Publications by authors named "Hui Yan"

736 Publications

Knowledge, attitude, and practice of nurses in intensive care unit on preventing medical device-related pressure injury: A cross-sectional study in western China.

Int Wound J 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

School of Nursing, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu, People's Republic of China.

The knowledge, attitude, and practice of nurses in intensive care units (ICUs) are determinants for the efficacy of preventing the medical device-related pressure injury (MDRPI). The aim of this study was to determine the level and factors of knowledge, attitude, and practice of nurses' ICUs on preventing medical MDRPI in western China. An annual cross-sectional study was conducted in hospitals of western China from May 2020 to September 2020. Nurses' knowledge and attitudes were assessed using Clinical Nurses Prevention MDRPI of Critically Ill Patients for the Knowledge, Attitude, Practice Assessment Scale. SPSS software version 25.0 and independent t-test, Chi-square, Fisher exact, one-way analysis of variance, and multiple linear regression tests were used for data analysis. A total of 1002 nurses in ICUs from 37 hospitals in Gansu Province, China, participated in this study. The scores of overall KAP, knowledge, attitudes, and practice were 149.17 ± 24.62, 53.83 ± 12.23, 37.24 ± 6.35 and 58.10 ± 9.83, respectively. There was a positive and significant relationship between three variables. Findings revealed that nurses' knowledge score in the Tertiary hospital was higher than scores of other hospitals as 3.840 units. Moreover, the knowledge score and practice score of nurses with bachelor's degree or above were higher than other nurses and are 0.978 and 1.106 units, respectively. Based on the findings, practice of nurses increased by 0.992 units, with a 1-year increase in work experience of nurses in the ICU. The levels of knowledge, attitude, and practice of nurse in ICUs on preventing MDRPI were acceptable. The findings of the study highlight that a comprehensive approach should be conducted for raising the level of knowledge, attitude, and practice of nurses' ICUs on preventing medical MDRPI, as well as improving the quality of care for critically ill patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/iwj.13581DOI Listing
May 2021

Synthesis of large-area monolayer and few-layer MoSe continuous films by chemical vapor deposition without hydrogen assistance and formation mechanism.

Nanoscale 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Photoelectric Materials and Devices, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384, China. and Key Laboratory of Display Materials and Photoelectric Devices, National Demonstration Center for Experimental Function Materials Education, Institute of Functional Crystal, Tianjin University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Tianjin 300384, China.

Two dimensional (2D) MoSe2 with a layered structure has attracted extensive research due to its excellent electronic and optical properties. The controlled synthesis of large-scale and high-quality MoSe2 is highly desirable but still remains challenging. Ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) is an excellent method for the synthesis of 2D materials but the inevitable use of hydrogen during the growth and the easy formation of cracks in the ultrathin films still need to be solved. In the present work, we reported the synthesis of large-area continuous MoSe2 films with different layers by the APCVD method without the assistance of hydrogen on SiO2/Si substrates just by raising the reaction temperature of Se. The synthesized continuous MoSe2 films can reach several centimeters, which can be seen clearly by naked eyes, and, more importantly, the size of the monolayer film can reach up to 3 mm. The morphology, structural characteristics, and optical properties of the synthesized MoSe2 films have been investigated, demonstrating good performance and high crystallinity of the films. Raman spectra give the empirical expression of the frequency difference between E2g1 and A1g dependence of the layer number (N = 1-10 L) for CVD grown MoSe2, which is useful in layer number identification. Further, the formation mechanism of the MoSe2 continuous film is of interest as a fundamental scientific problem and needs to be studied. We proposed the wing model, boundary layer theory, and diffusion theory to account quantitatively for the formation behavior of the MoSe2 film. The presented facile growth method and theoretical model are useful to synthesize other ultrathin transition metal dichalcogenide films and understand the formation behaviors of the systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1nr00552aDOI Listing
May 2021

LUBAC Suppresses IL-21-Induced Apoptosis in CD40-Activated Murine B Cells and Promotes Germinal Center B Cell Survival and the T-Dependent Antibody Response.

Front Immunol 2021 19;12:658048. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, Joe R. and Teresa Lozano Long School of Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, United States.

B cell activation by Tfh cells, i.e., through CD154 engagement of CD40 and IL-21, and survival within GCs are crucial for the T-dependent Ab response. LUBAC, composed of HOIP, SHARPIN, and HOIL-1, catalyzes linear ubiquitination (Linear M1-Ub) to mediate NF-κB activation and cell survival induced by TNF receptor superfamily members, which include CD40. As shown in this study, B cells expressing the null mutation ( ) could undergo proliferation, CSR, and SHM in response to immunization by a T-dependent Ag, but were defective in survival within GCs, enrichment of a mutation enhancing the BCR affinity, and production of specific Abs. B cells stimulated with CD154 displayed normal proliferation and differentiation, marginally impaired NF-κB activation and survival, but markedly exacerbated death triggered by IL-21. While activating the mitochondria-dependent apoptosis pathway in both and B cells, IL-21 induced B cells to undergo sustained activation of caspase 9 and caspase 8 of the mitochondria-dependent and independent pathway, respectively, and ultimately caspase 3 in effecting apoptosis. These were associated with loss of the caspase 8 inhibitor cFLIP and reduction in cFLIP Linear M1-Ub, which interferes with cFLIP poly-ubiquitination at Lys48 and degradation. Finally, the viability of B cells was rescued by caspase inhibitors but virtually abrogated - together with Linear M1-Ub and cFLIP levels - by a small molecule HOIP inhibitor. Thus, LUBAC controls the cFLIP expression and inhibits the effects of caspase 8 and IL-21-activated caspase 9, thereby suppressing apoptosis of CD40 and IL-21-activated B cells and promoting GC B cell survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.658048DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8089397PMC
April 2021

Thoracic pedicle screw insertion assisted by the TiRobot system for spinal tuberculosis.

