Publications by authors named "Hugo Botha"

72 Publications

Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy Pathology and Its Association With Amyloid-β PET Signal.

Neurology 2021 Sep 9. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Objective: To determine the contribution of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) to Pittsburgh compound B (PiB)-PET tracer retention.

Methods: Participants from the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging and Mayo Clinic Alzheimer's Disease Research Center with antemortem PiB-PET imaging for amyloid beta (Aβ) and later underwent autopsy were included in this study. Pathologic regional leptomeningeal, parenchymal, capillary CAA, and Aβ plaque burden were calculated from one hemisphere. Regional lobar amyloid SUVr on PET was calculated from the same hemisphere sampled at autopsy. Single- and multiple-predictor linear-regression models were used to evaluate the relative contributions of pathologically determined regional CAA and Aβ plaques to antemortem PiB-PET SUVr.

Results: Forty-one participants (30 male, 11 female) with a mean age at death of 75.7 (10.6) years were included. Twenty-seven (66%) had high PiB signal with a mean of 2.3 (1.2) years from time of PET scan to death; twenty-four (59%) had a pathologic diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. On multivariate analysis, CAA was not associated with PiB-PET SUVr while plaques remained associated with PiB-PET SUVr in all regions (all p <0.05). In patients without frequent amyloid plaques, CAA was not associated with PiB-PET in any region.

Conclusion: We did not find evidence that pathologically-confirmed regional CAA burden contributes significantly to proximal antemortem regional PiB-PET signal, suggesting that amyloid PET imaging for measurement of cortical amyloid burden is unconfounded by CAA on a lobar level. Whether CAA burden contributes to PiB-PET signal in patients with severe CAA phenotypes, such as lobar hemorrhage, requires further investigation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000012770DOI Listing
September 2021

Assessing Change in Communication Limitations in Primary Progressive Apraxia of Speech and Aphasia: A 1-Year Follow-Up Study.

Am J Speech Lang Pathol 2021 Sep 7:1-11. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

Purpose Individuals with primary progressive apraxia of speech have apraxia of speech (AOS) as the initial and predominant symptom. Many develop aphasia and/or dysarthria later in the disease course. It was previously demonstrated that patients with neurodegenerative AOS experience reduced participation in communication that is further exacerbated by co-occurring language deficits (Utianski et al., 2020). Measures of disease severity did not necessarily correlate with measures of participation restrictions. The aim of this follow-up study was to describe changes in communication limitations in these patients, again measured by (a) the patient via the Communicative Participation Item Bank (CPIB) and (b) the speech-language pathologist via the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association's (ASHA's) Functional Communication Measures (FCMs) and an adapted motor speech disorder (MSD) severity rating to determine if there are significant changes in these and other objective speech and language measures at follow-up after 1 year. Method Of the 24 patients reported in the study of Utianski et al. (2020), 17 (10 men, seven women) returned for a second visit approximately 1 year following the first visit. Identical procedures were utilized; the communication measures collected at each visit were statistically compared. Correlations were calculated between the participation ratings and other clinical assessment measures at the second visit and for the change in scores on those measures between the first and second visits. Results There were statistically significant differences in AOS and aphasia severity between visits. There were significant changes in clinical assessments, MSD severity rating, and all ASHA FCMs between visits, but not the CPIB. Correlation analyses suggest the relationships among clinical and participation measures are complex; overall, patients with more severe changes in AOS experienced greater changes in participation restrictions. Conclusions The findings of this study support the use of patient-reported outcome measures as they may better reflect the patient experience, including the influence of factors such as ongoing speech therapy and the emergence of neuropsychiatric features, and associated changes in day-to-day functioning, when other measures may simply index the progression of the disease. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.16528512.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/2021_AJSLP-20-00402DOI Listing
September 2021

Survival Analysis in Primary Progressive Apraxia of Speech and Agrammatic Aphasia.

