protective property of NB-EPA against ischemic neuronal damage was dependent on suppression of the p53-PUMA pathway. Taken together, these findings suggest that NB-EPA may represent a new neuroprotectant for newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26113108DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8197015PMC
May 2021

A newly identified polyunsaturated macamide alleviates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice.

Fitoterapia 2021 Jul 1;152:104916. Epub 2021 May 1.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Bioactive Substances, School of Biosciences and Biopharmaceutics, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510006, China. Electronic address:

Macamides are a class of bioactive amide alkaloids found only in maca (Lepidium meyenii). Recent studies have shown that macamide-rich extracts possess various biological activities, such as antioxidative, immune-enhancing, and reproductive health-improving activities. In the present study, N-benzyl docosahexaenamide (NB-DHA), a newly identified macamide with the highest degree of unsaturation among all identified macamides, was identified from the maca extract. Microalgae oil, a docosahexaenoic acid-rich substance, was used as the starting material for the synthesis of NB-DHA. The effects of NB-DHA in colitis-induced mice were evaluated. NB-DHA significantly alleviated weight loss, shortening of colon length, and occult blood occurrence in mice with dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis. Histological analysis revealed that following the administration of NB-DHA in mice with colitis, the infiltration of inflammatory cells and levels of proinflammatory factors, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and myeloperoxidase, decreased, whereas the level of the anti-inflammatory factor IL-10 increased. Furthermore, the decreased expression of intestinal tight junction proteins caused by colitis was upregulated by the administration of NB-DHA. These results indicate that NB-DHA could be developed as a therapeutic agent for ulcerative colitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2021.104916DOI Listing
July 2021

AMPK activation by ASP4132 inhibits non-small cell lung cancer cell growth.

Cell Death Dis 2021 04 6;12(4):365. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, China.

Activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is able to produce significant anti-non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell activity. ASP4132 is an orally active and highly effective AMPK activator. The current study tested its activity against NSCLC cells. In primary NSCLC cells and established cell lines (A549 and NCI-H1944) ASP4132 potently inhibited cell growth, proliferation and cell cycle progression as well as cell migration and invasion. Robust apoptosis activation was detected in ASP4132-treated NSCLC cells. Furthermore, ASP4132 treatment in NSCLC cells induced programmed necrosis, causing mitochondrial p53-cyclophilin D (CyPD)-adenine nucleotide translocase 1 (ANT1) association, mitochondrial depolarization and medium lactate dehydrogenase release. In NSCLC cells ASP4132 activated AMPK signaling, induced AMPKα1-ACC phosphorylation and increased AMPK activity. Furthermore, AMPK downstream events, including mTORC1 inhibition, receptor tyrosine kinases (PDGFRα and EGFR) degradation, Akt inhibition and autophagy induction, were detected in ASP4132-treated NSCLC cells. Importantly, AMPK inactivation by AMPKα1 shRNA, knockout (using CRISPR/Cas9 strategy) or dominant negative mutation (T172A) almost reversed ASP4132-induced anti-NSCLC cell activity. Conversely, a constitutively active AMPKα1 (T172D) mimicked and abolished ASP4132-induced actions in NSCLC cells. In vivo, oral administration of a single dose of ASP4132 largely inhibited NSCLC xenograft growth in SCID mice. AMPK activation, mTORC1 inhibition and EGFR-PDGFRα degradation as well as Akt inhibition and autophagy induction were detected in ASP4132-treated NSCLC xenograft tumor tissues. Together, activation of AMPK by ASP4132 potently inhibits NSCLC cell growth in vitro and in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03655-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8024326PMC
April 2021

Prescribing Trends of Antidepressants and Psychotropic Coprescription for Youths in UK Primary Care, 2000-2018.

J Affect Disord 2021 05 11;287:19-25. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Occupational Health, McGill University, Montreal, Québec, Canada; Centre for Clinical Epidemiology, Lady Davis Institute, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Québec, Canada; Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, McGill University, Montreal, Québec, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: There is lack of recent information on the prescribing trends of antidepressants and coprescription with other psychotropic medications in the United Kingdom (UK) pediatric population.

