Publications by authors named "Hui Feng"

414 Publications

Static Modeling of the Fiber-Reinforced Soft Pneumatic Actuators Including Inner Compression: Bending in Free Space, Block Force, and Deflection upon Block Force.

Soft Robot 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Control Science and Engineering, College of Electronics and Information Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, China.

Fiber-reinforced soft pneumatic actuators (FR-SPAs) are among the most successful soft actuators in the soft robotics community considering their structural strength, motion range, and force output. Inspired by the pneumatic artificial muscle, the bending-type tubular SPAs have also been applied with fiber winding for body reinforcement and then utilized in many applications. Due to their superior utility and popularity, FR-SPAs have been extensively modeled using different methods. However, very little attention was given to the compression on the inner wall of the FR-SPAs by the compressed air. Furthermore, there is no unified modeling principle for bending, force output, and deflection of the FR-SPA. In this article, we take into account the inner compression and propose a static modeling approach based on the moment equilibrium for three important and frequently studied cases: free bending, block force, and deflection upon block force of the FR-SPA. Stress analysis of the material inside the fiber wall is conducted, which reveals the influence of radial compression by the input air. Then, the new stress expression is used in the moment equilibrium and results in the SPA models for the three aforementioned cases. The models are experimentally verified using SPAs featuring two profile designs and three different silicone rubbers. The results show that the placement of the fiber wall plays an important role in the SPA behavior. More importantly, the models successfully differentiate the two profiles and produce fairly accurate predictions of the bending angles, block forces, and deflections. The understanding of the compression effect offers a new variable in the FR-SPA design process, which can be used to tune the SPA properties for different applications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/soro.2020.0081DOI Listing
June 2021

Tipping the Scales With Zebrafish to Understand Adaptive Tumor Immunity.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 20;9:660969. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, United States.

The future of improved immunotherapy against cancer depends on an in-depth understanding of the dynamic interactions between the immune system and tumors. Over the past two decades, the zebrafish has served as a valuable model system to provide fresh insights into both the development of the immune system and the etiologies of many different cancers. This well-established foundation of knowledge combined with the imaging and genetic capacities of the zebrafish provides a new frontier in cancer immunology research. In this review, we provide an overview of the development of the zebrafish immune system along with a side-by-side comparison of its human counterpart. We then introduce components of the adaptive immune system with a focus on their roles in the tumor microenvironment (TME) of teleosts. In addition, we summarize zebrafish models developed for the study of cancer and adaptive immunity along with other available tools and technology afforded by this experimental system. Finally, we discuss some recent research conducted using the zebrafish to investigate adaptive immune cell-tumor interactions. Without a doubt, the zebrafish will arise as one of the driving forces to help expand the knowledge of tumor immunity and facilitate the development of improved anti-cancer immunotherapy in the foreseeable future.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.660969DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8173129PMC
May 2021

Nursing home staff perceptions of challenges and coping strategies during COVID-19 pandemic in China.

Geriatr Nurs 2021 May 5;42(4):887-893. Epub 2021 May 5.

Xiangya school of nursing, Central South University, No.172, tongzipo Road, Yuelu District, Changsha, Hunan province 410013, China. Electronic address:

Background: First-line nursing staff are responsible for protecting residents, the most vulnerable population, from COVID-19 infections. They are at a high risk of being infected with COVID-19 and experience high levels of psychological distress.

Aims: To explore the challenges and coping strategies perceived by nursing staff during the COVID-19 pandemic in China.

Methods: In April,2020, we conducted a qualitative study using in-depth semi-structured interviews with nursing staff. Participants were selected from seven nursing homes in three cities in Hunan Province, China.

Results: A total of 21 nursing staff participated in the study, including seven nurse managers, seven registered nurses and seven nursing assistants. Three main themes were identified. Different groups encountered different sources of stress and adopted various coping strategies to fulfil their responsibilities.

Conclusions: Nursing home staff were underprepared for dealing with COVID-19-related challenges. Educational programs to improve the ability to deal with COVID-19 prevention and control are needed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gerinurse.2021.04.024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8098060PMC
May 2021

The Value of PETRA in Pulmonary Nodules of <3 cm Among Patients With Lung Cancer.

Front Oncol 2021 18;11:649625. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Radiology, The Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China.

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the visibility of different subgroups of lung nodules of <3 cm using the pointwise encoding time reduction with radial acquisition (PETRA) sequence on 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in comparison with that obtained using low-dose computed tomography (LDCT).

Methods: The appropriate detection rate was calculated for each of the different subgroups of lung nodules of <3 cm. The mean diameter of each detected nodule was determined. The detection rates and diameters of the lung nodules detected by MRI with the PETRA sequence were compared with those detected by computed tomography (CT). The sensitivity of detection for the different subgroups of pulmonary nodules was determined based on the location, size, type of nodules and morphologic characteristics. Agreement of nodule characteristics between CT and MRI were assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Kappa test.

Results: The CT scans detected 256 lung nodules, comprising 99 solid nodules (SNs) and 157 subsolid nodules with a mean nodule diameter of 8.3 mm. For the SNs, the MRI detected 30/47 nodules of <6 mm in diameter and 52/52 nodules of ≥6 mm in diameter. For the subsolid nodules, the MRI detected 30/51 nodules of <6 mm in diameter and 102/106 nodules of ≥6 mm in diameter. The PETRA sequence returned a high detection rate (84%). The detection rates of SN, ground glass nodules, and PSN were 82%, 72%, and 94%, respectively. For nodules with a diameter of >6 mm, the sensitivity of the PETRA sequence reached 97%, with a higher rate for nodules located in the upper lung fields than those in the middle and lower lung fields. Strong agreement was found between the CT and PETRA results (correlation coefficients = 0.97).

Conclusion: The PETRA technique had high sensitivity for different type of nodule detection and enabled accurate assessment of their diameter and morphologic characteristics. It may be an effective alternative to CT as a tool for screening and follow up pulmonary nodules.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.649625DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8167054PMC
May 2021

MiR-135a Protects against Myocardial Injury by Targeting TLR4.

Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2021 ;69(6):529-536

Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University.

Emerging evidence highlights the importance of microRNAs (miRNAs) as functional regulators in cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to investigate the functional significance of miR-135a in the regulation of cardiac injury after isoprenaline (ISO) stimulation and the underlying mechanisms of its effects. Murine models with cardiac-specific overexpression of miR-135a were constructed with an adeno-associated virus expression system. The cardiac injury model was induced by ISO injection (60 mg/kg per day for 14 d). In vitro, we used H9c2 cells to establish a cell injury model by ISO stimulation (10 µM). The results indicated that miR-135a was increased during days 0-6 of ISO injection and was then downregulated during days 8-14 of ISO injection. The expression of miR-135a was consistent with the in vivo findings. Moreover, mice with cardiac overexpression of miR-135a exhibited reduced cardiac fibrosis, lactate dehydrogenase levels, Troponin I, inflammatory response and apoptosis. Overexpression of miR-135a also ameliorated cardiac dysfunction induced by ISO. MiR-135 overexpression in H9c2 cells increased cell viability and decreased cell apoptosis and inflammation in response to ISO. Conversely, miR-135 silencing in H9c2 cells decreased cell viability and increased cell apoptosis and inflammation in response to ISO. Mechanistically, we found that miR-135a negatively regulated toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), which was confirmed by luciferase assay. Furthermore, the TLR4 inhibitor eritoran abolished the adverse effect of miR-135 silencing. Overall, miR-135a promotes ISO-induced cardiac injury by inhibiting the TLR4 pathway. MiR-135a may be a therapeutic agent for cardiac injury.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/cpb.c20-01003DOI Listing
January 2021

SharpGAN: Dynamic Scene Deblurring Method for Smart Ship Based on Receptive Field Block and Generative Adversarial Networks.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 May 24;21(11). Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576, Singapore.

Complex marine environment has an adverse effect on the object detection algorithm based on the vision sensor for the smart ship sailing at sea. In order to eliminate the motion blur in the images during the navigation of the smart ship and ensure safety, we propose SharpGAN, a new image deblurring method based on the generative adversarial network (GAN). First of all, we introduce the receptive field block net (RFBNet) to the deblurring network to enhance the network's ability to extract blurred image features. Secondly, we propose a feature loss that combines different levels of image features to guide the network to perform higher-quality deblurring and improve the feature similarity between the restored images and the sharp images. Besides, we use the lightweight RFB-s module to significantly improve the real-time performance of the deblurring network. Compared with the existing deblurring methods, the proposed method not only has better deblurring performance in subjective visual effects and objective evaluation criteria, but also has higher deblurring efficiency. Finally, the experimental results reveal that the SharpGAN has a high correlation with the deblurring methods based on the physical model.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21113641DOI Listing
May 2021

Antimicrobial mechanisms of g-CN nanosheets against the oomycetes Phytophthora capsici: Disrupting metabolism and membrane structures and inhibiting vegetative and reproductive growth.

J Hazard Mater 2021 May 15;417:126121. Epub 2021 May 15.

College of Plant Protection, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China. Electronic address:

To understand the potential of urea-synthesized g-CN nanosheets (0.125-1 mg/mL) as antimicrobial agents against oomycetes, an investigation of the interaction mechanism between g-CN nanosheets and Phytophthora capsici was conducted. Transcription analysis showed that after being exposed to g-CN nanosheets for 1 h, P. capsici triggered a sharp upregulation of antioxidant activities and structural constituents and a downregulation of metabolic pathways, including ATP generation, autophagy disruption, membrane system disorders and other complex adaptive processes. All the life stages of P. capsici, including mycelial growth, sporangium formation, zoospore numbers and zoospore germination were remarkably inhibited and even injured. A mutual mechanism is proposed in this work: ROS stress upon exposure to visible irradiation and, combined with their sharp nanosheet structure, cause perturbations of the cell membrane and induce damage to the ultrastructure of mycelial growth, sporangium and zoospores. Given that the antimicrobial action of g-CN nanosheets were derived from the damage throughout the duration of treatment and was not limited to a single target, these complex mechanisms could favor the avoidance of drug resistance and benefit other oomycetes management. More importantly, in addition to restraining P. capsici infection in host plants, g-CN nanosheets promoted pepper plant growth. Hence, g-CN nanosheets have potential as a new non-metal antimicrobial agent to control oomycotal disease in crops.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126121DOI Listing
May 2021

Impact of Pain and Psychosocial Factors on Frailty Among Older Adults With Physical Functional Limitations: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Pain Manag Nurs 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Xiangya School of Nursing, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China; Xiangya-Oceanwide Health Management Research Institute, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China. Electronic address:

Aims: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of frailty and pain among older adults with physical functional limitations in China. We also assessed the impact of pain and psychosocial determinants on frailty among this vulnerable population.

Design: This study was a cross-sectional study.

Setting And Participants: Totally, 2,323 Chinese elders with physical functional limitation were enrolled.

Methods: Physical functioning was assessed by the Barthel Index, participants who reported "often troubled with pain" were further asked about the intensity of their pain using a 1-10 numeric rating scale, and frailty was assessed by the Assessment of frailty FRAIL scale. The impact of pain and psychosocial factors on frailty was assessed by multivariable binary logistic regression.

