Publications by authors named "Hui Xu"

2,409 Publications

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Photoredox/cobaloxime co-catalyzed allylation of amines and sulfonyl hydrazines with olefins to access α-allylic amines and allylic sulfones.

Org Biomol Chem 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Chemistry and Key Laboratory for Preparation and Application of Ordered Structural Materials of Guangdong Province, Shantou University, and Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Guangdong Laboratory, Shantou, Guangdong 515063, P. R. China.

Herein, we reported a dual-catalytic platform for the allylation of amines and sulfonyl hydrazines with olefins to selectively access α-allylic amines and allylic sulfones in good yields by combining photoredox catalysis and cobaloxime catalysis. This strategy avoided the use of a stoichiometric amount of terminal oxidant and the use of pre-functionalized allylic precursors, representing a green and ideal atom- & step-economical process. Good substrate scope and gram-scale synthesis demonstrated the utility of this protocol. Mechanistic studies revealed that a radical process is probably involved in this reaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1ob01307fDOI Listing
August 2021

A mobile mindfulness intervention for emergency department staff to improve stress and wellbeing: A qualitative study.

Int Emerg Nurs 2021 Jul 29;58:101039. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Southside Clinical Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia; Emergency Department, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Australia.

Background: Occupational stress and burnout in emergency departments (ED) are prominent issues requiring effective solutions. In other health settings use of a smartphone mindfulness app have been shown to be a cost-effective strategy for stress management.

Aim: To understand ED staff's experiences of practicing mindfulness using a smartphone app.

Method: A qualitative study was undertaken with 24 ED staff at two Australian EDs who had used a mindfulness app for 4 weeks. Semi-structured, one-to-one interviews were conducted between late 2019 and early 2020. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. Descriptive description was utilised in content analysis.

Results: Four main themes were identified: individuality in use of the app, perceived benefits and impacts on life, perceived barriers and enablers to use. Participants reported that mindfulness practice had numerous benefits including better stress and anxiety management, as well as improved general wellbeing. The main barriers to mindfulness practice were poor time management for mindfulness and lack of motivation. Reported enablers included a strong desire for promoting wellbeing and the ability to embed practice into existing routine.

Conclusion: Practicing mindfulness with a smartphone app is a useful strategy to promote ED staff wellness and manage stress. Healthcare organisations should consider the implementation of a mindfulness app for staff.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ienj.2021.101039DOI Listing
July 2021

Identification of the cross-strand chimeric RNAs generated by fusions of bi-directional transcripts.

Nat Commun 2021 Jul 30;12(1):4645. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

MOE Key Laboratory of Bioinformatics, Center for Synthetic & Systems Biology, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.

A major part of the transcriptome complexity is attributed to multiple types of DNA or RNA fusion events, which take place within a gene such as alternative splicing or between different genes such as DNA rearrangement and trans-splicing. In the present study, using the RNA deep sequencing data, we systematically survey a type of non-canonical fusions between the RNA transcripts from the two opposite DNA strands. We name the products of such fusion events cross-strand chimeric RNA (cscRNA). Hundreds to thousands of cscRNAs can be found in human normal tissues, primary cells, and cancerous cells, and in other species as well. Although cscRNAs exhibit strong tissue-specificity, our analysis identifies thousands of recurrent cscRNAs found in multiple different samples. cscRNAs are mostly originated from convergent transcriptions of the annotated genes and their anti-sense DNA. The machinery of cscRNA biogenesis is unclear, but the cross-strand junction events show some features related to RNA splicing. The present study is a comprehensive survey of the non-canonical cross-strand RNA junction events, a resource for further characterization of the originations and functions of the cscRNAs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-24910-2DOI Listing
July 2021

Associations between home renovation and asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema among preschool children in Wuhan, China.

Int J Environ Health Res 2021 Jul 29:1-11. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

To investigate the potential associations between household renovation and allergic diseases among preschool children in Wuhan, we conducted a large cross-sectional questionnaire survey among 9455 preschool children aged 3-6 years in Wuhan during November to December 2019. Data on demographics, health status, and home decoration conditions were analysed based on a questionnaire. Compared with tiles/stone/cement floor covering, the use of composite floor significantly increased the risk of diagnosed rhinitis and eczema among children (rhinitis: AOR, 95% CI: 1.36, 1.06-1.73; eczema: AOR, 95% CI: 1.47, 1.17-1.85). Household renovation had significant associations with diagnosed eczema (within 1 year before pregnancy: AOR, 95% CI: 1.34, 1.20-1.50; during pregnancy: AOR, 95% CI: 1.25, 1.08-1.44). This study suggests that use of artificial synthetic materials in home renovation during early childhood and pregnancy may be potential risk factors for childhood asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09603123.2021.1955832DOI Listing
July 2021

Prognosis and treatment of 46 Chinese pediatric cystic fibrosis patients.

BMC Pediatr 2021 Jul 28;21(1):329. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department No. 2 of Respiratory Medicine, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children's Health, Beijing, 100045, China.

Background: Since public awareness of cystic fibrosis (CF) has increased, more children have been diagnosed with CF in China. This study aimed to investigate medical and other challenges faced by pediatric CF patients in China.

Method: Treatments and treatment outcomes were retrospectively analyzed for 46 pediatric CF patients diagnosed from August 2009 to June 2019. Pre- and post-treatment results were compared using independent samples t-test.