Methods: Using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, we estimated the annual rates of patients newly prescribed an antidepressant (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), other newer generation antidepressants, and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs)) and the percentage of new users of antidepressants with a same-day coprescription for other psychotropic medications. We also estimated the prevalence of patients with antidepressant prescriptions and percentage of coprescription for other psychotropic medications.

Results: After a 42% decline from 2000 to 2005, the rate of patients newly prescribed an antidepressant increased from 2006 onwards. From 2008 to 2018, the rate increased from 254.3 to 471.2 per 100,000 person-years (rate ratio 1.97, 95% confidence interval 1.96-1.99). The rate was higher in females and adolescents aged 15 to 17. SSRIs were most commonly prescribed (70% of all antidepressant prescriptions). Overall, 4.7% of patients newly prescribed an antidepressant had at least one same-day coprescription for another psychotropic medication. During the study period, coprescription rose from 2.6% to 6.4% and was more frequent in males. In 2018, most coprescriptions were anxiolytics and hypnotics (63%) and antipsychotics (26%). Trends in prevalent prescriptions corresponded to trends in new prescriptions.

Limitations: By using a primary care database, we did not have information on prescriptions from specialists or during hospitalizations.

Conclusions: During the last decade, antidepressant prescriptions and psychotropic coprescription in primary care increased in UK children and adolescents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2021.03.022DOI Listing
May 2021

Defining Clinically Relevant Target Populations Using Real-World Data to Guide the Design of Representative Antidiabetic Drug Trials.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2021 05 16;109(5):1219-1223. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Occupational Health, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.

The US Food and Drug Administration is considering replacing cardiovascular outcome trials of antidiabetic drugs with trials that better represent patients with type 2 diabetes. However, designing such representative trials requires understanding the underlying target populations (i.e., populations intended to receive the drug in the real-world setting). Thus, we used the Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes: Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcome Results (LEADER) trial as a motivating example to illustrate how different target populations impact trial representativeness. Using the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink, we identified three target populations: (i) all patients with type 2 diabetes; (ii) patients prescribed liraglutide; and (iii) patients who would have been eligible to receive liraglutide based on treatment stage (i.e., patients with poorly controlled diabetes eligible to receive a second-to-fifth line antidiabetic drug). We then examined the representativeness of the LEADER trial by applying its eligibility criteria to each target population. The target populations of patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 279,763), those prescribed liraglutide (n = 14,421), and those eligible to receive liraglutide based on the treatment stage (n = 85,610) differed substantially in terms of hemoglobin A1c, body mass index, prevalence of heart failure, and chronic kidney disease. Applying the LEADER trial eligibility criteria to these target populations resulted in the inclusion of 19.1%, 20.7%, and 34.8% patients, respectively. This study highlights how real-world data can be used to define different target populations. Explicitly defining these target populations can help in the design of future trials of antidiabetic drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpt.2213DOI Listing
May 2021

Influence of Sensor Coating and Topography on Protein and Nanoparticle Interaction with Supported Lipid Bilayers.

Langmuir 2021 02 9;37(7):2256-2267. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Departments of Soil Science, Civil & Environmental Engineering, and Chemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53076, United States.

Supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) have proven to be valuable model systems for studying the interactions of proteins, peptides, and nanoparticles with biological membranes. The physicochemical properties (, topography, coating) of the solid substrate may affect the formation and properties of supported phospholipid bilayers, and thus, subsequent interactions with biomolecules or nanoparticles. Here, we examine the influence of support coating (SiO SiN) and topography [sensors with embedded protruding gold nanodisks for nanoplasmonic sensing (NPS)] on the formation and subsequent interactions of supported phospholipid bilayers with the model protein cytochrome and with cationic polymer-wrapped quantum dots using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring and NPS techniques. The specific protein and nanoparticle were chosen because they differ in the degree to which they penetrate the bilayer. We find that bilayer formation and subsequent non-penetrative association with cytochrome were not significantly influenced by substrate composition or topography. In contrast, the interactions of nanoparticles with SLBs depended on the substrate composition. The substrate-dependence of nanoparticle adsorption is attributed to the more negative zeta-potential of the bilayers supported by the silica the silicon nitride substrate and to the penetration of the cationic polymer wrapping the nanoparticles into the bilayer. Our results indicate that the degree to which nanoscale analytes interact with SLBs may be influenced by the underlying substrate material.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.0c02662DOI Listing
February 2021

