Publications by authors named "Hui Chai"

52 Publications

UPLC-MS/MS assay for the simultaneous determination of pyrotinib and its oxidative metabolite in rat plasma: Application to a pharmacokinetic study.

Biomed Chromatogr 2021 Jul 31:e5221. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Laboratory, Xiangyang City Central Blood Station, Xiangyang, Hubei Province, China.

Pyrotinib is an irreversible EGFR/HER2 inhibitor that has been approved for the treatment of breast cancer. The aim of this work was to establish a quantification method for the simultaneous determination of pyrotinib and its metabolite pyrotinib-lactam in rat plasma using UPLC-MS/MS. After simple protein precipitation with acetonitrile, the analytes and internal standard (neratinib) were separated on an ACQUITY BEH C column (2.1 × 50 mm, 1.7 μm) using a mobile phase of water containing 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile. The detection was performed using selected reaction monitoring mode with precursor-to-product ion transitions at m/z 583.2 > 138.1 for pyrotinib, m/z 597.2 > 152.1 for pyrotinib-lactam, and m/z 557.2 > 112.1 for internal standard. The assay exhibited excellent linearity in the concentration range of 0.5-1000 ng/mL for pyrotinib and pyrotinib-lactam. The assay met the criteria of the United States Food and Drug Administration-validated bioanalytical methods and was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of pyrotinib and its metabolite for the first time. Our results demonstrated that pyrotinib rapidly converted into pyrotinib-lactam, whose in vivo exposure was 21% that of pyrotinib.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bmc.5221DOI Listing
July 2021

Rapid training of non-intensivists using an online critical care course during COVID-19.

Ann Acad Med Singap 2021 06;50(6):503-507

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore.

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June 2021

Upregulated SOCC and IP3R calcium channels and subsequent elevated cytoplasmic calcium signaling promote nonalcoholic fatty liver disease by inhibiting autophagy.

Mol Cell Biochem 2021 Aug 17;476(8):3163-3175. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of General Practice, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, 310053, Zhejiang, China.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is related to elevated cytoplasmic calcium signaling in hepatocytes, which may be mediated by store-operated calcium channel (SOCC) and inositol triphosphate receptor (IP3R). However, the regulatory effect of calcium signaling on lipid accumulation and degeneration in hepatocytes and the underlying molecular mechanism remain unknown. Autophagy inhibition promotes lipid accumulation and steatosis in hepatocytes. However, the association between elevated calcium signaling and autophagy inhibition in hepatocytes and its effect on hepatocyte fatty lesions remain unclear. Here, we established a mouse hepatocyte fatty gradient model using oleic acid. SOCC and IP3R channel opening and cytoplasmic calcium levels gradually increased with the hepatocyte pimelosis degree, whereas autophagy gradually decreased. We also established an optimal oleic acid (OOA) hepatocyte model, observing significantly increased SOCC and IP3R channel opening and calcium influx alongside significantly decreased autophagy and aggravated cellular fatty lesion. Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and calcium channel gene silencing reagents (CCGSRs), respectively, reversed these effects, indicating that elevated cytoplasmic calcium signaling promotes NAFLD occurrence and the development by inhibiting hepatocyte autophagy. In the OOA model, upregulated extracellular regulated protein kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), which can be regulated by SOCC and IP3R proteins transient receptor potential canonical 1 (TRPC1)/IP3R with elevated cytoplasmic calcium signaling, over-inhibited forkhead/winged helix O (FOXO) signaling and over-activated mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling. Over-inhibited FOXO signaling significantly downregulated autophagy-related gene 12, which inhibits autophagosome maturation, while over-activated mTORC1 signaling over-inactivated Unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1, which inhibits preautophagosome formation. CCBs and CCGSRs recovered autophagy by significantly downregulating ERK1/2 to block abnormal changes in FOXO and mTORC1 signaling. Our findings indicate that upregulated SOCC and IP3R channels and subsequent elevated cytoplasmic calcium signaling in hepatocyte fatty lesions inhibits hepatocyte autophagy through (TRPC1/IP3R)/ERK/(FOXO/mTORC1) signaling pathways, causes lipid accumulation and degeneration in hepatocytes, and promotes NAFLD occurrence and development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11010-021-04150-0DOI Listing
August 2021

Insight into the Crystal Structures and Surface Property of Manganese Oxide on CO Catalytic Oxidation Performance.

Inorg Chem 2021 Apr 30;60(8):5812-5820. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Key Laboratory of Energy Materials Chemistry, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Autonomous Region, College of Chemistry, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046, Xinjiang, China.

α-MnO nanorods and flower-like γ-MnO microspheres were synthesized by facile and mild methods to illustrate the effect of crystal structures and surface features on catalytic performance with the help of carbon monoxide (CO) oxidation. It is revealed that the flower-like γ-MnO microspheres possess better catalytic oxidation performance (CO complete conversion temperature at 120 °C and long-time stability for 50 h) than α-MnO nanorods, which can be attributed to the obvious differences in the chemical bonds and linking modes of [MnO] octahedra due to the different crystal structures. γ-MnO possesses lower Mn-O bond strength that enables γ-MnO to present a large amount of surface lattice oxygen and superior oxygen mobility. The disordered random intergrowth tunnel structure can adsorb effectively CO molecules, resulting in excellent catalytic performance for CO catalytic oxidation. In addition, the MnO catalyst probably occurred via a Mars-van Krevelen mechanism for CO oxidation. This work provides an insight into the effect of crystal structures and surface property of manganese oxide on catalytic oxidation performance, which presents help for the future design of promising catalysts with excellent catalytic performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.1c00144DOI Listing
April 2021

Inhibition of TLR4/MAPKs Pathway Contributes to the Protection of Salvianolic Acid A Against Lipotoxicity-Induced Myocardial Damage in Cardiomyocytes and Obese Mice.