Results: The prevalence of frailty and pain were 30.9% and 46.1%, respectively. Compared with subjects who reported no pain, those who reported mild (odds ratio [OR] = 1.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.21-2.31), moderate (OR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.53-2.82), or severe pain (OR = 2.31, 95% CI = 1.56-3.40) tended to be more vulnerable to frailty. Furthermore, compared with participants with positive psychosocial determinants, those with negative psychosocial determinants seemed more likely to be frail.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that the incidence of pain, negative psychosocial status, and frailty were prevalent, and the presence of pain and negative psychosocial factors increased the risk of frailty among older adults with physical functional limitation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pmn.2021.04.007DOI Listing
May 2021

Tolerability, Safety, Pharmacokinetics, and Immunogenicity of a Novel SARS-CoV-2 Neutralizing Antibody, Etesevimab in Chinese Healthy Adults: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, First-In-Human Phase 1 Study.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Phase 1 Clinical Research Center, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to spread rapidly worldwide. This study is the first to report the tolerability, safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), and immunogenicity of a recombinant human anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibody, etesevimab (CB6, JS016, LY3832479 or LY-CoV016), in healthy adults. This paper involves a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1 study. A total of 40 participants were enrolled to receive a single intravenous dose of either etesevimab or a placebo in one of four sequential ascending intravenous dose cohorts. All 40 participants completed the study. Seventeen (42.5%) participants experienced 22 treatment emergent adverse events (TEAEs) that were drug-related, and the rates of these TEAEs among different dose cohorts were numerically comparable. No difference was observed between the combined etesevimab group and the placebo group. The exposure after etesevimab infusion increased in an approximately proportional manner as the dose elimination half-life cohorts and was estimated to be around 4 weeks. Etesevimab was well tolerated after administration of a single dose at a range of 2.5 mg/kg to 50 mg/kg in healthy Chinese adults. The PK profiles of etesevimab in healthy volunteers showed typical monoclonal antibody distribution and elimination characteristics. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under identifier NCT04441918.).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00350-21DOI Listing
May 2021

sp. nov. isolated from soybean: morphology, molecular phylogeny and pathogenicity.

Biodivers Data J 2021 22;9:e65227. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Plant Pathology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China Department of Plant Pathology, Nanjing Agricultural University Nanjing 210095 China.

Background: Soybean () is a major source of edible oil and protein. A novel species of the genus , , isolated from soybean seedlings in China, is described and illustrated on the basis of morphological characters and molecular evidence.

New Information: sp. nov. is closely related to species of the genus in clade F, as evidenced by the presence of hyphal swellings and its relatively rapid morphological growth. However, it differs by having relatively small sporangia and plerotic or nearly plerotic and thin-walled oospores. A pathogenicity test confirmed the newly-identified species as a pathogen of soybean.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.9.e65227DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8084853PMC
April 2021

Role of TCF-1 in differentiation, exhaustion, and memory of CD8 T cells: A review.

FASEB J 2021 May;35(5):e21549

Department of Immunology, College of Basic Medical Sciences, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, China.

T cell factor-1 (TCF-1) (encoded by the TCF7 gene) is a transcription factor that plays important role during the T cell development and differentiation for T cell to exercise its functions including producing memory T cells. Not only TCF-1 can modulate the T cell development but also exerts various effects on the differentiation and function of mature CD8 T cells. In addition, it drives the production and maintenance of the immune response of CD8 T cells after PD-1 checkpoint blockade therapy. TCF-1 can serve as a potential target of immunotherapy and may provide promising novel treatment strategies for patients with cancer and infections. Moreover, TCF-1 is a potential biomarker of CD8 T cell functionality to predict the efficacy of immunotherapy in fighting against cancer and infections. Herein, we summarize the role of TCF-1 in T cell development and its applications in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.202002566RDOI Listing
May 2021

A deep learning-integrated micro-CT image analysis pipeline for quantifying rice lodging resistance-related traits.

Plant Commun 2021 Mar 29;2(2):100165. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, National Center of Plant Gene Research, Hubei Key Laboratory of Agricultural Bioinformatics and College of Engineering, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, PR China.

Lodging is a common problem in rice, reducing its yield and mechanical harvesting efficiency. Rice architecture is a key aspect of its domestication and a major factor that limits its high productivity. The ideal rice culm structure, including major_axis_culm, minor axis_culm, and wall thickness_culm, is critical for improving lodging resistance. However, the traditional method of measuring rice culms is destructive, time consuming, and labor intensive. In this study, we used a high-throughput micro-CT-RGB imaging system and deep learning (SegNet) to develop a high-throughput micro-CT image analysis pipeline that can extract 24 rice culm morphological traits and lodging resistance-related traits. When manual and automatic measurements were compared at the mature stage, the mean absolute percentage errors for major_axis_culm, minor_axis_culm, and wall_thickness_culm in 104 were 6.03%, 5.60%, and 9.85%, respectively, and the values were 0.799, 0.818, and 0.623. We also built models of bending stress using culm traits at the mature and tillering stages, and the values were 0.722 and 0.544, respectively. The modeling results indicated that this method can quantify lodging resistance nondestructively, even at an early growth stage. In addition, we also evaluated the relationships of bending stress to shoot dry weight, culm density, and drought-related traits and found that plants with greater resistance to bending stress had slightly higher biomass, culm density, and culm area but poorer drought resistance. In conclusion, we developed a deep learning-integrated micro-CT image analysis pipeline to accurately quantify the phenotypic traits of rice culms in ∼4.6 min per plant; this pipeline will assist in future high-throughput screening of large rice populations for lodging resistance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xplc.2021.100165DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8060729PMC
March 2021

Gastrointestinal-type chemotherapy prolongs survival in an atypical primary ovarian mucinous carcinoma: A case report.

World J Clin Cases 2021 Apr;9(11):2533-2541

Department of Radiation Oncology, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao 266000, Shandong Province, China.

Background: Primary ovarian mucinous carcinoma is a rare histologic subtype of epithelial ovarian carcinoma and exhibits considerable morphologic overlap with secondary tumour. It is hard to differentiate primary from metastatic ovarian mucinous carcinoma by morphological and immunohistochemical features. Because of the histologic similarity between primary ovarian mucinous carcinoma and metastatic gastrointestinal carcinoma, it has been hypothesized that ovarian mucinous carcinomas might respond better to non-gynecologic regimens. However, the standard treatment of advanced ovarian mucinous carcinoma has not reached a consensus.