CoN/CoMoO Heterostructure as a Highly Active Electrocatalyst for an Alkaline Hydrogen Evolution Reaction.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Feb 8;13(7):8337-8343. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Storage Materials of Guangdong Province, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641, P. R. China.

The development of earth-abundant electrocatalysts with high intrinsic activity, abundant active sites, and good electrical conductivity is of vital importance for the market penetration of clean energy technologies. We herein report a facile synthesis of a self-supported CoN/CoN/CoMoO heterostructured catalyst on cobalt foam (CF) by a hydrothermal process followed by nitridation treatment. Our first-principles calculations revealed that CoMoO and CoN could work in concert to provide active sites for an alkaline hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). The hierarchical and nanoporous architecture of the CoN/CoN/CoMoO catalyst ensured an abundance of accessible active sites. The direct growth of metalloid CoN nanoparticles on the defective CoMoO substrate endowed the catalyst with good electrical conductivity. As a consequence, the CoN/CoN/CoMoO/CF catalyst showed extraordinarily high activity and good stability toward the alkaline HER, outperforming most existing non-precious electrocatalysts. In particular, it exhibited a comparable catalytic performance to the commercial Pt/C catalyst at a current density of 100 mA cm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c20271DOI Listing
February 2021

Parental rearing and personality traits as predictors for adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

Dev Psychopathol 2021 Jan 12:1-8. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Health Education, School of Health Management, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China.

We aim to determine the correlation between parental rearing, personality traits, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in different quantiles. In particular, we created an intermediary effect model in which parental rearing affects OCD through personality traits. All predictors were measured at the time of the survey, comprising parental rearing (paternal rearing and maternal rearing), demographics (grade and gender), and personality traits (neuroticism, extroversion, and psychoticism). These results suggest that (a) paternal emotional warmth was negatively correlated with OCD at the 0.40-0.80 quantile, while maternal emotional warmth was positively correlated with the OCD at the 0.45-0.69 quantile. (b) The correlation between negative parental rearing and OCD ranged from the 0.67 to 0.95 quantile for paternal punishment, 0.14-0.82 quantile for paternal overprotection, 0.05-0.36 and >0.50 quantile for maternal over-intervention and overprotection, and 0.08-0.88 quantile for maternal rejection. (c) Extroversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism were not only associated with OCD in a particular quantile but also mediated between parental rearing (namely parental emotional warmth, paternal punishment, paternal overprotection, maternal rejection, maternal over-intervention, and overprotection) and OCD. These findings provide targets for early interventions of OCD to improve the form of family education and personality traits and warrant validation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S095457942000108XDOI Listing
January 2021

Shadow Removal by a Lightness-Guided Network With Training on Unpaired Data.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2021 18;30:1853-1865. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Shadow removal can significantly improve the image visual quality and has many applications in computer vision. Deep learning methods based on CNNs have become the most effective approach for shadow removal by training on either paired data, where both the shadow and underlying shadow-free versions of an image are known, or unpaired data, where shadow and shadow-free training images are totally different with no correspondence. In practice, CNN training on unpaired data is more preferred given the easiness of training data collection. In this paper, we present a new Lightness-Guided Shadow Removal Network (LG-ShadowNet) for shadow removal by training on unpaired data. In this method, we first train a CNN module to compensate for the lightness and then train a second CNN module with the guidance of lightness information from the first CNN module for final shadow removal. We also introduce a loss function to further utilise the colour prior of existing data. Extensive experiments on widely used ISTD, adjusted ISTD and USR datasets demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods with training on unpaired data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIP.2020.3048677DOI Listing
January 2021

Arsenate(V) removal from aqueous system by using modified incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) as a novel adsorbent.