Front Pharmacol 2021 8;12:627123. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

College of Life Science, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, China.

The occurrence of lipotoxicity during obesity-associated cardiomyopathy is detrimental to health. Salvianolic acid A (SAA), a natural polyphenol extract of (Danshen in China), is known to be cardioprotective. However, its clinical benefits against obesity-associated cardiomyocyte injuries are unclear. This study aimed at evaluating the protective effects of SAA against lipotoxicity-induced myocardial injury and its underlying mechanisms in high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice and in palmitate-treated cardiomyocyte cells (H9c2). Our analysis of aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase isoenzyme-MB (CM-KB) levels revealed that SAA significantly reversed HFD-induced myocardium morphological changes and improved myocardial damage. Salvianolic acid A pretreatment ameliorated palmitic acid-induced myocardial cell death and was accompanied by mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular reactive oxygen species improvement. Analysis of the underlying mechanisms showed that SAA reversed myocardial TLR4 induction in HFD-fed mice and H9c2 cells. Palmitic acid-induced cell death was significantly reversed by CLI-95, a specific TLR4 inhibitor. TLR4 activation by LPS significantly suppressed SAA-mediated lipotoxicity protection. Additionally, SAA inhibited lipotoxicity-mediated expression of TLR4 target genes, including MyD88 and -JNK/MAPK in HFD-fed mice and H9c2 cells. However, SAA did not exert any effect on palmitic acid-induced SIRT1 suppression and -AMPK induction. In conclusion, our data shows that SAA protects against lipotoxicity-induced myocardial damage through a TLR4/MAPKs mediated mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.627123DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7982403PMC
March 2021

Impact of fibrin glue versus suture closure on double-headed pterygia in Asian eyes - a 7-year study in a tertiary institution.

Ann Med 2021 12;53(1):448-455

Department of Ophthalmology, National University Hospital, Singapore, Singapore.

Background: To compare the recurrence rate and outcomes of double-headed pterygia using fibrin glue versus suture closure of conjunctival autograft.

Methods: All patients with double-headed pterygia who underwent pterygia excision with conjunctival autograft from January 2012 to January 2019 in the National University Hospital of Singapore were included. Patients were divided into 2 groups depending on whether fibrin glue or sutures were used to secure the conjunctival autograft in place. All patients had a minimum of 6 months follow-up.

Results: A total (26 patients) of 22 eyes had fibrin glue, while eight eyes underwent suture closure of their conjunctival autograft. Fibrin glue group had 4.5% recurrence rate, while suture group had 37.5% recurrence rate ( = .021). There is statistically significant improvement for overall visual acuity ( = .009) and cylinder ( = .002). There is also statistically significant improvement for visual acuity in the glue group ( = .026), but not in the suture group. Fibrin glue group had a shorter operation duration time compared to suture group ( < .001).There were no cases of graft dislocation, contraction or limbal stem cell deficiency.

Conclusions: Low recurrence rates and good postoperative visual outcomes can be achieved with the split conjunctival autograft technique. Our study suggests that fibrin glue has an additional benefit over the use of sutures in the management of these complex cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07853890.2021.1901304DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7993389PMC
December 2021

Dysregulation of the miR-1275/HK2 Axis Contributes to the Progression of Hypoxia/Reoxygenation-Induced Myocardial Injury.

Arch Med Res 2021 Jul 5;52(5):461-470. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Department of Cardiology, The First Peoples Hospital of Lanzhou, Lanzhou, P.R. China. Electronic address:

Objective: This research was designed to investigate the function of miR-1275 in hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced myocardial injury and its in-depth mechanism.

Methods: Firstly, the differential expression of miR-1275 in patients with heart failure and healthy control were analyzed based on Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Then H/R model was constructed in vitro with AC16 cells. The qRT-PCR assay was performed to analyze the expression of miR-1275 in H/R-treated cells. Afterwards, CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry assay were carried out to detect the cells viability and apoptosis. Bioinformatics prediction, western blotting and dual-luciferase reporter assays were set to check the target gene of miR-1275. Finally, we used an Elisa to test the effect of miR-1275/HK2 axis on inflammatory factors.

Results: We found that miR-1275 was highly expressed in patients with heart failure and H/R treated AC16 cells than that in control group, and inhibition of miR-1275 can alleviate induced-decrease of cell viability. Subsequently, we revealed that HK2 was a downstream target gene of miR-1275, which was lowly expressed in patients with heart failure. Furthermore, our data also suggested that inhibition of miR-1275 can significantly alleviate H/R-induced myocardial injury, which can also markedly decrease the concentration of pro-inflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-1 β and increase the concentration of anti-inflammatory factors IL-10 in H/R-treated AC16 cells, while knockdown of HK2 canceled the effect caused by miR-1275 deletion.

Conclusions: In summing, our results illustrated that miR-1275/HK2 axis act as a potential regulator to against H/R-induced AC16 cells injury through anti-inflammatory effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arcmed.2021.01.006DOI Listing
July 2021

Ferulic acid alleviates lipotoxicity-induced hepatocellular death through the SIRT1-regulated autophagy pathway and independently of AMPK and Akt in AML-12 hepatocytes.

Nutr Metab (Lond) 2021 Jan 19;18(1):13. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

College of Basic Medicine and Public Health, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, 310053, China.

Background: Lipotoxicity-induced cell death plays a detrimental role in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases. Ferulic acid, widespread in plant-based food, is a radical scavenger with multiple bioactivities. However, the benefits of ferulic acid against hepatic lipotoxicity are largely unclear. Here, we investigated the protective effect of ferulic acid against palmitate-induced lipotoxicity and clarified its potential mechanisms in AML-12 hepatocytes.

