Publications by authors named "Hugo Hb Yoo"

2 Publications

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Anticoagulant treatment for subsegmental pulmonary embolism.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2020 02 7;2:CD010222. Epub 2020 Feb 7.

Botucatu Medical School, São Paulo State University-UNESP, Department of Internal Medicine, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil, 18618-687.

Background: Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common cause of death, accounting for 50,000 to 200,000 deaths annually. It is the third most common cause of mortality among the cardiovascular diseases, after coronary artery disease and stroke. The advent of multi-detector computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA) has allowed better assessment of PE regarding visualisation of the peripheral pulmonary arteries, increasing its rate of diagnosis. More cases of peripheral PEs, such as isolated subsegmental PE (SSPE) and incidental PE, have thereby been identified. These two conditions are usually found in patients with few or none of the classic PE symptoms such as haemoptysis or pleuritic pain, acute dyspnoea or circulatory collapse. However, in patients with reduced cardiopulmonary reserve, classic PE symptoms can be found with isolated SSPEs. Incidental SSPE is found casually in asymptomatic patients, usually by diagnostic imaging performed for other reasons (for example routine CT for cancer staging in oncology patients). Traditionally, all PEs are anticoagulated in a similar manner independent of their location, or number and size of the thrombi. It has been suggested that many patients with SSPE may be treated without benefit, increasing adverse events by a possible unnecessary use of anticoagulants. Patients with isolated SSPE, or incidental PE, may have a more benign clinical presentation compared to those with proximal PEs. However, the clinical significance in patients, and their prognosis, needs to be studied to evaluate whether anticoagulation therapy is required. This is the second update of the Cochrane systematic review published in 2014.

Objectives: To assess the effectiveness and safety of anticoagulation therapy versus control in patients with isolated subsegmental pulmonary embolism (SSPE) or incidental SSPE.

Search Methods: The Cochrane Vascular Information Specialist searched the Cochrane Vascular Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and AMED databases and World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and ClinicalTrials.gov trials registers to 26 November 2019. We also undertook reference checking to identify additional studies.

Selection Criteria: We included randomised controlled trials of anticoagulation therapy versus control in patients with SSPE or incidental SSPE.

Data Collection And Analysis: Two review authors inspected all citations identified to ensure reliable assessment. If relevant studies were identified, we planned for two review authors to independently extract data and to assess the methodological quality of identified trials using the criteria recommended in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions.

Main Results: We did not identify any studies that met the inclusion criteria.

Authors' Conclusions: There is no evidence from randomised controlled trials to assess the effectiveness and safety of anticoagulation therapy versus control in patients with isolated subsegmental pulmonary embolism (SSPE) or incidental SSPE. Well-conducted research is required before informed practice decisions can be made.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD010222.pub4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7004894PMC
February 2020

Outpatient versus inpatient treatment for acute pulmonary embolism.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2019 03 6;3:CD010019. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Department of Internal Medicine, Botucatu Medical School, São Paulo State University-UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil, 18618-687.

Background: Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common life-threatening cardiovascular condition, with an incidence of 23 to 69 new cases per 100,000 people each year. For selected low-risk patients with acute PE, outpatient treatment might provide several advantages over traditional inpatient treatment, such as reduction of hospitalisations, substantial cost savings, and improvements in health-related quality of life. This is an update of the review first published in 2014.

Objectives: To compare the efficacy and safety of outpatient versus inpatient treatment in low-risk patients with acute PE for the outcomes of all-cause and PE-related mortality; bleeding; adverse events such as haemodynamic instability; recurrence of PE; and patients' satisfaction.

Search Methods: The Cochrane Vascular Information Specialist searched the Cochrane Vascular Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and AMED databases, and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and ClinicalTrials.gov trials registers, to 26 March 2018. We also undertook reference checking to identify additional studies.

Selection Criteria: We included randomised controlled trials of outpatient versus inpatient treatment of adults (aged 18 years and over) diagnosed with low-risk acute PE.

Data Collection And Analysis: Two review authors selected relevant trials, assessed methodological quality, and extracted and analysed data. We calculated effect estimates using risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), or mean differences (MDs) with 95% CIs. We used standardised mean differences (SMDs) to combine trials that measured the same outcome but used different methods. We assessed the quality of the evidence using GRADE criteria.

Main Results: One new study was identified for this 2018 update, bringing the total number of included studies to two and the total number of participants to 451. Both trials discharged patients randomised to the outpatient group within 36 hours of initial triage and both followed participants for 90 days. One study compared the same treatment regimens in both outpatient and inpatient groups, and the other study used different treatment regimes. There was no clear difference in treatment effect for the outcomes of short-term mortality (30 days) (RR 0.33, 95% CI 0.01 to 7.98, P = 0.49; low-quality evidence), long-term mortality (90 days) (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.06 to 15.58, P = 0.99, low-quality evidence), major bleeding at 14 days (RR 4.91, 95% CI 0.24 to 101.57, P = 0.30; low-quality evidence) and at 90 days (RR 6.88, 95% CI 0.36 to 132.14, P = 0.20; low-quality evidence), minor bleeding (RR 1.08, 95% CI 0.07 to 16.79; P = 0.96, low-quality evidence), recurrent PE within 90 days (RR 2.95, 95% CI 0.12 to 71.85, P = 0.51, low-quality evidence), and participant satisfaction (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.04, P = 0.39; moderate-quality evidence). We downgraded the quality of the evidence because the CIs were wide and included treatment effects in both directions, the sample sizes and numbers of events were small, and because the effect of missing data and the absence of publication bias could not be verified. PE-related mortality, and adverse effects such as haemodynamic instability and compliance, were not assessed by the included studies.

Authors' Conclusions: Currently, only low-quality evidence is available from two published randomised controlled trials on outpatient versus inpatient treatment in low-risk patients with acute PE. The studies did not provide evidence of any clear difference between the interventions in overall mortality, bleeding and recurrence of PE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD010019.pub3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6402388PMC
March 2019