Chemosphere 2021 May 30;270:129423. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

State Key Laboratory of Geomechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Institute of Rock and Soil Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430071, China; IRSM-CAS/HK PolyU Joint Laboratory on Solid Waste Science, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong. Electronic address:

Adsorption methods have been widely used in wastewater treatment due to its high removal efficiency, easy operation and handling, economic efficiency and little secondary pollution to the environment. In this paper, a high-iron containing incineration sewage sludge ash (ISSA) was modified by combined acid leaching and precipitation processes to improve its adsorption capacity of As(V). The effects of pH, time, temperature and ionic strength on the adsorption of As(V) were investigated by batch adsorption experiments. The results indicated that iron (mainly present as hematite) in the ISSA was rearranged to Fe(SO)OH. The modified ISSA showed an excellent adsorption potential for As(V) under acidic conditions and the adsorption capacity was around 9 times of the unmodified ISSA at pH 2-3. The adsorption process was fast during the first 2 h and reached an equilibrium at around 6 h. The Freundlich model could well fit the adsorption isotherm data, the presence of NO and Cl had a negligible influence on the As(V) removal by the modified ISSA, while PO and SO could significantly suppress As(V) removal via competitive adsorption. After 3 cycles of regeneration, the modified ISSA still showed a satisfying adsorption capacity. As(V) was removed by the modified ISSA mainly through ligand exchange reaction with hydroxyl oxygen (OH-) to form inner-sphere complexes. Therefore, the modified ISSA can be a promising material for As(V) removal from wastewater in particular due to the waste recycling potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.129423DOI Listing
May 2021

Interactions between Active Ingredient Ranitidine and Clay Mineral Excipients in Pharmaceutical Formulations.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Dec 6;13(23). Epub 2020 Dec 6.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Materials Utilization of Nonmetallic Minerals and Solid Wastes, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, 29 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083, China.

Excipients play an important role in pharmaceutical formulations. Many clay minerals, because of their large specific surface area and inert behaviour in reactions with active ingredients, are commonly used as excipients. In this study, the uptake of ranitidine (RT), the active ingredient of Zantac, on and released from palygorskite (Pal), kaolinite (Kao), and talc was evaluated under different physicochemical conditions. The results showed that the uptake of RT on these minerals was limited to the external surface areas only. Cation exchange and electrostatic interactions were responsible for the RT uptake on Pal and Kao, resulting in a monolayer sorption. In contrast, multilayer RT uptake was found on the talc surfaces. Under different desorbing conditions, significant amounts of sorbed RT remained on the solid surface after 5 h of desorption. The results suggest that the sorptive interactions between the active ingredients and the excipients may not be neglected in pharmaceutical formulations, should these minerals be used as additives and/or excipients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13235558DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7730526PMC
December 2020

Long-term outcomes of laparoscopic versus open donor nephrectomy for kidney transplantation: a meta-analysis.

Am J Transl Res 2020 15;12(10):5993-6002. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Department of Kidney Transplantation, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University Changsha, China.