Methods: AML-12 mouse hepatocytes were exposed to palmitate to mimic lipotoxicity. Different doses (25, 50, and 100 μM) of ferulic acid were added 2 h before palmitate treatment. Cell viability was detected by measuring lactate dehydrogenase release, nuclear staining, and the expression of cleaved-caspase-3. Intracellular reactive oxygen species content and mitochondrial membrane potential were analysed by fluorescent probes. The potential mechanisms were explored by molecular biological methods, including Western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR, and were further verified by siRNA interference.

Results: Our data showed that ferulic acid significantly inhibited palmitate-induced cell death, rescued mitochondrial membrane potential, reduced reactive oxygen species accumulation, and decreased inflammatory factor activation, including IL-6 and IL-1beta. Ferulic acid significantly stimulated autophagy in hepatocytes, whereas autophagy suppression blocked the protective effect of ferulic acid against lipotoxicity. Ferulic acid-activated autophagy, which was triggered by SIRT1 upregulation, was mechanistically involved in its anti-lipotoxicity effects. SIRT1 silencing blocked most beneficial changes induced by ferulic acid.

Conclusions: We demonstrated that the phytochemical ferulic acid, which is found in plant-based food, protected against hepatic lipotoxicity, through the SIRT1/autophagy pathway. Increased intake of ferulic acid-enriched food is a potential strategy to prevent and/or improve metabolic diseases with lipotoxicity as a typical pathological feature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12986-021-00540-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7814733PMC
January 2021

Bambara Groundnut: An Underutilized Leguminous Crop for Global Food Security and Nutrition.

Front Nutr 2020 10;7:601496. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Future Food Beacon Malaysia, University of Nottingham Malaysia, Semenyih, Malaysia.

Rapid population growth, climate change, intensive monoculture farming, and resource depletion are among the challenges that threaten the increasingly vulnerable global agri-food system. Heavy reliance on a few major crops is also linked to a monotonous diet, poor dietary habits, and micronutrient deficiencies, which are often associated with diet-related diseases. Diversification-of both agricultural production systems and diet-is a practical and sustainable approach to address these challenges and to improve global food and nutritional security. This strategy is aligned with the recommendations from the EAT-Lancet report, which highlighted the urgent need for increased consumption of plant-based foods to sustain population and planetary health. Bambara groundnut ( (L.) Verdc.), an underutilized African legume, has the potential to contribute to improved food and nutrition security, while providing solutions for environmental sustainability and equity in food availability and affordability. This paper discusses the potential role of Bambara groundnut in diversifying agri-food systems and contributing to enhanced dietary and planetary sustainability, with emphasis on areas that span the value chain: from genetics, agroecology, nutrition, processing, and utilization, through to its socioeconomic potential. Bambara groundnut is a sustainable, low-cost source of complex carbohydrates, plant-based protein, unsaturated fatty acids, and essential minerals (magnesium, iron, zinc, and potassium), especially for those living in arid and semi-arid regions. As a legume, Bambara groundnut fixes atmospheric nitrogen to improve soil fertility. It is resilient to adverse environmental conditions and can yield on poor soil. Despite its impressive nutritional and agroecological profile, the potential of Bambara groundnut in improving the global food system is undermined by several factors, including resource limitation, knowledge gap, social stigma, and lack of policy incentives. Multiple research efforts to address these hurdles have led to a more promising outlook for Bambara groundnut; however, there is an urgent need to continue research to realize its full potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2020.601496DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7758284PMC
December 2020

Activation of the AMPK-SIRT1 pathway contributes to protective effects of Salvianolic acid A against lipotoxicity in hepatocytes and NAFLD in mice.

Front Pharmacol 2020 30;11:560905. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Molecular Medicine Institute, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, China.

Salvianolic acid A (Sal A), a natural polyphenol compound extracted from (known as Danshen in China), possesses a variety of potential pharmacological activities. The aim of this study is to determine mechanisms of hepatoprotective effects of Sal A against lipotoxicity both in cultured hepatocytes and in a mouse model of fatty liver disease. High-fat and high-carbohydrate diet (HFCD)-fed C57BL/6J mice were employed to establish hepatic lipotoxicity in a mouse model. Two doses of Sal A were administered every other day via intraperitoneal injection (20 and 40 mg/kg BW, respectively). After a 10-week intervention, liver injury was detected by immunohistochemical and biochemical analyses. For studies, we used HepG2, a human hepatoma cell line, and exposed them to palmitic acid to induce lipotoxicity. The protective effects of Sal A on palmitic acid-induced lipotoxicity were examined in Sal A-pretreated HepG2 cells. Sal A treatments attenuated body weight gain, liver injury, and hepatic steatosis in mice exposed to HFCD. Sal A pretreatments ameliorated palmitic acid-induced cell death but did not reverse effects of HFCD- or palmitate-induced activations of JNK, ERK1/2, and PKA. Induction of p38 phosphorylation was significantly reversed by Sal A in HFCD-fed mice but not in palmitate-treated HepG2 cells. However, Sal A rescued hepatic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) suppression and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) downregulation by both HFCD feeding in mice and exposure to palmitate in HepG2 cells. Sal A dose-dependently up-regulated p-AMPK and SIRT1 protein levels. Importantly, siRNA silencing of either AMPK or SIRT1 gene expression abolished the protective effects of Sal A on lipotoxicity. Moreover, while AMPK silencing blocked Sal A-induced SIRT1, silencing of SIRT1 had no effect on Sal A-triggered AMPK activation, suggesting SIRT1 upregulation by Sal A is mediated by AMPK activation. Our data uncover a novel mechanism for hepatoprotective effects of Sal A against lipotoxicity both in livers from HFCD-fed mice and palmitic acid-treated hepatocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.560905DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7734334PMC
November 2020

Facile Synthesis of [email protected] [email protected] Nanocomposites as a Catalyst for 4-Nitrophenol and Methylene Blue Removal.