Asian J Surg 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Orthopedics, Beijing Tongren Hospital of Capital Medical University, No.1 of Dongjiaominxiang Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing, 100730, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asjsur.2021.04.011DOI Listing
May 2021

Congenital Human Cytomegalovirus Infection Inducing Sensorineural Hearing Loss.

Front Microbiol 2021 14;12:649690. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Microbiology, Weifang Medical University, Weifang, China.

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the primary cause of congenital infections. Despite its clinical significance, congenital HCMV infection is frequently overlooked clinically since most affected infants are asymptomatic. Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is one of the most widely known disorders caused by congenital HCMV infection. The potential mechanism, however, remains unknown to date. The mechanism by which congenital HCMV infection induces sensorineural deafness has been partly characterized, leading to advancements in diagnosis, therapy, and prevention strategies. HCMV-induced hearing loss primarily involves immune responses, the release of inflammatory factors by natural killer (NK) cells, apoptosis of cochlear spiral ganglion, and potential changes due to vascular dysfunction. The diagnosis of HCMV induced SNHL includes serological examination to mothers, imaging, and amniotic fluid examination. Ganciclovir, mainly used for antiviral therapy and behavioral prevention, can, to some degree, prevent congenital HCMV infection. The role of HCMV infection in hearing loss needs further investigation since the mechanism of hearing loss caused by cytomegalovirus infection is not well understood. Although some advancement has been made in diagnosing and treating SNHL, more improvement is needed. A comprehensive understanding of cytomegalovirus's pathogenesis is of key importance for preventing, diagnosing, and treating SNHL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.649690DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8079719PMC
April 2021

Lycopene increases the proportion of slow-twitch muscle fiber by AMPK signaling to improve muscle anti-fatigue ability.

J Nutr Biochem 2021 Apr 29:108750. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, Sichuan 611130, P. R. China.

Lycopene has a wide range of biological functions, especially its antioxidant capacity. However, effects of lycopene on muscle fatigue resistant and muscle fiber type conversion are unknown. In this study, we found that lycopene significantly prolonged the swimming time to exhaustion in mice. We also showed that lycopene increased the proportion of slow-twitch muscle fiber by promoting muscle fiber type conversion from fast-twitch to slow-twitch in mice and in C2C12 myotubes. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling was activated by lycopene. AMPK upstream and downstream regulators including nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1), calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-β (CaMKKβ), sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ coactivator-1ɑ (PGC-1ɑ) were also increased by lycopene. AMPK inhibitor compound C markedly attenuated the lycopene-induced skeletal muscle fiber type conversion in C2C12 myotubes. Taken together, we provided the first evidence that lycopene increases the proportion of slow-twitch muscle fiber through AMPK signaling pathway to improve fatigue resistant of skeletal muscle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2021.108750DOI Listing
April 2021

Millet-based supplement restored gut microbial diversity of acute malnourished pigs.

PLoS One 2021 29;16(4):e0250423. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

BGI Institute of Applied Agriculture, BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen, China.

The tight association between malnutrition and gut microbiota (GM) dysbiosis enables microbiota-targeting intervention to be a promising strategy. Thus, we used a malnourished pig model to investigate the host response and GM alterations under different diet supplementation strategies. Pigs at age of 4 weeks were fed with pure maize diet to induce malnutrition symptoms, and followed by continuous feeding with maize (Maize, n = 8) or re-feeding using either corn-soy-blend (CSB+, n = 10) or millet-soy-blend based (MSB+, n = 10) supplementary food for 3 weeks. Meanwhile, 8 pigs were fed on a standard formulated ration as control (Ref). The effect of nutritional supplementation was assessed by the growth status, blood chemistry, gastrointestinal pathology, mucosal microbiota composition and colon production of short-chain fatty acids. Compared with purely maize-fed pigs, both CSB+ and MSB+ elevated the concentrations of total protein and globulin in blood. These pigs still showed most malnutrition symptoms after the food intervention period. MSB+ had superior influence on the GM development, exhibiting better performance in both structural and functional aspects. MSB+ pigs were colonized by less Proteobacteria but more Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Lachnospira spp. Pearson's correlation analysis indicated a strong correlation between the abundance of mucosal e.g., Faecalibacterium and Lachnospira spp. and body weight, crown-rump length and total serum protein. In conclusion, the malnutrition symptoms were accompanied by an aberrant GM, and millet-based nutritional supplementation showed promising potentials to restore the reduced GM diversity implicated in pig malnutrition.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0250423PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8084169PMC
April 2021

Terahertz signatures and quantitative analysis of glucose anhydrate and monohydrate mixture.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Apr 20;258:119825. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi'an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi'an 710119, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China.

Glucose, as the main energy carrier and significant source of nutrition, generally comes in two available forms of anhydrate and monohydrate in commercial production. Considering their respective application occasions, proper identification of glucose in single composition or binary-mixture and quantification of the mixture are crucial in industry monitoring to guarantee merchandise quality. Simultaneously, public confusions of glucose are rather ubiquitous partly due to anhydrate and monohydrate with identical white crystalline appearance. In this paper, utilizing the molecular fingerprints of terahertz (THz) technology that are corresponding to structural characteristics of anhydrous and hydrated form, THz signatures of glucose anhydrate, monohydrate and their mixture, as well as THz spectral transformation from monohydrate to anhydrate with the dehydrating process are systematically studied. Some visible peaks of monohydrate were noted at 1.82 and 1.99 THz signifying the presence of hydrated structure. However, with the dehydrating process, the peaks related to the hydrated structure are not very apparent when the peaks at 1.44 and 2.08 THz appear due to changes in the molecular structure of anhydrate, which provide clear indication for hydrogen-bond network reconstruction at the micro level. Furthermore, characteristic peaks at 1.44 and 1.82 THz can be specified as the main quantitative indicators for quantitative detection. The linear relationships between the amplitudes of characteristic peaks and the percentage compositions of anhydrate and monohydrate are revealed. Three commercially available brands of edible glucose powder A, B, C were effectively identified by THz signatures. While powder C was recognized as binary-mixture and the proportion of anhydrate and monohydrate was further quantified. THz spectroscopy technology has advantages of direct recognition, simple quantitative model based on THz absorption peaks, and no need for complicated chemical treatment. It may be potentially shed light on industrial monitoring of glucose production and other related mixture in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2021.119825DOI Listing
April 2021