Neurol Clin Pract 2021 Jun;11(3):249-255

Department of Radiology (JLW), Department of Health Sciences Research (PM), Division of Speech Pathology (JRD, HMC, RLU, EAS), and Division of Behavioral Neurology (HB, KAJ), Department of Neurology, and Department of Psychiatry and Psychology (MMM), Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

Objective: To compare survival among patients with different combinations of apraxia of speech (AOS) and agrammatic aphasia, including those with isolated AOS (primary progressive AOS, PPAOS), both AOS and agrammatic aphasia (AOS + progressive agrammatic aphasia [PAA]), and isolated agrammatic aphasia (PAA).

Methods: One hundred nine patients were recruited who had any combination of AOS and agrammatic aphasia (42 PPAOS, 56 AOS + PAA, and 11 PAA) and were followed longitudinally, with 57 patients having since died. Cox proportional hazard models were used to quantify the relative risk of death across diagnoses. Adjusted survival curves are presented based on this model. We also assessed the influence of AOS and aphasia severity on survival.

Results: PPAOS had the longest survival (median survival of 5.97 years from the baseline visit), followed by PAA (5.26 years) and then AOS + PAA (4.33 years). AOS + PAA had a greater risk of death than PPAOS, with a hazard ratio of 3.01 (lower/upper confidence interval = 1.66/5.46, < 0.001). Risk of death did not differ between PAA and the other groups. All results accounted for age and time from onset to baseline visit. AOS severity, independent of syndromic diagnosis, was associated with greater risk of death, with a hazard ratio of 1.35 for a 1-point increase in severity. Aphasia severity was not associated with risk of death.

Conclusions: Individuals with PPAOS have better survival and reduced risk of death compared with individuals with AOS + PAA. This finding will help improve prognostic estimates for these patients and supports the value of distinguishing PPAOS from AOS + PAA.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/CPJ.0000000000000919DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8382380PMC
June 2021

Laboratory based assessment of gait and balance impairment in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy.

J Neurol Sci 2021 Aug 25;429:118054. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Rochester, MN, United States of America.

Background: Gait and balance abnormalities are a significant source of morbidity and mortality in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Gait impairment in PSP is primarily assessed clinically on exam or with the use of rating scales. Three dimensional video based gait and balance analysis performed in a laboratory setting is a highly accurate method of motion analysis (Wren et al., 2020), however limited data is available in patients with PSP.

Research Question: In this study we assess the objective features of postural control, kinematics, kinetic and temporal-spatial gait metrics in PSP, using three-dimensional video motion analysis in a laboratory setting compared to normal controls.

Methods: Three-dimensional motion was captured using a 10-camera motion capture system, 41 body markers and ground embedded force plates in 16 patients with PSP patients and compared to motorically normal controls.

Results: Spatiotemporal, kinematic, and kinetic gait measures effectively differentiated patients with PSP from controls. Patients had slower gait velocity, lower cadence, increased double support time and abnormal antero-posterior sway. Joint kinematics and kinetics were reduced and showed less variation among patients with PSP compared to controls which is suggestive of bradykinesia. Objective gait measures of abnormality correlated with clinical disease severity. Postural sway metrics distinguished PSP from controls and captured gait imbalance.

Significance: Objective measures of gait and balance abnormalities in patients with PSP provide an outcome measure that can be potentially used for early disease detection, in clinical trials and to validate portable motion capture devices in the future.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2021.118054DOI Listing
August 2021

Gray and White Matter Correlates of Dysphagia in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy.

Mov Disord 2021 Aug 23. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Background: Dysphagia is a common symptom of progressive supranuclear palsy often leading to aspiration pneumonia and death.

Objective: The aim of this study was to examine how impairments of the oral and pharyngeal phases of the swallow and airway incursion during liquid swallows relate to gray and white matter integrity.

Methods: Thirty-eight participants with progressive supranuclear palsy underwent videofluorographic swallowing assessment and structural and diffusion tensor head magnetic resonance imaging. Penalized linear regression models assessed relationships between swallowing metrics and regional gray matter volumes and white matter fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity.

