Publications by authors named "Hui Chen"

4,385 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy in cardiovascular disease: From pathogenesis to novel therapy.

Int J Cardiol 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330006, China. Electronic address:

Cardiovascular disease(CVD)is one of the predominant causes of death and morbidity. Mitochondria play a key role in maintaining cardiac energy metabolism. However, mitochondrial dysfunction leads to excessive production of ROS, resulting in oxidative damage to cardiomyocytes and contributing to a variety of cardiovascular diseases. In such a case, the clearance of impaired mitochondria is necessary. Currently, most studies have indicated an essential role for mitophagy in maintaining cardiac homeostasis and regulating CVD-related metabolic transition. Recent studies have implicated that PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1)/Parkin-mediated mitophagy has been implicated in maintaining cardiomyocyte homeostasis. Here, we discuss the physiological and pathological roles of PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy in the cardiovascular system, as well as potential therapeutic strategies based on PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy modulation, which are of great significance for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2022.05.025DOI Listing
May 2022

Field Detection of Highly Oxygenated Organic Molecules in Shanghai by Chemical Ionization-Orbitrap.

Environ Sci Technol 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

Univ. Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS, IRCELYON, 69626 Villeurbanne, France.

Secondary organic aerosol, formed through atmospheric oxidation processes, plays an important role in affecting climate and human health. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive campaign in the megacity of Shanghai during the 2019 International Import Expo (EXPO), with the first deployment of a chemical ionization─Orbitrap mass spectrometer for ambient measurements. With the ultrahigh mass resolving power of the Orbitrap mass analyzer (up to 140,000 Th/Th) and capability in dealing with massive spectral data sets by positive matrix factorization, we were able to identify the major gas-phase oxidation processes leading to the formation of oxygenated organic molecules (OOM) in Shanghai. Nine main factors from three independent sub-range analysis were identified. More than 90% of OOM are of anthropogenic origin and >60% are nitrogen-containing molecules, mainly dominated by the RO + NO and/or NO chemistry. The emission control during the EXPO showed that even though the restriction was effectual in significantly lowering the primary pollutants (20-70% decrease), the secondary oxidation products responded less effectively (14% decrease), or even increased (50 to >200%) due to the enhancement of ozone and the lowered condensation sink, indicating the importance of a stricter multi-pollutant coordinated strategy in primary and secondary pollution mitigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c08346DOI Listing
May 2022

Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt with or without gastro-oesophageal variceal embolisation for the prevention of variceal rebleeding: a randomised controlled trial.

Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2022 May 16. Epub 2022 May 16.

Department of Liver Diseases and Digestive Interventional Radiology, National Clinical Research Centre for Digestive Diseases and Xijing Hospital of Digestive Diseases, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China; Department of Liver Diseases and Interventional Radiology, Digestive Diseases Hospital, Xi'an International Medical Center Hospital, Northwest University, Xi'an, China. Electronic address:

Background: The role of variceal embolisation at the time of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) creation for the prevention of gastro-oesophageal variceal rebleeding remains controversial. This study aimed to evaluate whether adding variceal embolisation to TIPS placement could reduce the incidence of rebleeding after TIPS in patients with cirrhosis.

Methods: We did an open-label, randomised controlled trial at one university hospital in China. Eligible patients were aged 18-75 years with cirrhosis and had variceal bleeding in the past 6 weeks, and they were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive TIPS (with a covered stent in both groups) plus variceal embolisation (TIPS plus embolisation group) or TIPS alone (TIPS group) to prevent variceal rebleeding. Randomisation was done using a web-based randomisation system using a Pocock and Simon's minimisation method, stratified by Child-Pugh class (A vs B vs C). Clinicians and patients were not masked to treatment allocation; individuals involved in data analysis were masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was the 2-year cumulative incidence of variceal rebleeding after randomisation, and analysis was by intention to treat. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02119988.

Findings: Between June 16, 2014, and Feb 3, 2016, 205 patients were screened, of whom 134 were randomly allocated to the TIPS plus embolisation group (n=69) and the TIPS group (n=65). TIPS placement and variceal embolisation was successful in all 134 patients, all were included in the analysis. There was no significant difference in the 2-year cumulative incidence of variceal rebleeding between the two groups (TIPS plus embolisation 11·6% [95% CI 4·0-19·1] vs TIPS 13·8% [5·4-22·2]; hazard ratio 0·82 [95% CI 0·42-1·61]; p=0·566). Adverse events were similar between the two groups; the most common adverse events were peptic ulcer or gastritis (12 [17%] of patients in the TIPS plus embolisation group vs 13 [20%] of patients in the TIPS group), new or worsening ascites (ten [14%] vs six [9%]), and hepatocellular carcinoma (four [6%] vs six [9%]). The numbers of deaths were also similar between groups (24 [35%] vs 25 [38%]) INTERPRETATION: Adding variceal embolisation to TIPS did not significantly reduce the incidence of variceal rebleeding in patients with cirrhosis. Our findings do not support concomitant variceal embolisation during TIPS for the prevention of variceal rebleeding.

Funding: National Key Technology R&D Program, Boost Program of Xijing Hospital, and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2468-1253(22)00087-5DOI Listing
May 2022

Comparing blood biomarkers to clinical decision rules to select patients suspected of traumatic brain injury for head computed tomography.

Neuroradiol J 2022 May 19:19714009221101306. Epub 2022 May 19.

Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Division, 6429Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.

Introduction: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major public health concern in the U.S. Recommendations for patients admitted in the emergency department (ED) to receive head computed tomography (CT) scan are currently guided by various clinical decision rules.

Objective: To compare how a blood biomarker approach compares with clinical decision rules in terms of predicting a positive head CT in adult patients suspected of TBI.

Methods: We retrospectively identified patients transported to our emergency department and underwent a noncontrast head CT due to suspicion of TBI and who had blood samples available. Published thresholds for serum and plasma glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1), and serum S100β were used to make CT recommendations. These blood biomarker-based recommendations were compared to those achieved under widely used clinical head CT decision rules (Canadian, New Orleans, NEXUS II, and ACEP Clinical Policy).

Results: Our study included 463 patients, of which 122 (26.3%) had one or more abnormalities presenting on head CT. Individual blood biomarkers achieved high negative predictive value (NPV) for abnormal head CT findings (88%-98%), although positive predictive value (PPV) was consistently low (25%-42%). A composite biomarker-based decision rule (GFAP+UCH-L1)'s NPV of 100% and PPV of 29% were comparable or better than those achieved under the clinical decision rules.