Case Summary: A 56-year-old postmenopausal woman presented with repeated pain attacks in the right lower quadrant abdomen, accompanied by diarrhoea, anorexia, and weight loss for about 3 mo. The patient initially misdiagnosed as having gastrointestinal carcinoma because of similar pathological features. Based on the physical examination, tumour markers, imaging tests, and genetic tests, the patient was clinically diagnosed with ovary mucinous adenocarcinoma. Whether gastrointestinal-type chemotherapy or gynecologic chemotherapy was a favourable choice for patients with advanced ovarian mucinous cancer had not been determined. The patient received a chemotherapy regimen based on the histologic characteristics rather than the tumour origin. The patient received nine cycles of FOLFOX and bevacizumab. This was followed by seven cycles of bevacizumab maintenance therapy for 9 mo. Satisfactory therapeutic efficacy was achieved.

Conclusion: The genetic analysis might be used in the differential diagnosis of primary ovarian mucinous carcinoma and non-gynecologic mucinous carcinoma. Moreover, primary ovarian mucinous carcinoma patients could benefit from gastrointestinal-type chemotherapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v9.i11.2533DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8040163PMC
April 2021

Three Immune-Related Prognostic mRNAs as Therapeutic Targets for Pancreatic Cancer.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 1;8:649326. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal malignancy globally. This study aimed to probe and validate immune-related prognostic mRNAs as therapeutic targets for pancreatic cancer. Gene transcriptome data of pancreatic cancer and normal pancreas were retrieved from TCGA-GTEx projects. Two thousand four hundred and ninety-eight immune-related genes were obtained from the IMMUPORT database. Abnormally expressed immune-related genes were then identified. Under univariate and multivariate cox models, a gene signature was constructed. Its predictive efficacy was assessed ROCs. The interactions between the 21 genes were analyzed by Spearson analysis and PPI network. Using the GEPIA and The Human Protein Atlas databases, their expression and prognostic value were evaluated. The TIMER database was utilized to determine the relationships between MET, OAS1, and OASL mRNAs and immune infiltrates. Finally, their mRNA expression was externally verified in the GSE15471 and GSE62452 datasets. An immune-related 21-gene signature was developed for predicting patients' prognosis. Following verification, this signature exhibited the well predictive performance. There were physical and functional interactions between them. MET, OAS1, and OASL mRNAs were all up-regulated in pancreatic cancer and associated with unfavorable prognosis. They showed strong correlations with tumor progression. Furthermore, the three mRNAs were distinctly associated with immune infiltrates. Their up-regulation was confirmed in the two external datasets. These findings identified three immune-related prognostic mRNAs MET, OAS1, and OASL, which may assist clinicians to choose targets for immunotherapy and make personalized treatment strategy for pancreatic cancer patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.649326DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8047149PMC
April 2021

Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutation Status and Response to Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Advanced Chinese Female Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Retrospective Study.

Front Oncol 2021 2;11:652560. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Pulmonary, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China.

Background: The frequency of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations and the efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) in Chinese female patients with lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are unknown. This study was designed to investigate the incidence of EGFR mutations and the role of targeted therapy in advanced Chinese female lung SCC patients.

Methods: Advanced female patients diagnosed with lung SCC at the Shanghai Chest Hospital between January 2013 and December 2018 were retrospectively analyzed.

Results: A total of 4223 advanced lung SCC patients were screened, and there were 154 female lung SCC patients who had underwent EGFR mutation detection. Positive EGFR mutations were found in 29.9% (46/154) of female lung SCC patients, including twenty-three 19del mutation (14.9%), twenty-one 21L858R mutation (13.6%) and other mutations (1.4%, 21861Q and 20ins). For 45 EGFR positive mutation female SCC patients, the median progression-free survival (PFS) of patients who received EGFR-TKI therapy (n=38) was 8.0 months (95% CI, 5.4-10.7 months), which was significantly longer than patients who were treated with chemotherapy (8.0 vs. 3.2 months, p=0.024), and the median overall survival (OS) was also longer (24.9 months vs. 13.9 months, p=0.020). The objective response rate (ORR) was 44.7% (17/38), and the disease control rate (DCR) was 81.6% (31/38). For 105 female SCC patients with EGFR negative mutation, the median OS was 18.6 months (95% CI, 14.2-22.9 months) and it was no different from that of EGFR positive mutation patients (18.6 vs. 22.8 months, p=0.377).

Conclusion: For advanced Chinese female lung SCC patients with EGFR positive mutations, targeted therapy could confer longer PFS and OS than chemotherapy, but the survival was similar with patients who were negative EGFR mutations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.652560DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8050333PMC
April 2021

A qualitative study of the first batch of medical assistance team's first-hand experience in supporting the nursing homes in Wuhan against COVID-19.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(4):e0249656. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Xiangya Nursing School of Central South University, Changsha City, Hunan Province, China.

Background: The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has global impact, Wuhan in Hubei province is a high-risk area. And the older people in nursing homes are the most susceptible group to COVID-19. The aim of this study was to describe the practice and experience of the first-line medical team, to provide insights of coping with COVID-19 in China.

Method: This qualitative study used a descriptive phenomenological design to describe the experience of medical staff supported the nursing homes in Wuhan fighting against COVID-19. Unstructured interviews via online video were conducted with seven medical staffs who supported the nursing homes in Wuhan. Data were analyzed using content analysis in five main themes: for nursing homes, we interviewed the difficulties faced at the most difficult time, services for the older people, and prevention and management strategies, for the medical staff, the psychological experience were interviewed, and the implications for public health emergencies were also reported.

Conclusions: It is imperative that effective preventive and response measures be implemented to face the outbreak of COVID-19 and meet the care needs of older people in the context of COVID-19.

Implications: Findings will inform managers of some reasonable instructional strategies for implementing effective infection management. Nursing homes need to provide targeted services to help alleviating their bad psychology for residents.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0249656PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8049312PMC
April 2021

Development of LAMP assays using a novel target gene for specific detection of Pythium terrestris, Pythium spinosum, and "Candidatus Pythium huanghuaiense".