Laparoscopic surgery is widely used for living donor nephrectomy and has demonstrated superiority over open surgery by improving several outcomes, such as length of hospital stay and morphine requirements. The purpose of the present study was to compare the long-term outcomes of open donor nephrectomy (ODN) versus laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) using meta-analytical techniques. The Web of Science, PubMed and Cochrane Library databases were searched, for relevant articles published between 1980 and January 20, 2020. Lists of reference articles retrieved in primary searches were manually screened for potentially eligible studies. Outcome parameters were explored using Review Manager version 5.3. The evaluated outcomes included donor serum creatinine levels, incidence of hypertension or proteinuria at 1 year postoperative, donor health-related quality of life, donation attitude, and graft survival. Thirteen of the 111 articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The LDN group demonstrated similar 1 year outcomes compared with ODN with respect to serum creatinine levels (weighted mean difference [WMD] -0.02 mg/dL [95% confidence interval (CI) -0.18-0.13]; =0.77); hypertension (odds ratio [OR] 1.21 [95% CI 0.48-3.08]; =0.68); proteinuria (OR 0.28 [95% CI 0.02-3.11]; =0.30); and donation attitude (OR 4.26 [95% CI 0.06-298.27]; =0.50). Donor health-related quality of life and recipient graft survival were also not significantly different between the groups analyzed. Thus, the long-term outcomes between LDN and ODN for living donor kidney transplantation are similar.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7653626PMC
October 2020

Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors and the Short-term Risk of Breast Cancer Among Women With Type 2 Diabetes.

Diabetes Care 2021 01 6;44(1):e9-e11. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, McGill University, Montreal, Canada

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc20-1073DOI Listing
January 2021

Use of Hydrochlorothiazide and Risk of Melanoma and Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer.

Drug Saf 2021 Feb 26;44(2):245-254. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Centre for Clinical Epidemiology, Lady Davis Institute, Jewish General Hospital, 3755 Cote Sainte-Catherine Road, H-425.1, Montreal, QC, H3T 1E2, Canada.

Introduction: There are concerns that hydrochlorothiazide may increase the risk of incident nonmelanoma (cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma [cSCC], basal cell carcinoma [BCC]) and melanoma skin cancer, with regulatory agencies and societies calling for additional studies.

Methods: We conducted a propensity score-matched population-based cohort study using the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink. A total of 20,513 new users of hydrochlorothiazide were propensity score matched, in a 1:1 ratio, to new users of other thiazide diuretics between January 1, 1988 and March 31, 2018, with follow-up until March 31, 2019. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for cSCC, BCC, and melanoma, comparing use of hydrochlorothiazide with use of other thiazide diuretics overall, by cumulative duration of use, and cumulative dose.

Results: After an 8.6-year median follow-up, hydrochlorothiazide was associated with an increased risk of cSCC (HR 1.50, 95% CI 1.06-2.11). HRs increased with cumulative duration of use, with evidence of an association after 5-10 years (HR 2.10, 95% CI 1.20-3.67) and highest after > 10 years (HR 3.70, 95% CI 1.77-7.73). Similarly, HRs increased with cumulative dose, with higher estimates for ≥ 100,000 mg (HR 4.96, 95% CI 2.51-9.81). In contrast, hydrochlorothiazide was not associated with an increased risk of BCC (HR 1.01, 95% CI 0.91-1.13) or melanoma (HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.63-1.08), with no evidence of duration- or dose-response relationships.

Conclusions: Use of hydrochlorothiazide was associated with an increased risk of cSCC and with evidence of a duration- and dose-response relationship. In contrast, no association was observed for BCC or melanoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40264-020-01015-1DOI Listing
February 2021

Highly enhanced oxidation of arsenite at the surface of birnessite in the presence of pyrophosphate and the underlying reaction mechanisms.

Water Res 2020 Dec 10;187:116420. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Key Laboratory of Arable Land Conservation (Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtze River), Ministry of Agriculture, College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China. Electronic address:

Manganese(IV) oxides, and more especially birnessite, rank among the most efficient metal oxides for As(III) oxidation and subsequent sorption, and thus for arsenic immobilization. Efficiency is limited however by the precipitation of low valence Mn (hydr)oxides at the birnessite surface that leads to its passivation. The present work investigates experimentally the influence of chelating agents on this oxidative process. Specifically, the influence of sodium pyrophosphate (PP), an efficient Mn(III) chelating agent, on As(III) oxidation by birnessite was investigated using batch experiments and different arsenic concentrations at circum-neutral pH. In the absence of PP, Mn(II/III) species are continuously generated during As(III) oxidation and adsorbed to the mineral surface. Field emission-scanning electron microscopy, synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicate that manganite is formed, passivating birnessite surface and thus hampering the oxidative process. In the presence of PP, generated Mn(II/III) species form soluble complexes, thus inhibiting surface passivation and promoting As(III) conversion to As(V) with PP. Enhancement of As(III) oxidation by Mn oxides strongly depends on the affinity of the chelating agent for Mn(III) and from the induced stability of Mn(III) complexes. Compared to PP, the positive influence of oxalate, for example, on the oxidative process is more limited. The present study thus provides new insights into the possible optimization of arsenic removal from water using Mn oxides, and on the possible environmental control of arsenic contamination by these ubiquitous nontoxic mineral species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2020.116420DOI Listing
December 2020