An intermolecular hydrogen-bond-induced quench-type Ru(dcbpy)/TPA electrochemiluminescence system by nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Apr 8;184:113232. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Key Laboratory of Modern Agricultural Equipment and Technology, Ministry of Education, School of Agricultural Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, 212013, China. Electronic address:

Here, we show that nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots (NCQDs) strongly inhibits the anodic electrochemiluminescence (ECL) signal of a tris(4,4'-dicarboxylic acid-2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium(II) (Ru(dcbpy))/tripropylamine (TPA) aqueous system. To determine the ECL-quenching mechanism, we used photoluminescence spectroscopy, UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy and dynamic simulation technology. Quenching of the ECL signal of Ru(dcbpy)/TPA by NCQDs was predominantly attributed to the interaction between Ru(dcbpy) and NCQDs rather than that between TPA and NCQDs. Specifically, when Ru(dcbpy) and NCQDs were in aqueous solution together, the carboxyl (-COOH) groups of Ru(dcbpy) were in contact with oxygen- and nitrogen-containing groups on the surface of NCQDs and formed intermolecular hydrogen bonds. This process involved energy transfer from the excited-state Ru(dcbpy) to the intermolecular hydrogen bonds, thus resulting in a decrease in the Ru(dcbpy) ECL signal. On this basis, a quenching-type ECL sensor for the quantification of NCQDs was fabricated. The sensor had a wide linear range and an estimated detection limit of 0.0012 mg mL, as well as excellent stability and selectivity. Satisfactory recoveries of 97.0-99.5% were obtained using the ECL sensor to quantify NCQDs in tap water. NCQDs could potentially be used as a quenching probe of Ru(dcbpy) to construct various biosensors with widespread applications in the sensing field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2021.113232DOI Listing
April 2021

Influences of Selenium-Enriched Yeast on Growth Performance, Immune Function, and Antioxidant Capacity in Weaned Pigs Exposure to Oxidative Stress.

Biomed Res Int 2021 27;2021:5533210. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, Sichuan Province, Chengdu 611130, China.

This study elucidated the function role of dietary selenium-enriched yeast (SeY) supplementation on growth performance, immune function, and antioxidant capacity in weaned pigs exposure to oxidative stress. Thirty-two similarity weight pigs were randomly divided into four treatments: (1) nonchallenged control, (2) control+SeY, (3) control+diquat, and (4) control+SeY+diquat. The period of experiment was 21 days; on day 16, pigs were injected with diquat or sterile saline. Results revealed that oxidative stress was notably detrimental to the growth performance of piglets, but SeY supplementation ameliorated this phenomenon, which might be regarding the increasing of body antioxidant capacity and immune functions. In details, SeY supplementation improved the digestibility of crude protein (CP), ash, and gross energy (GE). Moreover, the serum concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-, IL-1, and IL-6), glutamic-pyruvic transaminase(GPT), and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) were reduced via SeY supplemented, and serum concentrations of immunoglobulins A (IgA), IgG, and activities of antioxidant enzymes such as the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) ,and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were improved in the diquat-challenged pigs ( < 0.05). In addition, SeY supplementation acutely enhanced the activities of these antioxidant enzymes in the liver and thymus upon diquat challenge, which involved with the upregulation of the critical genes related antioxidant signaling such as the nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) ( < 0.05). Importantly, we also found that SeY supplementation apparently reduced the malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in the liver, thymus, and serum ( < 0.05). Specifically, the expression levels of TNF-, IL-6, IL-1, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4), and nuclear factor-B (NF-B) in the liver and thymus were downregulated by SeY upon diquat challenge. These results suggested that SeY can attenuate oxidative stress-induced growth retardation, which was associated with elevating body antioxidant capacity, immune functions, and suppressed inflammatory response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5533210DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8019624PMC
March 2021

Revealing molecular conformation-induced stress at embedded interfaces of organic optoelectronic devices by sum frequency generation spectroscopy.

Sci Adv 2021 Apr 14;7(16). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Molecular Optoelectronic Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Institute of Molecular Aggregation Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China.

Interface stresses are pervasive and critical in conventional optoelectronic devices and generally lead to many failures and reliability problems. However, detection of the interface stress embedded in organic optoelectronic devices is a long-standing problem, which causes the unknown relationship between interface stress and organic device stability (one key and unsettled issue for practical applications). In this study, a kind of previously unknown molecular conformation-induced stress is revealed at the organic embedded interface through sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy technique. This stress can be greater than 10 kcal/mol per nm and is sufficient to induce molecular disorder in the organic semiconductor layer (with energy below 8 kcal/mol per nm), finally causing instability of the organic transistor. This study not only reveals interface stress in organic devices but also correlates instability of organic devices with the interface stress for the first time, offering an effective solution for improving device stability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abf8555DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8050595PMC
April 2021

Reinduction chemotherapy regimen involved decitabine and cladribine improves the prognosis of patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia: A preliminary study.