Plant Dis 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Nanjing Agricultural University, 70578, Department of Plant Pathology, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China;

Pythium terrestris, Pythium spinosum, and "Candidatus Pythium huanghuaiense" are closely related species and important pathogens of soybean that cause root rot. However, the sequences of commonly-used molecular markers, such as rDNA internal transcribed spacer 2 and cytochrome oxidase 1 gene, are similar among these species, making it difficult to design species-specific primers for loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays. The genome sequences of these species are also currently unavailable. Based on a comparative genomic analysis and de novo RNA-seq transcript assemblies, we identified and cloned the sequences of the M90 gene, a conserved but highly polymorphic single-copy gene encoding a Puf family RNA-binding protein among oomycetes. After primer design and screening, three LAMP assays were developed that specifically amplified the targeted DNA sequences in P. terrestris and P. spinosum at 62°C for 70 min and in "Ca. Pythium huanghuaiense" at 62°C for 60 min. After adding SYBR Green I, a positive yellow-green color (under natural light) or intense green fluorescence (under ultraviolet light) was observed by the naked eye only in the presence of the target species. The minimum concentration of target DNA detected in all three LAMP assays was 100 pg·μL-1. The assays also successfully detected the target Pythium spp. with high accuracy and sensitivity from inoculated soybean seedlings and soils collected from soybean fields. This study provides a method for identification and cloning of candidate detection targets without a reference genome sequence, and identified M90 as a novel specific target for molecular detection of three Pythium species causing soybean root rot.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-01-21-0068-REDOI Listing
April 2021

The safety and efficacy of a novel method for treatment of HSIL.

Arch Gynecol Obstet 2021 Apr 3. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University First Hospital, Xicheng District, Beijing, 100034, China.

Purpose: To investigate the efficacy and safety of Nr-CWS on treatment of cervical HSIL.

Method: In this observational study, 16 patients were treated with Nr-CWS 1 time every 2 days for 6 times as one-course group (OC group), the other 184 patients were treated with Nr-CWS 1 time every 2 days for 12 times between 2 menstruations as two-course group (TC group). The medical information including age, HPV assay, vaginal-cervical cytology, and the pathological result of biopsy before and after treatment was collected. All patients were followed up at least twice after treatment. The LEEP was performed once the patients with persistent HR-HPV infection and/or abnormal TCT after the second follow-up.

Results: The cytology remission rate of cervical HSIL in OC and TC group was 100.0% and 87.8%, respectively, which were significant higher than the control (25.0%) with the P value of 2.00 × 10 and 2.06 × 10. Furthermore, HPV clearance rate was 87.5% and 70.2% in OC and TC group, respectively, which were significant higher than control (32.4%) with the P value of 2.74 × 10 and 2.18 × 10, respectively. Moreover, the more severe of cytology, the worse effect of HPV clearance for the HPV remission was 75.4%, 68.3%, 67.4%, 65.6% and 64.3% in the negative, LSIL, ASC-US, ASC-H, and HSIL group. 12 patients underwent LEEP after Nr-CWS treatment, 9 (75%) had persistent HSIL and 44.4% cases were found HSIL lesion in the cervical canal. There was no serious adverse reaction observed during treatment and follow-up, four patients were pregnant after treatment and no adverse pregnancy outcomes were observed.

Conclusion: Nr-CWS is an effective and safe drug for treatment of cervical HSIL for Chinese women, especially for cases without lesions in cervical canal.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00404-021-06047-1DOI Listing
April 2021

Effectiveness of Oral Nutritional Supplements on Older People with Anorexia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Nutrients 2021 Mar 3;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Xiangya School of Nursing, Central South University, Changsha 410013, China.

Background: Nutrition plays an important role in maintaining the overall health of older people. Inadequate intake may lead to impaired body function, higher morbidity, and mortality. Oral nutritional supplements (ONS) showed positive effect on the nutritional status of the elderly; however, systematic evidence is currently lacking on the effect of ONS on the elderly with anorexia.

Aims: The current systematic review and meta-analysis included randomized controlled trial (RCT) articles to investigate the effectiveness of ONS on the main aspects of anorexia of aging (AA).

Methods: By using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) method, researchers independently searched PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and other gray literature resources for publications that met the inclusion criteria by October 2020. The Cochrane Risk of Bias Tools were used for quality assessment. The inverse-variance method was used for the fixed model (FM) while the DerSimonian-Laird method was used for the random model (RM). Respective 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs), mean difference (MD) or standardized mean difference (SMD) was used for indices in terms of effect size (ES).

Results: 2497 records were found through the systematic search, while 17 RCTs ( = 1204) were included, with a mean age of 81.9 years (range: 74-87 years). Supplementation occurred in the morning, mid-day, and evening, while the times varied from one to three times a day. The results of meta-analysis showed that, generally, ONS had a positive effect on the overall appetite, MD = 0.18, 95% CI (0.03, 0.33), = 0.02, and consumption, MD = 1.43, 95% CI (0.01, 2.86), = 0.05; but not significant in terms of other aspects of appetite: hunger, = 0.73; fullness, = 0.60; desire to eat, = 0.80; preoccupation, = 0.15. Additionally, it showed an increase in the overall energy intake, SMD = 0.46, 95% CI (0.29, 0.63), < 0.001, in protein intake, SMD = 0.59, 95% CI (0.16, 1.02), = 0.007, and in fat intake, MD = 3.47, 95% CI (1.98, 4.97), < 0.001, while no positive effect was found on carbohydrates intake, = 0.06. Significance differences were also found in the body weight, SMD = 0.53, 95% CI (0.41, 0.65), < 0.001, and body mass index (BMI), MD = 0.53, 95% CI (0.12, 0.95), = 0.01. Moreover, subgroup analyses were conducted according to the nutrient density with no positive results showed except for the low-density ONS on overall energy intake.