Next-Generation Sequencing Revealed Disease-Causing Variants in Two Genes in a Patient With Combined Features of Spherocytosis and Antley-Bixler Syndrome With Genital Anomalies and Disordered Steroidogenesis.

Front Genet 2020 21;11:976. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

Department of Endocrinology, Capital Institute of Pediatrics, Beijing, China.

Conventionally, patients with combined rare diseases are often difficult to diagnose. This is because some clinicians tend to consider the multiple disease symptoms as the presentation of a complicated "syndrome." This pattern of thinking also confines their way of filtering pathogenic mutations. Some real pathogenic mutations might be ignored due to not covering all disease presentations. Here we report the case of a girl who was suffering from spherocytosis and Antley-Bixler syndrome with genital anomalies and disordered steroidogenesis. She remained undiagnosed even after targeted gene detection before. However, after performing next-generation sequencing and analyzing the sequencing data, we identified two mutations: c.2978T > A in and c.1370G > A in . Our findings and experiences in diagnosing these mutations could contribute to the existing knowledge on the clinical and genetic diagnosis of patients with disease presentations in multiple systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2020.00976DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7472872PMC
August 2020

Simultaneous introduction of K and Rb into OMS-2 tunnels as an available strategy for substantially increasing the catalytic activity for benzene elimination.

Environ Res 2020 12 1;191:110146. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Hubei Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China.

OMS-2 is one of the most promising catalysts for carcinogenic benzene elimination, and single-type alkali metals are typically introduced into the OMS-2 tunnels to modify its catalytic activity. Here, we reported a novel approach for significantly increasing the catalytic activity of OMS-2 via the simultaneous introduction of K and Rb into the tunnels. The catalytic results demonstrated that K and Rb codoped OMS-2 showed catalytic activity for benzene oxidation that exceeded those of K and Rb single-doped OMS-2, as evidenced by enormous decreases (△T = 106 °C and △T > 132 °C) in catalytic temperatures T and T (which correspond to benzene conversion percentages of 50% and 90%, respectively). The origin of the effect of K and Rb codoping on the catalytic activity of OMS-2 was experimentally and theoretically investigated via O isotope labeling, CO temperature-programmed reduction, and density functional theory calculation. The higher catalytic activity of K and Rb codoped OMS-2 was attributed to its higher lattice oxygen activity as well as its higher oxygen vacancy defect concentrations compared to the single-doped OMS-2 cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2020.110146DOI Listing
December 2020

Neuroprotective effect of astrocyte-derived IL-33 in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury.

J Neuroinflammation 2020 Aug 28;17(1):251. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Bioactive Substances, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou, 510006, China.

Background: Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a well-recognized pleiotropic cytokine which plays crucial roles in immune regulation and inflammatory responses. Recent studies suggest that IL-33 and its receptor ST2 are involved in the pathogenesis of neurological diseases. Here, we explore the effect of IL-33/ST2 signaling in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury and elucidate the underlying mechanisms of action.

Methods: The brain HI model was established in neonatal C57BL/6 mice by left common carotid artery occlusion with 90 min hypoxia and treated with IL-33 at a dose of 0.2 μg/day i.p. for 3 days. TTC staining and neurobehavioral observation were used to evaluate the HI brain injury. Immunofluorescence and flow cytometry were applied to determine the expression of IL-33 and its receptor ST2 on brain CNS cells and cell proliferation and apoptosis. OGD experiment was used to assay the viability of astrocytes and neurons. RT-qPCR was used to measure the expression of neurotrophic factor-associated genes.

