Publications by authors named "Hui Huang"

1,756 Publications

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Ocean acidification elicits differential bleaching and gene expression patterns in larval reef coral Pocillopora damicornis under heat stress.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Jun 21:156851. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

CAS Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Bio-resources and Ecology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Marine Biology, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology (SCSIO), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301, China; Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Guangzhou), Guangzhou 511458, China; CAS-HKUST Sanya Joint Laboratory of Marine Science Research, Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Biotechnology of Hainan Province, Sanya Institute of Oceanology, SCSIO, Sanya 572000, China; Sanya National Marine Ecosystem Research Station, Tropical Marine Biological Research Station in Hainan, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Sanya 572000, China. Electronic address:

The successful dispersal of coral larvae is vital to the population replenishment and reef recovery and resilience. Despite that this critical early stage is susceptible to ocean warming and acidification, little is known about the responses of coral larvae to warming and acidification across different biological scales. This study explored the influences of elevated temperature (29 °C versus 33 °C) and pCO (500 μatm versus 1000 μatm) on brooded larvae of Pocillopora damicornis at the organismal, cellular and gene expression levels. Heat stress caused bleaching, depressed light-enhanced dark respiration, photosynthesis and autotrophy, whereas high pCO stimulated photosynthesis. Although survival was unaffected, larvae at 33 °C were ten-times more likely to settle than those at 29 °C, suggesting reduced capacity to disperse and differentiate suitable substrate. Remarkably, heat stress induced greater symbiont loss at ambient pCO than at high pCO, while cell-specific pigment concentrations of symbionts at 33 °C increased twofold under ambient pCO relative to high pCO, suggesting pCO-dependent bleaching patterns. Considerable increases in activities of host antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) at 33 °C indicated oxidative stress, whereas lipid peroxidation and caspase activities were contained, thereby restraining larval mortality at 33 °C. Furthermore, the coral host mounted stronger transcriptional responses than symbionts. High pCO stimulated host metabolic pathways, possibly because of the boosted algal productivity. In contrast, host metabolic processes and symbiont photosystem genes were downregulated at 33 °C. Interestingly, the upregulation of extracellular matrix genes and glycosaminoglycan degradation pathway at 33 °C was more evident under ambient pCO than high pCO, suggesting compromised host tissue integrity that could have facilitated symbiont expulsion and bleaching. Our results provide insights into how coral larvae respond to warming and acidification at different levels of biological organization, and demonstrate that ocean acidification can mediate thermal bleaching and gene expression in coral larvae under heat stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.156851DOI Listing
June 2022

Binary Organic Solar Cells Breaking 19% via Manipulating Vertical Component Distribution.

Adv Mater 2022 Jun 23:e2204718. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

College of Materials Science and Opto-Electronic Technology & Center of Materials Science and Optoelectronics Engineering & CAS Center for Excellence in Topological Quantum Computation & CAS Key Laboratory of Vacuum Physic, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China.

The variation of vertical component distribution can significantly influence photovoltaic performance of organic solar cells (OSCs), mainly due to its impact on the exciton dissociation, and the charge carrier transport and recombination. Herein, the binary devices are fabricated via sequential deposition (SD) of D18 and L8-BO materials in a two-step process. Upon independently regulating the spin-coating speeds of each layer deposition, the optimal SD device shows a record power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 19.05% for binary single-junction OSCs, much higher than that of the corresponding blend casting (BC) device (18.14%). Impressively, this strategy presents excellent universality in boosting photovoltaic performance of SD devices, exemplified by several nonfullerene acceptor systems. The mechanism studies reveal that the SD device with preferred vertical components distribution possesses high crystallinity, efficient exciton split, low energy loss, and balanced charge transport, resulting in all-around enhancement of photovoltaic performances. This work provides a valuable approach for high efficiency OSCs, shedding light on understanding the relationship between photovoltaic performances and vertical component distribution. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202204718DOI Listing
June 2022

Study of the Reliability of Field Test Methods for Physical Fitness in Children Aged 2-3 Years.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 Jun 20;19(12). Epub 2022 Jun 20.

School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China.

Physical fitness measures overall physical health. It is the ability of the body to work effectively and stay healthy during leisure and emergencies. Given the progressive integration of 2-3-year-olds into preschool, physical fitness testing of these children has become increasingly important. We aimed to develop and test the reliability of an appropriate field test method for physical fitness in 2-3-year-olds children. One hundred and three children (44 boys and 59 girls) volunteered for this study. Their height and weight were tested, and the same tester conducted the test twice for handgrip strength, 3 m balance walking, stair climbing, 5 m run, and kicking a ball at one-minute intervals. Pearson correlation coefficient and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were used for reliability testing. The reliability of this field test method for physical fitness was high in the repetitive tests of Chinese 2-3-year-olds for the four items of handgrip strength, 3 m balance walking, stair climbing and 5 m run, and the reliability was moderate for the kicking the ball item. This study indicates that these field-based physical fitness test methods have good reliability and are simple, feasible, safe, and easy to be accepted and understood by 2-3-year-old children; thus, it may be used as a reference for professionals in China and abroad.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19127522DOI Listing
June 2022

Composition Engineering of Amorphous Nickel Boride Nanoarchitectures Enabling Highly Efficient Electrosynthesis of Hydrogen Peroxide.

Adv Mater 2022 Jun 23:e2202995. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou, 215123, P. R. China.

Developing advanced electrocatalysts with exceptional two electron (2e ) selectivity, activity and stability are crucial for driving oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) to produce hydrogen peroxide (H O ). Herein, a composition engineering strategy has been adapted to flexibly regulate the intrinsic activity of amorphous nickel boride nanoarchitectures for efficient 2e ORR by oriented reduction of Ni with different amounts of BH . Among borides, the amorphous NiB delivers the 2e selectivity close to 99% at 0.4 V and over 93% in a wide potential range, together with a negligible activity decay under prolonged time. Notably, an ultrahigh H O production rate of 4.753 mol g h has been achieved upon assembling NiB in the practical gas diffusion electrode. The combination of X-ray absorption and in situ Raman spectroscopy, as well as transient photovoltage measurements with density functional theory unequivocally reveal that the atomic ratio between Ni and B induces the local electronic structure diversity, allowing optimization of the adsorption energy of Ni towards *OOH and reducing the interfacial charge transfer kinetics to inhibit the formation of O-O. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202202995DOI Listing
June 2022

Preclinical platforms to study therapeutic efficacy of human γδ T cells.

Clin Transl Med 2022 Jun;12(6):e814

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Background: Gamma delta (γδ) T lymphocytes are promising candidate for adoptive T cell therapy, however, their treatment efficacy is not satisfactory. Vδ2 T cells are unique to primates and few suitable models are available to assay their anti-tumour function.

