Publications by authors named "Hui Liu"

5,528 Publications

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Machine learning to predict post-operative acute kidney injury stage 3 after heart transplantation.

BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2022 Jun 25;22(1):288. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of South China Structural Heart Disease, Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, 106 Zhongshan 2nd Road, Guangzhou, 510080, Guangdong, China.

Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) stage 3, one of the most severe complications in patients with heart transplantation (HT), is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. We aimed to develop a machine learning (ML) model to predict post-transplant AKI stage 3 based on preoperative and perioperative features.

Methods: Data from 107 consecutive HT recipients in the provincial center between 2018 and 2020 were included for analysis. Logistic regression with L2 regularization was used for the ML model building. The predictive performance of the ML model was assessed using the area under the curve (AUC) in tenfold stratified cross-validation and was compared with that of the Cleveland-clinical model.

Results: Post-transplant AKI occurred in 76 (71.0%) patients including 15 (14.0%) stage 1, 18 (16.8%) stage 2, and 43 (40.2%) stage 3 cases. The top six features selected for the ML model to predicate AKI stage 3 were serum cystatin C, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), right atrial long-axis dimension, left atrial anteroposterior dimension, serum creatinine (SCr) and FVII. The predictive performance of the ML model (AUC: 0.821; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.740-0.901) was significantly higher compared with that of the Cleveland-clinical model (AUC: 0.654; 95% [CI]: 0.545-0.763, p < 0.05).

Conclusions: The ML model, which achieved an effective predictive performance for post-transplant AKI stage 3, may be helpful for timely intervention to improve the patient's prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12872-022-02721-7DOI Listing
June 2022

Historical review of malaria control and elimination in the border areas of China: A case study of Yunnan Province.

Adv Parasitol 2022 23;116:33-67. Epub 2022 Mar 23.

Yunnan Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Yunnan Provincial Centre of Malaria Research, Yunnan Provincial Key Laboratory of Vector-borne Diseases Control and Research, Yunnan Institute of Parasitic Diseases Innovative Team of Key Techniques for Vector Borne Disease Control and Prevention, Training Base of International Scientific Exchange and Education in Tropical Diseases for South and Southeast Asia, Puer, Yunnan, PR China.

To understand how malaria could be eliminated in the original hyperendmic area for malaria along international borders in Yunnan Province, malaria situation and control were described on the basis of seven phases. At last the experiences and lessons of the program that reduced border malaria from hyperendmicity to malaria-free status were summarized. Malaria control and elimination area were particularly difficult in the Yunnan border. The achievement can be attributed to high political commitment, strategic and technical innovations based on the actual locality, effective collaboration and communication with neighbouring countries to carry out cross border interventions. Other border areas might perform their own pilot interventions based on their local context, including malaria burden, governing system, health service structure contextualized based on their socioeconomic development and ecology, and then a local decision could be made according to their own trial results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.apar.2021.12.001DOI Listing
March 2022

Straightforward Synthesis of Alkyl Fluorides via Visible-Light-Induced Hydromono- and Difluoroalkylations of Alkenes with α-Fluoro Carboxylic Acids.

J Org Chem 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, 266 West Xincun Road, Zibo 255000, P. R. China.

We herein report the first visible-light-induced hydromono- and difluoroalkylations of alkenes with inexpensive and easily accessible α-fluoro carboxylic acids. This metal-free protocol exhibits mild conditions, high efficiency, and excellent functional-group tolerance, providing a straightforward approach to mono- and difluoroalkylated alkanes. Moreover, the fluorine effect on the hydrofluoroalkylation reaction is discussed in detail.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.joc.2c00965DOI Listing
June 2022

Pentamethylquercetin Regulates Lipid Metabolism by Modulating Skeletal Muscle-Adipose Tissue Crosstalk in Obese Mice.

Pharmaceutics 2022 May 29;14(6). Epub 2022 May 29.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Basic Medicine, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China.

Irisin is an exercise-induced hormone that regulates lipid metabolism. The present study investigates whether the anti-obesity effect of the natural flavonoid pentamethylquercetin (PMQ) is related to irisin secretion from skeletal muscle in whole animals and cultured cells. Obese mice induced by monosodium glutamate were administered oral PMQ to determine blood irisin level and in vivo parameters of lipid metabolism, and cultured mouse C2C12 myoblasts and 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were employed to investigate the related molecular identities. PMQ increased circulating irisin and decreased bodyweight, insulin, and lipid levels accompanied with increasing brown-like adipocyte formation in obese mice. The brown adipocyte marker uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1) and other brown-like adipocyte-specific genes and/or markers were increased in mouse white fat tissue, while PMQ treatment reversed the above changes. PMQ also dose-dependently increased the reduced levels of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), and fibronectin type III domain-containing 5 (FNDC5) signal molecules in obese mice. Interestingly, the irisin level was increased in the culture medium of C2C12 cells treated with PMQ, and the conditioned medium stimulated the brown-like transition of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes with the increased expression of PGC-1α, FNDC5, UCP-1, and other brown-like adipocyte-specific genes. The effects of conditioned culture medium were abolished in C2C12 cells with silenced PGC-1α. On the other hand, PMQ-induced upregulation of PGC-1α and FNDC5 expression was reduced by AMPK inhibitor Compound C in C2C12 cells. Our results demonstrate the novel information that PMQ-induced irisin secretion from skeletal muscle involves the improvement of metabolic dysfunction in obese mice via activating the AMPK/PGC-1α/FNDC5 signal pathway, suggesting that PMQ modulates skeletal muscle-adipose tissue crosstalk and may be a promising drug candidate for treating obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14061159DOI Listing
May 2022

Ag Atom Anchored on Defective Hexagonal Boron Nitride Nanosheets As Single Atom Adsorbents for Enhanced Adsorptive Desulfurization via S-Ag Bonds.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2022 Jun 14;12(12). Epub 2022 Jun 14.