Results: Of 46 pediatric CF study patients, four died and five were lost to follow-up. Thirty-seven patients were monitored for 0.03 to 9.21 years; patients exhibited fewer attacks of respiratory tract infections after diagnosis (4.49 ± 2.13 episodes/year before diagnosis vs 1.97 ± 1.87 times/year after 1-year treatment, p < 0.05), significantly reduced sputum production and experienced 1.62 ± 1.71 exacerbations/year. Patient mean body mass index was 16.87 ± 3.53 and pancreatic malfunction persisted in 15 patients. For 17 children, no significant differences in lung function were found at follow-up as compared to lung function at diagnosis (FEV: 82.45% ± 16.56% vs 75.26% ± 22.34%, FVC: 87.18% ± 13.64% vs 86.99% ± 19.95%, FEF: 46.51% ± 28.78% vs 36.63% ± 24.30%, P = 0.27, 0.97, 0.20, respectively). Pseudomonas aeruginosa (17/27) and bronchiectasis (22/22) were found during follow-up evaluation. Twenty-four patients (64.8%) maintained good adherence to therapies. Overall, azithromycin and tobramycin treatments were administered for 0.5-62 months and 0.5-48 months, respectively, and triggered no obvious adverse reactions.

Conclusion: No obvious declines in clinical presentation or lung function were found in Chinese pediatric CF patients after receiving standard therapeutic and active treatments, although malnutrition and low compliance were persistent challenges.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-021-02789-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8317407PMC
July 2021

Jinwu Jiangu Capsule affects synovial cells in rheumatoid arthritis through PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.

Acta Biochim Pol 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guizhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guiyang, Guizhou Province, 550001, China.

Jinwu Jiangu Capsule is a medicinal formula from the Chinese Miao nationality. Leflunomide is recommended in organizational guidelines for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To investigate the effect of Jinwu Jiangu Capsule on PI3K/Akt/mTOR signal pathway in cells taken from RA patients New Zealand rabbits were administrated with Jinwu Jiangu Capsule suspension to prepare serum containing medicine. Lyophilized powder was prepared from this serum for cell treatment. The expression of LC3-II and PI3K, AKT, mTOR were detected by IF and western blot. Moreover, the levels of Atg1, Atg5, Atg14 were detected by RT-qPCR. The results showed that the expression of LC3-II was increased, and fluorescence spot of LC3-II was obvious in high-dose of Jinwu Jiangu Capsule group. Jinwu Jiangu Capsule decreased the level of PI3k, Akt, and mTOR protein, and increased the levels of Atg1, Atg5 and Atg14. Specially, the high-dose of Jinwu Jiangu Capsule had the most obvious inhibitory and up-regulation effects. However, there was no significant difference in the expression of Akt, mTOR and Atg1 in the medium-dose of Jinwu Jiangu Capsule group compared with the leflunomide group. In conclusion, Jinwu Jiangu Capsule regulates autophagy by inhibiting the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in RA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18388/abp.2020_5514DOI Listing
July 2021

Association of cardiovascular risk burden with risk of dementia and brain pathologies: A population-based cohort study.

Alzheimers Dement 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.

Introduction: The impact of cardiovascular risk burden on brain pathologies remains unclear. We aimed to examine the association of the Framingham General Cardiovascular Risk Score (FGCRS) with dementia risk, and brain pathologies.

Methods: Within the Rush Memory and Aging Project, 1588 dementia-free participants were assessed on FGCRS at baseline and followed up to 21 years. During the follow-up, 621 participants died and underwent autopsies.

Results: The multi-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) of FGCRS were 1.03 (1.00-1.07) for dementia and 1.04 (1.01-1.07) for Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia. Further, a higher FGCRS was associated with higher gross chronic cerebral infarctions (odds ratio [OR] 1.08, 95% CI 1.02-1.14), cerebral atherosclerosis (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.03-1.17), and global AD pathology (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.01-1.12).

Conclusions: A higher FGCRS is associated with an increased risk of dementia and AD dementia. Both vascular and AD pathologies in the brain may underlie this association.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/alz.12343DOI Listing
July 2021

Cold Stress in Wheat: Plant Acclimation Responses and Management Strategies.

Front Plant Sci 2021 8;12:676884. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

School of Agronomy, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei, China.

Unpredicted variability in temperature is associated with frequent extreme low-temperature events. Wheat is a leading crop in fulfilling global food requirements. Climate-driven temperature extremes influence the vegetative and reproductive growth of wheat, followed by a decrease in yield. This review describes how low temperature induces a series of modifications in the morphophysiological, biochemical, and molecular makeup of wheat and how it is perceived. To cope with these modifications, crop plants turn on their cold-tolerance mechanisms, characterized by accumulating soluble carbohydrates, signaling molecules, and cold tolerance gene expressions. The review also discusses the integrated management approaches to enhance the performance of wheat plants against cold stress. In this review, we propose strategies for improving the adaptive capacity of wheat besides alleviating risks of cold anticipated with climate change.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.676884DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8299469PMC
July 2021

Continual Decline in Azole Susceptibility Rates in Over a 9-Year Period in China.

Front Microbiol 2021 9;12:702839. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Background: There have been reports of increasing azole resistance in , especially in the Asia-Pacific region. Here we report on the epidemiology and antifungal susceptibility of causing invasive candidiasis in China, from a 9-year surveillance study.

Methods: From August 2009 to July 2018, isolates ( = 3702) were collected from 87 hospitals across China. Species identification was carried out by mass spectrometry or rDNA sequencing. Antifungal susceptibility was determined by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute disk diffusion (CHIF-NET10-14, = 1510) or Sensititre YeastOne (CHIF-NET15-18, = 2192) methods.