Conclusion: Blood biomarkers perform at least as well as clinical rules in terms of selecting TBI patients for head CT and may be easier to implement in the clinical setting. A prospective study is necessary to validate this approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/19714009221101306DOI Listing
May 2022

Prevalence, Incidence, and Characteristics of Tuberculosis Among Known Diabetes Patients - A Prospective Cohort Study in 10 Sites, 2013-2015.

China CDC Wkly 2022 Jan;4(3):41-46

National Center for Tuberculosis Control and Prevention, China CDC, Beijing, China.

What Is Already Known About This Topic?: The association of diabetes mellitus (DM) with both increased risk of tuberculosis (TB) and unfavorable treatment outcomes has been identified by many studies (1). However, epidemic data for TB cases in DM patients is absent in China.

What Is Added By This Report?: This current population-based prospective cohort study, conducted in ten counties located in eastern, central, and western China during 2013-2015, revealed a high prevalence and incidence of TB in known DM patients. Most TB cases were captured by active case-finding and a much higher presence of being asymptomatic among TB/DM patients was obtained.

What Are The Implications For Public Health Practice?: Active case-finding should be carried out in DM patients and populations at high risk for developing TB. A TB symptom screening-based case-finding strategy is not enough; chest radiography check should be done once a year for these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.46234/ccdcw2022.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8796720PMC
January 2022

Light modulation based on the enhanced Kerr effect in molybdenum disulfide nanostructures with curved features.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2022 May 16. Epub 2022 May 16.

Key Laboratory of Physical Electronics and Devices of Ministry of Education & Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Information Photonic Technique, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, China.

A novel type of molybdenum disulfide (MoS) nanoparticles (NPs) was chemically synthesized, which possessed curved features with three-dimensional (3D) freedom compared with planar two-dimensional (2D) materials. Due to the introduction of curved features, the synthesized NPs exhibited a strongly enhanced nonlinear refractive index ( ∼ 10 cm W) and third-order susceptibility ( ∼ 10 esu), which were experimentally verified by the spatial self-phase modulation effect in the visible wavelength range. Both the nonlinear parameters were two orders of magnitude higher than their planar MoS nanostructure counterparts. In addition, the relative change of the effective nonlinear refractive index Δ/ was found to be distinctly dependent on the intensity of the applied electromagnetic field. Moreover, an all-optical modulation was experimentally realized based on the spatial cross-phase modulation effect. Our results demonstrate planar MoS materials with 3D features as potential candidates for next generation all-optical applications and open a substantial approach for the design of efficient nanomaterials with favorable optical nonlinearity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2cp00374kDOI Listing
May 2022

A novel substitution of proline (P32L) destabilises β2-microglobulin inducing hereditary systemic amyloidosis.

Amyloid 2022 May 14:1-8. Epub 2022 May 14.

Amyloidosis Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: β2-microglobulin amyloidosis was first described in the 1980s as a protein deposition disease associated with long-term haemodialysis. More recently, two inherited forms resulting from separate point mutations in the β2-microglobulin gene have been identified. In this report, we detail a novel β2M variant, P32L, caused by a unique dinucleotide mutation that is linked to systemic hereditary β2-microglobulin amyloidosis.

Methods: Three family members from a Portuguese kinship featured cardiomyopathy, requiring organ transplantation in one case, along with soft tissue involvement; other involvements included gastrointestinal, neuropathic and sicca syndrome. studies with recombinant P32L, P32G, D76N and wild-type β2-microglobulin were undertaken to compare the biophysical properties of the proteins.

Results: The P32L variant was caused by the unique heterozygous dinucleotide mutation c.154_155delinsTT. Amyloid disease featured lowered serum β2-microglobulin levels with near equal amounts of circulating P32L and wild-type proteins; amyloid deposits were composed exclusively of P32L variant protein. studies of P32L demonstrated thermodynamic and chemical instability and enhanced susceptibility to proteolysis with rapid formation of pre-fibrillar oligomeric structures by N- and C-terminally truncated species under physiological conditions.

Conclusions: This work provides both clinical and experimental evidence supporting the critical role of P32 residue replacement in β2M amyloid fibrillogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13506129.2022.2072199DOI Listing
May 2022

Robust colonic epithelial regeneration and amelioration of colitis via FZD-specific activation of Wnt signaling.

Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol 2022 May 12. Epub 2022 May 12.

Surrozen, Inc.; 171 Oyster Point Blvd., Suite 400, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Current management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) leaves a clear unmet need to treat the severe epithelial damage. Modulation of Wnt signaling might present an opportunity to achieve histological remission and mucosal healing when treating IBD. Exogenous R-spondin (RSPO), which amplifies Wnt signals by maintaining cell surface expression of Frizzled (FZD) and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) receptors, helps repair intestine epithelial damage, but it also induces hyperplasia of normal epithelium. Wnt signaling may also be modulated with the recently developed Wnt mimetics, recombinant antibody-based molecules mimicking endogenous Wnts.

Methods: We first compared the epithelial healing effects of RSPO2 and a Wnt mimetic with broad Fzd-specificity in an acute Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS) mouse colitis model. Guided by Fzd expression patterns in the colon epithelium, we also examined the effects of Wnt mimetics with sub-family Fzd-specificities.

Results: In the DSS model, Wnt mimetics repaired damaged colon epithelium and reduced disease activity and inflammation and had no apparent effect on uninjured tissue. We further identified that the FZD5/8 and LRP6 receptor-specific Wnt mimetic, SZN-1326-p, was associated with the robust repair effect. Through a range of approaches including single-cell transcriptome analyses, we demonstrated that SZN-1326-p directly impacted epithelial cells, driving transient expansion of stem and progenitor cells, promoting differentiation of epithelial cells, histologically restoring the damaged epithelium and, secondarily to epithelial repair, reducing inflammation.

Conclusion: It is feasible to design Wnt mimetics such as SZN-1326-p that impact damaged intestine epithelium specifically and restore its physiological functions, an approach that holds promise for treating epithelial damage in IBD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcmgh.2022.05.003DOI Listing
May 2022

Multi-residue analysis of 206 pesticides in grass forage by the one-step quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method combined with ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole orbitrap mass spectrometry.

J Sep Sci 2022 May 15. Epub 2022 May 15.