Int J Cancer 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Hematology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia (R/R-AML) is characterized by a high incidence, short survival and poor prognosis. Presently, no unified effective reinduction chemotherapy regimen has been developed. Therefore, the use of reinduction chemotherapy regimens before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is controversial. Our study aims to analyze the prognostic factors of R/R-AML and to evaluate the efficacy of the regimen involved decitabine, cladribine, idarubicin or homoharringtonine, and cytarabine (DCIA/DCHA). Clinical and survival data of 112 R/R-AML patients were obtained. Among the 102 R/R-AML patients that were treated with conventional regimens, we found that poor prognosis was related to a greater proportion of bone marrow blasts (>70%) and not achieving complete remission (non-CR) after the first reinduction chemotherapy. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (of which 89.47% was allo-HSCT) following CR after the first reinduction chemotherapy often improves the prognosis. Of the 10 R/R-AML patients that were treated with the DCIA/DCHA regimen, nine patients achieved CR or complete response with incomplete hematopoietic recovery (CRi) after one course of chemotherapy. The median overall survival of the 10 patients was 10.14 (1.23-29.13) months. In conclusion, non-CR was associated with poor prognosis in R/R-AML. Therefore, intensive reinduction chemotherapy should be selected to achieve CR. This creates conditions for allo-HSCT and improves prognosis of R/R-AML patients. The DCIA/DCHA regimen showed good efficacy and tolerable adverse reactions in R/R-AML treatment. This combination may be used as a bridging regimen for allo-HSCT in R/R-AML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33595DOI Listing
April 2021

Treatment planning of volumetric modulated arc therapy and positioning optimization for hippocampal-avoidance prophylactic cranial irradiation.

J Appl Clin Med Phys 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Background: Hippocampal-avoidance prophylactic cranial irradiation (HA-PCI) offers potential neurocognitive benefits but raises technical challenges to treatment planning. This study aims to improve the conventional planning method using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) technique and investigate a better patient's head positioning to achieve a high quality of HA-PCI treatment plans.

Methods: The improved planning method set a wide expansion of hippocampus as a special region for dose decline. The whole brain target was divided into two parts according to whether the slice included hippocampus and their optimization objectives were set separately. Four coplanar full arcs with partial field sizes were employed to deliver radiation dose to different parts of the target. The collimator angle for all arcs was 90°. Tilting patient's head was achieved by rotating CT images. The improved planning method and tilted head positioning were verified using datasets from 16 patients previously treated with HA-PCI using helical tomotherapy (HT).

Results: For the improved VMAT plans, the max and mean doses to hippocampus were 7.88 Gy and 6.32 Gy, respectively, significantly lower than those for the conventional VMAT plans (P < 0.001). Meanwhile, the improved planning method significantly improved the plan quality. Compared to the HT plans, the improved VMAT plans result in similar mean dose to hippocampus (P > 0.1) but lower max dose (P < 0.02). Besides, the target coverage was the highest for the improved VMAT plans. The tilted head positioning further reduced the max and mean doses to hippocampus (P < 0.05), significantly decreased the max dose to lens (P < 0.001) and resulted in higher plan quality as compared to nontilted head positioning.

Conclusions: The improved planning method enables the VMAT plans to meet the clinical requirements of HA-PCI treatment with high plan quality and convenience. The tilted head positioning provides superior dosimetric advantages over the nontilted head positioning, which is recommended for clinical application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acm2.13217DOI Listing
April 2021

Improving deformable image registration with point metric and masking technique for postoperative breast cancer radiotherapy.

Quant Imaging Med Surg 2021 Apr;11(4):1196-1208

Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Background: Deformable image registration (DIR) is increasingly used for target volume definition in radiotherapy. However, this method is challenging for postoperative breast cancer patients due to the large deformations and non-correspondence caused by tumor resection and clip insertion. In this study, an improved B-splines based DIR method was developed to address this issue for higher registration accuracy.

Methods: The conventional B-splines based DIR method was improved with the introduction of point metric and masking technique. The point metric minimizes the distance between 2 point sets with known correspondence for regularization of intensity-based B-splines registration. The masking technique reduces the influence of non-corresponding regions in breast computed tomography (CT) images. Two sets of CT images before and after breast surgery were used for image registration. One set was the diagnostic CT image acquired before surgery, and another set was the planning CT image acquired after surgery for breast cancer radiotherapy. A total of 26 sets of CT images from 13 patients were collected retrospectively for the test. The improved DIR method's registration accuracy was evaluated by target registration error (TRE), the Jacobian determinant, and visual assessment.

Results: For soft tissue, the difference in the median TRE between the improved DIR method and the conventional DIR method was statistically significant (2.27 5.88, P<0.05). The Jacobian determinant of the deformation field was positive for all patients. For visual assessment, the improved DIR method with point metric achieved better matching for soft tissue.

Conclusions: The improved DIR method's registration accuracy was higher than the conventional DIR method based on the preliminary results. With point metric and masking technique, the influence of large deformations and non-correspondence on registration between pre- and post-operative CT images can be effectively reduced. Therefore, this method provides a feasible way for target volume definition in postoperative breast cancer radiotherapy treatment planning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/qims-20-705DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7930685PMC
April 2021

Next-generation sequencing verified by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification to detect a new copy number variations in a child with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2020 Nov 19;134(7):840-841. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Department of Pediatrics, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing 100034, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CM9.0000000000001224DOI Listing
November 2020

Rapid Characterization of Drugs in Biological Fluid and Seized Material Using Thermal-Assisted Carbon Fiber Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 2021 Apr 28;32(4):969-976. Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Department of Forensic Toxicology, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Forensic Medicine, Shanghai Forensic Service Platform, Academy of Forensic Science, Shanghai 200063, China.