Results: Oral phase impairments were associated with reduced superior parietal volumes and abnormal diffusivity in parietal and sensorimotor white matter, posterior limb of the internal capsule, and superior longitudinal fasciculus. Pharyngeal phase impairments were associated with disruption to medial frontal lobe, corticospinal tract, and cerebral peduncle. No regions were predictive of airway incursion.

Conclusions: Differential patterns of neuroanatomical impairment corresponded to oral and pharyngeal phase swallowing impairments. © 2021 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mds.28731DOI Listing
August 2021

Sleep disturbances in the speech-language variant of progressive supranuclear palsy.

Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2021 Aug 18;91:9-12. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) variants other than PSP-Richardson Syndrome (PSP-RS) have been recognized, including PSP with speech and language problems (PSP-SL). Given the reported sleep disruptions in PSP-RS, we investigated sleep abnormalities in PSP-SL.

Methods: Four sleep-related screening questions were given to the caregivers of 90 patients with PSP-SL (59 suggestive of PSP-SL and 31 possible PSP-SL) and 71 probable PSP-RS (prob. PSP-RS) patients.

Results: At least one sleep-related disturbance was observed in 35.6% of suggestive of PSP-SL, 38.7% of possible PSP-SL, and 67.6% of prob. PSP-RS, the most common being "unable to fall or stay asleep". Prob. PSP-RS showed higher frequency of "screaming or talking in sleep", "acting out dreams", and "unable to fall or stay asleep" compared to both PSP-SL groups, but did not differ from possible PSP-SL in "excessive daytime sleepiness".

Conclusion: Sleep abnormalities are common in PSP-SL, but less frequent than prob.PSP-RS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parkreldis.2021.08.009DOI Listing
August 2021

Relationships between β-amyloid and tau in an elderly population: An accelerated failure time modelww.

Neuroimage 2021 Nov 29;242:118440. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic 200 1st St. SW, Rochester, MN 55905.

Using positron emission tomography (PET)-derived amyloid and tau measurements from 1,495 participants, we explore the evolution of these values over time via an accelerated failure time (AFT) model. The AFT model assumes a shared pattern of progression, but one which is shifted earlier or later in time for each individual; an individual's time shift for amyloid and for tau are assumed to be linked. The resulting pattern for each outcome consists of an earlier indolent phase followed by sharp progression of the accumulation rate. APOE ε4 shifts the amyloid curve leftward (earlier) by 6.1 years, and the tau curve leftward by 2.6 years. Female sex shifts the amyloid curve leftward by 2.4 years and the tau curve leftward by 2.6 years. Per-person shifts (i.e., the individual's deviation from the population mean) for the onset of amyloid accumulation ranged from 13 years earlier to 13 years later (10th to 90th percentile) than average and 11 years earlier to 14 years later for tau, with an estimated correlation of 0.49. The average delay between amyloid increase and tau increase was 13.3 years.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2021.118440DOI Listing
November 2021

Neuropsychological Profiles of Patients with Progressive Apraxia of Speech and Aphasia.

J Int Neuropsychol Soc 2021 Jul 22:1-11. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Objective: To characterize and compare the neuropsychological profiles of patients with primary progressive apraxia of speech (PPAOS) and apraxia of speech with progressive agrammatic aphasia (AOS-PAA).

Method: Thirty-nine patients with PPAOS and 49 patients with AOS-PAA underwent formal neurological, speech, language, and neuropsychological evaluations. Cognitive domains assessed included immediate and delayed episodic memory (Wechsler Memory Scale-Third edition; Logical Memory; Visual Reproduction; Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test), processing speed (Trail Making Test A), executive functioning (Trail Making Test B; Delis-Kaplan Executive Functioning Scale - Sorting), and visuospatial ability (Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure copy).

Results: The PPAOS patients were cognitively average or higher in the domains of immediate and delayed episodic memory, processing speed, executive functioning, and visuospatial ability. Patients with AOS-PAA performed more poorly on tests of immediate and delayed episodic memory and executive functioning compared to those with PPAOS. For every 1 unit increase in aphasia severity (e.g. mild to moderate), performance declined by 1/3 to 1/2 a standard deviation depending on cognitive domain. The degree of decline was stronger within the more verbally mediated domains, but was also notable in less verbally mediated domains.