Results: The expression level of IL-33 was markedly enhanced in astrocytes 24 h after cerebral HI in neonatal mice. Exogenous delivery of IL-33 significantly alleviated brain injury 7 days after HI, whereas ST2 deficiency exacerbated brain infarction and neurological deficits post HI. Flow cytometry analyses demonstrated high levels of ST2 expression on astrocytes, and the expression of ST2 was further elevated after HI. Intriguingly, IL-33 treatment apparently improved astrocyte response and attenuated HI-induced astrocyte apoptosis through ST2 signaling pathways. Further in vitro studies revealed that IL-33-activated astrocytes released a series of neurotrophic factors, which are critical for raising neuronal survival against oxygen glucose deprivation.

Conclusions: The activation of IL-33/ST2 signaling in the ischemic brain improves astrocyte response, which in turn affords protection to ischemic neurons in a glial-derived neurotrophic factor-dependent manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12974-020-01932-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7455908PMC
August 2020

Identification, Pathogenicity, and Fungicide Sensitivity of (Teleomorph: ) Associated with Black Stem on Quinoa in China.

Plant Dis 2020 Oct 19;104(10):2585-2597. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

College of Plant Protection, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China.

Quinoa black stem is a new disease that affects the stems of quinoa plants and is more likely to develop under cool conditions (15 to 25°C, RH = 55 ± 2%). The typical symptoms include the formation of black necrotic lesions on the stem, which can completely wrap around the stem, causing lodging and blanking (development of 'empty' and sterile grain on the panicle). Furthermore, the pycnidia form small round protrusions on the surface of the lesions. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that representative isolates LMHS-3 and LMHS-5 were closely related to (teleomorph: ). Comprehensive morphological and molecular characterizations confirmed . as the pathogen that caused quinoa black stem. mainly infected quinoa stems and could produce many pycnidia, but it rarely infected quinoa leaves. Pathogenicity testing showed that the most suitable temperature for the onset of quinoa black stem was from 15 to 25°C. When the temperature was increased above 30°C, the conidial germination of became malformed, and when the temperature was decreased below 5°C, mycelium growth of became extremely slow; thus, both extreme high and low temperatures affected the pathogenicity of . Mancozeb and azoxystrobin fungicides were revealed to have had the strongest inhibitory effects on the conidial germination of , and in some cases caused malformations in conidial germination. Tebuconazole and difenoconazole had the strongest inhibitory effects on mycelial growth and less on the effects on the conidial germination. The results of the present study provide a basis for the recognition and management of quinoa black stem.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-09-19-2042-REDOI Listing
October 2020

Use of Real-World Data to Emulate a Clinical Trial and Support Regulatory Decision Making: Assessing the Impact of Temporality, Comparator Choice, and Method of Adjustment.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2021 02 19;109(2):452-461. Epub 2020 Sep 19.

Centre for Clinical Epidemiology, Lady Davis Institute, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

External controls have been primarily used in the setting of single-arm trials of rare diseases; their use in common diseases has not been readily investigated, nor is there guidance on how to best select comparators. Thus, the objective of this study was to emulate a large cardiovascular outcome trial of type 2 diabetes to compare associations of effectiveness with different comparator groups to those reported in the trial. Using the Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes: Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcome Results (LEADER) trial, we investigated six comparator groups using three calendar time periods (Early: 1999-2003; Later: 2004-2008, and Contemporaneous: 2009-2013) and two comparators (sulfonylureas and other second-to-third-line antidiabetic drugs). Hazard ratios (HRs) of the three-point composite cardiovascular outcome were estimated using four variations of the propensity score (adjustment, stratification, fine stratification, and matching) and compared with the LEADER trial (HR, 0.87; 95% confidence interval, 0.78-0.97). When comparing users of liraglutide with users of sulfonylureas, the HRs ranged from 0.57 to 1.03, with estimates in the early period most closely reflecting the LEADER trial (HR, 0.57-0.88). In contrast, the HRs ranged from 0.73 to 0.97 when comparing liraglutide users with users of any second-to-third-line antidiabetic drugs, although the later period generated estimates closest to the LEADER trial (HR, 0.77-0.84). Different methods of adjustment led to generally consistent HRs, aside from the fine stratification in the early period. This study highlights the complex interplay between comparator, temporality, and method of adjustment when selecting comparators using real-word data. These design choices must be considered in the design of trial emulation studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpt.2012DOI Listing
February 2021