Developing a rapid, simple, and sensitive method to analyze drugs is critical to forensic research study because of the widespread occurrence of the matrix effect. Herein, we develop a method using thermal-assisted carbon fiber ionization mass spectrometry that can be used to directly analyze drugs in biological fluid. The key feature of this technique is that the biological samples such as urine and blood can be achieved online as precipitated protein on the carbon fiber tip and thermally desorbed by the metal ceramics heater, which can reduce the matrix effects and improve the sensitivity. Analytes including raw urine, blood, oral fluid, drink, tobacco tar, drug tablets, and paper cards can be rapidly identified and analyzed within a few minutes regardless of their physical variations. Due to its simplicity and noninvasive analysis, this method can be used for drugged driving analysis and to achieve point-of-care drug testing in clinical and forensic chemistry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jasms.0c00472DOI Listing
April 2021

[Knockdown of Aurora-A inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis of HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells].

Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi 2021 Mar;37(3):233-239

Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan 750004, China. *Corresponding author, E-mail:

Objective To investigate the effects of knockdown of Aurora-A gene on the proliferation and apoptosis of HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Methods Aurora-A short hairpin RNA (Aurora-A shRNA) was designed and Aurora-A shRNA lentiviral vector was constructed and packed, and then transfected into HepG2 cells. Aurora-A mRNA expression was detected by real-time quantitative PCR. Aurora-A protein expression and phosphorylation level were detected by Western blotting. Cell proliferation was tested by MTT assay. Cell apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. Results The Aurora-A shRNA lentiviral vector was successfully constructed and Aurora-A protein phosphorylation level was significantly reduced in HepG2 cells transfected with the lentiviral vector. When Aurora-a was knocked down, the proliferation of HepG2 cells decreased and the apoptosis rate increased significantly. Conclusion Knockdown of Aurora-A can inhibit the proliferation and promote the apoptosis of HepG2 cells.
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March 2021

Sodium acetate, propionate, and butyrate reduce fat accumulation in mice via modulating appetite and relevant genes.

Nutrition 2021 Feb 12;87-88:111198. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Key laboratory of Animal Disease-resistant Nutrition and Feed of China Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Key laboratory of Animal Disease-resistant Nutrition of Sichuan Province, Ya'an, Sichuan Province, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: Acetate, propionate, and butyrate, three of the most common short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), can be produced when some non-digestible carbohydrates enter the large intestine and undergo bacterial fermentation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of these three SCFAs on appetite regulation and lipid metabolism and to determine the extent that appetite contributes to the beneficial influences of SCFAs.

Methods: In a 35-d study, 48 C57BL/6J male mice were randomly allocated to six groups: control; 5% sodium acetate; 5% sodium propionate; 5% sodium butyrate; pair fed 1; and pair fed 2.

Results: The study showed that dietary supplementation of sodium acetate reduced serum triacylglycerol, free fatty acids, glucose, and interleukin (IL)-6 levels (P < 0.05), increased serum glucagon-like peptide 1, and leptin levels (P < 0.05), downregulated the mRNA expressions of fatty acid synthase, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, and lipoprotein lipase (P < 0.05), and upregulated the mRNA expressions of fasting-induced adipose factor, nuclear respiratory factor 1, mitochondrial transcription factor A, tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 9, cytochrome-C oxidase IV and free fatty acid receptor 2 (P < 0.05). Sodium propionate also reduced serum IL-1β level (P < 0.05), increased serum peptide YY level (P < 0.05), downregulated the mRNA expressions of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (P < 0.05), and upregulated the mRNA expression of transmembrane protein 26 (P < 0.05). Additionally, sodium butyrate decreased average daily feed intake (P < 0.05) downregulated the mRNA expression of myosin heavy-chain (MyHc) Ⅱb (P < 0.05), and upregulated the mRNA expressions of lipase hormone-sensitive, MyHC Ⅱa and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1α (P < 0.05). Moreover, the metabolic benefits of SCFAs were partly attributed to the reduction of feed intake.

Conclusion: Taken together, SCFAs could reduce appetite and fat accumulation via modulating relevant genes and hormones, which might further illustrate the potential mechanisms that underlay the effects of SCFAs on lipid homeostasis and control of body weight.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2021.111198DOI Listing
February 2021

Lentinan administration alleviates diarrhea of rotavirus-infected weaned pigs via regulating intestinal immunity.

J Anim Sci Biotechnol 2021 Mar 9;12(1):43. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Key laboratory of Animal Disease-resistant Nutrition and Feed of China Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Key laboratory of Animal Disease-resistant Nutrition of Sichuan Province, Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, No. 211, Gongpinghuimin Road, Wenjiang District, Chengdu, 611130, Sichuan Province, People's Republic of China.

Background: Lentinan (LNT) may regulate many important physiological functions of human and animals. This study aimed to verify whether LNT administration could relieve diarrhea via improving gut immunity in rotavirus (RV)-challenged weaned pigs.

Methods: Twenty-eight weaned pigs were randomly fed 2 diets containing 0 or 84 mg/kg LNT product for 19 d (n = 14). RV infection was executed on d 15. After extracting polysaccharides from LNT product, its major monosaccharides were analyzed. Then, LNT polysaccharide was used to administrate RV-infected IPEC-J2 cells.

Results: Dietary LNT supplementation supported normal function of piglets even when infected with RV, as reflected by reduced growth performance loss and diarrhea prevalence, and maintained gut immunity (P < 0.05). The polysaccharide was isolated from LNT product, which molecular weight was 5303 Da, and major monosaccharides included glucose, arabinose and galactose. In RV-infected IPEC-J2 cells, this polysaccharide significantly increased cell viability (P < 0.05), and significantly increased anti-virus immunity via regulating pattern recognition receptors and host defense peptides (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: Those results suggest that LNT administration increases the piglets' resistance to RV-induced stress, likely by supporting intestinal immunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40104-021-00562-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7945689PMC
March 2021

Identification of 11 candidate structured noncoding RNA motifs in humans by comparative genomics.