Conclusion: The study provides neuropsychological evidence further supporting the distinction of PPAOS from primary progressive aphasia and should be used to inform future diagnostic criteria. More immediately, it informs prognostication and treatment planning.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1355617721000692DOI Listing
July 2021

FDG PET metabolic signatures distinguishing prodromal DLB and prodromal AD.

Neuroimage Clin 2021 4;31:102754. Epub 2021 Jul 4.

Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Background And Purpose: Patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) are characterized by hypometabolism in the parieto-occipital cortex and the cingulate island sign (CIS) on F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET. Whether this pattern of hypometabolism is present as early as the prodromal stage of DLB is unknown. We investigated the pattern of hypometabolism in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who progressed to probable DLB compared to MCI patients who progressed to Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia and clinically unimpaired (CU) controls.

Methods: Patients with MCI from the Mayo Clinic Alzheimer's Disease Research Center who underwent FDG PET at baseline and progressed to either probable DLB (MCI-DLB; n = 17) or AD dementia (MCI-AD; n = 41) during follow-up, and a comparison cohort of CU controls (n = 100) were included.

Results: Patients with MCI-DLB had hypometabolism in the parieto-occipital cortex extending into temporal lobes, substantia nigra and thalamus. When compared to MCI-AD, medial temporal and posterior cingulate metabolism were preserved in patients with MCI-DLB, accompanied by greater hypometabolism in the substantia nigra in MCI-DLB compared to MCI-AD. In distinguishing MCI-DLB from MCI-AD at the maximum value of Youden's index, CIS ratio was highly specific (90%) but not sensitive (59%), but a higher medial temporal to substantia nigra ratio was both sensitive (94%) and specific (83%).

Conclusion: FDG PET is a potential biomarker for the prodromal stage of DLB. A higher medial temporal metabolism and CIS ratio, and lower substantia nigra metabolism have additive value in distinguishing prodromal DLB and AD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2021.102754DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8278422PMC
September 2021

Cerebrovascular disease, neurodegeneration, and clinical phenotype in dementia with Lewy bodies.

Neurobiol Aging 2021 09 14;105:252-261. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA. Electronic address:

We investigated whether cerebrovascular disease contributes to neurodegeneration and clinical phenotype in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Regional cortical thickness and subcortical gray matter volumes were estimated from structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 165 DLB patients. Cortical and subcortical infarcts were recorded and white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) were assessed. Subcortical only infarcts were more frequent (13.3%) than cortical only infarcts (3.1%) or both subcortical and cortical infarcts (2.4%). Infarcts, irrespective of type, were associated with WMHs. A higher WMH volume was associated with thinner orbitofrontal, retrosplenial, and posterior cingulate cortices, smaller thalamus and pallidum, and larger caudate volume. A higher WMH volume was associated with the presence of visual hallucinations and lower global cognitive performance, and tended to be associated with the absence of probable rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. Presence of infarcts was associated with the absence of parkinsonism. We conclude that cerebrovascular disease is associated with gray matter neurodegeneration in patients with probable DLB, which may have implications for the multifactorial treatment of probable DLB.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2021.04.029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8338792PMC
September 2021

Selecting software pipelines for change in flortaucipir SUVR: Balancing repeatability and group separation.

Neuroimage 2021 09 9;238:118259. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, 200 First Street SW, Rochester 55905, MN, USA.