Conclusions: The results of the present study indicated that ONS had beneficial effects on overall appetite, energy intake, body weight and BMI.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13030835DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8001033PMC
March 2021

Quality of care in Hunan Province nursing homes: relationship to staffing and organizational climate.

Geriatr Nurs 2021 Mar-Apr;42(2):427-432. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Xiangya school of nursing, Central South University; Xiangya - Oceanwide Health Management Research Institute, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan province, China. Electronic address:

Our objective was to examine the quality of care perceived by nursing staff and its relationship with the staffing and organizational climate in nursing homes. The participants in this cross-sectional study included 358 nursing staff from 26 nursing homes in Hunan Province, China. This study found that the interaction effect between nursing staff to resident ratio and physician to resident ratio exerted a significant effect on quality of care (p < 0.05). Higher scores on the relationships and communication scale (OR = 4.771, p = 0.002) and lower scores on the work stress scale (OR = 0.980, p = 0.050) were also associated with better quality of care. More work experience was related to lower quality of care (OR = 0.944, p = 0.048), and work experience was associated with relationships and communication (Beta = 0.172, p = 0.002) and work stress (Beta= = 0.259, p = 0.000). Staffing level, work experience, work stress, relationships and communication are key factors in providing higher quality of care in nursing homes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gerinurse.2021.02.011DOI Listing
March 2021

Fine-Tuning Roles of Osa-miR159a in Rice Immunity Against Magnaporthe oryzae and Development.

Rice (N Y) 2021 Mar 6;14(1):26. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Rice Research Institute and Key Lab for Major Crop Diseases, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, 611130, China.

Background: Rice blast caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the most destructive diseases of rice. An increasing number of microRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to fine-tune rice immunity against M. oryzae and coordinate with growth and development.

Results: Here, we showed that rice microRNA159a (Osa-miR159a) played a positive role in rice resistance to M. oryzae. The expression of Osa-miR159a was suppressed in a susceptible accession at 12, 24, and 48 h post-inoculation (hpi); it was upregulated in a resistant accession of M. oryzae at 24 hpi. The transgenic rice lines overexpressing Osa-miR159a were highly resistant to M. oryzae. In contrast, the transgenic lines expressing a short tandem target mimic (STTM) to block Osa-miR159a showed enhanced susceptibility. Knockout mutations of the target genes of Osa-miR159a, including OsGAMYB, OsGAMYBL, and OsZF, led to resistance to M. oryzae. Alteration of the expression of Osa-miR159a impacted yield traits including pollen and grain development.

Conclusions: Our results indicated that Osa-miR159a positively regulated rice immunity against M. oryzae by downregulating its target genes. Proper expression of Osa-miR159a was critical for coordinating rice blast resistance with grain development.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12284-021-00469-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7937009PMC
March 2021

Sequential Sampling and Estimation of Approximately Bandlimited Graph Signals.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Feb 19;21(4). Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Research Center of Smart Networks and Systems, School of Information Science and Technology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China.

Graph signal sampling has been widely studied in recent years, but the accurate signal models required by most of the existing sampling methods are usually unavailable prior to any observations made in a practical environment. In this paper, a sequential sampling and estimation algorithm is proposed for approximately bandlimited graph signals, in the absence of prior knowledge concerning signal properties. We approach the problem from a Bayesian perspective in which we formulate the signal prior by a multivariate Gaussian distribution with unknown hyperparameters. To overcome the interconnected problems associated with the parameter estimation, in the proposed algorithm, hyperparameter estimation and sample selection are performed in an alternating way. At each step, the unknown hyperparameters are updated by an expectation maximization procedure based on historical observations, and then the next node in the sampling operation is chosen by uncertainty sampling with the latest hyperparameters. We prove that under some specific conditions, signal estimation in the proposed algorithm is consistent. Subsequent validation of the approach through simulations shows that the proposed procedure yields performances which are significantly better than existing state-of-the-art approaches notwithstanding the additional attribute of robustness in the presence of a broad range of signal attributes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21041460DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7922557PMC
February 2021

Wide field-of-view volumetric imaging by a mesoscopic scanning oblique plane microscopy with switchable objective lenses.

Quant Imaging Med Surg 2021 Mar;11(3):983-997

Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Conventional light sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM), or selective plane illumination microscopy (SPIM), enables high-resolution 3D imaging over a large volume by using two orthogonally aligned objective lenses to decouple excitation and emission. The recent development of oblique plane microscopy (OPM) simplifies LSFM design with only one single objective lens, by using off-axis excitation and remote focusing. However, most reports on OPM have a limited microscopic field of view (FOV), typically within 1×1 mm. Our goal is to overcome the limitation with a new variant of OPM to achieve a mesoscopic FOV.

Methods: We implemented an optical design of mesoscopic scanning OPM to allow the use of low numerical aperture (NA) objective lenses. The angle of the intermediate image before the remote focusing system was increased by a demagnification under Scheimpflug condition such that the light collecting efficiency in the remote focusing system was significantly improved. A telescope composed of cylindrical lenses was used to correct the distorted image caused by the demagnification design. We characterized the 3D resolutions and imaging volume by imaging fluorescent microspheres, and demonstrated the volumetric imaging on intact whole zebrafish larvae, mouse cortex, and multiple ().

Results: We demonstrate a mesoscopic FOV up to ~6×5×0.6 mm volumetric imaging, the largest reported FOV by OPM so far. The angle of the intermediate image plane is independent of the magnification as long as the size of the pupil aperture of the objectives is the same. As a result, the system is highly versatile, allowing simple switching between different objective lenses with low (10×, NA 0.3) and median NA (20×, NA 0.5). Detailed microvasculature in zebrafish larvae, mouse cortex, and neurons in C. elegans are clearly visualized in 3D.