Institute for Energy Research, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China.

Single atom adsorbents (SAAs) are a novel class of materials that have great potential in various fields, especially in the field of adsorptive desulfurization. However, it is still challenging to gain a fundamental understanding of the complicated behaviors on SAAs for adsorbing thiophenic compounds, such as 1-Benzothiophene (BT), Dibenzothiophene (DBT), and 4,6-Dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT). Herein, we investigated the mechanisms of adsorptive desulfurization over a single Ag atom supported on defective hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets via density functional theory calculations. The Ag atom can be anchored onto three typical sites on the pristine h-BN, including the monoatomic defect vacancy (B-vacancy and N-vacancy) and the boron-nitrogen diatomic defect vacancy (B-N-divacancy). These three Ag-doped hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets all exhibit enhanced adsorption capacity for thiophenic compounds primarily by the S-Ag bond with π-π interaction maintaining. Furthermore, from the perspective of interaction energy, all three SAAs show a high selectivity to 4,6-DMDBT with the strong interaction energy (-33.9 kcal mol, -29.1 kcal mol, and -39.2 kcal mol, respectively). Notably, a little charge transfer demonstrated that the dominant driving force of such S-Ag bond is electrostatic interaction rather than coordination effect. These findings may shed light on the principles for modeling and designing high-performance and selective SAAs for adsorptive desulfurization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano12122046DOI Listing
June 2022

The Associations of Maternal Hemoglobin Concentration in Different Time Points and Its Changes during Pregnancy with Birth Weight Outcomes.

Nutrients 2022 Jun 19;14(12). Epub 2022 Jun 19.

Department of Public Health, and Department of Anesthesiology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310058, China.

Maternal hemoglobin (Hb) is related to nutritional status, which affects neonatal birth weight. However, it is very common for maternal Hb to fluctuate during pregnancy. To evaluate the associations of maternal Hb in different time points and its changes during pregnancy with neonatal birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA)/low birth weight (LBW) and large for gestational age (LGA)/macrosomia, we conducted this study by using data from the Electronic Medical Record System (EMRS) database of Zhoushan Maternal and Child Care Hospital in Zhejiang province, China. The pregnancy was divided into five periods: first, early-second, mediate-second, late-second, early-third and late-third trimesters; we further calculated the maternal Hb changes during pregnancy. Overall, the socio-demographic characteristics, health-related information and childbirth-related information of 24,183 mother-infant pairs were obtained. The average Hb concentration during the different periods were 123.95 ± 10.14, 117.95 ± 9.84, 114.31 ± 9.03, 113.26 ± 8.82, 113.29 ± 8.68 and 115.01 ± 8.85 g/L, respectively. Significant dose-response relationships between maternal Hb and birth weight were observed in the first, late-second and later trimesters ( non-linear < 0.05). Maternal Hb < 100 g/L was related to a high risk of LGA/macrosomia in the late-second (OR: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.18, 1.83) and later trimesters; additionally, high maternal Hb (>140 g/L) increased the risk of SGA/LBW in the first (OR: 1.26, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.57) and late-third trimesters (OR: 1.96, 95% CI: 1.20, 3.18). In addition, the increase in maternal Hb from the late-second to late-third trimesters had a positive correlation with SGA/LBW. In conclusion, maternal Hb markedly fluctuated during pregnancy; the negative dose-response association of maternal Hb in the late-second and third trimesters, and Hb change during pregnancy with neonatal birth weight outcomes were observed, respectively. Furthermore, the phenomenon of high Hb in the first trimester and after the late-second trimester and the increase of maternal Hb from the late-second to late-third trimesters more significantly increasing the risk of SGA/LBW should especially be given more attention. Its biological mechanism needs to be further explored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu14122542DOI Listing
June 2022

Evolutionary Analysis and Functional Identification of Ancient Brassinosteroid Receptors in .

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Jun 18;23(12). Epub 2022 Jun 18.

College of Life Sciences, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710119, China.

Phytohormones play an important role in the adaptive evolution of terrestrial plants. Brassinosteroids (BRs) are essential hormones that regulate multiple aspects of plant growth and development in angiosperms, but the presence of BR signaling in non-seed plants such as ferns remains unknown. Here, we found that BR promotes the growth of , while the synthetic inhibitor PCZ inhibits the growth. Using full-length transcriptome sequencing, we identified four BRI1-like receptors. By constructing chimeric receptors, we found that the kinase domains of these four receptors could trigger BR downstream signaling. Further, the extracellular domains of two receptors were functionally interchangeable with that of BRI1. In addition, we identified a co-receptor, CtSERK1, that could phosphorylate with CtBRL2s in vitro. Together, these proved the presence of a receptor complex in that might perceive BR and activate downstream hormone signaling. Our results shed light on the biological and molecular mechanisms of BR signaling in ferns and the role of BR hormone signaling in the adaptive evolution of terrestrial plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms23126795DOI Listing
June 2022

Loss of Heterozygosity for Promotes Malignant Phenotype of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma by Activating HIF-2α-c-Myc-Regulated Glutamine Metabolism.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Jun 15;23(12). Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Department of Pathology, Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou 221004, China.

Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) for , in which a wild-type allele is progressively lost, promotes invasive and migratory abilities of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells and tissues. Moreover, the occurrence of -LOH activates nonclassical glutamine metabolism, which is related to the malignant behavior of PDAC cells. Herein, we aim to demonstrate the regulatory link between hypoxia-inducible factor-2α (HIF-2α) and glutamine metabolism that mediates malignant phenotypes in -LOH PDAC cells. HIF-2α-shRNA knockdown lentivirus transfection and metabolite analysis were performed in -LOH and cell lines, respectively. Cell proliferation, migration, and invasion were examined using Cell Counting Kit-8, colony formation, and Transwell assays. Cell cycle phase and apoptosis were determined using flow cytometry. Western blotting and real-time quantitative PCR were also performed. Additionally, a subcutaneous xenograft mouse model was established. LOH stimulated HIF-2α activity and transactivated c-Myc, which has a central regulatory effect on glutamine metabolism independent of hypoxia. Meanwhile, HIF-2α silencing repressed -LOH PDAC cell proliferation, invasion, and migration. HIF-2α knockdown inhibited glutamine uptake and GOT1 expression via a c-Myc-dependent pathway. Collectively, -LOH can activate HIF-2α to regulate c-Myc-mediated glutamine metabolism and promote malignant phenotypes. Moreover, targeting HIF-2α-c-Myc regulated nonclassical glutamine metabolism, providing a new therapeutic perspective for -LOH PDAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms23126697DOI Listing
June 2022

Integrated Analysis of a Ferroptosis-Related LncRNA Signature for Evaluating the Prognosis of Patients with Colorectal Cancer.

Genes (Basel) 2022 Jun 19;13(6). Epub 2022 Jun 19.

Research Institute of Hunan University in Chongqing, Chongqing 401120, China.

LncRNAs have been well known for their multiple functions in the tumorigenesis, development, and relapse of colorectal cancer (CRC). Accumulating studies demonstrated that the expression of lncRNAs can be regulated by ferroptosis, a biological process that has been revealed to suppress CRC progression. However, the functions and clinical implications of ferroptosis-associated lncRNAs in CRC remain largely unknown. We, herein, aim to construct a prognostic signature with ferroptosis-related lncRNAs for the prognostic estimation of CRC patients. Firstly, we identified the lncRNAs related to ferroptosis based on the RNA-Seq data of CRC from the TCGA database. The univariate and multivariate Cox analyses were then performed to establish a prognostic signature composed of eight ferroptosis-related lncRNAs (AL161729.4, AC010973.2, CCDC144NL-AS1, AC009549.1, LINC01857, AP003555.1, AC099850.3, and AC008494.3). Furthermore, we divided the CRC patients into high- and low-risk groups based on the signature and found the overall survival (OS) of patients in the high-risk group was significantly shorter than that in the low-risk group ( = 3.31 × 10). Moreover, the patients in the high-risk groups had shorter recurrence-free survival (RFS) ( = 6.5 × 10) and disease-free survival (DFS) ( = 4.27 × 10), as well as higher tumor recurrence rate. Additionally, we found that the oncogenic pathways were enriched in the high-risk group, whereas the ferroptosis pathway that probably repressed CRC development was enriched in the low-risk group. In summary, our signature may provide a theoretical foundation for not only accurate judgment for prognosis but also evaluation for recurrence and metastasis in CRC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes13061094DOI Listing
June 2022

Effect of exposure to paternal smoking on overweight and obesity in children: findings from the Children Lifeway Cohort in Shenzhen, southern China.

Obes Facts 2022 Jun 23. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Introduction: Paternal smoking associated with childhood overweight and obesity has been a concern, but studies have not investigated smoking exposure and smoking details. We investigated the association of exposures from paternal smoking as well as smoking details on offspring overweight/obesity.

Methods: A total of 4513 children (aged 7-8 years) in Shenzhen were enrolled. Four different exposures from paternal smoking as well as smoking quantity, duration of smoking and age of starting smoking details were the exposure variables and demographic characteristics, circumstances of birth, dietary intake, lifestyle and nonpaternal smoking exposure were covariates in logistic regression analysis to determine the effect of paternal smoking on childhood overweight/obesity, estimating odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

Results: Paternal smoking was positively associated with childhood overweight/obesity (p<0.05). Moreover, only pre-conception exposure, and both pre- and post-conception exposure were significantly associated with childhood overweight/obesity (OR 1.54 (95% CI 1.14-2.08) and OR 1.73 (95% CI 1.14-2.61) respectively), restricted to boys but not girls. Furthermore, for children with only pre-conception paternal-smoking exposure, the dose-response relation was positive between smoking quantity, duration of smoking, age at starting and overweight/obesity for boy offspring (P trend <0.001). We did not find any significant association between only post-natal exposure to paternal smoking and childhood overweight/obesity (P>0.05).

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that paternal smoking is associated with boys' overweight/obesity, and this association may due to the paternal smoking exposure before conception rather than the post-natal exposure to paternal smoking. Reducing paternal smoking exposure before conception might help reduce overweight/obesity in boys.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000525544DOI Listing
June 2022

miR-92a-2-5p Regulates the Proliferation and Differentiation of ASD-Derived Neural Progenitor Cells.

Curr Issues Mol Biol 2022 May 24;44(6):2431-2442. Epub 2022 May 24.

Department of Histology and Embryology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150000, China.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of complex neurodevelopmental disorders with abnormal behavior. However, the pathogenesis of ASD remains to be clarified. It has been demonstrated that miRNAs are essential regulators of ASD. However, it is still unclear how miR-92a-2-5p acts on the developing brain and the cell types directly. In this study, we used neural progenitor cells (NPCs) derived from ASD-hiPSCs as well as from neurotypical controls to examine the effects of miR-92a-2-5p on ASD-NPCs proliferation and neuronal differentiation, and whether miR-92a-2-5p could interact with genetic risk factor, for ASD. We observed that miR-92a-2-5p upregulated in ASD-NPCs results in decreased proliferation and neuronal differentiation. Inhibition of miR-92a-2-5p could promote proliferation and neuronal differentiation of ASD-NPCs. was negatively regulated by miR-92a-2-5p in NPCs. Our results suggest that miR-92a-2-5p is a strong risk factor for ASD and potentially contributes to neuropsychiatric disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cimb44060166DOI Listing
May 2022

Engineering nickel vacancies in NiCo LDH nanoarrays accelerates hydrogen evolution and oxygen evolution reactions.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2022 Jun 23. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Key Laboratory of Special Functional Materials for Ecological Environment and Information (Hebei University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Tianjin 300130, People's Republic of China.