Results: Overall, 22.2% (823/3702) of the isolates were resistant to fluconazole, with 90.4% (744/823) being cross-resistant to voriconazole. In addition, 16.9 (370/2192) and 71.7% (1572/2192) of the isolates were of non-wild-type phenotype to itraconazole and posaconazole, respectively. Over the 9 years of surveillance, the fluconazole resistance rate continued to increase, rising from 5.7 (7/122) to 31.8% (236/741), while that for voriconazole was almost the same, rising from 5.7 (7/122) to 29.1% (216/741), with no significant statistical differences across the geographic regions. However, significant difference in fluconazole resistance rate was noted between isolates cultured from blood (27.2%, 489/1799) and those from non-blood (17.6%, 334/1903) specimens (-value < 0.05), and amongst isolates collected from medical wards (28.1%, 312/1110) versus intensive care units (19.6%, 214/1092) and surgical wards (17.9%, 194/1086) (Bonferroni adjusted -value < 0.05). Although echinocandin resistance remained low (0.8%, 18/2192) during the surveillance period, it was observed in most administrative regions, and one-third (6/18) of these isolates were simultaneously resistant to fluconazole.

Conclusion: The continual decrease in the rate of azole susceptibility among strains has become a nationwide challenge in China, and the emergence of multi-drug resistance could pose further threats. These phenomena call for effective efforts in future interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.702839DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8299486PMC
July 2021

Identification and monitoring of fentanyls-related substances in east China sewage water samples by LC-MS for drug enforcement.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 17;797:149109. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

School of Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, No. 24 Tongjiaxiang Road, Nanjing 210009, China; China National Narcotics Control Commission-China Pharmaceutical University Joint Laboratory on Key Technologies of Narcotics Control, No. 24 Tongjiaxiang Road, Nanjing 210009, China. Electronic address:

Fentanyls abuse is a persistent international concern. New fentanyl derivatives are constantly appearing, circumventing national and international laws. In this study, laboratory degradation experiment with different conditions such as pH, light, temperature and oxygen availability were compared to improve the understanding of the fentanyls degradation pathways. Twelve major degradants of sufentanil and alfentanil were detected and identified together using UHPLC-QTOF-MS. A total of thirty nine fentanyls including twelve typical fentanyl new psychoactive substances, eighteen manufacturing process-related substances and nine key degradants of sufentanil and alfentanil were screened in 120 sewage water samples collected from 20 sewage water treatment plants chosen among 6 urban cities in east China from July to August in 2020 using a validated UHPLC-MS/MS method. Three fentanyls (fentanyl, sufentanil, alfentanil), seven degradants and six manufacturing process-related substances were found in the test samples. The study could provide a useful tool for the monitoring of the abuses, illegal manufacturing or pharmaceuticals related pollutions of fentanyls and their analogs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.149109DOI Listing
July 2021

Early life stage transient aristolochic acid exposure induces behavioral hyperactivity but not nephrotoxicity in larval zebrafish.

Aquat Toxicol 2021 Jul 18;238:105916. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035, PR China; Institute of Environmental Safety and Human Health, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035, PR China.. Electronic address:

Aristolochic acids (AA) are nitrophenanthrene carboxylic acids found in plants of the Aristolochiaceae family. Humans are exposed to AA by deliberately taking herbal medicines or unintentionally as a result of environmental contamination. AA is notorious for its nephrotoxicity, however, fewer studies explore potential neurotoxicity associated with AA exposure. The developing nervous system is vulnerable to xenobiotics, and pregnant women exposed to AA may put their fetuses at risk. In the present study, we used the embryonic zebrafish model to evaluate the developmental neurotoxicity associated with AA exposure. At non-teratogenic concentrations (≤ 4 µM), continuous AA exposure from 8 to 120 hours post fertilization (hpf) resulted in larval hyperactivity that was characterized by increased moving distance, elevated activity and faster swimming speeds in several behavioral assays. Further analysis revealed that 8-24 hpf is the most sensitive exposure window for AA-induced hyperactivity. AA exposures specifically increased motor neuron proliferation, increased apoptosis in the eye, and resulted in cellular oxidative stress. In addition, AA exposures increased larval eye size and perturbed the expression of vision genes. Our study, for the first time, demonstrates that AA is neurotoxic to the developmental zebrafish with a sensitive window distinct from its well-documented nephrotoxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2021.105916DOI Listing
July 2021

Wear and Corrosion Resistance of Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation Coatings on 6061 Al Alloy in Electrolytes with Aluminate and Phosphate.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Jul 19;14(14). Epub 2021 Jul 19.

State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China.

Phosphate and aluminate electrolytes were used to prepare plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coatings on 6061 aluminum alloy. The surface and cross-section microstructure, element distribution, and phase composition of the PEO coatings were characterized by SEM, EDS, XPS, and XRD. The friction and wear properties were evaluated by pin-on-disk sliding tests under dry conditions. The corrosion resistance of PEO coatings was investigated by electrochemical corrosion and salt spray tests in acidic environments. It was found that the PEO coatings prepared from both phosphate and aluminate electrolytes were mainly composed of α-AlO and γ-AlO. The results demonstrate that a bi-layer coating is formed in the phosphate electrolyte, and a single-layered dense alumina coating with a hardness of 1300 HV is realizable in the aluminate electrolyte. The aluminate PEO coating had a lower wear rate than the phosphate PEO coating. However, the phosphate PEO coating showed a better corrosion resistance in acidic environment, which is mainly attributed to the presence of an amorphous P element at the substrate/coating interface.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14144037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8303336PMC
July 2021

Angiotensin-(1-7) protects against sepsis-associated left ventricular dysfunction induced by lipopolysaccharide.