Key Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety for State Market Regulation, Chinese Academy of Inspection and Quarantine, Beijing, P. R. China.

A novel method for detecting pesticide multi-residue in grass forage (alfalfa and oat) was established based on the one-step automatic extraction and purification technology of quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe combined with ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry. The crushed sample was extracted with ACN with 1% acetate, followed by a cleanup step with a primary-secondary amine, octadecylsilane, and graphitized carbon black. The extraction and purification were carried out using the one-step automatic pretreatment equipment. The target pesticides were acquired in positive ion electrospray ionization mode and full scan/data dependent secondary scan mode. The calibration curve shows good linearity over the corresponding concentration range, with the coefficient of determination greater than 0.99. The screening detection limits were 0.5-50 μg/kg, and the limit of quantification for the 206 pesticides was set at 1-50 μg/kg. At the spiking levels of one, two, and 10 times of limit of quantification, more than 95% of pesticides had recovery between 70%-120%, with a relative standard deviation ≤20%. The method was proved to be simple, rapid, high-sensitivity, and could be routinely used for the high throughput screening and quantitative analysis of pesticide residues in alfalfa and oat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jssc.202200066DOI Listing
May 2022

Transcriptomic analysis of Stropharia rugosoannulata reveals carbohydrate metabolism and cold resistance mechanisms under low-temperature stress.

AMB Express 2022 May 14;12(1):56. Epub 2022 May 14.

National Research Center for Edible Fungi Biotechnology and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Applied Mycological Resources and Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Agricultural Genetics and Breeding, Institute of Edible Fungi, Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 309 Room, No. 1000, Jinqi Road, FengXian District, Shanghai, 201403, China.

Low temperature is an important environmental factor that restricts the growth of Stropharia rugosoannulata; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying S. rugosoannulata responses to low-temperature stress are largely unknown. In this study, we performed a transcriptome analysis of a high-sensitivity strain (DQ-1) and low-sensitivity strain (DQ-3) under low-temperature stress. The liquid hyphae of S. rugosoannulata treated at 25 °C and 10 °C were analyzed by RNA-Seq, and a total of 9499 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. GO and KEGG enrichment analyses showed that these genes were enriched in "xenobiotic biodegradation and metabolism", "carbohydrate metabolism", "lipid metabolism" and "oxidoreductase activity". Further research found that carbohydrate enzyme (AA, GH, CE, and GT) genes were downregulated more significantly in DQ-1 than DQ-3 and several cellulase activities were also reduced to a greater extent. Moreover, the CAT1, CAT2, GR, and POD genes and more heat shock protein genes (HSP20, HSP78 and sHSP) were upregulated in the two strains after low-temperature stress, and the GPX gene and more heat shock protein genes were upregulated in DQ-3. In addition, the enzyme activity and qRT-PCR results showed trends similar to those of the RNA-Seq results. This result indicates that low-temperature stress reduces the expression of different AA, GH, CE, and GT enzyme genes and reduces the secretion of cellulase, thereby reducing the carbohydrate metabolism process and mycelial growth of S. rugosoannulata. Moreover, the expression levels of different types of antioxidant enzymes and heat shock proteins are also crucial for S. rugosoannulata to resist low-temperature stress. In short, this study will provide a basis for further research on important signaling pathways, gene functions and variety breeding of S. rugosoannulata related to low-temperature stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13568-022-01400-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9107548PMC
May 2022

Comprehensive analysis of TCR repertoire of COVID-19 patients in different infected stage.

Genes Genomics 2022 May 14. Epub 2022 May 14.

Central Laboratory, Guangxi Health Commission Key Laboratory of Glucose and Lipid Metabolism Disorders, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guilin Medical University, Guilin, 541199, China.

Background: The current pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), transmitted person-to-person by the severe acute respiratory syndrome of coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), poses a threat to global public health.

Objective: In this study, we performed the comprehensive analysis of the T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire may contribute to a more in-depth understanding of the pathogenesis of COVID-19.

Methods: A comprehensive immunological analysis was performed to explore the features of the TCR repertoire and identified TCR sequences correlated with SARS-CoV-2 viral antigens.

Results: we analyzed the COVID-19 patients' TCR repertoires in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) which obtained before (baseline), during (acute), and after rehabilitation (convalescent) by ImmunoSEQ-technology, and found that repertoire features of TCRβ-chain (TCRβ) complementary-determining region 3 (CDR3) in COVID-19 patients were remarkable difference, including decreased TCR diversity, abnormal CDR3 length, difference of TRBV/J gene usage and higher TCR sequence overlap. Besides, we identified some COVID-19 disease-associated TCRβ clones, and the abundance of them changed with the progression of the disease. Importantly, these disease-associated TCRβ clones could be used to distinguish COVID-19 patients from healthy controls with high accuracy.

Conclusions: We provide a clear understanding of the TCR repertoire of COVID-19 patients, which lays the foundation for better diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13258-022-01261-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9107015PMC
May 2022

Free PSA performs better than total PSA in predicting prostate volume in Chinese men with PSA levels of 2.5-9.9 ng ml.

Asian J Androl 2022 May 10. Epub 2022 May 10.

Department of Urology, Guangzhou First People's Hospital, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510180, China.

This study investigated whether free prostate-specific antigen (fPSA) performs better than total PSA (tPSA) in predicting prostate volume (PV) in Chinese men with different PSA levels. A total of 5463 men with PSA levels of <10 ng ml and without prostate cancer diagnosis were included in this study. Patients were classified into four groups: PSA <2.5 ng ml, 2.5-3.9 ng ml, 4.0-9.9 ng ml, and 2.5-9.9 ng ml. Pearson/Spearman's correlation coefficient (r) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to evaluate the ability of tPSA and fPSA to predict PV. The correlation coefficient between tPSA and PV in the PSA <2.5 ng ml cohort (r = 0.422; P < 0.001) was markedly higher than those of the cohorts with PSA levels of 2.5-3.9 ng ml, 4.0-9.9 ng ml, and 2.5-9.9 ng ml (r = 0.114, 0.167, and 0.264, respectively; all P ≤ 0.001), while fPSA levels did not differ significantly among different PSA groups. Area under ROC curve (AUC) analyses revealed that the performance of fPSA in predicting PV ≥40 ml (AUC: 0.694, 0.714, and 0.727) was better than that of tPSA (AUC = 0.545, 0.561, and 0.611) in men with PSA levels of 2.5-3.9 ng ml, 4.0-9.9 ng ml, and 2.5-9.9 ng ml, respectively, but not at PSA levels of <2.5 ng ml (AUC: 0.713 vs 0.720). These findings suggest that the relationship between tPSA and PV may vary with PSA level and that fPSA is more powerful at predicting PV only in the ''gray zone'' (PSA levels of 2.5-9.9 ng ml), but its performance was similar to that of tPSA at PSA levels of <2.5 ng ml.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/aja202217DOI Listing
May 2022

Development of certified reference materials for four polyunsaturated fatty acid esters.