Methods: We tested human γδ T cell activation, tumour infiltration, and tumour-killing in four three-dimensional (3D) models, including unicellular, bicellular and multicellular melanoma spheroids, and patient-derived melanoma organoids. We studied the effects of checkpoint inhibitors on γδ T cells and performed a small molecule screen using these platforms.

Results: γδ T cells rapidly responded to melanoma cells and infiltrated melanoma spheroids better than αβ T cells in PBMCs. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in bicellular spheroids, stroma cells in multicellular melanoma spheroids and inhibitory immune cells in organoids significantly inhibited immune cell infiltrates including γδ T cells and lessened their cytotoxicity to tumour cells. Tumour-infiltrating γδ T cells showed exhausted immunophenotypes with high checkpoints expression (CTLA-4, PD-1 and PD-L1). Immune checkpoint inhibitors increased γδ T cell infiltration of 3D models and killing of melanoma cells in all four 3D models. Our small molecule screen assay and subsequent mechanistic studies demonstrated that epigenetic modifiers enhanced the chemotaxis and cytotoxicity of γδ T cells through upregulating MICA/B, inhibiting HDAC6/7 pathway and downregulating the levels of PD-L1 and PD-L2 in CAFs and tumour cells. These compounds increased CXCR4 and CD107a expression, IFN-γ production and decreased PD-1 expression of γδ T cells.

Conclusions: Tumour-infiltrating γδ T cells show exhausted immunophenotypes and limited anti-tumour capacity in melanoma 3D models. Checkpoint inhibitors and epigenetic modifiers enhance anti-tumour functions of γδ T cells. These four 3D models provided valuable preclinical platforms to test γδ T cell functions for immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ctm2.814DOI Listing
June 2022

Whole exome sequencing identifies a novel SPTB frameshift mutation causing hereditary spherocytosis in the Chinese population.

Ann Hematol 2022 Jun 21. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Zigong First People's Hospital, Zigong, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-022-04900-0DOI Listing
June 2022

An efficient differential sensing strategy for phenolic pollutants based on the nanozyme with polyphenol oxidase activity.

Luminescence 2022 Jun 20. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Key Lab of Groundwater Resources and Environment of Ministry of Education, Key Lab of Water Resources and Aquatic Environment of Jilin Province, College of New Energy and Environment, Jilin University, Changchun, P. R. China.

To realize the efficient differential sensing of phenolic pollutants in sewage, a novel sensing strategy was successfully developed based on one nanozyme (GMP-Cu) with polyphenol oxidase activity. Phenolic pollutants can be oxidized by GMP-Cu, and the oxidation products reacts subsequently with 4-aminoantipyrine to produce a quinone-imine compound. The absorption spectra of final quinone-imine products resulted from different phenolic pollutants showed obvious differences, which were due to the interaction difference between GMP-Cu and phenolic pollutants, as well as the different molecular structures of the quinone-imine products from different phenolic pollutants. Based on the difference of absorption spectra, a novel differential sensing strategy was developed. The genetic algorithm was used to select the characteristic wavelengths at different enzymatic reaction times, HCA and PLS-DA algorithms were utilized for the discriminant sensing of seven representative phenolic pollutants, including hydroquinone, resorcinol, catechol, resorcinol, phenol, p-chlorophenol, and 2,4-dichlorophenol. Scientific wavelength selection algorithm and recognition algorithm resulted in the successful identification of phenolic pollutants in sewage with a discriminant accuracy of 100%, and differentiation of the phenolic pollutants regardless of their concentration. These results indicate that sensing strategy can be used as an effective tool for the efficient identification and differentiation of phenolic pollutants in sewage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bio.4313DOI Listing
June 2022

Synthesis of biotinylated-LPG as a chemical biology tool enabling discovery of ALCAT1 modulators.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2022 Jun 16;72:128861. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Structural & Protein Sciences, Janssen Research & Development, Welsh and McKean Roads, Spring House, PA 19477-0776, United States.

As a mitochondrial signature phospholipid, cardiolipin (CL) is required for membrane structure, respiration, dynamics, fragmentation, and mitophagy. Alteration of CL by reactive oxygen species (ROS) can cause mitochondrial dysfunction, which is implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases. The enzyme ALCAT1 (acyl-CoA: lysocardiolipin acyltransferase-1) facilitates the conversion of CL by incorporating polyunsaturated fatty acids into lysocardiolipin. Accumulating evidence suggests that overexpression of ALCAT1 is involved in pathological cardiolipin remodeling and mitochondrial bioenergetics. Few ALCAT1 modulators are reported in the literature, and the enzymatic activity was tested via a low-throughput TLC (thin layer chromatography) assay. To identify small molecule ALCAT1 inhibitors, a robust assay was needed to enable a full deck high throughput screen. Scintillation proximity assay (SPA) was the method of choice because it permits the rapid and sensitive measurement of a broad range of biological processes in a homogeneous system. A biotinylated ALCAT1 substrate was required as a chemical biology tool in developing SPA. Among a panel of phospholipids, lysophosphatidyl glycerol (LPG) was identified as the best substrate for ALCAT1. Herein we report the synthesis of biotinylated-LPG analogs with varied linker lengths and their activity towards ALCAT1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2022.128861DOI Listing
June 2022

A Novel Tree Shrew Model of Chronic Experimental Autoimmune Uveitis and Its Disruptive Application.

Front Immunol 2022 27;13:889596. Epub 2022 May 27.

Laboratory Animal Center, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Background: Previous studies have established several animal models for experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) in rodents without the fovea centralis in the human retina. This study aimed to develop and explore the application of a novel EAU model in tree shrews with a cone-dominated retina resembling the human fovea.

Methods: Tree shrews were clinically and pathologically evaluated for the development and characteristics of EAU immunized with six inter-photoreceptor retinoid-binding proteins (IRBPs). IRBP-specific T-cell proliferation and serum cytokine of tree shrews were evaluated to determine the immune responses. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the eyes of tree shrews with EAU by RNA-sequencing. The disruptive effects of the DEG RGS4 inhibitor CCG 203769 and dihydroartemisinin on the EAU were investigated to evaluate the potential application of tree shrew EAU.