Since tau PET tracers were introduced, investigators have quantified them using a wide variety of automated methods. As longitudinal cohort studies acquire second and third time points of serial within-person tau PET data, determining the best pipeline to measure change has become crucial. We compared a total of 415 different quantification methods (each a combination of multiple options) according to their effects on a) differences in annual SUVR change between clinical groups, and b) longitudinal measurement repeatability as measured by the error term from a linear mixed-effects model. Our comparisons used MRI and Flortaucipir scans of 97 Mayo Clinic study participants who clinically either: a) were cognitively unimpaired, or b) had cognitive impairments that were consistent with Alzheimer's disease pathology. Tested methods included cross-sectional and longitudinal variants of two overarching pipelines (FreeSurfer 6.0, and an in-house pipeline based on SPM12), three choices of target region (entorhinal, inferior temporal, and a temporal lobe meta-ROI), five types of partial volume correction (PVC) (none, two-compartment, three-compartment, geometric transfer matrix (GTM), and a tau-specific GTM variant), seven choices of reference region (cerebellar crus, cerebellar gray matter, whole cerebellum, pons, supratentorial white matter, eroded supratentorial WM, and a composite of eroded supratentorial WM, pons, and whole cerebellum), two choices of region masking (GM or GM and WM), and two choices of statistic (voxel-wise mean vs. median). Our strongest findings were: 1) larger temporal-lobe target regions greatly outperformed entorhinal cortex (median sample size estimates based on a hypothetical clinical trial were 520-526 vs. 1740); 2) longitudinal processing pipelines outperformed cross-sectional pipelines (median sample size estimates were 483 vs. 572); and 3) reference regions including supratentorial WM outperformed traditional cerebellar and pontine options (median sample size estimates were 370 vs. 559). Altogether, our results favored longitudinally SUVR methods and a temporal-lobe meta-ROI that includes adjacent (juxtacortical) WM, a composite reference region (eroded supratentorial WM + pons + whole cerebellum), 2-class voxel-based PVC, and median statistics.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2021.118259DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8407434PMC
September 2021

A molecular pathology, neurobiology, biochemical, genetic and neuroimaging study of progressive apraxia of speech.

Nat Commun 2021 06 8;12(1):3452. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Progressive apraxia of speech is a neurodegenerative syndrome affecting spoken communication. Molecular pathology, biochemistry, genetics, and longitudinal imaging were investigated in 32 autopsy-confirmed patients with progressive apraxia of speech who were followed over 10 years. Corticobasal degeneration and progressive supranuclear palsy (4R-tauopathies) were the most common underlying pathologies. Perceptually distinct speech characteristics, combined with age-at-onset, predicted specific 4R-tauopathy; phonetic subtype and younger age predicted corticobasal degeneration, and prosodic subtype and older age predicted progressive supranuclear palsy. Phonetic and prosodic subtypes showed differing relationships within the cortico-striato-pallido-nigro-luysial network. Biochemical analysis revealed no distinct differences in aggregated 4R-tau while tau H1 haplotype frequency (69%) was lower compared to 1000+ autopsy-confirmed 4R-tauopathies. Corticobasal degeneration patients had faster rates of decline, greater cortical degeneration, and shorter illness duration than progressive supranuclear palsy. These findings help define the pathobiology of progressive apraxia of speech and may have consequences for development of 4R-tau targeting treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23687-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8187627PMC
June 2021

Progressive apraxia of speech: delays to diagnosis and rates of alternative diagnoses.

J Neurol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA.

Background: Progressive apraxia of speech (PAOS) is a neurodegenerative disorder of speech programming distinct from aphasia and dysarthria, most commonly associated with a 4-repeat tauopathy. Our objective was to better understand the reasons for possible delays or diagnostic errors for patients with PAOS.

Methods: Seventy-seven consecutive PAOS research participants from the Neurodegenerative Research Group were included in this study. The medical records for these patients were reviewed in detail. For each speech-related visit, data such as the chief complaint, clinical findings, and neuroimaging findings were recorded.