Food Chem 2022 Apr 20;389:133006. Epub 2022 Apr 20.

Third Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resource, Xiamen, Fujian 361005, PR China; Engineering Research Center of Marine Biological Resource Comprehensive Utilization, Ministry of Natural Resource, Xiamen, Fujian 361005, PR China.

Certified reference materials (CRMs) with high accuracy and traceability are essential tools for the validation of analytical methods and calibration of equipment. In this study, purity CRMs for four polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) esters, namely, cis-(4,7,10,13,16,19)- Docosahexaenoic acid methyl ester (DHA-ME), cis-4,7,10,13,16,19- Docosahexaenoic acid ethyl ester (DHA-EE), cis-(5,8,11,14,17)- Eicosapentaenoic acid methyl ester (EPA-ME) and cis-(5,8,11,14,17)- Eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester (EPA-EE), were first developed according to the ISO Guide. The CRMs' purity values were assigned based on the average of quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance and mass balance approaches. The certified value with expanded uncertainties (k = 2, 95% confidence interval) were determined to be (98.8 ± 0.4) %, (99.0 ± 0.3) %, (98.9 ± 0.4) % and (98.9 ± 0.4) % for DHA-ME, DHA-EE, EPA-ME and EPA-EE, respectively. The four PUFAs esters were homogeneous and stable for 12 months at -4 °C and 7 days at 50 °C.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2022.133006DOI Listing
April 2022

A necroptosis-related gene signature for predicting prognosis, immune landscape, and drug sensitivity in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Cancer Med 2022 May 13. Epub 2022 May 13.

Department of General Surgery, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, P. R. China.

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains a growing threat to global health. Necroptosis is a newly discovered form of cell necrosis that plays a vital role in cancer development. Thus, we conducted this study to identify a predictive signature of HCC based on necroptosis-related genes.

Methods: The tumor samples in the liver hepatocellular carcinoma (LIHC) cohort from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database were subtyped using the consensus clustering algorithm. Univariate Cox regression and LASSO-Cox analysis were performed to identify a gene signature from genes differentially expressed between tumor clusters. Then, we integrated the TNM stage and the prognostic model to build a nomogram. The gene signature and the nomogram were externally validated in the GSE14520 cohort from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and the LIRP-JP cohort from the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC). Evaluations of predictive performance evaluations were conducted using Kaplan-Meier plots, time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curves, principal component analyses, concordance indices, and decision curve analyses. The tumor microenvironment was estimated using eight published methods. Finally, we forecasted the sensitivity of HCC patients to immunotherapy and chemotherapy based on this gene signature.

Results: We identified two necroptosis-related clusters and a 10-gene signature (MTMR2, CDCA8, S100A9, ANXA10, G6PD, SLC1A5, SLC2A1, SPP1, PLOD2, and MMP1). The gene signature and the nomogram had good predictive ability in the TCGA, ICGC, and GEO cohorts. The risk score was positively associated with the levels of necroptosis and immune cell infiltrations (especially of immunosuppressive cells). The high-risk group could benefit more from immunotherapy and some chemotherapeutics than the low-risk group.

Conclusion: The necroptosis-related gene signature provides a new method for the risk stratification and treatment optimization of HCC. The nomogram can further improve predictive accuracy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.4812DOI Listing
May 2022

The Role and Mechanism of Lysine Methyltransferase and Arginine Methyltransferase in Kidney Diseases.

Front Pharmacol 2022 26;13:885527. Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Department of Nephrology, Shanghai East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Methylation can occur in both histones and non-histones. Key lysine and arginine methyltransferases under investigation for renal disease treatment include enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), G9a, disruptor of telomeric silencing 1-like protein (DOT1L), and protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMT) 1 and 5. Recent studies have shown that methyltransferases expression and activity are also increased in several animal models of kidney injury, such as acute kidney injury(AKI), obstructive nephropathy, diabetic nephropathy and lupus nephritis. The inhibition of most methyltransferases can attenuate kidney injury, while the role of methyltransferase in different animal models remains controversial. In this article, we summarize the role and mechanism of lysine methyltransferase and arginine methyltransferase in various kidney diseases and highlight methyltransferase as a potential therapeutic target for kidney diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2022.885527DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9086358PMC
April 2022

Association between Blood and CT Imaging Biomarkers in a Cohort of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Patients.

J Neurotrauma 2022 May 11. Epub 2022 May 11.

Stanford University Department of Radiology, 209657, Radiology, Neuroradiology Division, 300 Pasteur Dr, Grant Building S047, Stanford, California, United States, 94305-5105;

Objective: To analyze the relationships between traumatic brain injury (TBI) on CT imaging and blood concentration of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1), and S100B.

Methods: This prospective cohort study involved 644 TBI patients referred to Stanford Hospital's Emergency Department between November 2015 and April 2017. Plasma and serum samples of 462 patients were analyzed for levels of GFAP, UCH-L1 and S100B. Glial neuronal ratio (GNR) was calculated as the ratio between GFAP and UCH-L1 concentrations. Admission head CT scans were reviewed for TBI imaging common data elements, and performance of biomarkers for identifying TBI was assessed via area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). We also dichotomized biomarkers at established thresholds and estimated standard measures of classification accuracy. We assessed the ability of GFAP, UCH-L1 and GNR to discriminate small and large/diffuse lesions based on CT imaging using an ROC analysis.

Results: In our cohort of mostly mild TBI patients, GFAP was significantly more accurate in detecting all types of acute brain injuries than UCH-L1 in terms of area under the curves (AUC) values (P<0.001), and also compared to S100B (P<0.001). UCH-L1 and S100B had similar performance (comparable AUC values, P=0.342). Sensitivity exceeded 0.8 for each biomarker across all different types of TBI injuries, and no significant differences were observed by type of injury. Significant differences of GFAP and GNR distinguished between small lesions and large/diffuse lesions in all injuries (P=0.004, P=0.007).