Peptides 2021 Jul 21;144:170612. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Cardiology, Xuzhou Children's Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, China. Electronic address:

Sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction is a major cause of death. The present study explored whether angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7), an important biologically active peptide of the renin-angiotensin system, could improve cardiac dysfunction and attenuate inflammation and apoptosis. Experiments were carried out in mice and in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs) treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or Ang-(1-7). Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), Ang-(1-7) and Mas receptor (MasR) expressions were reduced in the mouse left ventricular and NRCM treated with LPS. Ang-(1-7) increased the ejection fraction and fractional shortening of left ventricular, which were reduced upon LPS injection in mice. Ang-(1-7) pre-treatment reversed LPS-induced decreases of α-myosin heavy chain (MHC) and β-MHC, and increases of S100 calcium binding protein A8 (S100A8) and S100A9 in the mouse left ventricular. The LPS-induced increases of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β in the mouse left ventricular and NRCMs were inhibited by Ang-(1-7) administration. Ang-(1-7) treatment reversed the increases of cleaved-caspase 3, cleaved-caspase 8 and Bax, and the decrease of Bcl2 induced by LPS in the mouse left ventricular and NRCMs. The increases of MAPKs pathway induced by LPS in NRCMs were inhibited by Ang-(1-7). These results indicate that Ang-(1-7) protects against sepsis-associated left ventricular dysfunction induced by LPS, and increases cardiac contractility via attenuating inflammation and apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.peptides.2021.170612DOI Listing
July 2021

A Promising Anticancer Agent Dimethoxycurcumin: Aspects of Pharmacokinetics, Efficacy, Mechanism, and Nanoformulation for Drug Delivery.

Front Pharmacol 2021 6;12:665387. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

School of Pharmacy, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Drug Delivery System and Biotech Drugs in Universities of Shandong, Key Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology and Drug Evaluation (Yantai University) Ministry of Education, Yantai University, Yantai, China.

Curcumin is a well-known anticancer natural product with various significant bioactivities that has been well documented, but its widespread use is mainly hindered by insufficient ADME properties such as poor solubility and low metabolic stability. Dimethoxycurcumin (DiMC) is a kind of lipophilic compound derived from curcumin that maintains its anticancer potency and has greatly improved systematic bioavailability. Therefore, DiMC is regarded as a promising plant-derived anticancer agent that deserves to be well developed. Herein, we concentrate on the published work by those from original research groups concerned with the pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and mechanism of DiMC involved in the treatment of various tumors, as well as the nanoformulations for effective drug delivery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.665387DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8290316PMC
July 2021

Cerebral white matter alterations revealed by multiple diffusion metrics in cervical spondylotic patients with pain: A TBSS study.

Pain Med 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Medical Imaging, the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University.

Objective: The aims of the present study were to investigate white matter alterations and their associations with the clinical variables in cervical spondylotic (CS) patients with pain.

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Setting: Chinese community.

Subjects: Forty-two CS patients with pain and 42 matched healthy participants were ultimately recruited from August 2018 to September 2019.

Methods: Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis was performed to investigate the differences of DTI-derived indices (fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (AD)) between the patients and healthy controls throughout brain white matter. The relationship of the severity of cervical pain and affective disturbance to aberrant DTI indices in the patients was also examined using spearman correlation analyses.

Results: The CS patients with pain showed decreased FA in the genu, body, and splenium portions of corpus callosum (CC), and increased MD and RD along with decreased FA in anterior corona radiata (ACR) compared with healthy controls, whereas no significant difference of AD was observed between groups. Additionally, lower FA of the genu part of CC together with higher MD of the left ACR were statistically correlated with the pain severity in the patient group.

Conclusions: Decreased FA coupled with increased MD and RD was detected in multiple white matter regions, and several DTI metrics in certain white matter tracts had moderate relationships with the pain severity in the CS patients with pain. These observations may provide alternative imaging clues for the evaluation of the pathophysiological characteristics of CS pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pm/pnab227DOI Listing
July 2021

Crosstalk between RNA-Binding Proteins and Immune Microenvironment Revealed Two RBP Regulatory Patterns with Distinct Immunophenotypes in Periodontitis.

J Immunol Res 2021 5;2021:5588429. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases; Department of Orthodontics, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease whose pathogenesis is closely related with immunology. RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) were found to play crucial roles in immunity. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the potential impact of RBPs in the immune microenvironment in periodontitis. The differential expressions of RBPs in periodontitis and healthy samples were determined and were used to construct an RBP-based classifier for periodontitis using logistic regression. The correlations between RBPs and immune characteristics were investigated by the Spearman correlation. Unsupervised clustering was conducted to identify the RBP regulatory patterns. RBP-related genes were identified by WGCNA, while biological distinctions were revealed by GSVA and GO. 24 dysregulated RBPs were identified, from which a 12-RBP classifier was established to distinguish periodontitis with AUC of 0.942. Close protein-protein interactions and expression correlations were observed especially between SPATS2 and ISG20. ISG20 and ESRP1 were found to be highly correlated with immunocyte infiltration, immune signaling activation, and HLA expressions in periodontitis. Two distinct RBP regulatory patterns were identified with different immune and other biological characteristics in periodontitis. Our findings indicate a significant impact of RBPs in shaping the immune microenvironment in periodontitis, which might bring new insights into the understanding of immune mechanisms in the pathogenesis of periodontitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5588429DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8275429PMC
July 2021

Construction of Cholesterol Oxime Ether Derivatives Containing Isoxazoline/Isoxazole Fragments and Their Agricultural Bioactive Properties/Control Efficiency.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Jul 19;69(29):8098-8109. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

College of Plant Protection, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China.