BMC Genomics 2021 Mar 9;22(1):164. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Medical School, Molecular Medicine Engineering and Research Center of Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Precision Medicine and Molecular Diagnosis of Fujian Universities, Institute of Genomics, School of Biomedical Sciences, Huaqiao University, Xiamen, 361021, P. R. China.

Background: Only 1.5% of the human genome encodes proteins, while large part of the remaining encodes noncoding RNAs (ncRNA). Many ncRNAs form structures and perform many important functions. Accurately identifying structured ncRNAs in the human genome and discovering their biological functions remain a major challenge.

Results: Here, we have established a pipeline (CM-line) with the following features for analyzing the large genomes of humans and other animals. First, we selected species with larger genetic distances to facilitate the discovery of covariations and compatible mutations. Second, we used CMfinder, which can generate useful alignments even with low sequence conservation. Third, we removed repetitive sequences and known structured ncRNAs to reduce the workload of CMfinder. Fourth, we used Infernal to find more representatives and refine the structure. We reported 11 classes of structured ncRNA candidates with significant covariations in humans. Functional analysis showed that these ncRNAs may have variable functions. Some may regulate circadian clock genes through poly (A) signals (PAS); some may regulate the elongation factor (EEF1A) and the T-cell receptor signaling pathway by cooperating with RNA binding proteins.

Conclusions: By searching for important features of RNA structure from large genomes, the CM-line has revealed the existence of a variety of novel structured ncRNAs. Functional analysis suggests that some newly discovered ncRNA motifs may have biological functions. The pipeline we have established for the discovery of structured ncRNAs and the identification of their functions can also be applied to analyze other large genomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-021-07474-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7941889PMC
March 2021

Exploring metabolic alterations associated with death from asphyxia and the differentiation of asphyxia from sudden cardiac death by GC-HRMS-based untargeted metabolomics.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2021 May 9;1171:122638. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Forensic Medicine, Shanghai Forensic Service Platform, Academy of Forensic Science, Shanghai 200063, China. Electronic address:

The determination of cause of death is one of the most important tasks in forensic practice. However, asphyxia is a difficult cause of death to determine, especially when the deceased has an underlying disease that can lead to a sudden unexpected death, such as coronary atherosclerotic heart disease (CAHD, which is the leading cause of sudden cardiac death, SCD), because its determination is currently still based on an exclusion strategy. In this study, gas chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS)-based untargeted metabolomics was employed to obtain the pulmonary metabolic profiles of rats who died from asphyxia and SCD. First, fourteen metabolites were identified to investigate the mechanism of death from asphyxia, and we proposed some explanations that may account for these metabolic alterations, including the perturbation of amino acid metabolism, lipid metabolism, and energy metabolism (TCA cycle). Second, we discovered eight potential biomarkers to differentiate between asphyxia and SCD as the cause of death. The excellent classification performances of the eight individual biomarkers and their combination in fresh lung tissue were observed. Third, we also explored the relative change in the concentration of the eight metabolites and their classification performance in decomposed tissue (at 24 h postmortem). Lactic acid, pantothenic acid, and the combination of the eight biomarkers can be recognized as perfect classifiers to discriminate asphyxia from SCD even when decomposition has occurred. Our results showed that GC-HRMS-based untargeted metabolomics can be used as a promising tool to explore the metabolic alterations of the death process and to determine the cause of death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchromb.2021.122638DOI Listing
May 2021

A Machine Learning Model Based on PET/CT Radiomics and Clinical Characteristics Predicts ALK Rearrangement Status in Lung Adenocarcinoma.

Front Oncol 2021 2;11:603882. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Objectives: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangement status examination has been widely used in clinic for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients in order to find patients that can be treated with targeted ALK inhibitors. This study intended to non-invasively predict the ALK rearrangement status in lung adenocarcinomas by developing a machine learning model that combines PET/CT radiomic features and clinical characteristics.

Methods: Five hundred twenty-six patients of lung adenocarcinoma with PET/CT scan examination were enrolled, including 109 positive and 417 negative patients for ALK rearrangements from February 2016 to March 2019. The Artificial Intelligence Kit software was used to extract radiomic features of PET/CT images. The maximum relevance minimum redundancy (mRMR) and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) logistic regression were further employed to select the most distinguishable radiomic features to construct predictive models. The mRMR is a feature selection method, which selects the features with high correlation to the pathological results (maximum correlation), meanwhile retain the features with minimum correlation between them (minimum redundancy). LASSO is a statistical formula whose main purpose is the feature selection and regularization of data model. LASSO method regularizes model parameters by shrinking the regression coefficients, reducing some of them to zero. The feature selection phase occurs after the shrinkage, where every non-zero value is selected to be used in the model. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate the performance of the models, and the performance of different models was compared by the DeLong test.

Results: A total of 22 radiomic features were extracted from PET/CT images for constructing the PET/CT radiomic model, and majority of these features used were based on CT features (20 out of 22), only 2 PET features were included (PET percentile 10 and PET difference entropy). Moreover, three clinical features associated with ALK mutation (age, burr and pleural effusion) were also employed to construct a combined model of PET/CT and clinical model. We found that this combined model PET/CT-clinical model has a significant advantage to predict the ALK mutation status in the training group (AUC = 0.87) and the testing group (AUC = 0.88) compared with the clinical model alone in the training group (AUC = 0.76) and the testing group (AUC = 0.74) respectively. However, there is no significant difference between the combined model and PET/CT radiomic model.

Conclusions: This study demonstrated that PET/CT radiomics-based machine learning model has potential to be used as a non-invasive diagnostic method to help diagnose ALK mutation status for lung adenocarcinoma patients in the clinic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.603882DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7962599PMC
March 2021

Effects of dietary Bacillus coagulans and yeast hydrolysate supplementation on growth performance, immune response and intestinal barrier function in weaned piglets.