ACS Omega 2020 Aug 13;5(33):20903-20911. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

Institute for Clean Energy and Advanced Materials, School of Materials and Energy, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, P.R. China.

A facile, cost-effective, and eco-friendly method was proposed to synthesize [email protected] [email protected] nanocomposites ([email protected]@Au). First, FeO nanoparticles with diameters of 20 and 200 nm were synthesized by co-precipitation and solvothermal methods, respectively. Gold nanoparticles were deposited on magnetic FeO through tannic acid-metal-polymer intermediate-layer-mediated reductions. The catalytic activities of the as-prepared [email protected]@Au were investigated by spectroscopically monitoring the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) and methylene blue (MB), which could be achieved within several minutes with an excess of NaBH. The impact of the FeO size on the overall catalytic ability of the [email protected]@Au was systematically studied. The reaction rate constants of the FeO-20 [email protected]@Au for 4-NP and MB reduction were 0.432 and 0.543 min, respectively. For the FeO-200 [email protected]@Au nanocomposite, the optimized reaction rate constants for 4-NP and MB reduction were 3.09 and 0.441 min, respectively. Due to magnetic separation, the [email protected]@Au could be easily harvested and recycled. After five recycling cycles, the catalytic ability remained over 90%, and the recycling process could be completed in several minutes, highlighting its potential as a catalyst for 4-NP and MB removal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.0c02347DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7450606PMC
August 2020

A smartphone-supported portable micro-spectroscopy/imaging system to characterize morphology and spectra of samples at the microscale.

Anal Methods 2020 08;12(33):4166-4171

School of Computer and Information Science, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China.

A smartphone-based analysis system is favored for point-of-care testing applications. The present work proposes a novel micro-spectroscopy/imaging system comprising a portable spectrometer as an optical sensor and a compact homemade microscope to acquire the image and spectra of micron-scale regions. Protein concentration quantification based on the bicinchoninic acid method was demonstrated with the proposed micro-spectroscopy/imaging system to analyse the spectrometer signals. Morphologies of onion endothelial and human breast cancer cells, used as biological sample models, were characterized to demonstrate the microscopic imaging capacity of the device. The ability to simultaneously obtain morphological and spectral information using the proposed portable device was demonstrated by examining the 10 μm sub-pixels of a smartphone screen. These results highlight the potential for adopting a smartphone-based micro-spectroscopy/imaging system for point-of-care testing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0ay00945hDOI Listing
August 2020

Controllable fabrication of NiVO nanosphere as a high-performance flexibleall-solid-stateelectrode material for supercapacitors.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2020 Nov 28;580:298-307. Epub 2020 Mar 28.

Key laboratory of Energy Material Chemistry, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Institute of Applied Chemistry, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046, Xinjiang, PR China. Electronic address:

Flexible high-performance electrochemical capacitors have aroused much attention with their prospect applications in future wearable electronic devices. Herein, a new strategy for fabrication the NiVO nanosphere by hydrothermal combined with subsequent room temperature liquid phase synthesis method was investigated. The introduced NH during the preparation is benefit to attain the NiVO architectures with high electrical conductivity, large surface area, and exclusive porous networks. When applied as active electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage device, NiVO gives rise to superior specific capacity (565.5 C/g at 1 A/g) and cyclic stability (84.6% of initial capacity retention after 3000 cycles). An asymmetric supercapacitor device can reach voltagewindow of 1.6 V and supply an energy density of 24.3 Wh kg at the power density 800 W kg in an aqueous electrolyte and 7.8 W h kg at the power density of 850 W kg in a solid state gel electrolyte. The cyclic stability of flexible asymmetric supercapacitor has provided 74% capacitance retention over 3000 charge-discharge cycles. Thus, the NiVO nanosphere electrode presents a great potential for flexible and transparent energy storage devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2020.03.097DOI Listing
November 2020

Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine in a COVID-19 pandemic.

Singapore Med J 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Division of Anaesthesiology, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11622/smedj.2020094DOI Listing
June 2020

Early prediction of high flow nasal cannula therapy outcomes using a modified ROX index incorporating heart rate.

J Intensive Care 2020 22;8:41. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Singapore General Hospital, 20 College Road, Singapore, 169856 Singapore.

Background: The ROX index (ratio of pulse oximetry/FIO to respiratory rate) has been validated to predict high flow nasal cannula therapy (HFNC) outcomes in patients with pneumonia. We evaluated a modified ROX index incorporating heart rate (HR) in patients initiated on HFNC for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure and as a preventative treatment following planned extubation.

Methods: We performed a prospective observational cohort study of 145 patients treated with HFNC. ROX-HR index was defined as the ratio of ROX index over HR (beats/min), multiplied by a factor of 100. Evaluation was performed using area under the receiving operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and cutoffs assessed for prediction of HFNC failure: defined as the need for mechanical ventilation.

Results: Ninety-nine (68.3%) and 46 (31.7%) patients were initiated on HFNC for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure and following a planned extubation, respectively. The majority (86.9%) of patients had pneumonia as a primary diagnosis, and 85 (56.6%) patients were immunocompromised. Sixty-one (42.1%) patients required intubation (HFNC failure). Amongst patients on HFNC for acute respiratory failure, HFNC failure was associated with a lower ROX and ROX-HR index recorded at time points between 1 and 48 h. Within the first 12 h, both indices performed with the highest AUROC at 10 h as follows: 0.723 (95% CI 0.605-0.840) and 0.739 (95% CI 0.626-0.853) for the ROX and ROX-HR index respectively. A ROX-HR index of > 6.80 was significantly associated with a lower risk of HFNC failure (hazard ratio 0.301 (95% CI 0.143-0.663)) at 10 h. This association was also observed at 2, 6, 18, and 24h, even with correction for potential confounding factors. For HFNC initiated post-extubation, only the ROX-HR index remained significantly associated with HFNC failure at all recorded time points between 1 and 24 h. A ROX-HR > 8.00 at 10 h was significantly associated with a lower risk of HFNC failure (hazard ratio 0.176 (95% CI 0.051-0.604)).