Results: Apraxia of speech was the initial diagnosis in 20.1% of participants at first evaluation noted in the historical record. Other common diagnoses included primary progressive aphasia (PPA) (20.1%), dysarthria (18.18%), MCI/Dementia (6.5%), and motor neuron disease (3.9%). It took a median of 2.02 (range: 0.16-8.18) years from symptoms onset for participants to receive an initial diagnosis and 3.00 (range: 0.49-9.42) years to receive a correct diagnosis. Those who were seen by a speech-language pathologist (SLP) during their first documented encounter were more likely to be correctly diagnosed with PAOS (37/48) after SLP consultation than those who were not seen by an SLP on initial encounter (5/29) (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Approximately 80% of patients with PAOS were imprecisely diagnosed at their first visit, with it taking a median of 3 years from symptom onset to receiving a diagnosis of PAOS. Being seen by a speech-language pathologist during the initial evaluation increased the likelihood of a correct apraxia of speech diagnosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-021-10585-8DOI Listing
May 2021

Neurobehavioral Characteristics of FDG-PET Defined Right-Dominant Semantic Dementia: A Longitudinal Study.

Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2021 23;50(1):17-28. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA,

Introduction: Semantic dementia (SD) is characterized by fluent speech, anomia, and loss of word and object knowledge with varying degrees of right and left anterior-medial temporal lobe hypometabolism on [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET. We assessed neurobehavioral features in SD patients across 3 FDG-PET-defined metabolic patterns and investigated progression over time.

Methods: Thirty-four patients with SD who completed FDG-PET were classified into a left- and right-dominant group based on the degree of hypometabolism in each temporal lobe. The left-dominant group was further subdivided depending on whether hypometabolism in the right temporal lobe was more or less than 2 standard deviations from controls (left+ group). Neurobehavioral characteristics determined using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire (NPI-Q) were compared across groups. Progression of NPI-Q scores and FDG-PET hypometabolism was assessed in 14 patients with longitudinal follow-up.

Results: The right-dominant group performed worse on the NPI-Q and had a greater frequency of abnormal behaviors and more severe disinhibition compared to the left-dominant group. Performance on the NPI-Q and severity of disinhibition correlated with right medial and lateral, but not left, temporal lobe hypometabolism. Severity of abnormal behaviors worsened over time in most left-dominant and left+ patients but appeared to improve in the 2 right-dominant patients with longitudinal follow-up. All groups showed progressive worsening of metabolism in both temporal lobes over time, with hypometabolism spreading from anteromedial to posterior temporal regions. However, the degree of temporal lobe asymmetry remained relatively constant over time.

Conclusion: In SD, neurobehavioral features, especially disinhibition, are associated with right medial and lateral temporal lobe hypometabolism and commonly develop over time even in patients that present with left-dominant patterns of hypometabolism.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000513979DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8243786PMC
March 2021

Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy Burden and Cerebral Microbleeds: Pathological Evidence for Distinct Phenotypes.

J Alzheimers Dis 2021 ;81(1):113-122

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Background: The relationship between cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) on hemosiderin-sensitive MRI sequences and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) remains unclear in population-based participants or in individuals with dementia.

Objective: To determine whether CMBs on antemortem MRI correlate with CAA.

Methods: We reviewed 54 consecutive participants with antemortem T2*GRE-MRI sequences and subsequent autopsy. CMBs were quantified on MRIs closest to death. Autopsy CAA burden was quantified in each region including leptomeningeal/cortical and capillary CAA. By a clustering approach, we examined the relationship among CAA variables and performed principal component analysis (PCA) for dimension reduction to produce two scores from these 15 interrelated predictors. Hurdle models assessed relationships between principal components and lobar CMBs.

Results: MRI-based CMBs appeared in 20/54 (37%). 10 participants had ≥2 lobar-only CMBs. The first two components of the PCA analysis of the CAA variables explained 74% variability. The first rotated component (RPC1) consisted of leptomeningeal and cortical CAA and the second rotated component of capillary CAA (RPC2). Both the leptomeningeal and cortical component and the capillary component correlated with lobar-only CMBs. The capillary CAA component outperformed the leptomeningeal and cortical CAA component in predicting lobar CMBs. Both capillary and the leptomeningeal/cortical components correlated with number of lobar CMBs.