Conclusions: The proposed mesoscopic scanning OPM allows using low NA objectives such that centimeter-level FOV volumetric imaging can be achieved. With the extended FOV, simple sample mounting protocol, and the versatility of changeable FOVs/resolutions, our system will be ready for the varieties of applications requiring in vivo volumetric imaging over large length scales.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/qims-20-806DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7829172PMC
March 2021

A Risk Prediction Model Based on Machine Learning for Cognitive Impairment Among Chinese Community-Dwelling Elderly People With Normal Cognition: Development and Validation Study.

J Med Internet Res 2021 02 24;23(2):e20298. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Xiangya Nursing School, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Background: Identifying cognitive impairment early enough could support timely intervention that may hinder or delay the trajectory of cognitive impairment, thus increasing the chances for successful cognitive aging.

Objective: We aimed to build a prediction model based on machine learning for cognitive impairment among Chinese community-dwelling elderly people with normal cognition.

Methods: A prospective cohort of 6718 older people from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) register, followed between 2008 and 2011, was used to develop and validate the prediction model. Participants were included if they were aged 60 years or above, were community-dwelling elderly people, and had a cognitive Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score ≥18. They were excluded if they were diagnosed with a severe disease (eg, cancer and dementia) or were living in institutions. Cognitive impairment was identified using the Chinese version of the MMSE. Several machine learning algorithms (random forest, XGBoost, naïve Bayes, and logistic regression) were used to assess the 3-year risk of developing cognitive impairment. Optimal cutoffs and adjusted parameters were explored in validation data, and the model was further evaluated in test data. A nomogram was established to vividly present the prediction model.

Results: The mean age of the participants was 80.4 years (SD 10.3 years), and 50.85% (3416/6718) were female. During a 3-year follow-up, 991 (14.8%) participants were identified with cognitive impairment. Among 45 features, the following four features were finally selected to develop the model: age, instrumental activities of daily living, marital status, and baseline cognitive function. The concordance index of the model constructed by logistic regression was 0.814 (95% CI 0.781-0.846). Older people with normal cognitive functioning having a nomogram score of less than 170 were considered to have a low 3-year risk of cognitive impairment, and those with a score of 170 or greater were considered to have a high 3-year risk of cognitive impairment.

Conclusions: This simple and feasible cognitive impairment prediction model could identify community-dwelling elderly people at the greatest 3-year risk for cognitive impairment, which could help community nurses in the early identification of dementia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/20298DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7946590PMC
February 2021

cfDNA deconvolution via NIPT of a pregnant woman after bone marrow transplant and donor egg IVF.

Hum Genomics 2021 Feb 23;15(1):14. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Annoroad Gene Technology Co., Ltd., Beijing, China.

Cell-free DNA is known to be a mixture of DNA fragments originating from various tissue types and organs of the human body and can be utilized for several clinical applications and potentially more to be created. Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT), by high throughput sequencing of cell-free DNA (cfDNA), has been successfully applied in the clinical screening of fetal chromosomal aneuploidies, with more extended coverage under active research.In this study, via a quite unique and rare NIPT sample, who has undergone both bone marrow transplant and donor egg IVF, we investigated the sources of oddness observed in the NIPT result using a combination of molecular genetics and genomic methods and eventually had the case fully resolved. Along the process, we devised a clinically viable process to dissect the sample mixture.Eventually, we used the proposed scheme to evaluate the relatedness of individuals and the demultiplexed sample components following modified population genetics concepts, exemplifying a noninvasive prenatal paternity test prototype. For NIPT specific applicational concern, more thorough and detailed clinical information should therefore be collected prior to cfDNA-based screening procedure like NIPT and systematically reviewed when an abnormal report is obtained to improve genetic counseling and overall patient care.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40246-021-00311-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7901183PMC
February 2021

Baitouweng Decoction Ameliorates Ulcerative Colitis in Mice Partially Attributed to Regulating Th17/Treg Balance and Restoring Intestinal Epithelial Barrier.

Front Pharmacol 2020 11;11:531117. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Gastroenterology, Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, China.

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic intestinal disease with unclear pathogenesis. With an increasing global prevalence over the past two decades, UC poses a serious threat to public health. Baitouweng decoction (BTW), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been shown to have good clinical efficacy for treating intestinal inflammation. Yet, the efficacy of BTW in UC and the underlying mechanism remain unclear. The current study aimed to determine whether BTW suppressed intestinal inflammation in mice and the potential mechanism. We used a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced murine colitis model to test the anti-inflammatory efficacy of BTW. Clinical symptoms were scored by the disease activity index (DAI), and the colon length and pathological changes in colon tissue were also used to further evaluate the efficacy of BTW. Precisely how BTW affected immune function and the intestinal barrier of UC mice was also examined. BTW significantly reduced DAI score and colonic pathological damage. BTW regulated the balance between T helper (Th)17 and regulatory T (Treg) cells, decreased interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α, and increased IL-10 levels. BTW reduced intestinal permeability of UC mice, increased expression of tight junction proteins (occludin and zonula occludens-1), and decreased expression of phospho-nuclear factor (p-NF)-κB and phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) in the colon. BTW inhibited the ERK/p-NF-κB signaling pathway and suppressed expression of cyclo-oxygenase-2 and inducible NO synthase in lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW 264.7 cells. BTW significantly promoted the synthesis of short-chain fatty acids in the gut, particularly acetate, propionate, isobutyric acid, and isovalerate. The results suggest that BTW can protect against DSS-induced UC. The mechanism may be partially attributed to regulating the balance of Th17/Treg cells and restoring the intestinal epithelial barrier.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.531117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7883596PMC
January 2021

Sleep, inflammation and cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults: A population-based study.

J Affect Disord 2021 04 8;284:120-125. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

College of Nursing and Health Sciences, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: Sleep plays a key role in preserving cognitive function. However, the optimal strategies of sleep for cognition and the underlying mechanism are not well-established.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed using the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), 2011-2012 survey. Self-reported nighttime sleep and afternoon napping data were collected. Fasting blood collected was analyzed for the high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell.