To explore natural-product-based pesticidal candidates and high value-added application of cholesterol in agriculture, oximinoether derivatives of cholesterol-containing isoxazoline/isoxazole fragments ( and ) were semiprepared by structural optimization of cholesterol. Their structures were characterized by optical rotation, high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), IR, and H NMR spectroscopy. Particularly, the configurations of oxime fragments at the C-7 position of target compounds were undoubtedly determined by X-ray crystallography. Against Walker, compounds , , , and showed 2.4-2.7-fold growth inhibitory activity of the precursor cholesterol. Against Linnaeus, compounds -, , and showed 2.4-2.7-fold oral toxicity of cholesterol. Against Van der Goot, compounds and exhibited 4.9 and 5.8-fold aphicidal activity of cholesterol, respectively. Notably, they showed good control effects (3.0-5.0-fold promising control efficiency of ) against in the greenhouse. Structure-activity relationships (SARs) suggested that the C-3 hydroxyl group and the C-7 position of cholesterol are two important modification sites. It will pave the way for future structural optimization and application of cholesterol derivatives as potential pesticidal agents in agriculture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.1c01884DOI Listing
July 2021

Clinical effectiveness of orthodontic miniscrew implantation guided by a novel cone beam CT image-based computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) template.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Jun;9(12):1025

School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, Beijing, China.

Background: Although miniscrews are widely used in orthodontic treatment as temporary anchorage devices, their correct and safe placement has attracted little attention. This study aimed to introduce a novel cone beam CT (CBCT) image-based computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) template for orthodontic miniscrew implantation and to evaluate the effectiveness of miniscrews implanted under the guidance of this template.

Methods: The CBCT scans of ten patients requiring miniscrews as anchorage were analyzed in NNT software to predetermine the insertion sites of miniscrew implants. The DICOM data of the scans, along with virtual miniscrews acquired in Solidworks software, were imported into Mimics software to construct three-dimensional (3D) images of teeth and bone and to determine the virtual position of miniscrews and 3D virtual templates were designed following consideration of the virtual implantation plans. A STL (Stereolithography) file of the virtual template was output, and the resin template was then fabricated with a stereolithographic appliance (SLA). 24 Miniscrews were then implanted guided by the template and clinical evaluation of their safety and stability, as well as their placement deviations, were made. A dental casts model and cephalometric analysis before and after orthodontic treatment were made to assess the dentomaxillofacial changes.

Results: All 24 miniscrews had no contact with adjacent roots. 18 miniscrews had a grade I safety score and six had a grade II. The miniscrews were stable at 1, 3, 6, and 9 months after implantation, although there was mild inflammation around two miniscrews. Implantation deviation of miniscrew in the crown was (1.03±0.65) and (1.26±0.72) mm in the apex, on average. Satisfactory dentomaxillofacial changes in 10 patients with these 24 miniscrews as anchorage were acquired.

Conclusions: Miniscrews could be implanted in the targeted position safely and precisely when guided by the novel templates, and remained stable during orthodontic treatment. Patients treated with these miniscrews as anchorage in orthodontic treatment acquired satisfactory dentomaxillofacial changes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-21-2575DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8267283PMC
June 2021

Scan Time Reduction in Intravoxel Incoherent Motion Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging of the Abdominal Organs: Using a Simultaneous Multislice Technique With Different Acceleration Factors.

J Comput Assist Tomogr 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

From the Department of Radiology Clinical Epidemiology and EBM Unit, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University MR Collaboration, Siemens Healthineers Ltd., Beijing, China MR Application, Siemens Healthineers Ltd., Guangzhou, China.

Objective: To investigate the feasibility of quantitative intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) and diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) analyses in the upper abdominal organs by simultaneous multislice diffusion-weighted imaging (SMS-DWI).

Subjects And Methods: In this prospective study, a total of 32 participants underwent conventional DWI (C-DWI) and SMS-DWI sequences with acceleration factors of 2 and 3 (SMS2-DWI and SMS3-DWI, respectively) in the upper abdomen with multiple b-values (0, 10, 20, 50, 80, 100, 150, 200, 500, 800, 1000, 1500, and 2000 seconds/mm2) on a 3 T system (MAGNETOM Prisma; Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany). Image quality and quantitatively measurements of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), true diffusion coefficient (D), pseudodiffusion coefficient (D*), perfusion fraction (f), mean kurtosis (MK), and mean apparent diffusivity (MD) for the liver, pancreas, kidney cortex and medulla, spleen, and erector spine muscle were compared between the 3 sequences.

Results: The acquisition times for C-DWI, SMS2-DWI, and SMS3-DWI were 10 minutes 57 seconds, 5 minutes 9 seconds, and 3 minutes 54 seconds. For image quality parameters, C-DWI and SMS2-DWI yielded better results than SMS3-DWI (P < 0.05). SMS2-DWI had equivalent IVIM and DKI parameters compared with that of C-DWI (P > 0.05). No statistically significant differences in the ADC, D, f, and MD values between the 3 sequences (P > 0.05) were observed. The D* and MK values of the liver (P = 0.005 and P = 0.012) and pancreas (P = 0.019) between SMS3-DWI and C-DWI were significantly different.