Results: IRBP and R14 successfully induced chronic EAU with subretinal deposits and retinal damage in the tree shrews. The immunological characteristics presented the predominant infiltration of microglia/macrophages, dendritic cells, and CD4-T-cells into the uvea and retina and pathogenic T helper (Th) 1 and Th17 responses. The subretinal deposits positively expressed amyloid β-protein (Aβ), CD8, and P2Y purinoceptor 12 (P2RY12). The crucial DEGs in R14-induced EAU, such as and , were enriched for several pathways, including inflammatory mediator regulation of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. The upregulated in IRBP-induced EAU was associated with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity. RGS4 inhibition and dihydroartemisinin could significantly alleviate the retinal pathological injuries of IRBP-induced EAU by decreasing the expression of CD4 T-cells.

Conclusion: Our study provides a novel chronic EAU in tree shrews elicited by bovine R14 and tree shrew IRBP characterized by retinal degeneration, retinal damage with subretinal Aβ deposits and microglia/macrophage infiltration, and T-cell response, probably by altering important pathways and genes related to bacterial invasion, inflammatory pain, microglial phagocytosis, and lipid and glucose metabolism. The findings advance the knowledge of the pathogenesis and therapeutics of the fovea-involved visual disturbance in human uveitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2022.889596DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9196886PMC
June 2022

Fermentation Blues: Analyzing the Microbiota of Traditional Indigo Vat Dyeing in Hunan, China.

Microbiol Spectr 2022 Jun 16:e0166322. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Department of Economic Plants and Biotechnology, Yunnan Key Laboratory for Wild Plant Resources, Kunming Institute of Botanygrid.458460.b, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China.

Traditional indigo dyeing through anaerobic fermentation has recently gained worldwide attention in efforts to address concerns regarding the sustainability of industrial indigo dyeing and the impact of toxic reducing agents such as sodium dithionite (NaSO) on human health and the ecological environment. Intriguingly, changes in the microbiota during indigo fermentation are known to potently affect the onset of indigo reduction, and thus elucidation of the microbial community transitions could help develop methods to control the initiation of indigo reduction. Here, we investigated the microbiota associated with the traditional indigo dyeing practiced in Hunan, China. Specifically, we identified the bacterial and fungal components of the microbiota at distinct stages in the indigo fermentation process by analyzing 16S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer sequences. Our analyses revealed two substantial changes in the microbiota during the traditional indigo fermentation process. The first change, which was probably caused by the introduction of Chinese liquor (featuring a high alcohol concentration), resulted in decreased bacterial diversity and increased proportions of Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, and Bacillaceae family members. The second change, which could be attributed to the addition of specific plant species, led to an increase in the abundance of Alkalibacterium, Amphibacillus, the obligate anaerobe Turicibacter, the facultative anaerobe Enterococcus, and , as well as to a decrease in the pH and redox potential values. Our results indicate that the specific plant mixture included in the procedure here could be used as an effective additive to accelerate the initiation of indigo reduction during the fermentation process. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report revealing the fungal diversity during the indigo fermentation process and, furthermore, showing that the fungal diversity has remained in transition despite the relatively stable bacterial diversity in the proper indigo fermentation process. Although traditional indigo fermentation in China is challenging to manage, we can benefit from local knowledge of the fermentation process, and understanding the scientific bases of traditional indigo fermentation will facilitate the development of environmentally friendly procedures. Chemical reducing agents included in modern indigo dyeing to initiate indigo reduction can be harmful to both human health and the environment. Given that traditional indigo dyeing involves natural fermentation in a dye vat using natural organic additives without the use of toxic chemicals and that changes in the microbiota during traditional indigo fermentation potently affect the onset of indigo reduction, elucidation of these microbial community transitions could help develop methods to control the initiation of indigo reduction. This study on the microbiota associated with the traditional indigo dyeing practiced in Hunan, China, has identified the bacterial and fungal communities at distinct stages of the indigo fermentation process. Notably, the addition of specific plant species might yield the desired microbial communities and appropriate fermentation conditions, which could be used as an effective additive to accelerate the initiation of indigo reduction. This study has also revealed the fungal diversity during the indigo fermentation process for the first time and shown that the fungal diversity has remained in transition despite the relatively stable bacterial diversity. Thus, this work provides new insights into the traditional indigo fermentation process used in China and substantially enhances current efforts devoted to designing environmentally friendly methods for industrial indigo dyeing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/spectrum.01663-22DOI Listing
June 2022

Osthole Increases the Sensitivity of Liver Cancer to Sorafenib by Inhibiting Cholesterol Metabolism.

Nutr Cancer 2022 Jun 15:1-11. Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, China.

Osthole is a natural product that has an inhibitory effect on liver cancer, but its effect on the sensitivity of liver cancer to sorafenib is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the effect of osthole and possible sensitization mechanisms. Our results showed that the combination of 2.5 μM sorafenib and 10 μM osthole had significantly synergistic inhibitory effects on proliferation, colony formation, and migration of HCCLM3, sorafenib-resistant HCCLM3 (HCCLM3-SR), and SK-Hep-1 cells. After treatment of HCCLM3 cells-inoculated subcutaneous xenotransplanted tumor mice with 100 mg/kg osthole, 70 mg/kg sorafenib or their combination for 24 day, the tumor volume, tumor weight, and tumor weight coefficient were significantly lower in the osthole + sorafenib group than in the sorafenib group. Compared with the control group, the total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol contents in serum and tumor tissue were significantly decreased in the osthole or osthole + sorafenib groups, the sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-2c, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) protein expressions in tumor tissue were significantly downregulated as well. In conclusion, osthole can increase the sensitivity of liver cancer to sorafenib, and the mechanism is related to the downregulations of SREBP-2c, HMGCR, and LDLR protein expressions and subsequent inhibition of cholesterol metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2022.2087885DOI Listing
June 2022

DNA methylation detection and site analysis by using an electrochemical biosensor constructed based on toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction.

Talanta 2022 Jun 2;249:123603. Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Department of Clinical and Military Laboratory Medicine, College of Medical Laboratory Science, Army Medical University, Chongqing, 400038, China. Electronic address:

DNA methylation has become a novel target for early diagnosis and prognosis of cancer as well as other related diseases. The accurate detection of the methylation sites of specific genes proved to be of great significance. However, the complex biological nature of clinical samples and the detection of low-abundance targets led to higher requirements for the testing technology. It has been found that by virtue of high sensitivity, rapid response, low cost, facile operation and applicability to microanalysis, electrochemical sensors have greatly contributed to the process of clinical diagnosis. In this study, a facile, rapid and highly sensitive electrochemical biosensor based on the peak current change was developed on the basis of high selectivity of toehold and greater efficiency of PNA strand displacement and used for the detection and site analysis of DNA methylation. Moreover, compared with non-methylated DNA sequences, methylated DNA sequences could be readily invaded by PNA probes, thereby resulting in the strand displacement and significant electrical signals. Therefore, methylation of cytosine sites was primarily analyzed based on electrical signals. Strand displacement by the target DNA sequences with different methylated sites can lead to substantial changes of strand displacement efficiency. As a result, the methylation sites can be analyzed on the basis of corresponding peak current response relation. This method has a detection limit of 0.075 pM and does not involve various complicated steps such as bisulfite treatment, enzyme digestion and PCR amplification. Indeed, one detection cycle can be completed in 60 min. The proposed technology might exhibit great potential in early clinical diagnosis and risk assessment of cancers and related diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2022.123603DOI Listing
June 2022

Adsorption Behaviors of Cationic Methylene Blue and Anionic Reactive Blue 19 Dyes onto Nano-Carbon Adsorbent Carbonized from Small Precursors.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2022 May 25;12(11). Epub 2022 May 25.