Conclusions: GFAP, UCH-L1, and S100B show high sensitivity and negative predictive values for all types of TBI lesions on head CT. A combination of negative blood biomarkers (GFAP and UCH-L1) in a patient suspected of TBI may be used to safely obviate the need for a head CT scan. GFAP is a promising indicator to discriminate between small and large/diffuse TBI lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/neu.2021.0390DOI Listing
May 2022

Application value of a new lesion positioning stickers in breast lesion surface localization.

Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2022 Feb;47(2):238-243

Department of Radiology, First Hospital of Changsha, Changsha 410005, China.

Objectives: Accurate breast lesion surface localization can guarantee accurate biopsy and local treatment. But there is no guideline to regular equipment and methods for the localization of breast lesions. The conventional non-invasive localization method is marker-based localization. The advantages of this method are simple and efficient. The disadvantages are that markers disappear easily under coupling agents; the positioning length of markers cannot last long on skin; and healthcare associated infection due to many patients using the same marker pen is potentially unavoidable. Breast lesion sticker (called sticker for short) is a new-type localization medical instrument in 2020. Our study aims to explore the clinical value of a new lesion stickers in breast lesion surface localization via comparison of the sticker and marker pen localization methods.

Methods: This was a prospective cohort study. It was conducted in 67 patients who needed breast lesion surface localization before biopsy. The patients were randomly assigned into 2 groups. One group of patients used marker pen to mark breast lesion surface location by ultrasonography. The other group of patients used stickers. Patients labeled with markers on skin were swabbed agents before marking. Then the markers were checked by ultrasound scan. If the surface positions of breast lesion were not correct, the above procedure was repeated. In the sticker group, the stickers were released synchronously after the lesions were detected by ultrasound scan. Then locations were checked via scanning hole. If the surface positions of breast lesion were not correct, the above procedure was repeated. The accuracy of positioning, the length of positioning time and satisfaction of patients between the 2 groups were compared. The length of positioning time was calculated from the time when ultrasound detected the lesion to the time when the surface position of breast lesion was confirmed. The total score of patients' satisfaction was 5 points according to Service Quality Evaluation of SERVQUAL Scale, including sonographers' service attitude and their technical proficiency, other medical staffs' service attitude and their technical proficiency, hospital service procedures, positioning comfort, and positioning effects.

Results: All 67 patients were females, aged 18-66 (39.73±13.10). There were 35 patients in the marker pen group and 32 patients in the sticker group. The time length of group used marker pen to localization was 22-88 (52.20±2.90) s, and the sticker group was 3-15 (9.22±0.58) s in length. The length of positioning time for the stickers was significantly shorter than that of the marker (<0.01). Both methods were accurate in the surface localization of lesions before operation. The total scores of patients' satisfaction was 4-5 (4.92±0.02) in the stickers group, and 1-5 (3.35±0.10) in the marker pen group. The patients' satisfaction scores with the sticker were significantly higher than those with the marker pen (<0.01). The length of positioning time and patients' satisfication scores for sonographer with 20 years' working experience were shorter and higher than those of sonographer with 10 years' working experience, respectively (both <0.05).

Conclusions: The new breast lesion positioning stickers have more advantages than the marker pen in localization efficiency. It could reduce the workload of medical workers and increase patients' satisfaction to some extent. The stickers can be used not only in the breast lesions surface localization, but also in the skin location of pleural effusion and ascites, the skin location of surface masses, the skin location of thyroid nodule, and many other clinical marker areas, to further expand the scope of clinical application and value of the stickers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11817/j.issn.1672-7347.2022.210388DOI Listing
February 2022

Application value of a new lesion positioning stickers in breast lesion surface localization.

Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2022 Feb;47(2):238-243

Department of Radiology, First Hospital of Changsha, Changsha 410005, China.

Objectives: Accurate breast lesion surface localization can guarantee accurate biopsy and local treatment. But there is no guideline to regular equipment and methods for the localization of breast lesions. The conventional non-invasive localization method is marker-based localization. The advantages of this method are simple and efficient. The disadvantages are that markers disappear easily under coupling agents; the positioning length of markers cannot last long on skin; and healthcare associated infection due to many patients using the same marker pen is potentially unavoidable. Breast lesion sticker (called sticker for short) is a new-type localization medical instrument in 2020. Our study aims to explore the clinical value of a new lesion stickers in breast lesion surface localization via comparison of the sticker and marker pen localization methods.

Methods: This was a prospective cohort study. It was conducted in 67 patients who needed breast lesion surface localization before biopsy. The patients were randomly assigned into 2 groups. One group of patients used marker pen to mark breast lesion surface location by ultrasonography. The other group of patients used stickers. Patients labeled with markers on skin were swabbed agents before marking. Then the markers were checked by ultrasound scan. If the surface positions of breast lesion were not correct, the above procedure was repeated. In the sticker group, the stickers were released synchronously after the lesions were detected by ultrasound scan. Then locations were checked via scanning hole. If the surface positions of breast lesion were not correct, the above procedure was repeated. The accuracy of positioning, the length of positioning time and satisfaction of patients between the 2 groups were compared. The length of positioning time was calculated from the time when ultrasound detected the lesion to the time when the surface position of breast lesion was confirmed. The total score of patients' satisfaction was 5 points according to Service Quality Evaluation of SERVQUAL Scale, including sonographers' service attitude and their technical proficiency, other medical staffs' service attitude and their technical proficiency, hospital service procedures, positioning comfort, and positioning effects.

Results: All 67 patients were females, aged 18-66 (39.73±13.10). There were 35 patients in the marker pen group and 32 patients in the sticker group. The time length of group used marker pen to localization was 22-88 (52.20±2.90) s, and the sticker group was 3-15 (9.22±0.58) s in length. The length of positioning time for the stickers was significantly shorter than that of the marker (<0.01). Both methods were accurate in the surface localization of lesions before operation. The total scores of patients' satisfaction was 4-5 (4.92±0.02) in the stickers group, and 1-5 (3.35±0.10) in the marker pen group. The patients' satisfaction scores with the sticker were significantly higher than those with the marker pen (<0.01). The length of positioning time and patients' satisfication scores for sonographer with 20 years' working experience were shorter and higher than those of sonographer with 10 years' working experience, respectively (both <0.05).