Exploring efficient bifunctional electrocatalysts is crucial for constructing water splitting systems. In this work, a bifunctional catalyst, NiCo layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanosheets with nickel vacancies, was fabricated by a hydrothermal and chemical etching method, which requires 195 and 227 mV overpotentials for HER and OER to achieve 10 mA cm and exhibited sustained activity for 100 h with almost no degradation. This study provides a new idea for the rational design of efficient non-precious metal catalysts with defects for water splitting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2cc02947bDOI Listing
June 2022

Dose-response association between maternal pre-pregnancy bodyweight and gestational diabetes mellitus following ART treatment: a population-based cohort study.

Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2022 Jun 22;20(1):92. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Chinese Evidence-Based Medicine Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, China.

Background: The impact of maternal pre-pregnancy bodyweight on gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) following assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment has been insufficiently investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between maternal pre-pregnancy bodyweight and GDM following ART.

Methods: From January 2014 to March 2019, this population-based retrospective cohort study included pregnancies achieved by ART treatment in a pregnancy registration database in China. Multivariate regression analysis and restricted cubic splines were used to explore the association between bodyweight and GDM.

Results: A total of 6,598 pregnancies were included. The incidence of GDM was 26.0% (1715/6598). A total of 868 (13.2%) pregnant women were underweight, 665 (10.8%) were overweight, and 145 (2.20%) were obesity. We found a linear dose-response relation between maternal body mass index and GDM by restricted cubic splines, where one unit body mass index increase was associated with the 15% elevated risk of GDM (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.15, 95% CI 1.08-1.22). Compared to the normal weight group, maternal underweight was associated with lower risk of GDM (adjusted OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.57-0.82), while increased risk was found for overweight (adjusted OR 1.54 95% CI 1.29-1.84) and obesity (adjusted OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.23-2.47).

Conclusions: Our study found a linear dose-effect relationship between pre-pregnancy bodyweight and GDM following ART treatment. The findings in this study support the clinical recommendation of advising women with overweight or obesity to lose weight prior to ART treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12958-022-00964-9DOI Listing
June 2022

MELK predicts poor prognosis and promotes metastasis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma via activating the NF‑κB pathway.

Int J Oncol 2022 Aug 22;61(2). Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Department of Pathology, Medical College, Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510632, P.R. China.

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide with a low 5‑year survival rate due to the lack of effective therapeutic strategies. Accumulating evidence has indicated that maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) is highly expressed in several tumors and associated with tumor development. However, the biological effects of MELK in ESCC remain unknown. In the present study, cell phenotypical experiments and animal metastasis assays were performed to detect the influence of MELK knockdown and . The potential molecular mechanism of MELK‑mediated ESCC metastasis was further investigated by western blotting and immunofluorescence staining. The results revealed that the expression of MELK in human ESCC tissues was higher than that in adjacent normal tissues and was positively associated with the poor prognosis of patients. Reducing MELK expression resulted in growth inhibition and suppression of the invasive ability of ESCC cells and . MELK inhibition induced alterations of epithelial‑mesenchymal transition‑associated proteins. Mechanistically, MELK interacted with IκB kinase (IKK) and promoted the phosphorylation of IKK, by which MELK regulated activation of the NF‑κB pathway. Collectively, the present study revealed the function and mechanism of MELK in the cell metastasis of ESCC, which may be a potential therapeutic target for ESCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2022.5384DOI Listing
August 2022

Is deception defensible in dementia care? A care ethics perspective.

Nurs Ethics 2022 Jun 20:9697330221092336. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

The Department of Medical Ethics and Law, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, China.

Deception is common in dementia care, although its moral legitimacy is questionable. This paper conceptually clarifies when does dementia care involve deception and argues that care ethics is an appropriate ethical framework to guide dementia care compared with the mainstream ethical theories that emphasize abilities. From a perspective of care ethics, this paper claims that morally defensible deception is context-specific, embodied as a caring process that needs to be identified through instant, creative and interactive care procedures. According to this argument, it further analyses and concludes the moral rationality of deception in five common cases. While deception is morally justified in many situations, another concern is that it is usually not the last resort but a means of convenience. As the ability to interact, autonomy and dignity of persons with dementia (PWDs) are generally ignored; nurses need more training and education to master the essential procedures to ensure that the value of authenticity and autonomy is maintained and considered throughout dementia care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/09697330221092336DOI Listing
June 2022

Clinical Benefits of Direct-acting Antivirals Therapy in Hepatitis C Virus Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2022 Jun 20. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Department of General Surgery, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) therapy on the clinical outcomes of hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

Methods: We searched multiple electronic databases from database inception to June 14, 2021. Meta-analyses were performed separately for HCC recurrence and overall survival (OS).

Results: A total of 23 studies were identified for the primary analysis. Compared with no intervention, pooled data showed significant benefit from DAAs therapy in reducing recurrence (adjusted HR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.41-0.74, p < 0.001; I = 66.6%, p < 0.001) and improving OS (adjusted HR = 0.36, 95% CI 0.16-0.83, p = 0.017; I = 90.7%, p < 0.001) of HCV-related HCC patients. Compared with non-responders, patients with sustained virologic response (SVR) had greater benefit from DAAs therapy in reducing recurrence (HR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.16-0.84, p = 0.017; I = 58.8%, p = 0.088) and improving OS (HR = 0.17; 95% CI 0.06-0.50; p = 0.001; I = 56.4%, p = 0.130). Though DAAs did not show significant advantages over IFN in reducing recurrence (adjusted HR =0.96, 95% CI 0.72-1.28, p = 0.784; I = 0.0%, p = 0.805), there seems to be a trend towards OS benefit from DAAs therapy (adjusted HR = 0.11, 95% CI 0.01-1.19, p = 0.059).