Conclusion: While validation studies are required, the ROX-HR index appears to be a promising tool for early identification of treatment failure in patients initiated on HFNC for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure or as a preventative treatment after a planned extubation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40560-020-00458-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7310118PMC
June 2020

Root Foraging Capacity in Bambara Groundnut ( (L.) Verdc.) Core Parental Lines Depends on the Root System Architecture during the Pre-Flowering Stage.

Plants (Basel) 2020 May 19;9(5). Epub 2020 May 19.

Future Food Beacon Malaysia, School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham Malaysia, Jalan Broga, Semenyih 43500, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.

Characterizing the morphological variability in root system architecture (RSA) during the sensitive pre-flowering growth stage is important for crop performance. To assess this variation, eight bambara groundnut single genotypes derived from landraces of contrasting geographic origin were selected for root system architecture and rooting distribution studies. Plants were grown in a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) column system under controlled water and nutrient availability in a rainout shelter. Days to 50% plant emergence was characterized during the first two weeks after sowing, while taproot length (TRL), root length (RL), root length density (RLD), branching number (BN), branching density (BD) and intensity (BI), surface area (SA), root volume (RV), root diameter (RDia), root dry weight (RDW), shoot dry weight (SDW), and shoot height (SH) were determined at the end of the experiment, i.e., 35 days after emergence. Genotypes S19-3 and DipC1 sourced from drier regions of sub-Saharan Africa generally had longer taproots and greater root length distribution in deeper (60 to 90 cm) soil depths. In contrast, bambara groundnut genotypes from wetter regions (i.e., Gresik, Lunt, and IITA-686) in Southeast Asia and West Africa exhibited relatively shallow and highly branched root growth closer to the soil surface. Genotypes at the pre-flowering growth stage showed differential root foraging patterns and branching habits with two extremes, i.e., deep-cheap rooting in the genotypes sourced from dry regions and a shallow-costly rooting system in genotypes adapted to higher rainfall areas with shallow soils. We propose specific bambara groundnut genotype as donors in root trait driven breeding programs to improve water capture and use efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants9050645DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7286029PMC
May 2020

A Foldable Chip Array for the Continuous Investigation of Seed Germination and the Subsequent Root Development of Seedlings.

Micromachines (Basel) 2019 Dec 17;10(12). Epub 2019 Dec 17.

School of Computer Science and Software Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China.

Seed germination and seedling root development are important indicators of plant development. This work designed and fabricated a foldable microfluidic chip array for conducting nondestructive and continuous evaluation of seed germination and subsequent seedling development in situ. Each plant chamber has two functional units: seed germination part and root-growth part. The root-growth parts are themselves connected to a single channel designed to provide a uniform culture medium for plant growth. The individual chips are connected into an array using elastic hinges that facilitate the folding and unfolding of the array to accommodate different viewing purposes. In the folded state, the seed germination chambers form a closely spaced array platform to facilitate the comparison of seed germination and plant development characteristics. Unfolding the array facilitates a clear examination of root development within the root-growth parts. The observation window of an individual chip facilitates either the direct examination of the developing seedling (e.g., stems and leaves) or the use of a microscope for examining microscale features (e.g., root tips and root hairs). The potential of the proposed foldable chip array as a new cultivation platform for botanic studies is demonstrated by examining the seed germination and seedling development of tobacco () under different cultivation conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/mi10120884DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6953092PMC
December 2019

Hepatic SIRT3 Upregulation in Response to Chronic Alcohol Consumption Contributes to Alcoholic Liver Disease in Mice.

Front Physiol 2019 13;10:1042. Epub 2019 Aug 13.

Molecular Medicine Institute, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, China.

Background: Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a type of chronic liver disease caused by chronic ethanol overconsumption. The pathogenesis of ALD is complex and there is no effective clinical treatment thus far. SIRT3 is an NAD-dependent deacetylase primarily located inside mitochondria, and reports on the effect of chronic alcohol exposure on liver SIRT3 expression are scarce. This study aims to investigate the effect of chronic alcohol consumption on hepatic SIRT3 expression and its role in alcoholic-induced liver injury.

Methods: Using the Lieber-DeCarli mouse model of ALD, we analyzed the regulation of SIRT3 and the effect of liver-specific knocking-down of SIRT3 on alcohol-induced liver injury. HepG2 and AML12 hepatocytes were employed to detect the biological function of SIRT3 on alcohol-induced hepatic cytotoxicity and its potential mechanism.

Results: Chronic alcohol exposure led to hepatic SIRT3 upregulation and liver-specific SIRT3 knockdown alleviated alcoholic feeding-induced liver injury and lipid accumulation, which is associated with improved autophagy induction. In addition, autophagy induction contributed to the cytoprotective effect of SIRT3 knockdown on ethanol-induced hepatocyte cell death.

Conclusion: In summary, our data suggest that hepatic SIRT3 upregulation in response to chronic alcohol exposure and liver-specific SIRT3 knockdown, induced autophagy activation further alleviating alcoholic-induced liver injury, which represents a novel mechanism in this process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2019.01042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6707764PMC
August 2019

Bambara groundnut: an exemplar underutilised legume for resilience under climate change.

Planta 2019 Sep 2;250(3):803-820. Epub 2019 Jul 2.