Conclusions: The new breast lesion positioning stickers have more advantages than the marker pen in localization efficiency. It could reduce the workload of medical workers and increase patients' satisfaction to some extent. The stickers can be used not only in the breast lesions surface localization, but also in the skin location of pleural effusion and ascites, the skin location of surface masses, the skin location of thyroid nodule, and many other clinical marker areas, to further expand the scope of clinical application and value of the stickers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11817/j.issn.1672-7347.2022.210388DOI Listing
February 2022

Preparation of activated carbon from sewage sludge using green activator and its performance on dye wastewater treatment.

Environ Technol 2022 May 11:1-35. Epub 2022 May 11.

School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Dianji University, 300 Shuihua Road, Shanghai 201306, China.

The remediation of dyes in wastewater using activated carbon produced from sewage sludge pyrolysis char (PYC) is an environmentally friendly and sustainable process. However, traditional activators can cause corrosion of the processing facility, thereby increasing the costs of waste disposal. Here, activated carbons were prepared from sewage sludge PYC, and the effects of activation conditions (different activators, temperature and time, and char:activator mass ratio) on their specific surface areas and adsorption of iodine and methylene blue (MB; model dye) were studied. The results showed that a value of 952 m/g could be attained for the specific surface area and values of 882 and 162 mg/g for the adsorption of iodine and MB, respectively, by heating PYC with KHCO (PYC- KHCO: 1:2 w/w) for 60 min at 800 ℃. Compared with activation by KOH, the adsorption of MB using PYC-KHCO was slightly lower but the yield was 13.7% higher. Optimization of the activation process using surface response modelling indicated that sensitivity of three key factors to the adsorption of iodine and MB followed the order: Mass ratio > temperature > time. Systematic investigation of the effects of time, pH and temperature on the removal of MB by the activated carbon revealed that adsorption conformed to the Langmuir model and pseudo-second-order kinetics. The proposed mechanisms of MB adsorption involved ion exchange, functional group complexation and physical/π-π interactions. This study provides a basis for the efficient remediation of dyes in wastewater using activated carbon prepared from sustainable sewage sludge PYC and green chemistry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2022.2077130DOI Listing
May 2022

Bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation for refractory isolated cervical dystonia.

Sci Rep 2022 May 10;12(1):7678. Epub 2022 May 10.

Department of Neurosurgery, Aerospace Center Hospital, No. 15, Yuquan Road, Haidian District, Beijing, China.

Subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been proven to be an alternative target choice for refractory isolated cervical dystonia (CD). However, assessments of its short and long-term safety, efficacy, and sustained effectiveness have been limited to few reports. Here, we evaluated nine consecutive refractory isolated CD patients who underwent bilateral STN DBS and accepted to short and long-term follow-up in this retrospective study. Seven time points were used to see the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS) scores (pre-operation [baseline], 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 months post-operation and last follow-up) to assess improvement of dystonic symptoms. The 36-item Short-Form General Health Survey (SF-36) scores obtained at pre-operation and last follow-up to assess the changes in quality of life. All patients tolerated surgery well and acquired observable clinical benefits from STN DBS therapy. All patients achieved a considerable improvement in quality of life at the last follow-up. The hardware-related adverse events can be tolerated and the stimulation-related adverse events can be ameliorated by programming. Our data support the idea that bilateral STN DBS is a safety and effective method for the treatment of refractory isolated CD, with persistent and remarkable improvement in both movement and quality of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-11841-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9090754PMC
May 2022

Global, regional and national burden of autism spectrum disorder from 1990 to 2019: results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019.

Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci 2022 May 10;31:e33. Epub 2022 May 10.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Aims: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition, with symptoms appearing in the early developmental period. Little is known about its current burden at the global, regional and national levels. This systematic analysis aims to summarise the latest magnitudes and temporal trends of ASD burden, which is essential to facilitate more detailed development of prevention and intervention strategies.

Methods: The data on ASD incidence, prevalence, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in 204 countries and territories between 1990 and 2019 came from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. The average annual percentage change was calculated to quantify the secular trends in age-standardised rates (ASRs) of ASD burden by region, sex and age.

Results: In 2019, there were an estimated 60.38 × 104 [95% uncertainty interval (UI) 50.17-72.01] incident cases of ASD, 283.25 × 105 (95% UI 235.01-338.11) prevalent cases and 43.07 × 105 (95% UI 28.22-62.32) DALYs globally. The ASR of incidence slightly increased by around 0.06% annually over the past three decades, while the ASRs of prevalence and DALYs both remained stable over the past three decades. In 2019, the highest burden of ASD was observed in high-income regions, especially in high-income North America, high-income Asia Pacific and Western Europe, where a significant growth in ASRs was also observed. The ASR of ASD burden in males was around three times that of females, but the gender difference was shrunk with the pronounced increase among females. Of note, among the population aged over 65 years, the burden of ASD presented increasing trends globally.

Conclusions: The global burden of ASD continues to increase and remains a major mental health concern. These substantial heterogeneities in ASD burden worldwide highlight the need for making suitable mental-related policies and providing special social and health services.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S2045796022000178DOI Listing
May 2022

Meclofenamic Acid Restores Gefinitib Sensitivity by Downregulating Breast Cancer Resistance Protein and Multidrug Resistance Protein 7 FTO/m6A-Demethylation/c-Myc in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

Front Oncol 2022 21;12:870636. Epub 2022 Apr 21.

Department of Lung Cancer, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin's Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin Lung Cancer Center, Tianjin, China.

Background And Objective: Gefitinib (GE) is a first-line epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) carrying EGFR activating mutations. However, drug resistance limits the clinical efficacy of gefitinib and ultimately leads to extremely poor clinical benefit. Meclofenamic acid (MA) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that relieves moderate and severe pain. In the present study, we aim to determine the MA sensibilization of GE in NSCLC.

Methods: MTT assay was conducted to determine the synergistic effect of MA with GE in GE-sensitive and -resistant cell lines based on the Chou-Talalay method. The Annexin V-PI flow cytometry analysis was conducted to evaluate apoptosis. Western blot assay was used to detect alterations of EGFR downstream molecules. Tritium-labeled GE accumulation analysis was used to determine the efflux activity of GE. Dot blot assays were conducted to determine m6A levels after the MA and GE co-administration. Western blot evaluated the expression of FTO, c-Myc, MRP7, BCRP, and apoptotic proteins.