J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 2021 Mar 14. Epub 2021 Mar 14.

Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of Ministry of Education, Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.

The present study investigated the effects of Bacillus coagulans and yeast hydrolysate supplementation on growth performance, immune response and intestinal barrier function of weaned piglets. Twenty-four weaned piglets with an average body weight (BW) of 6.89 ± 0.15 kg were divided into four diets for 28 days. The treatments were basal diet (control), basal diet supplemented with antibiotic (20 mg/kg colistin sulphate and 40 mg/kg bacitracin zinc, AT), probiotics (400 mg/kg Bacillus coagulans ≥5 × 109 CFU/g, BC) or yeast hydrolysate (5000 mg/kg yeast hydrolysate, YH). Average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) were improved by AT and YH diets (p < 0.05), while BC diet only increased ADG (p < 0.05). The complement 3 (C3), lysozyme (LZM) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) concentrations in serum were increased in BC diet (p < 0.05). Feeding AT and YH caused the increase of jejunal villus height (p < 0.05), and a higher ratio of villus height/crypt depth was observed in AT, BC and YH groups (p < 0.05). The mRNA expression of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) in jejunal mucosa was up-regulated by AT, BC and YH diets (p < 0.05). Dietary AT, BC or YH inclusion decreased the interleukin-1β (IL-1β) concentration and TNF-α mRNA expression (p < 0.05), and YH supplementation even down-regulated toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and CD14 expressions (p < 0.05). In summary, the dietary administration of BC or YH both improves growth performance through promoting the intestinal barrier function, indicating both of them can serve as potential alternatives to antibiotics growth promoters for the piglet production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpn.13529DOI Listing
March 2021

The Nutritional Significance of Intestinal Fungi: Alteration of Dietary Carbohydrate Composition Triggers Colonic Fungal Community Shifts in a Pig Model.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 Apr 27;87(10). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of the Ministry of Education of China, Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition and Feed of the Ministry of Agriculture of China, Key Laboratory of Animal Disease-Resistant Nutrition of Sichuan Province, Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China

Carbohydrates represent the most important energy source in the diet of humans and animals. A large number of studies have shown that dietary carbohydrates (DCHO) are related to the bacterial community in the gut, but their relationship with the composition of intestinal fungi is still unknown. Here, we report the response of the colonic fungal community to different compositions of DCHO in a pig model. Three factors, ratio (2:1, 1:1, and 1:2) of amylose to amylopectin (AM/AP), level of nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP; 1%, 2%, and 3%), and mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS; 400, 800, and 1,200 mg/kg body weight), were considered according to an L9 (3) orthogonal design to form nine diets with different carbohydrate compositions. Sequencing based on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform targeting the internal transcribed spacer 1 region showed that the fungal community in the colon of the pigs responded to DCHO in the order of MOS, AM/AP, and NSP. A large part of some low-abundance fungal genera correlated with the composition of DCHO, represented by , , , , , , and , were also associated with the concentration of glucose and fructose, as well as the activity of β-d-glucosidase in the colonic digesta, suggesting a role of these fungi in the degradation of DCHO in the colon of pigs. Our study provides direct evidence for the relationship between the composition of DCHO and the fungal community in the colon of pigs, which is helpful to understand the function of gut microorganisms in pigs. Although fungi are a large group of microorganisms along with bacteria and archaea in the gut of monogastric animals, the nutritional significance of fungi has been ignored for a long time. Our previous studies revealed a distinct fungal community in the gut of grazing Tibetan pigs (J. Li, D. Chen, B. Yu, J. He, et al., Microb Biotechnol 13:509-521, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1111/1751-7915.13507) and a close correlation between fungal species and short-chain fatty acids, the main microbial metabolites of carbohydrates in the hindgut of pigs (J. Li, Y. Luo, D. Chen, B. Yu, et al., J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr 104:616-628, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1111/jpn.13300). These groundbreaking findings indicate a potential relationship between intestinal fungi and the utilization of DCHO. However, no evidence directly proves the response of intestinal fungi to changes in DCHO. Here, we show a clear alteration of the colonic fungal community in pigs triggered by different compositions of DCHO simulated by varied concentrations of starch, nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP), and oligosaccharides. Our results highlight the potential involvement of intestinal fungi in the utilization of nutrients in monogastric animals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00038-21DOI Listing
April 2021

The predictive value of regulatory T cells on glucocorticoid sensitivity in patients with immune thrombocytopenia: a multicentre, prospective clinical study.

Br J Haematol 2021 May 10;193(3):619-627. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Tongji Hospital of Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Glucocorticoids (GC) are used as the first-line treatment of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), but 10-20% of patients are insensitive to them. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) can maintain immune tolerance in autoimmune diseases. The present research pooled 55 patients with newly diagnosed ITP and 44 healthy volunteers from seven hospitals. All patients received GC treatment and were divided into GC-sensitive and GC-insensitive groups according to the curative effect after 2 weeks of treatment. The levels of lymphocyte subgroups and Tregs were recorded. As the results indicated, the levels of CD8 CD25 Tregs in the GC-sensitive group were significantly higher than that of the GC-insensitive group (P = 0·005). The optimal critical value of CD8 CD25 Tregs to distinguish GC sensitivity was 0·09%. With GC therapy the level of CD45RO /CD8 CD25 Tregs (activated type) decreased after treatment (P = 0·02) and the level of CD45RO /CD8 CD25 Tregs (initial type) increased slightly (P = 0·11). There were no obvious changes in the level of CD4 Tregs. These findings support that the level of CD8 CD25 Tregs and its subgroups have a predictive value in judging the sensitivity to GC among patients with ITP. Trial registration: www.chictr.org.cn; ChiCTR-OON-17014165.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17368DOI Listing
May 2021

Wheat bran fermented by mixed fungal strains improves the digestibility of crude fiber and may benefit the gut health without impacting the growth performance in weaned pigs.