School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, Loughborough, Leicestershire, LE12 5RD, UK.

Main Conclusion: Bambara groundnut has the potential to be used to contribute more the climate change ready agriculture. The requirement for nitrogen fixing, stress tolerant legumes is clear, particularly in low input agriculture. However, ensuring that existing negative traits are tackled and demand is stimulated through the development of markets and products still represents a challenge to making greater use of this legume. World agriculture is currently based on very limited numbers of crops, representing a significant risk to food supplies, particularly in the face of climate change which is expected to increase the frequency of extreme events. Minor and underutilised crops can help to develop a more resilient and nutritionally dense future agriculture. Bambara groundnut [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.[, as a drought resistant, nitrogen-fixing, legume has a role to play. However, as with most underutilised crops, there are significant gaps in knowledge and also negative traits such as 'hard-to-cook' and 'photoperiod sensitivity to pod filling' associated with the crop which future breeding programmes and processing methods need to tackle, to allow it to make a significant contribution to the well-being of future generations. The current review assesses these factors and also considers what are the next steps towards realising the potential of this crop.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00425-019-03191-6DOI Listing
September 2019

Crops For the Future (CFF): an overview of research efforts in the adoption of underutilised species.

Planta 2019 Sep 27;250(3):979-988. Epub 2019 Jun 27.

Crops for the Future, Jalan Broga, 43500, Semenyih, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.

Main Conclusion: Crops For the Future (CFF), as an entity, has established a broad range of research activities to promote the improvement and adoption of currently underutilised crops. This paper summarises selected research activities at Crops For the Future (CFF) in pursuit of its mission 'to develop solutions for diversifying future agriculture using underutilised crops'. CFF is a research company focussed on the improvement of underutilised crops, so that they might be grown and consumed more widely with benefits to human food and nutritional security; its founding guarantors were the Government of Malaysia and the University of Nottingham. From its base in Malaysia, it engages in research around the world with a focus on species and system diversification. CFF has adopted a food system approach that adds value by delivering prototype food, feed and knowledge products. Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) was adopted as an exemplar crop around which to develop CFF's food system approach with emphasis on the short-day photoperiod requirement for pod-filling and the hard-to-cook trait. Selective breeding has allowed the development of lines that are less susceptible to photoperiod but also provided a range of tools and approaches that are now being exploited in other crops such as winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus), amaranth (Amaranthus spp.), moringa (Moringa oleifera) and proso (Panicum miliaceum) and foxtail (Setaria italica) millets. CFF has developed and tested new food products and demonstrated that several crops can be used as feed for black soldier fly which can, in turn, be used to feed fish thereby reducing the need for fishmeal. Information about underutilised crops is widely dispersed; so, a major effort has been made to develop a knowledge base that can be interrogated and used to answer practical questions about potential exploitation of plant and nutritional characteristics. Future research will build on the success with Bambara groundnut and include topics such as urban agriculture, rural development and diversification, and the development of novel foods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00425-019-03179-2DOI Listing
September 2019

Multi-chamber petaloid root-growth chip for the non-destructive study of the development and physiology of the fibrous root system of Oryza sativa.

Lab Chip 2019 07 12;19(14):2383-2393. Epub 2019 Jun 12.

Key Laboratory of Luminescent and Real-Time Analytical Chemistry (Southwest University), Ministry of Education, Institute for Clean Energy and Advanced Materials, Faculty of Materials and Energy, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, PR China. and Guangan Changming Research Institute for Advanced Industrial Technology, Guangan 638500, PR China.

The root system of plants is a major component of their bodies in terms of both function and bulk. The investigation of root system development is greatly assisted by microfluidic devices, which improve the spatial and temporal resolution of observations without destroying tissue. In the present study, a multi-chamber petaloid root-growth chip was developed for studying the development and physiology of root systems that have thin branching structures (i.e., fibrous root systems). The petaloid root-growth chip includes a central seed germination chamber and five root-growth chambers for observing the development of fibrous roots. The proposed device was applied for investigating the root system development of Oryza sativa. The phenotype and growth kinetics of O. sativa root systems grown in the proposed device were compared with those obtained during growth in a conventional conical flask with agar-based medium, and the results indicated that cultivation in the miniaturized device did not delay root system growth in the early stage (≤2 weeks). In addition, the transparent device enabled the non-destructive observation of the developmental and microstructural characteristics of the roots, such as the root caps, root border cells, and root hairs. Moreover, the ability to control the microenvironment in each of the five root-growth chambers individually facilitated the investigation of specific adaptations in the fibrous root growth of single O. sativa seedlings to different drought stresses. Accordingly, five polyethylene glycol (PEG)6000-induced drought stress conditions were established in the five root-growth chambers to investigate the root development of a single O. sativa seedling in the central germination chamber. In situ observations demonstrated that the different PEG6000-induced conditions affected the root growth responses and root microstructural adaptations of the single seedlings in each root-growth chamber. Therefore, the petaloid root-growth microfluidic chip can eliminate the effects of variations in different plant seeds to reveal the responses of plants to different environmental conditions more objectively while concurrently allowing for non-destructive observations at very high spatial and temporal resolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9lc00396gDOI Listing
July 2019

New and noteworthy boletes from subtropical and tropical China.

MycoKeys 2019 18(46):55-96. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

College of Pharmacy-Transgenic Laboratory, Hainan Medical University, Haikou 571199, China Hainan Medical University Haikou China.