Results: MA showed a significant synergistic effect with GE in GE-resistant NSCLC cells; co-administration of MA with GE induced caspase-related apoptosis in resistant NSCLC cells. Moreover, EGFR downstream molecules, including Akt and MAPKs pathways, were significantly inhibited by the MA-GE combination. Short-term incubation of MA did not alter the efflux of GE; however, after incubation for 24 h, the accumulation of tritium-labeled GE significantly increased. A mechanism study showed that co-administration of MA and GE significantly downregulated BCRP and MRP7 expression in GE-resistant cells; increased N6-methylation was also observed after co-administration. The FTO/c-Myc was determined as target pathways on MA and GE co-administration mechanisms.

Conclusion: Our findings provide novel therapeutic approaches for GE-resistant NSCLC by combination use with MA through FTO-mediated N6-demethylation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2022.870636DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9069108PMC
April 2022

Corrigendum: Altered Topological Organization of Functional Brain Networks in Betel Quid Dependence: A Resting-State Functional MRI Study.

Front Psychiatry 2022 22;13:912951. Epub 2022 Apr 22.

Department of Radiology, Hainan General Hospital (Hainan Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical University), Haikou, China.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fpsyt.2021.779878.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2022.912951DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9074830PMC
April 2022

Effects of air pollution on human health - Mechanistic evidence suggested by in vitro and in vivo modelling.

Environ Res 2022 May 4;212(Pt C):113378. Epub 2022 May 4.

Renal Research Laboratory, Kolling Institute of Medical Research, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia. Electronic address:

Airborne particulate matter (PM) comprises both solid and liquid particles, including carbon, sulphates, nitrate, and toxic heavy metals, which can induce oxidative stress and inflammation after inhalation. These changes occur both in the lung and systemically, due to the ability of the small-sized PM (i.e. diameters ≤2.5 μm, PM) to enter and circulate in the bloodstream. As such, in 2016, airborne PM caused ∼4.2 million premature deaths worldwide. Acute exposure to high levels of airborne PM (eg. during wildfires) can exacerbate pre-existing illnesses leading to hospitalisation, such as in those with asthma and coronary heart disease. Prolonged exposure to PM can increase the risk of non-communicable chronic diseases affecting the brain, lung, heart, liver, and kidney, although the latter is less well studied. Given the breadth of potential disease, it is critical to understand the mechanisms underlying airborne PM exposure-induced disorders. Establishing aetiology in humans is difficult, therefore, in-vitro and in-vivo studies can provide mechanistic insights. We describe acute health effects (e.g. exacerbations of asthma) and long term health effects such as the induction of chronic inflammatory lung disease, and effects outside the lung (e.g. liver and renal change). We will focus on oxidative stress and inflammation as this is the common mechanism of PM-induced disease, which may be used to develop effective treatments to mitigate the adverse health effect of PM exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2022.113378DOI Listing
May 2022

In-utero exposure to air pollution and early-life neural development and cognition.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2022 Jun 4;238:113589. Epub 2022 May 4.

School of Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Technology Sydney, NSW 2007, Australia.

Air pollution remains one of the major health threats around the world. Compared to adults, foetuses and infants are more vulnerable to the effects of environmental toxins. Maternal exposure to air pollution causes several adverse birth outcomes and may lead to life-long health consequences. Given that a healthy intrauterine environment is a critical factor for supporting normal foetal brain development, there is a need to understand how prenatal exposure to air pollution affects brain health and results in neurological dysfunction. This review summarised the current knowledge on the adverse effects of prenatal air pollution exposure on early life neurodevelopment and subsequent impairment of cognition and behaviour in childhood, as well as the potential of early-onset neurodegeneration. While inflammation, oxidative stress, and endoplasmic reticulum are closely involved in the physiological response, sex differences also occur. In general, males are more susceptible than females to the adverse effect of in-utero air pollution exposure. Considering the evidence provided in this review and the rising concerns of global air pollution, any efforts to reduce pollutant emission or exposure will be protective for the next generation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2022.113589DOI Listing
June 2022

The global burden of disease attributable to ambient fine particulate matter in 204 countries and territories, 1990-2019: A systematic analysis of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2022 Jun 5;238:113588. Epub 2022 May 5.

Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, People's Republic of China; Clinical Research Center of Shandong University, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Understanding the spatio-temporal patterns of the disease burden attributable to ambient PM2.5 across the world is essential for the prevention of related diseases, as well as ambient PM2.5 control. Following the framework and methodology of the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) in 2019, the global, regional, and national data on ambient PM2.5-attributable death and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), and the age-standardized rates of mortality (ASMR) and disability-adjusted life years (ASDR) were summarized based on age, gender, year, location and specific diseases. We calculated the average annual percentage change (AAPC) to depict the secular trends of ASMR and ASDR from 1990 to 2019. In 2019, the global ambient PM2.5-related deaths and DALYs were 4,140,970 and 118.2 million, respectively, with 1,702,150 deaths and 47.5 million DALYs for females and 2,438,820 deaths and 70.7 million DALYs for male. In the 13 level-three causes, ischemic heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive and pulmonary disease (COPD) were the leading three causes of deaths and DALYs attributable to ambient PM2.5. The number of global deaths and DALYs attributable to ambient PM2.5 has increased by 102.3% and 67.7% from 1990 to 2019, respectively. However, ASMR and ASDR showed little change. In the 13 level-three diseases, ischemic heart disease, stroke, COPD, diabetes mellitus, and lung cancer were the top five contributors to the increase of global deaths or DALYs, among which diabetes mellitus had the fastest increase of ASMR and ASDR, with AAPC of 1.5 (95% CI: 1.43, 1.58) and 2.21 (95% CI: 2.15, 2.27), respectively. The population attributable fractions (PAF) of causes in ASMR or ASDR varied significantly across regions, of which PAF of COPD, stroke and lung cancer were the top three. Regarding the GBD region, high PAF mainly occurred in North Africa and Middle East, South Asia, and East Asia. The age-specific PAFs of ischemic heart disease and stroke deaths and DALYs due to ambient PM2.5 were negatively correlated with age. ASMR and ASDR of overall PM2.5 related-burden showed an inverted "V/U" relationship with the socio-demographic index (SDI). The AAPC of ASMR and ASDR of the overall causes showed a strong negative correlation with SDI in 2019, especially at the SDI larger than 0.5. The deaths and DALYs attributable to ambient PM2.5 continued to increase under the context of population growth and aging. Decision-makers should consider controlling the PM2.5 emission when developing the economy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2022.113588DOI Listing
June 2022

Burden of pancreatic cancer along with attributable risk factors in China from 1990 to 2019, and projections until 2030.