Conclusion: DAAs therapy can prevent recurrence and improve OS of HCV-related HCC patients, especially for patients with SVR. Further prospective randomized controlled trial is warranted to validate these results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jgh.15915DOI Listing
June 2022

Altered Homotopic Connectivity in the Cerebellum Predicts Stereopsis Dysfunction in Patients With Comitant Exotropia.

Front Hum Neurosci 2022 2;16:917769. Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Department of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Purpose: Comitant exotropia (CE) is a common eye disorder characterized by impaired stereoscopic vision and eye deviation. Previous neuroimaging studies demonstrated that patients with CE were accompanied by specific functional and structural abnormalities of the brain. However, the effect of impaired stereoscopic vision and eye deviation on interhemispheric homotopic connectivity remains unknown.

Methods: A total of thirty-six patients with CE (25 males and 11 females) and 36 well-matched healthy controls underwent magnetic resonance imaging scanning. The voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) method was applied to assess the interhemispheric homotopic connectivity changes in patients with CE. Furthermore, the support vector machine method was applied to assess to differentiate patients with CE from healthy controls (HCs) with the VMHC maps as a feature.

Results: Compared with HCs, patients with CE showed significantly increased VMHC values in the bilateral cerebelum_ 8 and cerebelum_4_5. Moreover, we found that the VMHC maps showed an accuracy of 81.94% and an area under the curve of 0.87 for distinguishing the patients with CE from HCs.

Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that patients with CE showed interhemispheric homotopic connectivity changes in the cerebellum, which might reflect the neurological mechanisms of impaired stereoscopic vision and eye deviation in patients with CE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2022.917769DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9201504PMC
June 2022

Analysis of Gut Microbiota Signature and Microbe-Disease Progression Associations in Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Treated With Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2022 1;12:892401. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Department of Radiation Oncology, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, China.

Purpose: To evaluate the association of gut microbiome signature and disease progression in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC) patients treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) by fecal metagenome analysis.

Methods: Metagenome-wide association studies on baseline fecal samples from 18 LA-NSCLC patients before CCRT and 13 controls from healthy first-degree relatives were performed. Among the 18 LA-NSCLC patients, six patients were defined as the long progression-free survival (long-PFS) group (PFS≥11 months) while another 12 were in the short-PFS group (PFS<11 months). Alpha diversity, taxonomic composition, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) functional pathways were compared between groups.

Results: The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes value of long-PFS group was higher than those of short-PFS (p=0.073) and healthy individual groups (p=0.009). Meanwhile, long-PFS group had significantly higher diversities in Fungi, Archaea, and Viruses than short-PFS group. The KEGG pathways overrepresented in short-PFS group included fructose and mannose metabolism (p=0.028), streptomycin biosynthesis (p=0.028), acarbose and validamycin biosynthesis (p=0.013), ribosome biogenesis in eukaryotes (p=0.035), biosynthesis of vancomycin group antibiotics (p=0.004), apoptosis-fly (p=0.044), and tetracycline biosynthesis (p=0.044), while those overrepresented in long-PFS group included fatty acid biosynthesis (p=0.035), fatty acid metabolism (p=0.008), vancomycin resistance (p=0.008), longevity regulating pathway-worm (p=0.028), type II diabetes mellitus (p=0.004), and viral carcinogenesis (p=0.003). Further analysis of antibiotic resistome demonstrated that the short-PFS group had a trend with more antibiotic resistance genes than healthy control (p=0.070) and long-PFS groups (p=0.218). The vancomycin resistance sequences were significantly enriched in the long-PFS group compared to the short-PFS group (p=0.006).

Conclusions: The baseline gut microbiome composition and functionality might be associated with PFS in LA-NSCLC treated with CCRT. The outcome of CCRT might be modulated through bacterial metabolic pathways. The antibiotic resistance genes might play a role in disease progression and provide potential information on the relationship between the use of antibiotics and treatment efficacy of CCRT in LA-NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2022.892401DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9200620PMC
June 2022

Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index is Associated with Hospital Death in Elderly Patients with Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome: A Retrospective Study Based on the MIMIC-III Database.

Front Nutr 2022 3;9:834256. Epub 2022 Jun 3.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, The First Medical Center, Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing, China.

Purpose: Elderly patients with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) have a higher mortality during hospitalization in the intensive care unit (ICU). Elderly patients often suffer from malnutrition. On the basis of the MIMIC-III database, this study analyzed the effect of the baseline nutritional status on the death of elderly patients with MODS during hospitalization.

Materials And Methods: Elderly patients with MODS were screened out from MIMIC-III 1.4 database. The geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) was calculated and used to group patients into: normal nutrition (GNRI > 98) and malnutrition (GNRI ≤ 98) groups. The malnutrition group was divided into mild (92-98), moderate (82-91), and severe (≤81) groups. The differences in the baseline data and the incidence of adverse events between groups were compared. The GAM model was used to determine whether a curve relationship was present between the hospital death of elderly patients with MODS and GNRI and analyze the threshold saturation effect. The multivariate logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) of in-hospital deaths in different GNRI groups. The interaction test was performed to find subgroups with differences.

Results: A total of 2456 elderly patients with MODS were enrolled. A total of 1,273 (51.8%) and 1183 (48.2%) patients were in the normal nutrition and malnutrition groups, respectively. The mortality rate of patients in the normal nutrition group during hospitalization was lower than that in the malnutrition group (206/1273 vs. 292/1183, X2 = 27.410, < 0.001; OR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.48-0.72). The GAM model fitting analysis showed a threshold saturation effect at GNRI = 92. Adjusted OR values with GNRI ≥ 92 began to change to 1, and GNRI and death had no association. At GNRI < 92, high GNRI related to low risk of death. Subgroup analysis of patients with GNRI < 92 showed that the risk of death in elderly male patients was lower than that of female patients.