Conclusions: SMS2-DWI can substantially reduce the scan time while maintaining equivalent IVIM and DKI parameters in the abdominal organs compared with C-DWI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RCT.0000000000001189DOI Listing
July 2021

Roles and Mechanisms of DNA Methylation in Vascular Aging and Related Diseases.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 28;9:699374. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Geriatrics, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Vascular aging is a pivotal risk factor promoting vascular dysfunction, the development and progression of vascular aging-related diseases. The structure and function of endothelial cells (ECs), vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), fibroblasts, and macrophages are disrupted during the aging process, causing vascular cell senescence as well as vascular dysfunction. DNA methylation, an epigenetic mechanism, involves the alteration of gene transcription without changing the DNA sequence. It is a dynamically reversible process modulated by methyltransferases and demethyltransferases. Emerging evidence reveals that DNA methylation is implicated in the vascular aging process and plays a central role in regulating vascular aging-related diseases. In this review, we seek to clarify the mechanisms of DNA methylation in modulating ECs, VSMCs, fibroblasts, and macrophages functions and primarily focus on the connection between DNA methylation and vascular aging-related diseases. Therefore, we represent many vascular aging-related genes which are modulated by DNA methylation. Besides, we concentrate on the potential clinical application of DNA methylation to serve as a reliable diagnostic tool and DNA methylation-based therapeutic drugs for vascular aging-related diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.699374DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8273304PMC
June 2021

[Effect of acupuncture on insomnia: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study].

Zhongguo Zhen Jiu 2021 Jul;41(7):767-73

Shaanxi University of CM, Xianyang 712000.

Objective: To observe the efficacy of acupuncture (acupuncture for brain-invigorating and mind-calming) on insomnia, and the dynamic changes of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after acupuncture, to provide neuroimaging basis of acupuncture for insomnia.

Methods: A total of 58 participants were included. Of them, 29 patients with insomnia were included into an observation group, and 29 healthy participants were included into a control group. The patients in the observation group were treated with acupuncture at Baihui (GV 20), bilateral Sishencong (EX-HN 1), Fengfu (GV 16), Fengchi (GB 20), Qiangjian (GV 18), occipital sideline, Anmian (Extra), Yiming (EX-HN 14) and Dazhui (GV 14); treatment was given once a day, 10 days as a course of treatment, and a total of 2 courses of treatment was given. The resting-state fMRI data was collected in the observation group before and after treatment. The participants in the control group received no treatment, and the resting-state fMRI data was collected only once. The resting-state fMRI data in the observation group before treatment and in the control group, also the observation group before and after treatment were compared. The Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), insomnia severity index (ISI), daytime insomnia symptom scale (DISS), hyperarousal scale (HAS), Hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA), Hamilton depression scale (HAMD), digit symbol test, mini-mental state examination (MMSE), Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) and the A, B speed of trail making test (NCT) were observed in the observation group before and after treatment. The clinical efficacy of the observation group was evaluated.

Results: The total effective rate was 89.7% (26/29) in the observation group. In the observation group, the scores of PSQI, ISI and DISS, the A, B speed of NCT were all decreased after treatment (<0.01, <0.05). Before treatment, compared with the control group, functional connectivity in ventral dorsal prefrontal cortex, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, inferior parietal lobe, dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, left ventral anterior cingulate gyrus and right ventral anterior cingulate gyrus was reduced in the observation group; compared before treatment, the functional connectivity in lingual gyrus, cerebellar area 6, frontal lobe, insular lobe and anterior cingulate gyrus, premotor gyrus and posterior cingulate gyrus was increased after treatment in the observation group. After treatment, the functional connection intensity of left ventral caudate nucleus and insular lobe was negatively correlated with HAMD score in the observation group ( =-0.55, <0.05), and the functional connection intensity of left ventral caudate nucleus and anterior cingulate gyrus was negatively correlated with HAMA score in the observation group ( =-0.47, <0.05).

Conclusion: The acupuncture could effectively improve the sleep quality in patients with insomnia, and acupuncture could enhance the connection of left dorsal, right ventral and left ventral caudate nucleus with brain area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13703/j.0255-2930.20200325-0006DOI Listing
July 2021

Blood Plasma Metabolic Profile of Newborns with Hypoxic-Ischaemic Encephalopathy by GC-MS.

Biomed Res Int 2021 24;2021:6677271. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

The Laboratory Center, Gansu Provincial Hospital, Lanzhou, China 730000.

Background: Early diagnosis of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) is crucial in preventing neurodevelopmental disabilities and reducing morbidity and mortality. The study was to investigate the plasma metabolic signatures in the peripheral blood of HIE newborns and explore the potential diagnostic biomarkers.

Method: In the present study, 24 newborns with HIE and 24 healthy controls were recruited. The plasma metabolites were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and the raw data was standardized by the EigenMS method. Significantly differential metabolites were identified by multivariate statistics. Pathway enrichment was performed by bioinformatics analysis. Meanwhile, the diagnostic value of candidate biomarkers was evaluated.