Pancreatology 2022 Apr 28. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, China; Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, China; Clinical Research Center of Shandong University, Qilu Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: Understanding epidemiology trends and patterns of pancreatic cancer in China from 1990 to 2019 and predicting the burden to 2030 will provide foundations for future policies development.

Methods: We collected incidence, mortality, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) data of pancreatic cancer in China from 1990 to 2019 based on the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. We calculated the estimated annual percentage change (EAPC) to depict the trends of pancreatic cancer burden and predicted the incidence and mortality in the next decade by using a Bayesian age-period-cohort analysis.

Results: The number of incident cases sharply increased from 26.77 thousand in 1990 to 114.96 thousand in 2019, the age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR) nearly doubled from 3.17 per 100,000 in 1990 to 5.78 per 100,000 in 2019, with an EAPC of 2.32 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.12, 2.51). The mortality and DALYs presented a similar pattern with incidence. The dominant risk factor for pancreatic cancer was smoking, but the contribution of high body-mass index increased from 1990 to 2019. We projected that the incident cases and deaths of pancreatic cancer would increase to 218.79 thousand and 222.97 thousand, respectively, in 2030 with around 2 times growth.

Conclusions: During the past three decades, the incidence, mortality and DALYs of pancreatic cancer gradually increased in China, and the absolute number and rate of pancreatic cancer burden would continue to rise over the next decade. Comprehensive policies and strategies need to be implemented to reduce the incidence and mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pan.2022.04.011DOI Listing
April 2022

Visual function in children with posterior lens opacities before and after surgery.

Am J Ophthalmol 2022 May 2. Epub 2022 May 2.

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: To evaluate the visual function before and after cataract surgery in children with congenital posterior lens opacities as well as the factors associated with a good visual outcome.

Design: Perspective case-series study.

Methods: Pediatric patients with posterior lens opacities who underwent cataract surgery were recruited in this study. The cataract type, location, area of opacities and strabismus were examined perioperatively. Moreover, visual acuity, modulation transfer function (MTF), ocular aberrations and stereopsis were measured before and after cataract surgery.

Results: Sixty-nine eyes of 63 patients were studied. The mean age of patients at surgery was 6.5 ± 2.9 years. Visual function including corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), MTF cut-off frequency, and ocular aberrations were significantly affected in eyes with posterior lens opacities. Postoperatively, CDVA was significantly improved from (0.81 ± 0.53) logMAR to (0.40 ± 0.40) logMAR (P < 0.001). 39 (56.5%) patients achieved a final visual acuity of 20/40 or better. Moreover, MTF cut-off values were significantly improved, and total ocular aberrations were decreased after cataract removal (both P < 0.001). The stereopsis was also improved postoperatively (P < 0.001). The multivariate analysis of the risk factors for postoperative CDVA showed that worse preoperative CDVA, larger size of lens opacities and mean keratometry were the risk factors (all P < 0.05).

Conclusions: Visual function can be significantly decreased in children with posterior lens opacities, and surgery was effective in improving visual function. Patients with a CDVA of 0.52 logMAR or better, a size of lens opacity less than 6.5 mm and smaller mean keratometry had a greater CDVA postoperatively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajo.2022.04.018DOI Listing
May 2022

Multiple PHT1 family phosphate transporters are recruited for mycorrhizal symbiosis in Eucalyptus grandis and conserved PHT1;4 is a requirement for the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.

Tree Physiol 2022 May 5. Epub 2022 May 5.

State Key Laboratory of Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-Bioresources, Guangdong Laboratory for Lingnan Modern Agriculture, Guangdong Key Laboratory for Innovative Development and Utilization of Forest Plant Germplasm, College of Forestry and Landscape Architecture, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, P.R. China.

Eucalypts engage in a mutualistic endosymbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi to acquire mineral nutrients from soils, particularly inorganic phosphate (Pi). In return, the host plant provides organic carbons to its fungal partners. However, the mechanism by which the Eucalyptus plants acquire Pi released from the AM fungi has remained elusive. In this study, we investigated the characterization of potential PHOSPHATE TRANSPORTER1 (PHT1) family Pi transporters in AM symbiosis in Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden. We show that multiple PHT1 family Pi transporters were recruited for AM symbiosis in E. grandis. We further report that EgPT4, an E. grandis member of the PHT1 family, is conserved across angiosperms and is exclusively expressed in AM roots with arbuscule-containing cells and localizes to the peri-arbuscular membrane. EgPT4 was able to complement a yeast mutant strain defective in all inorganic Pi transporters and mediate Pi uptake. Importantly, EgPT4 is essential for improved E. grandis growth, total phosphorous (P) concentration and arbuscule development during symbiosis. Moreover, silencing of EgPT4 led to the induction of polyphosphate accumulation relevant genes of Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM 197198. Collectively, our results unravel a pivotal role for EgPT4 in symbiotic Pi transport across the periarbuscular membrane (PAM) required for arbuscule development in E. grandis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/treephys/tpac050DOI Listing
May 2022

miRNAs-mediated overexpression of Periostin is correlated with poor prognosis and immune infiltration in lung squamous cell carcinoma.

Aging (Albany NY) 2022 May 4;14(9):3757-3781. Epub 2022 May 4.

School of Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2007, Australia.

Lung cancer is one of the most common malignancies with a high mortality rate worldwide. POSTN has been shown to be strongly correlated with the poor prognosis of lung cancer patients. However, the function and mechanism of action of POSTN in lung cancer remain unclear. Here, we carried out a pan-cancer analysis to assess the clinical prognostic value of POSTN based on the TCGA, TIMER, Oncomine, Kaplan-Meier, and UALCAN databases. We found that upregulated POSTN can be a promising biomarker to predict the prognosis of patients with lung cancer. High levels of POSTN correlated with immune cell infiltration in lung cancer, especially lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC), which was further confirmed based on the results from the TISIDB database. Moreover, the expression analysis, correlation analysis, and survival analysis revealed that POSTN-targeted miRNAs, downregulation of has-miR-144-3p and has-miR-30e-3p, were significantly linked to poor prognosis in patients with LUSC. Taken together, we identified that POSTN can act as a novel biomarker for determining the prognosis related to immune infiltration in patients with LUSC and deserves further research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.204056DOI Listing
May 2022
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