Food Funct 2021 Apr 10;12(7):2962-2971. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of Ministry of Education of China, Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition and Feed of Ministry of Agriculture of China, Key laboratory of Animal Disease-resistant Nutrition of Sichuan Province, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan, People's Republic of China.

This study was conducted to compare the effect of raw (WB) or mixed fungi-fermented wheat bran (FWB) on the growth, nutrient digestibility and intestinal health in weaned piglets. After the preparation of FWB, twenty-one cross-bred weaned piglets (7.20 ± 0.5 kg) were separated into three groups for a 40-day trial. The pigs in the control group were fed a basal corn-soybean meal diet. For the other two groups, 8% of expanded corn in the basal diet was replaced by equivalent WB or FWB. Results showed that the content of main nutrients and the composition of dietary fiber in FWB improved compared to that for WB. The digestibility of fiber in pigs fed FWB improved (P < 0.05) compared to the control and/or WB without affecting their growth performance. Both WB and FWB decreased the conditional pathogen (Streptococcus) or/and E. coli virulence factor (STb) in the colon compared to control (P < 0.05), and the ratio of villus height to crypt depth (VCR) in jejunum increased (P < 0.05). The number of goblet cells, the expression of MUC-1 and pBD1 in jejunal mucosa, and the proportion of blood CD4 T lymphocyte subset improved (P < 0.05) by FWB rather than WB. Furthermore, although only WB elevated (P < 0.05) the concentration of butyrate in the colon, both WB and FWB increased the number of butyrate-producing bacteria (P < 0.05) compared to the control. Thus, the main advantage of FWB over WB in weaned pigs is its improvement in fiber digestibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1fo00273bDOI Listing
April 2021

Organic Molecule Assisted Growth of Perovskite Films Consisting of Square Grains by Surface-Confined Process.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Feb 12;11(2). Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Faculty of Materials and Manufacturing, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124, China.

Organic-inorganic perovskite single crystals are promising in the field of optoelectronics due to their excellent optoelectronic properties. However, the ion transport of perovskite precursor is poor in confined spaces, which results in difficulty in the preparation of perovskite single-crystal films. Herein, MAPbBr films consisting of square grains were fabricated by the surface-confined process using the organic molecule PEAI (phenethylammonium iodide). Under the effect of oversaturation gradient, PEA is combined with the surface of perovskite grain from top to side, which constrains the lateral growth of grains and induces a downward growth of perovskite, leading to the formation of square grains. With the improvement of concentration PEAI, the perovskite film exhibits a decreased side length of grains (from 0.98 to 12.96 μm) and increased grain number and coverage, as well as crystallinity. The perovskite single crystalline grain films with PEAI showed double photoluminescence (PL) emission peaks due to the existence of iodine-rich perovskite. This work may provide a practical way to fabricate high-quality perovskite films for perovskite photoelectronic devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11020473DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7918920PMC
February 2021

Solution Processed Organic/Silicon Nanowires Hybrid Heterojunction Solar Cells Using Organosilane Incorporated Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):Poly(styrenesulfonate) as Hole Transport Layers.

ACS Nano 2021 Apr 4;15(4):6296-6304. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Center of Materials Science and Optoelectronics Engineering and College of Materials Science and Optoelectronic Technology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China.

Hybrid heterojunction solar cells (HHSCs) using crystalline Si nanowires (SiNWs) as the absorber and conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as the hole-selective transport layer (HTL) show great potential in both low-cost and high-power conversion efficiency (PCE). However, due to the poor wettability of the PEDOT:PSS solution on SiNWs, conformal coverage of PEDOT:PSS on SiNWs is not easy to achieve. Here, an effective method was developed to decrease the surface tension of the PEDOT:PSS and increase the wettability between PEDOT:PSS and SiNWs by incorporating organosilane into the PEDOT:PSS solution. Two kinds of organosilanes including tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) and vinyltrimethoxysilane (VTMO) were selected as the additives. The surface passivation quality of the SiNWs was dramatically enhanced. The HHSCs utilizing VTMO as the additive show a higher open circuit voltage and higher PCE compared with the TMOS adding ones. By spin-coating Ag nanowires onto the PEDOT:PSS HTL layer and using spin-coated phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester as the electron-selective transport layer, a champion PCE up to 18.12% and a fill factor of 80.1% have been achieved on the full solution processed PEDOT:PSS/n-type SiNWs HHSCs. The findings provide a simple and promising method to achieve high-performance PEDOT:PSS/SiNWs HHSCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.0c10526DOI Listing
April 2021

Feature Selection Boosted by Unselected Features.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 Mar 1;PP. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Feature selection aims to select strongly relevant features and discard the rest. Recently, embedded feature selection methods, which incorporate feature weights learning into the training process of a classifier, have attracted much attention. However, traditional embedded methods merely focus on the combinatorial optimality of all selected features. They sometimes select the weakly relevant features with satisfactory combination abilities and leave out some strongly relevant features, thereby degrading the generalization performance. To address this issue, we propose a novel embedded framework for feature selection, termed feature selection boosted by unselected features (FSBUF). Specifically, we introduce an extra classifier for unselected features into the traditional embedded model and jointly learn the feature weights to maximize the classification loss of unselected features. As a result, the extra classifier recycles the unselected strongly relevant features to replace the weakly relevant features in the selected feature subset. Our final objective can be formulated as a minimax optimization problem, and we design an effective gradient-based algorithm to solve it. Furthermore, we theoretically prove that the proposed FSBUF is able to improve the generalization ability of traditional embedded feature selection methods. Extensive experiments on synthetic and real-world data sets exhibit the comprehensibility and superior performance of FSBUF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNNLS.2021.3058172DOI Listing
March 2021