Result: The multivariate statistical models showed a robust capacity to distinguish the HIE cases from the controls. 52 metabolites were completely annotated. 331 significantly changed pathways were enriched based on seven databases, including 33 overlapped pathways. Most of them were related to amino acid metabolism, energy metabolism, neurotransmitter biosynthesis, pyrimidine metabolism, the regulation of HIF by oxygen, and GPCR downstream signaling. 14 candidate metabolites showed great diagnostic potential on HIE. Among them, alpha-ketoglutaric acid has the potential to assess the severity of HIE in particular.

Conclusion: The blood plasma metabolic profile could comprehensively reflect the metabolic disorders of the whole body under hypoxia-ischaemic injury. Several candidate metabolites may serve as promising biomarkers for the early diagnosis of HIE. Further validation based on large clinical samples and the establishment of guidelines for the clinical application of mass spectrometry data standardization methods are imperative in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6677271DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8249136PMC
June 2021

Huntingtin fibrils with different toxicity, structure, and seeding potential can be interconverted.

Nat Commun 2021 07 13;12(1):4272. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Physiology & Neuroscience, Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

The first exon of the huntingtin protein (HTTex1) important in Huntington's disease (HD) can form cross-β fibrils of varying toxicity. We find that the difference between these fibrils is the degree of entanglement and dynamics of the C-terminal proline-rich domain (PRD) in a mechanism analogous to polyproline film formation. In contrast to fibril strains found for other cross-β fibrils, these HTTex1 fibril types can be interconverted. This is because the structure of their polyQ fibril core remains unchanged. Further, we find that more toxic fibrils of low entanglement have higher affinities for protein interactors and are more effective seeds for recombinant HTTex1 and HTTex1 in cells. Together these data show how the structure of a framing sequence at the surface of a fibril can modulate seeding, protein-protein interactions, and thereby toxicity in neurodegenerative disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-24411-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8277859PMC
July 2021

[Panax notoginseng saponins inhibit proliferation, migration, invasion and promote apoptosis of U2OS osteosarcoma cells via blocking Notch1 pathway].

Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi 2021 Aug;37(8):716-721

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Children's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210008, China. *Corresponding author, E-mail:

Objective To explore the effects of Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) on the proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion of osteosarcoma cell line U2OS and its possible molecular mechanism. Methods Human osteosarcoma cell line U2OS was cultured and treated with (0, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000) μg/mL PNS. The proliferation of U2OS was detected by CCK-8 method. Annexin V-FITC/PI double labeling combined with flow cytometry was used to analyze cell apoptosis. Clone formation assay was used to detect the clone formation ability of the cells. Transwell invasion assay was performed to detect cell invasion. Transwell migration assay and wound-healing assay were used to determine cell migration. Western blotting was used to detect the expression of Notch1 and downstream protein Hes1 in U2OS cells. Results Compared with the control group, PNS could inhibit the proliferation of U2OS cells and the formation of clonal plaques, increase cell apoptosis rate, weaken the ability of migration and invasion and decrease the expression levels of Notch1 and Hes1 in the cells in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion PNS can significantly inhibit the proliferation, migration and invasion and promote cell apoptosis of U2OS cells by blocking Notch1 signaling pathway.
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August 2021

PSMD7 downregulation suppresses lung cancer progression by regulating the p53 pathway.

J Cancer 2021 11;12(16):4945-4957. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Center for Translational Medicine, The Affiliated Zhangjiagang Hospital of Soochow University, 68 Jiyang West Road, Suzhou, 215600, China.

Lung cancer is the second most common cancer in both men and women. The deubiquitinase PSMD7, as a core component of the 26S proteasome, is critical for the degradation of ubiquitinated proteins in the proteasome. Currently, PSMD7 expression and its roles in the progression of lung cancer remain largely unknown. In this study, we assessed PSMD7 expression and investigated the underlying molecular events by which PSMD7 regulates tumor progression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The results showed that PSMD7 is more highly expressed in NSCLC tissues than in adjacent noncancerous tissues. PSMD7 expression was also closely associated with lymph node invasion and the laterality of the tumor in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). A high PSMD7 level predicted poor overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in LUAD patients, and PSMD7 knockdown significantly reduced cell proliferation and induced G0/G1-phase cell cycle arrest, cell senescence and apoptosis. PSMD7 knockdown inhibited expression of a set of proteins regulating cell cycle progression. Depletion of PSMD7 increased p53 levels and induced p21 and puma expression in a p53-dependent manner. Importantly, knockdown of PSMD7 markedly inhibited LUAD tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model. Taken together, these findings indicate that PSMD7 may serve as a valuable prognostic indicator and potential therapeutic target in LUAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.53613DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8247365PMC
June 2021

Agrochemical properties evaluation of some imines alkaloids of matrine/oxymatrine.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2021 Jul 4;48:128246. Epub 2021 Jul 4.

College of Plant Protection, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi Province, PR China. Electronic address:

To discover non-food renewable forest bioactive products as new potential pesticidal alternatives for crop protection, a series of C15-imines alkaloids were obtained by structural modification of matrine and oxymatrine. Compounds Id, Ih, Ii and IIg (>2-3 folds of their precursors) showed the most potent antifeedant activity against armyworm. Against red spider mite, compounds Ie, Il, IIb, IIc and IIg displayed 1.8-3.1 folds acaricidal activity of their precursors. Notably, compound IIg exhibiting the most pronounced pesticidal activities, can be used as a promising bio-sourced agrochemical agent. The study of stress responses showed that the nAChR subunit α5 and VGSC might be the targets of action of matrine, oxymatrine and IIg against red spider mite.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2021.128246DOI Listing
July 2021

PDS5B inhibits cell proliferation, migration, and invasion via upregulation of LATS1 in lung cancer cells.