Conclusion: GNRI is related to the severity of illness in elderly patients with MODS. At GNRI < 92, moderate to severe malnutrition increases the risk of death in elderly patients with MODS during hospitalization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2022.834256DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9204224PMC
June 2022

Robotic-assisted single-port laparoscopy surgery in inguinal lymph node dissection for vulvar cancer.

Authors:
Na Guo Hui Liu

Asian J Surg 2022 Jun 16. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

The Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, West China Second University Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, 610041, China; Key Laboratory of Birth Defects and Related Diseases of Women and Children (Sichuan University), Ministry of Education, Chengdu, Sichuan, 610041, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asjsur.2022.05.104DOI Listing
June 2022

Mettl3-mediated m A modification of Lrp2 facilitates neurogenesis through Ythdc2 and elicits antidepressant-like effects.

FASEB J 2022 Jul;36(7):e22392

Institute of Neuroscience and the Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Guangzhou Medical University, Key Laboratory of Neurogenetics and Channelopathies of Guangdong Province and the Ministry of Education of China, Guangzhou, China.

N -methyladenosine (m A) is the most abundant mRNA modification affecting diverse biological processes. However, the functions and precise mechanisms of m A signaling in adult hippocampal neurogenesis and neurogenesis-related depression remain largely enigmatic. We found that depletion of Mettl3 or Mettl14 in neural stem cells (NSCs) dramatically reduced m A abundance, proliferation, and neuronal genesis, coupled with enhanced glial differentiation. Conversely, overexpressing Mettl3 promoted proliferation and neuronal differentiation. Mechanistically, the m A modification of Lrp2 mRNA by Mettl3 enhanced its stability and translation efficiency relying on the reader protein Ythdc2, which in turn promoted neurogenesis. Importantly, mice lacking Mettl3 manifested reduced hippocampal neurogenesis, which could contribute to spatial memory decline, and depression-like behaviors. We found that these defective behaviors were notably reversed by Lrp2 overexpression. Moreover, Mettl3 overexpression in the hippocampus of depressive mice rescues behavioral defects. Our findings uncover the biological role of m A modification in Lrp2-mediated neurogenesis via m A-binding protein Ythdc2, and propose a rationale that targeting Mettl3-Ythdc2-Lrp2 axis regulation of neurogenesis might serve as a promising antidepressant strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.202200133RRDOI Listing
July 2022

The optimal dietary arginine level of laying hens fed with low-protein diets.

J Anim Sci Biotechnol 2022 Jun 17;13(1):63. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Department of Animal Science, Shandong Agricultural University, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology and Disease Control and Prevention, 61 Daizong Street, Taian City, 271018, Shandong Province, China.

Background: Arginine (Arg) is an essential amino acid (EAA) in poultry, an important substrate for protein synthesis and a precursor of several molecules. Supplementation of EAAs with low protein (LP) diet increases the utilization efficiency of dietary crude protein (CP). However, if the EAA requirement is changed in hens fed a LP diet remains to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the optimal level of dietary Arg in the LP diet of hens. A total of 1350 Hy-Line Brown laying hens were randomly allocated to six dietary treatments: a basal diet (16% CP, positive control), or an isoenergetic LP diet (14% CP, 0.80% Arg) supplemented 0, 0.05%, 0.10%, 0.15%, and 0.20% L-Arg, corresponding to 0.80%, 0.85%, 0.90%, 0.95% and 1.00% dietary Arg, respectively.

Results: The feed efficiency was decreased (P < 0.05) by 0.80% and 1.00% Arg-LP diets, compared to control. Within LP diets, dietary Arg level had significant quadratic effects (P < 0.05) on laying rate, egg mass, and feed efficiency. Compared to control, the plasma CAT activity or T-AOC content were decreased by 0.80% (P < 0.001). However, the hens offered 0.85% and 0.90% Arg-LP diets had higher CAT activity (P < 0.001) than 0.80% Arg-LP diet. In contrast, 1.00% Arg-LP group had the highest MDA and the lowest T-AOC content in plasma, liver, duodenal and jejunal mucosa (P < 0.05). Compared to control, the villus height was decreased by 0.80%, 0.95% and 1.00% Arg-LP diets, while the villus height to crypt depth (V/C) ratio was reduced by 0.95% and 1.00% Arg-LP diets in duodenum.

Conclusion: The result demonstrates that LP diet (14% CP) deficient in Arg (0.80% Arg) result in augmented oxidative damage and impaired development of intestinal mucosa. According to the quadratic broken-line regression model, the optimal dietary arginine levels for Hy-Line Brown laying hens fed with low protein diet (14% CP) aged 33 to 40 weeks are 0.85%, 0.86%, and 0.86% to obtained the maximum laying rate, egg mass, and feed efficiency, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40104-022-00719-xDOI Listing
June 2022

6-Valent Virus-Like Particle-Based Vaccine Induced Potent and Sustained Immunity Against Noroviruses in Mice.

Front Immunol 2022 23;13:906275. Epub 2022 May 23.

Department of Pathogen Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.

Norovirus is a major cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide, and no vaccine is currently available. The genetic and antigenic diversity of Norovirus presents challenges for providing broad immune protection, which calls for a multivalent vaccine application. In this study, we investigated the possibility of developing a virus-like particle (VLP)-based 6-valent Norovirus vaccine candidate (Hexa-VLPs) that covers GI.1, GII.2, GII.3, GII.4, GII.6, and GII.17 genotypes. Hexa-VLPs (30 µg) adjuvanted with 500 µg of aluminum hydroxide (alum) were selected as the optimal immunization dose after a dose-escalation study. Potent and long-lasting blockade antibody responses were induced by 2-or 3-shot Hexa-VLPs, especially for the emerging GII.P16-GII.2 and GII.17 (Kawasaki 2014) genotypes. Hexa-VLPs plus alum elicited Th1/Th2 mixed yet Th2-skewed immune responses, characterized by an IgG1-biased subclass profile and significant IL-4 T-cell activation. Notably, simultaneous immunization with a mixture of six VLPs revealed no immunological interference among the component antigens. These results demonstrate that Hexa-VLPs are promising broad-spectrum vaccines to provide immunoprotection against major GI/GII epidemic strains in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2022.906275DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9197435PMC
June 2022

Cardiotoxicity Related to Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors: A Real-World Retrospective Analysis.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2022 31;9:838488. Epub 2022 May 31.