The Association between Oral Anticoagulants and Cancer Incidence among Individuals with Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation.

Thromb Haemost 2020 Oct 27;120(10):1384-1394. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Centre for Clinical Epidemiology, Lady Davis Institute, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Objective:  Existing evidence on the association between vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) and direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) and cancer is limited and contradictory. No observational studies have been conducted to simultaneously address the cancer safety of VKAs and DOACs. The objective of this study was to determine whether use of VKAs and DOACs, separately, when compared with nonuse, is associated with cancer overall and prespecified site-specific incidence.

Methods:  Using the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink, we identified patients newly diagnosed with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) between 2011 and 2017. Using a time-varying exposure definition, each person-day of follow-up was classified as use of (1) VKAs, (2) DOACs, (3) VKAs and DOACs (drug switchers), and (4) nonuse of anticoagulants (reference). We also conducted a head-to-head comparison of new users of DOACs versus VKAs using propensity score fine stratification weighting. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for cancer overall and prespecified subtypes were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models.

Results:  Compared with nonuse, use of VKAs was not associated with cancer overall (HR: 1.05, 95% CI: 0.91-1.22) or cancer subtypes. Similarly, use of DOACs was not associated with cancer overall (HR: 1.13, 95% CI: 0.93-1.37), but an association was observed for colorectal cancer (HR: 1.73, 95% CI: 1.01-2.99), and pancreatic cancer generated an elevated, though nonsignificant HR (HR: 2.15, 95% CI: 0.72-6.44). Results were consistent in the head-to-head comparison.

Conclusion:  Use of oral anticoagulants is not associated with the incidence of cancer overall among patients with NVAF. Possible associations between DOACs and colorectal and pancreatic cancer warrant further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1714213DOI Listing
October 2020

Single Ni Atoms Anchored on Porous Few-Layer g-C N for Photocatalytic CO Reduction: The Role of Edge Confinement.

Small 2020 Jul 9;16(28):e2002411. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Film and Integrated Devices, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, 610054, P. R. China.

It is greatly intriguing yet remains challenging to construct single-atomic photocatalysts with stable surface free energy, favorable for well-defined atomic coordination and photocatalytic carrier mobility during the photoredox process. Herein, an unsaturated edge confinement strategy is defined by coordinating single-atomic-site Ni on the bottom-up synthesized porous few-layer g-C N (namely, Ni -CN) via a self-limiting method. This Ni -CN system with a few isolated Ni clusters distributed on the edge of g-C N is beneficial to immobilize the nonedged single-atomic-site Ni species, thus achieving a high single-atomic active site density. Remarkably, the Ni -CN system exhibits comparably high photocatalytic activity for CO reduction, giving the CO generation rate of 8.6 µmol g h under visible-light illumination, which is 7.8 times that of pure porous few-layer g-C N (namely, CN, 1.1 µmol g h ). X-ray absorption spectrometric analysis unveils that the cationic coordination environment of single-atomic-site Ni center, which is formed by Ni-N doping-intercalation the first coordination shell, motivates the superiority in synergistic N-Ni-N connection and interfacial carrier transfer. The photocatalytic mechanistic prediction confirms that the introduced unsaturated Ni-N coordination favorably binds with CO , and enhances the rate-determining step of intermediates for CO generation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202002411DOI Listing
July 2020
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