Institute of Microbiology, Guangdong Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Applied Microbiology Southern China, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Culture Collection and Application, Guangdong Open Laboratory of Applied Microbiology, Guangzhou 510070, China.

In this work, an innovative nano-carbon material (N-CM) adsorbent was reported for exploring its adsorption behaviors toward cationic methylene blue (MB) and anionic reactive blue 19 (RB19) pollutants. The proposed N-CM was synthesized by a one-step solvothermal treatment of citric acid and zinc gluconate small precursors. N-CM consists of nanosheets that have an advantageous specific surface area, large sp/sp hybridized domains, and abundant nitrogen/oxygen-containing surface functional groups. The synergistic effects of these features are conducive to the MB and RB19 adsorption. Different from anionic RB19 adsorption (79.54 mg/g) by the cooperative π-π stacking and hydrogen bonding, cationic MB adsorbed onto N-CM mainly by the electrostatic attraction at the natural pH solution (> pH), with an adsorption capacity up to 118.98 mg/g. Interestingly, both MB and RB19 adsorption conformed to the pseudo-second order kinetic (R ≥ 0.995) and Langmuir isothermal (R ≥ 0.990) models, accompanied by similar maximum monolayer adsorption capacities of 120.77 and 116.01 mg/g, respectively. Their adsorption processes exhibited spontaneously endothermic characteristics. Moreover, N-CM showed superior selective capability toward MB in different mixed dye systems, with high removal efficiencies of 73-89%. These results demonstrate that the high-performance carbon adsorbent prepared from small precursors via low-temperature carbonization shows great potentials in wastewater treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano12111814DOI Listing
May 2022

Simple contextual cueing prevents retroactive interference in short-term perceptual training of orientation detection tasks.

Atten Percept Psychophys 2022 Jun 8. Epub 2022 Jun 8.

School of Psychological and Cognitive Sciences, Peking University, 5 Yiheyuan Road, Haidian, Beijing, 100871, China.

Perceptual training of multiple tasks suffers from interference between the trained tasks. Here, we conducted five psychophysical experiments with separate groups of participants to investigate the possibility of preventing the interference in short-term perceptual training. We trained the participants to detect two orientations of Gabor stimuli in two adjacent days at the same retinal location and examined the interference of training effects between the two orientations. The results showed significant retroactive interference from the second orientation to the first orientation (Experiment 1 and Experiment 2). Introducing a 6-h interval between the pre-test and training of the second orientation did not eliminate the interference effect, excluding the interpretation of disrupted reconsolidation as the pre-test of the second orientation may reactivate and destabilize the representation of the first orientation (Experiment 3). Finally, the training of the two orientations was accompanied by fixations in two colors, each serving as a contextual cue for one orientation. The results showed that the retroactive interference was not evident if the participants passively perceived contextual cues during the training and test sessions (Experiment 4). Importantly, this facilitation effect could be observed if the contextual cues appeared only during the training, demonstrating the robustness of the effect (Experiment 5). Our findings suggest that the retroactive interference effect in short-term perceptual training of orientation detection tasks was likely the result of higher-level factors such as shared contextual cues embedded in the tasks. The efficiency of multiple perceptual trainings could be facilitated by associating the trained tasks with different contextual cues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13414-022-02520-4DOI Listing
June 2022

Secondary metabolite pathway of SDG (secoisolariciresinol) was observed to trigger ROS scavenging system in response to Ca stress in cotton.

Genomics 2022 Jun 5;114(4):110398. Epub 2022 Jun 5.

Institute of Cotton Research of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences / Zhengzhou Research Base, State Key Laboratory of Cotton Biology, School of Agricultural Sciences, Zhengzhou University, Anyang, Henan 455000, China. Electronic address:

Ca is an essential nutrient for plants and animals which plays an important role in plant signal transduction. Although the function and regulation of mechanism of Ca in alleviating various biotic and abiotic stresses in plants have been studied deeply, the molecular mechanism to adapt high Ca stress is still unclear in cotton. In this study, 103 cotton accessions were germinated under 200 mM CaCl stress, and two extremely Ca-resistant (Zhong 9807, R) and Ca-sensitive (CRI 50, S) genotypes were selected from 103 cotton accessions. The two accessions were then germinated for 5 days in 0 mM CaCl and 200 mM CaCl respectively, after which they were sampled for transcriptome sequencing. Morphological and physiological analyses suggested that PLR2 specifically expressed in R may enhance the ability of cotton to scavenge ROS by promoting the synthesis of SDG. In conclusion, this study proposed the adaptation mechanisms to response to the high Ca stress in cotton which can contribute to improve the stress resistance of cotton.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygeno.2022.110398DOI Listing
June 2022

A new LDH based sustained-release carbon source filter media to achieve advanced denitrogenation of low C/N wastewater at low temperature.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Sep 6;838(Pt 3):156488. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, Jiangsu, PR China. Electronic address:

Advanced denitrogenation of wastewater is now facing major challenges brought by low C/N ratio and low temperature. The development of sustained-release materials with good and stable carbon release properties was an effective countermeasure. FeNi-Layered double-metal hydroxides (LDH)- sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) filter media and its potential use in heterotrophic and sulfur-based mixotrophic denitrification biological filter (DNBF), was firstly reported. It demonstrated stable structure and good carbon release performance with a mass transfer coefficient (K) of 4.40 mg·L·s. When the influent NO-N of 50 mg/L with the C/N ratio of 3 at 10 °C, the maximum nitrogen loading rate of 0.22 kg·N/(m·d) and effluent TN close to 5 mg/L (nitrogen removal of almost 90 %) could be achieved. The slowly released carbon source and the leached iron increased the abundance of denitrifying bacteria and functional genes, and the augmentation of Sulfuritalea and the secretion of biofilm protein stimulated by sulfur also played a synergistic role. This study provided a new potentially effective strategy to enhance advanced denitrification of wastewater of low C/N wastewater at low temperature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.156488DOI Listing
September 2022

Population genetics and demography of the coral-killing cyanobacteriosponge, in the Indo-West Pacific.