Cardiovascular Department, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

Background: Cardiotoxicity related to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) is a rare but potentially lethal. In ICI-associated adverse events, evidence of cardiotoxicity and clinical predictive factors related to ICI is lacking. Here, we aim to assess the incidence and predictive factors of cardiotoxicity related to ICIs in real-world practice.

Objective: We retrospectively analyzed consecutive patients who received PD-1 or PD-L1 at the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University. Clinical characteristics and cardiac lesion markers were collected both at baseline and during longitudinal follow-up from the Biobank database. Follow-up CKMB and NT-proBNP levels and ratios were then evaluated.

Results: A total of 2,304 patients with either PD-1 or PDL-1 utilization between August 2018 and April 2021 were collected. The average age was 59.44 ± 11.45 among PD-1 inhibitor utilizer and 58.97 ± 12.16 among PDL-1 inhibitor utilizer. The baseline creatine kinase isoenzyme MB (CKMB) levels were 17 ± 19 U/L in PD-1 inhibitor users and 17 ± 23 U/L in PDL-1 inhibitor users. Majority of patients were male, with advanced stage cancer, and received ICIs as second-line therapy. The longitudinal change of cardiac enzymes and NT-pro BNP were collected. Cardiac lesion as defined by three times increase of CKMB happens in only minority of patients receiving ICIs therapy. It is also identified that increased CKMB happened in PD-1 inhibitor groups, but not PDL-1 inhibitor groups.

Conclusion: We evaluated the profile of cardiotoxicities caused by ICIs based on real-world experience. The cardiac lesion markers are generally unaltered, but it appears that the increased CKMB happened in PD-1 inhibitor groups, but not PDL-1 inhibitor groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2022.838488DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9193585PMC
May 2022

Fenestrated and Branched Stent-Grafts for the Treatment of Thoracoabdominal Aortic Aneurysms: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2022 31;9:901193. Epub 2022 May 31.

Department of Vascular Surgery, The Capital Medical University Affiliated Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Beijing Institute of Heart Lung and Blood Vessel Diseases, Beijing, China.

Purpose: To investigate the safety and efficacy of total endovascular repair for thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms (TAAAs) with fenestrated and branched stent-grafts.

Methods: The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were searched between January 2001 and December 2021 to identify literature relevant to the use of fenestrated and branched endografts for the treatment of TAAAs. Studies with <4 cases and those on juxtarenal or pararenal aortic aneurysms were excluded. Meta-analyses were conducted to evaluate spinal cord ischemia (SCI), irreversible SCI, renal insufficiency, dialysis, endoleak, reintervention, target vessel patency, 30-day mortality and overall mortality. Fourteen studies comprising 1,114 patients (mean age 72.42 years, 847 men) were selected. The mean TAAA diameter was 67 mm. The Crawford TAAA classification was type I-III in 759 cases, type IV in 344 cases, and type V in 10 cases. Outcomes of the meta-analysis are reported as proportions and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

Results: The pooled rates for 30-day mortality and overall mortality were 6% and 18%, respectively. The pooled rate for technical success was 94% (95% CI, 93-96%), for SCI was 8% (95% CI, 7-10%), for irreversible SCI was 6% (95% CI, 4-7%), for reversible SCI was 5% (95% CI, 4-6%), for reversible SCI was 2% (95% CI, 2-3%), for renal insufficiency was 7% (95% CI, 5-10%), for dialysis was 3% (95% CI, 2-4%), for target vessel patency was 98% (95% CI, 97-99%), and for reintervention was 15% (95% CI, 9-24%).

Conclusion: Fenestrated and branched endografts for the treatment of TAAAs are safe and effective with acceptable early results. Lifelong regular follow-up and additional prospective studies are necessary to substantiate whether this technique is valid.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2022.901193DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9197478PMC
May 2022

Mitochondrial and autophagy-lysosomal pathway polygenic risk scores predict Parkinson's disease.

Mol Cell Neurosci 2022 Jun 13;121:103751. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Department of Neurodegenerative Disease, Her tie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, University of Tübingen, Germany; German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases DZNE, Tübingen, Germany.

Polygenic Risk Scores (PRS), which allow assessing an individuals' genetic risk for a complex disease, are calculated as the weighted number of genetic risk alleles in an individual's genome, with the risk alleles and their weights typically derived from the results of genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Among a wide range of applications, PRS can be used to identify at-risk individuals and select them for further clinical follow-up. Pathway PRS are genetic scores based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) assigned to genes involved in major disease pathways. The aim of this study is to assess the predictive utility of PRS models constructed based on SNPs corresponding to two cardinal pathways in Parkinson's disease (PD) including mitochondrial PRS (Mito PRS) and autophagy-lysosomal PRS (ALP PRS). PRS models were constructed using the clumping-and-thresholding method in a German population as prediction dataset that included 371 cases and 249 controls, using SNPs discovered by the most recent PD-GWAS. We showed that these pathway PRS significantly predict the PD status. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Mito PRS are significantly associated with later age of onset in PD patients. Our results may add to the accumulating evidence for the contribution of mitochondrial and autophagy-lysosomal pathways to PD risk and facilitate biologically relevant risk stratification of PD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mcn.2022.103751DOI Listing
June 2022

Quantitative x-ray fluorescence imaging system for non-destructive 3D tumor histology.