The morphology, ecology, and phylogenetic relationships of specimens of the family Boletaceae from subtropical and tropical China were investigated. Four species, , , , and , are new to science. and are redescribed. is proposed to replace Hongo, an illegitimate later homonym. The recently described is synonymized with the Japanese , and the new combination (Har. Takah. & Taneyama) N.K. Zeng et al. is proposed. Moreover, is treated as an independent genus based on evidence from morphology and molecular phylogenetic data in the present study, and many previously described taxa of are recombined into : (G. Wu et al.) N.K. Zeng et al., (G. Wu & Zhu L. Yang) N.K. Zeng et al., (T.H. Li & M. Zang) N.K. Zeng et al., (Hongo) N.K. Zeng et al., (G. Wu & Zhu L. Yang) N.K. Zeng et al., (G. Wu & Zhu L. Yang) N.K. Zeng et al. , (G. Wu & Zhu L. Yang) N.K. Zeng et al., and (M. Zang et al.) N.K. Zeng et al.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.46.31470DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6401544PMC
February 2019

The genus Heimioporus in China.

Mycologia 2018 Nov-Dec;110(6):1110-1126. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

b Key Laboratory for Plant Diversity and Biogeography of East Asia, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Kunming 650201 , China.

Species of Heimioporus (Boletaceae, Boletales) in China are investigated on the basis of morphology and molecular phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences from the nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and nuc 28S rDNA D1-D2 domains (28S) and translation elongation factor 1-α gene (TEF1). Three species are recognized in China: H. conicus, sp. nov., H. gaojiaocong, sp. nov., and the previously described H. japonicus. Heimioporus xerampelinus, originally described from southwestern China, is synonymized with H. japonicus; specimens from China previously regarded as H. retisporus and H. subretisporus are confirmed to represent H. japonicus and H. gaojiaocong, respectively. A key to the Chinese taxa of the genus is provided. A preliminary biogeographical analysis shows that Heimioporus in East Asia and Southeast Asia/Australia are closely related. Heimioporus japonicus is a geographically widespread species occurring in East Asia and Southeast Asia; however, no taxa common to East Asia and Australia were uncovered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00275514.2018.1512303DOI Listing
April 2019

Smartphone supported backlight illumination and image acquisition for microfluidic-based point-of-care testing.

Biomed Opt Express 2018 Oct 4;9(10):4604-4612. Epub 2018 Sep 4.

School of Computer and Information Science, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China.

A smartphone-based image analysis system is advantageous for point-of-care testing applications. However, the processes of observation and image recording rely heavily on an external attachment that includes additional light sources. Moreover, microfluidic point-of-care devices are highly miniaturized, and can be clearly observed only under magnification. To address these issues, the present work proposes a novel imaging box for converting the built-in light source of a smartphone into uniform backlight illumination to avoid interference arising from reflections. A multi-piece orthoscopic lens is embedded in the imaging box to enable the imaging of micro-sized samples. As such, the colorimetric signal of a microchannel with a width as small as 25 µm can be faithfully recorded. Protein concentration quantification based on the bicinchoninic acid assay method was demonstrated with the proposed smartphone/imaging box system from an analysis of colorimetric signals. In addition, a microfluidic chip for conducting ABO blood typing was fabricated, and the microscopic imaging of induced blood coagulation can be clearly observed in a 3 µL sample using the proposed system. These results highlight the potential for adopting smartphone-based analysis systems in point-of-care testing applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/BOE.9.004604DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6179417PMC
October 2018

Solid-state chemical fabrication of one-dimensional mesoporous β-nickel molybdate nanorods as remarkable electrode material for supercapacitors.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2019 Jan 12;534:322-331. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Key Laboratory of Energy Material, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Autonomous Region, Institute of Applied Chemistry, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046, Xinjiang, PR China. Electronic address:

Simple solid-state chemical reaction was adopted to synthesize NiMoO nanomaterials with different crystal phase without the use of organic solvent or templating agent. The as-prepared NiMoO·xHO, α-NiMoO and β-NiMoO nanostructures were investigated as the electrode materials for supercapacitors. The β-NiMoO nanorods were composed of the nanoparticles, which exhibited relatively high specific capacitances about 1415 F g at a charge density of 1 A g, 80.2% of the initial reversible capacity was maintained after 1000 cycles. The β-NiMoO//rGO asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) system was assembled in serials, which displayed high specific energy density of 29.3 Wh kg at a high power density of 187 W kg. This ASC system can drive the light-emitting diode (LED) effectively and give out light about 40 min, even easily light two LEDs in serials for 20 min. The remarkable electrochemical performances make the as-prepared NiMoO nanostructures an excellent candidate as electrode materials for advanced supercapacitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2018.09.042DOI Listing
January 2019

Sulfonated graphene oxide as an adsorbent for removal of Pb and methylene blue.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2018 Aug 28;524:297-305. Epub 2018 Mar 28.

Key Laboratory of Energy Material Chemistry, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Institute of Applied Chemistry, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046, Xinjiang, PR China. Electronic address:

One of the major challenges encountered in some conventional nano-structured adsorbents such as graphene oxide (GO) and graphene is the structural limits including serious aggregation and hydrophilic surface in water. And the sulfanilic acid functionalized graphene oxide (SGO) can powerfully attract positively charged pollutants. Therefore, the SGO served as an adsorbent to remove dyes and toxic metal ions from aqueous solution were intensively investigated. At the same time the reduced sulfonated graphene oxide (rSGO), reduced graphene oxide (rGO), and graphene oxide (GO) were performed as the comparative samples. The results showed that the maximum adsorption capacities of SGO were 2530 mg/g for methylene blue and 415 mg/g for Pb, which was much higher than that of the contrast samples and adsorbents reported in literatures. The adsorption of SGO was investigated systematically including the saturated adsorption capacities, isotherm, and kinetic adsorption process. The SGO displayed high adsorption efficiency and superior adsorption capacity toward metal ions and dyes, which is mainly attribute to the good dispersibility and the multiple adsorption sites of SGO. These results are promising not only providing effective adsorbing heavy metal ions and organic dyes, but also gaining insights into adsorption mechanism of graphene materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2018.03.094DOI Listing
August 2018

Glutathione disulfide sensitizes hepatocytes to TNFα-mediated cytotoxicity via IKK-β S-glutathionylation: a potential mechanism underlying non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

Exp Mol Med 2018 04 6;50(4):1-16. Epub 2018 Apr 6.