PeerJ 2022 31;10:e13451. Epub 2022 May 31.

Department of Life Sciences, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan.

The first occurrence of the cyanobacteriosponge was reported from coral reefs in Guam in 1973, but was only formally described in 1993. Since then, the invasive behavior of this encrusting, coral-killing sponge has been observed in many coral reefs in the West Pacific. From 2015, its occurrence has expanded westward to the Indian Ocean. Although many studies have investigated the morphology, ecology, and symbiotic cyanobacteria of this sponge, little is known of its population genetics and demography. In this study, a mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) fragment and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) were sequenced to reveal the genetic variation of collected from 11 marine ecoregions throughout the Indo-West Pacific. Both of the statistical parsimony networks based on the COI and nuclear ITS2 were dominated by a common haplotype. Pairwise and Isolation-by-distance by Mantel test of ITS2 showed moderate gene flow existed among most populations in the marine ecoregions of West Pacific, Coral Triangle, and Eastern Indian Ocean, but with a restricted gene flow between these regions and Maldives in the Central Indian Ocean. Demographic analyses of most populations were consistent with the mutation-drift equilibrium, except for the Sulawesi Sea and Maldives, which showed bottlenecks following recent expansion. Our results suggest that while long-range dispersal might explain the capability of to spread in the IWP, stable population demography might account for the long-term persistence of outbreaks on local reefs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.13451DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9165603PMC
May 2022

Clinical Analysis of C-Shaped Embedded Pancreaticojejunostomy in Pancreaticoduodenectomy.

J Oncol 2022 27;2022:7427146. Epub 2022 May 27.

Department of Hepatopancreatobiliary Surgery, The Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, 410013 Hunan, China.

Background: Comparing the effects of C-shaped embedded anastomosis and pancreatic duct-jejunal mucosal anastomosis on the incidence of pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) to find a better pancreaticojejunal anastomosis method that can reduce the occurrence of complications during the operation and benefit the patients.

Methods: A retrospective subresearch method was used to select the clinical data of patients who have undergone pancreaticoduodenectomy in our hospital from December 2019 to March 2021. The indicators to be collected for this study include gender, age, body mass index, preoperative liver function (total bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase, and albumin), preoperative comorbidities (diabetes, chronic pancreatitis), and pancreatic condition (texture, pancreatic duct diameter). The patients were divided into two groups according to the method of pancreaticojejunostomy: C-shaped embedded anastomosis group ( = 38) and pancreatic duct-jejunal mucosal anastomosis group ( = 30). The duration of pancreaticojejunostomy, biliary-enteric anastomosis, gastrointestinal anastomosis, intraoperative blood loss, upper abdominal surgery history, pathological type, intraoperative blood loss, pancreaticojejunostomy time, combined pancreatic fistula, biliary fistula, hemorrhage, and abdominal infection were observed and compared. According to the different methods of pancreaticojejunostomy during operation, they were divided into group A: C-shaped embedded pancreaticojejunostomy group (38 cases), and group B: pancreatic duct-jejunal mucosal anastomosis group (30 cases). The postoperative complications were compared between the two groups, and the observed indicators were analyzed with statistical methods.

Results: The average pancreaticojejunostomy time in group A was 32.13 ± 4.52 min, and the average pancreaticojejunostomy time in group B was 43.23 + 4.31 min. The difference was statistically significant ( < 0.05). Neither group A nor group B had a grade C fistula. The incidence of biochemical fistula in group A was 21.05% (8/38), and the incidence of biochemical fistula in group B was 13.3% (4/30). The difference was not statistically significant ( > 0.05). The incidence of grade B fistula in group A was 5.20% (2/38), and the incidence of grade B fistula in group B was 26.67% (8/30). The difference was statistically significant ( < 0.05). There were no perioperative deaths in the two groups.

Conclusion: According to the results of data analysis, it can be seen that both the two types of pancreaticojejunostomy have good clinical effects, but that in terms of reducing the grade of pancreatic fistula, the C-shaped embedded pancreaticojejunostomy is obviously better and safer. At the same time, the C-shaped embedded pancreaticojejunostomy can shorten the time of pancreaticojejunostomy and is easier to operate, thus worthy of clinical promotion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/7427146DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9166967PMC
May 2022

A self-efficacy-enhancing physical activity intervention in women with high-risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus: study protocol for a randomized clinical trial.

Trials 2022 Jun 6;23(1):461. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

School of Nursing, Sun Yat-Sen University, No. 74 Zhongshan Road 2, Yuexiu District, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, 510080, P.R. China.

Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the most common medical disorders in pregnancy. Evidence has demonstrated that moderate-intensity physical activity may reduce the risk of gestational diabetes. However, women at risk of GDM spend most of their time performing sedentary behaviors. Although researchers identified self-efficacy as a mediator to overcome physical activity barriers, exercise intervention during pregnancy based on self-efficacy theory has not been discussed so far. Furthermore, there is conflicting evidence regarding the effects of a physical exercise intervention on the incidence of GDM and other maternal or neonatal outcomes in women at higher risk for GDM.

Methods/design: A single-center, parallel, randomized controlled trial will be conducted in a maternal-child health care center. A total of 244 pregnant women at high risk for GDM will be randomized into a study group receiving a self-efficacy-enhancing physical activity intervention or a control group receiving the usual care. The intervention will consist of four group sessions and everyday reminders by WeChat (Tencent, Shenzhen, China). The program will begin at approximately 13-14 gestational weeks and end at 36 gestational weeks. The primary outcomes will include the incidence of GDM, blood sugar values, and physical activity. The secondary outcomes will include physical activity self-efficacy, gestational weight gain, maternal outcomes, and neonatal outcomes.

Discussion: The findings of this research will contribute toward understanding the effects of a self-efficacy theory-oriented physical activity program on the incidence of GDM, blood sugar values, physical activity level, gestational weight gain, physical activity self-efficacy, maternal outcomes, and neonatal outcomes.

Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (CHiCTR) ChiCTR2200056355 . Registered on February 4, 2022.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-022-06379-6DOI Listing
June 2022

Effects of resistance training on body composition and physical function in elderly patients with osteosarcopenic obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Arch Osteoporos 2022 Jun 3;17(1):82. Epub 2022 Jun 3.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, First Affiliated Hospital of Gannan Medical University, 128 Jinling Road, Zhanggong District, Ganzhou City, 341000, Jiangxi Province, China.