Results: Both nighttime sleep and afternoon napping were significantly associated with cognition after adjusting for confounders (p < 0.05). Precisely, participants with nighttime sleep of 6.1-7h had the highest cognition scores (p < 0.05). Participants with less than 30 min afternoon napping had the highest cognition scores (p < 0.05). The synergistic effect of nighttime sleep and afternoon napping was not significant (p > 0.05). Nighttime sleep and afternoon napping were significantly related to the white blood cell, but not the high-sensitivity CRP. The white blood cell mediated the association between sleep and cognition (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: Nighttime sleep of six to seven hours and afternoon napping of less than 30 minutes are associated with optimal cognitive function in middle-aged and older people, respectively. Sleep influences cognition partly via the inflammatory profile.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2021.02.013DOI Listing
April 2021

miR-29a-3p transferred by mesenchymal stem cells-derived extracellular vesicles protects against myocardial injury after severe acute pancreatitis.

Life Sci 2021 May 9;272:119189. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Department of Emergency Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710004, PR China.

Aims: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease of the pancreas that may affect local tissues or remote organ systems, while severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is a life-threatening disorder associated with multiple organ failure. In this investigation, we set about to determine whether microRNA-29a-3p (miR-29a-3p) carried by mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs)-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) affects the myocardial injury during SAP.

Main Methods: EVs were isolated from MSCs of rat bone marrow by differential centrifugation. An SAP rat model was developed and treated with MSCs-EVs and/or alteration of miR-29a-3p and HMGB1 expression, followed by assessment of the rats' cardiac function and inflammation. Next, cardiomyocytes H9C2 were co-cultured with MSC-EVs and internalization of EVs was evaluated, followed by evaluation of whether EVs could transmit miR-29a-3p cargos into H9C2 cells and affect their biological functions.

Key Findings: EVs derived from MSCs were observed to protect against SAP-induced myocardial injury. In SAP-induced rats, miR-29a-3p was under-expressed in myocardial tissues. In addition, we also confirmed that miR-29a-3p could be transferred into the H9C2 cardiomyocytes by MSC-derived EVs, which downregulated the expression of inflammatory markers and improve cardiac function to attenuate myocardial injury. Furthermore, miR-29a-3p inhibited the expression of HMGB1 to downregulate TLR4 expression and further inactivate the Akt signaling pathway.

Significance: These findings support the cardioprotective action of miR-29a-3p transmitted by MSCs-derived EVs in SAP-induced myocardial injury via downregulation of the HMGB1/TLR4/Akt axis, highlighting a promising target for the EV-based therapy for SAP.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119189DOI Listing
May 2021

Characterization and Functional Importance of Two Glycoside Hydrolase Family 16 Genes from the Rice White Tip Nematode .

Animals (Basel) 2021 Feb 2;11(2). Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Institute of Plant Protection, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 210014 Nanjing, China.

The glycoside hydrolase family 16 (GH16) is widely found in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and hydrolyzes the β-1,3(4)-linkages in polysaccharides. Notably, the rice white tip nematode harbors a higher number of GH16s compared with other plant-parasitic nematodes. In this work, two GH16 genes, namely AbGH16-1 and AbGH16-2, were isolated and characterized from . The deduced amino acid sequences of AbGH16-1 and AbGH16-2 contained an N-terminal signal peptide and a fungal Lam16A glucanase domain. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that AbGH16-1 and AbGH16-2 clustered with ascomycete GH16s, suggesting AbGH16-1 and AbGH16-2 were acquired by horizontal gene transfer from fungi. In situ hybridization showed that both AbGH16-1 and AbGH16-2 were specifically expressed in the nematode gonads, correlating with qPCR analysis that showed the high transcript levels of the two genes in the female nematodes. AbGH16-1 and AbGH16-2 were also significantly induced in nematodes feeding on . Characterization of the recombinant protein showed AbGH16-1 and AbGH16-2 displayed pronounced inhibition of both conidial germination and germ tube elongation of . In addition, silencing of AbGH16-1 and AbGH16-2 by RNA interference significantly decreased the reproduction ability of and had a profound impact on the development process of offspring in this nematode. These findings have firstly proved that GH16s may play important roles in feeding and reproduction on fungi, which thus provides novel insights into the function of GH16s in plant-parasitic nematodes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11020374DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7913077PMC
February 2021

Type 2 Diabetes and Glycemic Traits Are Not Causal Factors of Osteoarthritis: A Two-Sample Mendelian Randomization Analysis.

Front Genet 2020 13;11:597876. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: It remains unclear whether an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) affects the risk of osteoarthritis (OA).

Methods: Here, we used two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) to obtain non-confounded estimates of the effect of T2D and glycemic traits on hip and knee OA. We identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) strongly associated with T2D, fasting glucose (FG), and 2-h postprandial glucose (2hGlu) from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We used the MR inverse variance weighted (IVW), the MR-Egger method, the weighted median (WM), and the Robust Adjusted Profile Score (MR.RAPS) to reveal the associations of T2D, FG, and 2hGlu with hip and knee OA risks. Sensitivity analyses were also conducted to verify whether heterogeneity and pleiotropy can bias the MR results.

Results: We did not find statistically significant causal effects of genetically increased T2D risk, FG, and 2hGlu on hip and knee OA (e.g., T2D and hip OA, MR-Egger OR = 1.1708, 95% CI 0.9469-1.4476, = 0.1547). It was confirmed that horizontal pleiotropy was unlikely to bias the causality (e.g., T2D and hip OA, MR-Egger, intercept = -0.0105, = 0.1367). No evidence of heterogeneity was found between the genetic variants (e.g., T2D and hip OA, MR-Egger = 30.1362, < 0.0001, = 0.6104).

Conclusion: Our MR study did not support causal effects of a genetically increased T2D risk, FG, and 2hGlu on hip and knee OA risk.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2020.597876DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7838644PMC
January 2021