Cell Death Discov 2021 Jun 21;7(1):168. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, School of Laboratory Medicine, Bengbu Medical College, Bengbu, Anhui, 233030, China.

PDS5B (precocious dissociation of sisters 5B) plays a pivotal role in carcinogenesis and progression. However, the biological functions of PDS5B in lung cancer and its underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated. In the present study, we used MTT assays, wound-healing assays, and transwell migration and invasion approach to examine the cell viability, migration, and invasion of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells after PDS5B modulation. Moreover, we investigated the function of PDS5B overexpression in vivo. Furthermore, we detected the expression of PDS5B in tissue samples of lung cancer patients by immunohistochemical study. We found that upregulation of PDS5B repressed cell viability, migration, and invasion in NSCLC cells, whereas downregulation of PDS5B had the opposite effects. We also observed that PDS5B overexpression retarded tumor growth in nude mice. Notably, PDS5B positively regulated LATS1 expression in NSCLC cells. Strikingly, low expression of PDS5B was associated with lymph node metastasis in lung cancer patients. Our findings suggest that PDS5B might be a therapeutic target for lung cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41420-021-00537-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8257726PMC
June 2021

Regiodivergent Synthesis of 4,5'- and 4,4'-Imidazolinyl Spiropyrazolones from 4-Alkylidene Pyrazolones and Amidines.

Org Lett 2021 Jul 2;23(14):5305-5310. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Functional Coordinated Complexes for Materials Chemistry Application and School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Anhui Polytechnic University, Wuhu 241000, P. R. China.

The solvent-free reaction of 4-alkylidene pyrazolones with amidines can furnish 4,5'-imidazolinyl spiropyrazolones in good to excellent yields when promoted by -iodosuccinimide under solvent-free ball-milling conditions, whereas it almost exclusively affords 4,4'-imidazolinyl spiropyrazolones if mediated by -bromosuccinimide in heated toluene. On the basis of this switchable cyclization strategy, a powerful metal-free method for regioselective and diastereoselective synthesis of structurally diverse 4,5'- and 4,4'-imidazolinyl spiropyrazolones has been successfully developed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.1c01475DOI Listing
July 2021

Biotransformation of Timosaponin BII into Seven Characteristic Metabolites by the Gut Microbiota.

Molecules 2021 Jun 24;26(13). Epub 2021 Jun 24.

State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substance and Function of Natural Medicines, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences/Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050, China.

Timosaponin BII is one of the most abundant Anemarrhena saponins and is in a phase II clinical trial for the treatment of dementia. However, the pharmacological activity of timosaponin BII does not match its low bioavailability. In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of gut microbiota on timosaponin BII metabolism. We found that intestinal flora had a strong metabolic effect on timosaponin BII by HPLC-MS/MS. At the same time, seven potential metabolites (M1-M7) produced by rat intestinal flora were identified using HPLC/MS-Q-TOF. Among them, three structures identified are reported in gut microbiota for the first time. A comparison of rat liver homogenate and a rat liver microsome incubation system revealed that the metabolic behavior of timosaponin BII was unique to the gut microbiota system. Finally, a quantitative method for the three representative metabolites was established by HPLC-MS/MS, and the temporal relationship among the metabolites was initially clarified. In summary, it is suggested that the metabolic characteristics of gut microbiota may be an important indicator of the pharmacological activity of timosaponin BII, which can be applied to guide its application and clinical use in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26133861DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8270264PMC
June 2021

Association of low birth weight with cardiometabolic diseases in Swedish twins: a population-based cohort study.

BMJ Open 2021 06 28;11(6):e048030. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China

Objectives: To examine the association between low birth weight (LBW) and cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs, including heart disease, stroke and type 2 diabetes mellitus) in adulthood, and to explore whether genetic, early-life environmental and healthy lifestyle factors play a role in this association.

Design: A population-based twin study.

Setting: Twins from the Swedish Twin Registry who were born in 1958 or earlier participated in the Screening Across the Lifespan Twin (SALT) study for a full-scale screening during 1998-2002 and were followed up until 2014.

Participants: 19 779 twin individuals in Sweden with birthweight data available (mean age: 55.45 years).

Primary And Secondary Outcome Measures: CMDs were assessed based on self-reported medical records, medication use and records from the National Patient Registry. A lifestyle index encompassing smoking status, alcohol consumption, exercise levels and Body Mass Index was derived from the SALT survey and categorised as unfavourable, intermediate or favourable. Data were analysed using generalised estimating equation (GEE) models and conditional logistic regression models.

Results: Of all participants, 3998 (20.2%) had LBW and 5335 (27.0%) had incident CMDs (mean age at onset: 63.64±13.26 years). In GEE models, the OR of any CMD was 1.39 (95% CI 1.27 to 1.52) for LBW. In conditional logistic regression models, the LBW-CMD association became non-significant (OR=1.21, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.56). The difference in ORs from the two models was statistically significant (p<0.001). In the joint effect analysis, the multiadjusted OR of CMDs was 3.47 (95% CI 2.72 to 4.43) for participants with LBW plus an unfavourable lifestyle and 1.25 (95% CI 0.96 to 1.62) for those with LBW plus a favourable lifestyle.

Conclusion: LBW is associated with an increased risk of adult CMDs, and genetic and early-life environmental factors may account for this association. However, a favourable lifestyle profile may modify this risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-048030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8240562PMC
June 2021
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