Osteosarcopenic obesity (OSO) is a complex disease commonly seen in the elderly. We found that resistance training may improve bone mineral density, skeletal muscle mass, and body fat percentage in patients with OSO. Therefore, resistance training is beneficial for elderly OSO patients and is worth being promoted.

Purpose: Investigate effects of resistance training on body composition and physical function in elderly osteosarcopenic obesity (OSO) patients.

Methods: PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane Library, Medline, SinoMed, CNKI, and Wanfang Database were searched from inception until October 13, 2021.Two independent researchers extracted the key information from each eligible study. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. The Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool was used to assess the risk of bias. Grading of Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation (GRADE) was used to evaluate the quality of the outcomes. Sensitivity analysis indicated the stability of the results. Statistical analysis was performed using Review Manager 5.3.

Results: Four randomized controlled studies meeting the inclusion criteria were included, with 182 participants. Twelve weeks of resistance training improved bone mineral density (BMD, mean difference (MD) = 0.01 g/cm, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.001, 0.02, P = 0.03, I = 0%), skeletal muscle mass (SMM, MD = 1.19 kg, 95% CI: 0.50, 1.89, P = 0.0007, I = 0%), Z score, timed chair rise test (TCR), and body fat percentage (BFP, MD =  - 1.61%, 95% CI: - 2.94, - 0.28, P = 0.02, I = 50%) but did not significantly affect skeletal muscle mass index (SMI, MD = 0.20 kg/m, 95% CI: - 0.25, 0.64, P = 0.38, I = 0%) or gait speed (GS).

Conclusions: Resistance training is a safe and effective intervention that can improve many parameters, including BFP, SMM, and Z score, among OSO patients and is a good option for elderly individuals to improve their physical fitness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11657-022-01120-xDOI Listing
June 2022

Nomogram Model Based on Clinical Risk Factors and Heart Rate Variability for Predicting All-Cause Mortality in Stage 5 CKD Patients.

Front Genet 2022 16;13:872920. Epub 2022 May 16.

Department of Nephrology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Jiangsu Province Hospital, Nanjing, China.

Heart rate variability (HRV), reflecting circadian rhythm of heart rate, is reported to be associated with clinical outcomes in stage 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD5) patients. Whether CKD related factors combined with HRV can improve the predictive ability for their death remains uncertain. Here we evaluated the prognosis value of nomogram model based on HRV and clinical risk factors for all-cause mortality in CKD5 patients. CKD5 patients were enrolled from multicenter between 2011 and 2019 in China. HRV parameters based on 24-h Holter and clinical risk factors associated with all-cause mortality were analyzed by multivariate Cox regression. The relationships between HRV and all-cause mortality were displayed by restricted cubic spline graphs. The predictive ability of nomogram model based on clinical risk factors and HRV were evaluated for survival rate. CKD5 patients included survival subgroup (n = 155) and all-cause mortality subgroup (n = 45), with the median follow-up time of 48 months. Logarithm of standard deviation of all sinus R-R intervals (lnSDNN) (4.40 ± 0.39 . 4.32 ± 0.42; = 0.007) and logarithm of standard deviation of average NN intervals for each 5 min (lnSDANN) (4.27 ± 0.41 . 4.17 ± 0.41; = 0.008) were significantly higher in survival subgroup than all-cause mortality subgroup. On the basis of multivariate Cox regression analysis, the lnSDNN (HR = 0.35, 95%CI: 0.17-0.73, = 0.01) and lnSDANN (HR = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.17-0.77, = 0.01) were associated with all-cause mortality, their relationships were negative linear. Spearman's correlation analysis showed that lnSDNN and lnSDANN were highly correlated, so we chose lnSDNN, sex, age, BMI, diabetic mellitus (DM), β-receptor blocker, blood glucose, phosphorus and ln intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels to build the nomogram model. The area under the curve (AUC) values based on lnSDNN nomogram model for predicting 3-year and 5-year survival rates were 79.44% and 81.27%, respectively. In CKD5 patients decreased SDNN and SDANN measured by HRV were related with their all-cause mortality, meanwhile, SDNN and SDANN were highly correlated. Nomogram model integrated SDNN and clinical risk factors are promising for evaluating their prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2022.872920DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9149361PMC
May 2022

Calreticulin enhances gastric cancer metastasis by dimethylating H3K9 in the E-cadherin promoter region mediating by G9a.

Oncogenesis 2022 May 31;11(1):29. Epub 2022 May 31.

Department of Clinical and Military Laboratory Medicine, College of Medical Laboratory Science, Army Medical University, No. 30 Gaotanyan Street, 400038, Chongqing, China.

The latest study shows that gastric cancer (GC) ranked the fifth most common cancer (5.6%) with over 1 million estimated new cases annually and the fourth most common cause of cancer death (7.7%) globally in 2020. Metastasis is the leading cause of GC treatment failure. Therefore, clarifying the regulatory mechanisms for GC metastatic process is necessary. In the current study, we discovered that calreticulin (CALR) was highly expressed in GC tissues and related to lymph node metastasis and patient's terrible prognosis. The introduction of CALR dramatically promoted GC cell migration in vitro and in vivo, while the repression of CALR got the opposite effects. Cell migration is a functional consequence of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and is related to adhesion of cells. Additionally, we observed that CALR inhibition or overexpression regulated the expression of EMT markers (E-cadherin, ZO-1, Snail, N-cadherin, and ZEB1) and cellular adhesive moleculars (Fibronectin, integrin β1and MMP2). Mechanistically, our data indicated that CALR could mediate DNA methylation of E-cadherin promoter by interacting with G9a, a major euchromatin methyltransferase responsible for methylation of histone H3 on lysine 9(H3K9me2) and recruiting G9a to the E-cadherin promoter. Knockdown of G9a in CALR overexpressing models restored E-cadherin expression and blocked the stimulatory effects of CALR on GC cell migration. Taken together, these findings not only reveal critical roles of CALR medicated GC metastasis but also provide novel treatment strategies for GC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41389-022-00405-7DOI Listing
May 2022

Continuous Homogeneous Catalytic Oxidation of C-H Bonds by Metal-Free Carbon Dots with a Poly(ascorbic acid) Structure.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2022 May 31. Epub 2022 May 31.

Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, China.