Department of Kinesiology and Nutrition, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, 60612, USA.

Oxidative stress and TNFα are critically involved in the initiation and progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this study, we investigated the effects of dysregulated glutathione homeostasis, a principal feature of oxidative stress, on TNFα-induced hepatotoxicity and its mechanistic implications in NAFLD progression. We showed that mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks developed hepatic steatosis and liver injuries, which were associated with not only TNFα overproduction but also hepatic glutathione dysregulation, characterized by GSH reduction and GSSG elevation. Moreover, consuming a HFD increased protein S-glutathionylation (protein-SSG formation) in the liver. Subsequent cell culture studies revealed that GSSG accumulation, as opposed to GSH reduction, sensitized hepatocytes to TNFα killing by reducing the TNFα-triggered NF-κB activity. GSSG prevented TNFα-induced activation of IKK-β, an upstream kinase in the NF-κB signaling pathway, by inducing IKK-β glutathionylation (IKK-β-SSG formation). In animal studies, in comparison to a control diet, HFD consumption resulted in increased hepatic IKK-β-SSG formation, leading to suppressed IKK-β activation and subsequent NF-κB suppression. Furthermore, we found that HFD consumption also led to decreased hepatic expression of glutaredoxin, a key enzyme for de-glutathionylation. Similarly, CdCl, a chemical inhibitor of glutaredoxin, sensitized hepatocytes to TNFα-mediated cytotoxicity. In conclusion, our data suggest that GSSG is a potent and clinically relevant sensitizer for TNFα-induced hepatotoxicity in NAFLD, which represents a potential therapeutic target for NAFLD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s12276-017-0013-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5938004PMC
April 2018

An effective bifunctional electrocatalysts: Controlled growth of CoFe alloy nanoparticles supported on N-doped carbon nanotubes.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2018 Mar 29;514:656-663. Epub 2017 Dec 29.

College of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Xinjiang University, Urumqi, Xinjiang, PR China.

Exploring efficient and inexpensive bi-functional catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is a critical work for developing the fuel cells and the metal-air batteries. Nitrogen-doped carbon and transition metal (Fe or Co) has been demonstrated as promising catalyst due to the synergetic effect. In this work, the CoFe alloy nanoparticles supported on N-doped carbon nanotubes ([email protected]) are synthetized by one-step annealing the precursors, without any templates. The as-prepared materials show both extraordinary electrocatalysis activity for ORR and OER in alkaline solution: a diffusion current density of -5.53 mA cm, approximate four-electron selectivity as ORR catalyst, a potential of 0.842 V at 10 mA cm. Specifically, the [email protected] present a Tafel slope of 60.16 mV dec as OER catalyst and the variance (ΔE) is below 1.017 V in 0.1 M KOH for the OER and ORR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2017.12.081DOI Listing
March 2018

3D-Printed seed planter and well array for high-throughput seed germination screening.

Integr Biol (Camb) 2018 01;10(1):67-73

Institute for Clean Energy & Advanced Materials, Faculty of Materials & Energy, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China.

Seed germination is an important means of evaluating seed quality. In the present study, a well array for a seed germination experiment was designed and fabricated by 3D printing for the first time. Each hollow cone-shaped well can hold one seed, which not only prevented the seed from falling out of the well but also ensured that part of the seed was fully exposed to the sublayer of wet filter paper, allowing it to receive water for germination. Coupled with a 3D-printed seed planter, single seeds can be quickly placed into arrayed wells. Moreover, the number of sprouts could be automatically obtained from image analysis, which greatly improved the efficiency of the entire experiment. In summary, the high-throughput, easy-to-use seed germination well array that we have developed has been shown to have potential applications in botanical seed research and agricultural production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c7ib00178aDOI Listing
January 2018

MicroRNA expression, target genes, and signaling pathways in infants with a ventricular septal defect.

Mol Cell Biochem 2018 Feb 18;439(1-2):171-187. Epub 2017 Aug 18.

College of Life Science, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, 310053, Zhejiang Province, China.

This study aimed to systematically investigate the relationship between miRNA expression and the occurrence of ventricular septal defect (VSD), and characterize the miRNA target genes and pathways that can lead to VSD. The miRNAs that were differentially expressed in blood samples from VSD and normal infants were screened and validated by implementing miRNA microarrays and qRT-PCR. The target genes regulated by differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted using three target gene databases. The functions and signaling pathways of the target genes were enriched using the GO database and KEGG database, respectively. The transcription and protein expression of specific target genes in critical pathways were compared in the VSD and normal control groups using qRT-PCR and western blotting, respectively. Compared with the normal control group, the VSD group had 22 differentially expressed miRNAs; 19 were downregulated and three were upregulated. The 10,677 predicted target genes participated in many biological functions related to cardiac development and morphogenesis. Four target genes (mGLUR, Gq, PLC, and PKC) were involved in the PKC pathway and four (ECM, FAK, PI3 K, and PDK1) were involved in the PI3 K-Akt pathway. The transcription and protein expression of these eight target genes were significantly upregulated in the VSD group. The 22 miRNAs that were dysregulated in the VSD group were mainly downregulated, which may result in the dysregulation of several key genes and biological functions related to cardiac development. These effects could also be exerted via the upregulation of eight specific target genes, the subsequent over-activation of the PKC and PI3 K-Akt pathways, and the eventual abnormal cardiac development and VSD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11010-017-3146-2DOI Listing
February 2018
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