Opt Lett 2022 Jun;47(12):3087-3090

An in-house dual-modality x-ray fluorescence tomography (XFT) and x-ray computed tomography (XCT) system was developed to quantify iodine contrast distribution through the whole tumor volume ex vivo. The quantitative XFT was calibrated with water phantoms containing iodine solutions of various concentrations (0.0175-1.4 wt.%). The vasculature distribution was reflected by the iodine perfusion, which was validated with histology. This technique may open a new, to the best of our knowledge, route to the non-destructive three-dimensional-imaging-based histological analysis of tumor samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.458905DOI Listing
June 2022

Multiparametric ultrasound for the assessment of testicular lesions with negative tumoral markers.

Asian J Androl 2022 Jun 10. Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Department of Ultrasound, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine and Engineering, Shanghai 200032, China.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of multiparametric ultrasound (mpUS; grayscale US, color Doppler US, strain elastography, and contrast-enhanced US) in the assessment of testicular lesions with negative tumoral markers. MpUS imaging data, patient age, serum tumor markers, scrotal pain, cryptorchidism, and related clinical information were retrospectively collected for patients who underwent mpUS examination between January 2013 and December 2019. Histologic results or follow-up examinations were used as the reference standard. In total, 83 lesions from 79 patients were included in the analysis. Fifty-six patients were finally diagnosed with benign tumors, and 23 patients were ultimately diagnosed with malignant tumors. Chi-square tests or Fisher's exact tests were used to assess the difference between the two groups. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that lesion diameter (odds ratio [OR] = 1.072, P = 0.005), vascularization on color Doppler US (OR = 4.066, P = 0.001), and hyperenhancement during the early phase (OR = 6.465, P = 0.047) were significant independent risk factors for malignancy; however, when compared with neoplastic lesions, pain (OR = 0.136, P < 0.001), absence of vascularization on color Doppler US (OR = 1.680, P = 0.042), and nonenhancement during the late phase (OR = 3.461, P = 0.031) were strongly associated with nonneoplastic lesions. MpUS features are useful for differentiating testicular lesions with negative tumoral markers and improving the preoperative diagnosis, which may avoid inappropriate radical orchiectomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/aja202235DOI Listing
June 2022

A Rare Case of Extrauterine Endometrial Stromal Sarcoma Arising from Deep Pelvic Endometriosis: Role of Multidisciplinary Team Meeting.

Curr Med Imaging 2022 Jun 15. Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Department of Radiology, Xiangya Hospital, CSU, Changsha, 410008, China.

Introduction: Extrauterine endometrial stromal sarcoma (EESS) arising from Deep pelvic endometriosis (DPE) has a poor life quality and difficult to diagnosis pre-operatively. However, the patient's quality of life can be improved when it is diagnosed precisely and managed successfully.

Case Report: A 35‑year‑old woman presented to our hospital with a 3-month history of hematochezia and anal pain. Initially, she was misdiagnosed as a rectal stromal tumor and then precisely diagnosed as having EESS from DPE following several multidisciplinary team (MDT) meetings. The lesion was shrunk by gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-α) treatment and then resected with minimal trauma.

Conclusions: MDT is crucial in the treatment of the patient. It can promote individualized treatment and improve patient's quality of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1573405618666220615161300DOI Listing
June 2022

Evidence for Dopamine Abnormalities Following Acute Methamphetamine Exposure Assessed by Neuromelanin-Sensitive Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

Front Aging Neurosci 2022 30;14:865825. Epub 2022 May 30.

Department of Radiology, Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, China.

Background: Neuromelanin-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging (NM-MRI) is a newly developed MRI technique that provides a non-invasive way to indirectly measure of dopamine (DA) function. This study aimed to determine NM concentrations in brain regions following acute methamphetamine (MA) administration using NM-MRI and to explore whether NM-MRI can be used as a biomarker of DA function in non-neurodegenerative diseases.

Methods: Baseline NM-MRI, T1-weighted and T2-weighted images were acquired from 27 rats before drug/placebo injection. The control group ( = 11) received acute placebo (Normal saline), while the experimental group ( = 16) received acute MA. NM-MRI scans were performed 5, 30, 60 and 90 min after injection. Regions of interest (ROIs), including the caudate putamen (CP), nucleus accumbens (NAc), hippocampus (HIP), substantia nigra (SN) and crus cerebri (CC), were manually drawn by an experienced radiologist. NM-MRI signal intensity in five brain regions at different time points (baseline and 5, 30, 60, and 90 min) were analyzed.

Results: In both the control and experimental groups, at each time point (baseline and 5, 30, 60, and 90 min), the SN exhibited significantly higher NM-MRI signal intensity than the other brain regions ( < 0.05). In addition, acute MA administration resulted in a continuous upward trend in NM-MRI signal intensity in each brain region over time. However, there was no such trend over time in the control group. The NM-MRI signal intensity of SN in the experimental group was significantly higher at the 60 and 90 min compared with that in the control group ( values were 0.042 and 0.042 respectively). Within experimental group, the NM-MRI signal intensity of SN was significantly higher at the 60 and 90 min compared with that before MA administration ( values were 0.023 and 0.011 respectively). Increased amplitudes and rates of NM-MRI signal intensity were higher in the SN than in other brain regions after MA administration.

Conclusion: Our results indicated that NM was mainly deposited in the SN, and the conversion of DA to NM was most significant in the SN after acute MA exposure. Increased DA release induced by acute MA exposure may lead to increased accumulation of NM in multiple brain regions that can be revealed by NM-MRI. NM-MRI may serve as a powerful imaging tool that could have diverse research and clinical applications for detecting pathological changes in drug addiction and related non-neurodegenerative diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2022.865825DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9190254PMC
May 2022
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