The activation of the C-H bond, a necessary step to get high-value-added compounds, is one of the most important issues in modern catalysis. Combining the advantages of both homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis, a certain continuous homogeneous process should be one of the ideal routes for the catalytic activation of C-H bonds. Here, through machine learning (ML), we predicted and fabricated metal-free carbon dot (C-Dot) homogeneous catalysts for C-H bond oxidation. These C-Dots have an ascorbic acid unit based polymer-like structure with a polymerization degree in the range of 3-10. With C-Dots as the catalyst, three groups (aliphatic, aromatic, and cycloalkanes) of 10 hydrocarbon molecules were tested, proving its generality for the catalytic oxidation of the C-H bond. A typical example of cyclohexane that was selectively oxidized to adipic acid (AA) by using a circulation and phase-transfer process demonstrates its critical advantages, such as the continuous and large-scaled producing ability of the homogeneous catalysis process. The one-pass conversion efficiency of cyclohexane to AA reaches 77.49% with selectivity up to 84.24% in 4 h. The yield of 16.32% per hour is about 4 times over that of modern technology. Theoretical calculations suggested that the O activation on C-Dots plays a crucial role in determining the reaction rate of the entire catalytic oxidation process of cyclohexane.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.2c03627DOI Listing
May 2022

Two-Dimensional MXene-Originated Nanosonosensitizer Generation for Augmented and Synergistic Sonodynamic Tumor Nanotherapy.

ACS Nano 2022 May 31. Epub 2022 May 31.

Department of Ultrasonography, Hainan General Hospital/Hainan Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical University, Haikou 570311, P. R. China.

Despite the merits of high tissue-penetrating depth, no ionizing radiation, and low cost, sonodynamic therapy (SDT) still suffers from a low quantum yield of reactive oxygen species (ROS), limited delivery efficiency, and potential toxicity of sonosensitizers. Different from the direct delivery of sonosensitizers into tumor tissue for SDT, this work reports the fabrication of two-dimensional (2D) nanosonosensitizers/nanocatalysts (TiC/[email protected]) for the generation of nanosonosensitizers by responding to the tumor microenvironment, achieving the high-performance and synergistic sonodynamic/chemodynamic tumor therapy. CuO nanoparticle integration on 2D TiC MXene achieved HO generation in an acidic tumor microenvironment for oxidizing TiC to produce TiO nanosonosensitizers, accompanied by the enhanced separation of electrons (e) and holes (h) by the carbon matrix after oxidation, further augmenting the SDT efficacy. Ultrasound irradiation during the sonodynamic process also enhanced the Cu-initiated Fenton-like reaction to produce more ROS for synergizing the sonodynamic tumor therapy. The experimental results confirm and demonstrate the synergistic therapeutic effects of chemodynamic and sonodynamic nanotherapy both and . The antitumor mechanisms of synergistic chemodynamic and sonodynamic therapies are associated with the upregulation of oxidative phosphorylation, ROS generation, and apoptosis as demonstrated by RNA sequencing. This work thus provides a distinct paradigm of 2D MXene-originated nanosonosensitizer generation for augmented and synergistic sonodynamic tumor nanotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.2c04630DOI Listing
May 2022

Patient-derived microphysiological model identifies the therapeutic potential of metformin for thoracic aortic aneurysm.

EBioMedicine 2022 May 27;81:104080. Epub 2022 May 27.

Department of Cardiac Surgery, Zhongshan Hospital Fudan University, Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Shanghai Institute of Infectious Disease and Biosecurity, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China; The State Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438, China; The Shanghai Key Laboratory of Medical Imaging Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China. Electronic address:

Background: Thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) is the permanent dilation of the thoracic aortic wall that predisposes patients to lethal events such as aortic dissection or rupture, for which effective medical therapy remains scarce. Human-relevant microphysiological models serve as a promising tool in drug screening and discovery.

Methods: We developed a dynamic, rhythmically stretching, three-dimensional microphysiological model. Using patient-derived human aortic smooth muscle cells (HAoSMCs), we tested the biological features of the model and compared them with native aortic tissues. Drug testing was performed on the individualized TAA models, and the potentially effective drug was further tested using β-aminopropionitrile-treated mice and retrospective clinical data.

Findings: The HAoSMCs on the model recapitulated the expressions of many TAA-related genes in tissue. Phenotypic switching and mitochondrial dysfunction, two disease hallmarks of TAA, were highlighted on the microphysiological model: the TAA-derived HAoSMCs exhibited lower alpha-smooth muscle actin expression, lower mitochondrial membrane potential, lower oxygen consumption rate and higher superoxide accumulation than control cells, while these differences were not evidently reflected in two-dimensional culture flasks. Model-based drug testing demonstrated that metformin partially recovered contractile phenotype and mitochondrial function in TAA patients' cells. Mouse experiment and clinical investigations also demonstrated better preserved aortic microstructure, higher nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide level and lower aortic diameter with metformin treatment.

Interpretation: These findings support the application of this human-relevant microphysiological model in studying personalized disease characteristics and facilitating drug discovery for TAA. Metformin may regulate contractile phenotypes and metabolic dysfunctions in diseased HAoSMCs and limit aortic dilation.

Funding: This work was supported by grants from National Key R&D Program of China (2018YFC1005002), National Natural Science Foundation of China (82070482, 81771971, 81772007, 51927805, and 21734003), the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality (20ZR1411700, 18ZR1407000, 17JC1400200, and 20YF1406900), Shanghai Municipal Science and Technology Major Project (2017SHZDZX01), and Shanghai Municipal Education Commission (Innovation Program 2017-01-07-00-07-E00027). Y.S.Z. was not supported by any of these funds; instead, the Brigham Research Institute is acknowledged.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2022.104080DOI Listing
May 2022

Efficient All-Polymer Solar Cells with Sequentially Processed Active Layers.

Polymers (Basel) 2022 May 18;14(10). Epub 2022 May 18.

College of New Materials and New Energies, Shenzhen Technology University, Shenzhen 518118, China.

In this work, we apply the sequential processing (SqP) method to address the relatively low electron mobility in recent all-polymer solar cells (all-PSCs) based on the polymerized small-molecule acceptor (PSMA). Compared to the blend-casting (BC) method, all-PSCs composed of PM6/PY-IT via the SqP method show boosted electron mobility and a more balanced charge carrier transport, which increases the FF of the SqP device and compensates for the short-circuit current loss, rendering comparable overall performance with the BC device. Through film-depth-dependent light absorption spectroscopy, we analyze the sub-layer absorption and exciton generation rate in the vertical direction of the device, and discuss the effect of the increased electron mobility on device performance, accordingly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym14102058DOI Listing
May 2022

Application of the CT/MRI LI-RADS Treatment Response Algorithm to Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound: A Feasibility Study.

J Hepatocell Carcinoma 2022 20;9:437-451. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Medical Ultrasonics, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Ultrasound, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: The contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) treatment response algorithm (TRA) is still in development. The aim of this study was to explore whether the CT/MRI LI-RADS TRA features were applicable to CEUS in evaluating the liver locoregional therapy (LRT) response.

Patients And Methods: This study was a retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma undergoing ablation between July 2017 and December 2018. The standard criteria for a viable lesion were a histopathologically confirmed or typical viable appearance in the follow-up CT/MRI. Performance of the LI-RADS TRA assessing tumor viability was then compared between CEUS and CT/MRI. Inter-reader association was calculated.

Results: A total of 244 patients with 389 treated observations (118 viable) were evaluated. The sensitivity and specificity of the CEUS TRA and CT/MRI LI-RADS TRA viable categories for predicting viable lesions were 55.0% (65/118) versus 56.8% (67/118) ( = 0.480) and 99.3% (269/271) versus 96.3% (261/271) ( = 0.013), respectively. The PPV of CEUS was higher than that of CT/MRI (97.0% vs 87.0%). Subgroup analysis showed that the sensitivity was low in the 1-month assessment for both CEUS (38.1%, 16/42) and CT/MR (47.6%, 20/42) and higher in the 2-6-month assessment for both CEUS (65.7%, 23/35) and CT/MR (62.9%, 22/35). Interobserver agreements were substantial for both CEUS TRA and CT/MRI LI-RADS TRA (κ, 0.74 for both).

Conclusion: The CT/MRI LI-RADS TRA features were applicable to CEUS TRA for liver locoregional therapy. The CEUS TRA for liver locoregional therapy has sufficiently high specificity and PPV to diagnose the viability of lesions after ablation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JHC.S353914DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9128751PMC
May 2022

A Quantitative Method for Intraoperative Evaluation of Distal Fibular Malrotation.

Front Surg 2022 4;9:887004. Epub 2022 May 4.

Department of Orthopedics, Shanghai Tongji Hospital, School of Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Due to the low sensitivity of commonly used radiographic parameters for the evaluation of rotational malreduction of the distal fibula under intraoperative fluoroscopy, a quantitative method is needed to make up for this defect.

Methods: A total of 96 sets of computed tomography images of normal ankles were imported into MIMICS to reconstruct 3D models. The fibula models were rotated along the longitudinal axis from 30 degrees of external rotation to 30 degrees of internal rotation. Virtual X-ray function in MIMICS was used to obtain radiographic images in mortise view. A line was drawn through the tip of the medial malleolus and parallel to the distal tibial plafond, the distances from the medial edge of the fibula to the lateral malleolar fossa cortex and from the medial edge of the fibula to the lateral edge of the fibula were measured on this line, and the ratio of them was calculated and marked as ratio .

Results: The mean ratio for normal ankles was 0.49 ± 0.06, while the 95% confidence interval was 0.48-0.50. The ratio decreased when the fibula was externally rotated and increased when the fibula was internally rotated. The effects of different genders or different types on each group of data were compared, and the values were all greater than 0.05.

Conclusions: This is a new method to quantitatively evaluate rotational malreduction of the distal fibula during operation. The ratio can correspond to the rotation angle of the fibula. The larger the ratio , the more the internal rotation of the fibula. Contrarily, the smaller the ratio α, the more the external rotation of the fibula. Making the ratio close to 0.5 may be an intuitive approach that can be used intraoperatively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fsurg.2022.887004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9114432PMC
May 2022

Individualized References of Carotid Stiffening Quantified With Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging: Model Construction and Preliminary Validation.

Ultrasound Med Biol 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Ultrasound, Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Jiangsu Province Hospital of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, China. Electronic address:

To establish and preliminarily validate an individualized reference of carotid stiffness quantified by ultrafast pulse wave velocity (ufPWV), our study included 225 healthy individuals in the modeling cohort and 628 individuals in the validation cohort. All participants underwent assessment of carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), pulse wave velocity-beginning of systole and pulse wave velocity-end of systole (PWV-ES). A threshold equation of estimated PWV-ES was obtained by multiple linear regression analysis in the modeling cohort as follows: estimated PWV-ES (m/s) = 0.080 × age (y) + 0.767 × low-density lipoprotein (mmol/L) + 0.040 × systolic blood pressure (mm Hg) + 0.372 × sex (male = 1, female = 0) - 2.803. With this equation, the validation cohort was divided into the low PWV-ES (actual PWV-ES ≤ estimated PWV-ES) and high PWV-ES (actual PWV-ES > estimated PWV-ES) groups. A clear boundary was found to be present between the low PWV-ES and high PWV-ES groups in the validation cohort. Participants with increasing PWV-ES increased with age gradually. We further subdivided participants into cIMT subgroups using a cutoff thickness of 0.050 cm. Diagnostic performance analysis revealed that the sensitivity and specificity of the threshold equation were 78.9% and 73.9%, respectively. We established and validated a novel individualized reference equation for estimated PWV-ES, which can likely expand the application of prospective ufPWV assessment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2022.03.017DOI Listing
May 2022

Carotid stiffening predicts cardiovascular risk stratification in mid-life: non-invasive quantification with ultrafast ultrasound imaging.

Ultrasonography 2021 Nov 1. Epub 2021 Nov 1.

Department of Ultrasound, Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Jiangsu Province Hospital of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, China.

Purpose: The present study investigated the association between Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE)-estimated cardiovascular risk and carotid stiffening in a middle-aged population using ultrafast pulse wave velocity (ufPWV).

Methods: This study enrolled 683 participants without known cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus who underwent ufPWV measurements. Clinical interviews, physical examinations, laboratory findings, carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), pulse wave velocity (PWV) at the beginning of systole (PWV-BS), and PWV at the end of systole (PWV-ES) were assessed. Each participant underwent an assessment of SCORE risk based on major cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs), including age, sex, smoking, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and total cholesterol (TC). Crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals and ordinal logistic regression were used. Overall CVRFs were adjusted to assess ORs.

Results: cIMT and carotid stiffening in PWV-BS and PWV-ES were significantly different between sex subgroups (all P<0.05), but only PWV-ES increased gradually in age and SCORE-estimated risk subgroups (all P<0.05). Compared with cIMT (r=0.388, P<0.001) and PWV-BS (r=0.159, P<0.001), PWV-ES was more strongly correlated with SCORE categories (r=0.405, P<0.001). Higher PWV-ES values were associated with SCORE categories independently of sex, SBP, TC, and smoking in moderate-risk and high-risk subgroups (OR, 1.63; P<0.001 and OR, 2.12; P=0.024, respectively), but were not independent of age in all risk subgroups (all P>0.05).

Conclusion: Carotid stiffening quantified by ufPWV is linked to SCORE categories, and elevated PWV-ES may aid in cardiovascular risk stratification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14366/usg.21197DOI Listing
November 2021
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