Conclusion: Capillary and leptomeningeal/cortical scores correlated with lobar CMBs on MRI but lobar CMBs were more closely associated with the capillary component. The capillary component correlated with APOEɛ4, highlighting lobar CMBs as one aspect of CAA phenotypic diversity. More CMBs also increase the probability of underlying CAA.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-201536DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8113155PMC
September 2021

Motor Speech Disorders and Communication Limitations in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy.

Am J Speech Lang Pathol 2021 06 9;30(3S):1361-1372. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

Purpose This study describes motor speech disorders and associated communication limitations in six variants of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Method The presence, nature, and severity of dysarthria and apraxia of speech (AOS) were documented, along with scores on the Apraxia of Speech Rating Scale-Version 3 (ASRS-3) for 77 (40 male and 37 female) patients with PSP. Clinician-estimated and patient-estimated communication limitations were rated using the Motor Speech Disorders Severity Rating (MSDSR) Scale and the Communicative Effectiveness Survey (CES), respectively. Descriptive statistics were calculated for each of these dependent variables. One-tailed tests were conducted to test mean differences in ASRS-3 and CES between participants with and without AOS and between participants with and without dysarthria. Spearman rank correlations were calculated between ASRS-3 scores and clinical judgments of AOS and dysarthria severity and between MSDSR and CES ratings. Results Nine participants (12%) had normal speech. Eighty-seven percent exhibited dysarthria; hypokinetic and mixed hypokinetic-spastic dysarthria were observed most frequently. AOS was observed in 19.5% of participants across all variants, but in only 10% exclusive of the PSP speech and language variant. Nearly half presented with AOS in which neither phonetic nor prosodic features clearly predominated. The mean ASRS-3 score for participants with AOS was significantly higher than for those without and correlated strongly with clinician judgment of AOS severity. Mean ASRS-3 was higher for participants with dysarthria than for those without but correlated weakly with dysarthria severity. Mean MSDSR and CES ratings were lower in participants with AOS compared to those without and moderately correlated with each other. Conclusions Motor speech disorders that negatively impact communicative effectiveness are common in PSP and occur in many variants. This is the first description of motor speech disorders across PSP variants, setting the stage for future research characterizing neuroanatomical correlates, progression of motor speech disorders, and benefits of targeted interventions. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.14111837.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/2020_AJSLP-20-00126DOI Listing
June 2021

Diffusion tensor imaging analysis in three progressive supranuclear palsy variants.

J Neurol 2021 Sep 12;268(9):3409-3420. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Background: Clinical variants of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) include the classic Richardson's syndrome (PSP-RS), as well as cortical presentations such as PSP-speech/language (PSP-SL) and subcortical presentations such as PSP-parkinsonism (PSP-P). Patterns of white matter tract degeneration underlying these variants, and the degree to which white matter patterns could differentiate these variants, is unclear.

Methods: Forty-nine PSP patients (28 PSP-RS, 12 PSP-P, and 9 PSP-SL) were recruited by the Neurodegenerative Research Group and underwent diffusion tensor imaging. Regional diffusion tensor imaging metrics were compared across PSP variants using Bayesian linear mixed-effects models, with inter-variant differentiation assessed using the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUROC).

Results: All three variants showed degeneration of the body of the corpus callosum, posterior thalamic radiation, superior cerebellar peduncle, internal and external capsule, and superior fronto-occipital fasciculus. PSP-RS showed greater degeneration of superior cerebellar peduncle compared to PSP-P and PSP-SL, whereas PSP-SL showed greater degeneration of body and genu of the corpus callosum, internal capsule, external capsule, and superior longitudinal fasciculus compared to the other variants. Fractional anisotropy in body of the corpus callosum provided excellent differentiation of PSP-SL from both PSP-P and PSP-RS (AUROC = 0.91 and 0.92, respectively). Moderate differentiation of PSP-RS and PSP-P was achieved with fractional anisotropy in superior fronto-occipital fasciculus (AUROC = 0.68) and mean diffusivity in the superior cerebellar peduncle (AUROC = 0.65).

Conclusion: In this pilot study, patterns of white matter tract degeneration differed across PSP-RS, PSP-SL, and PSP-P, with the body of the corpus callosum showing some utility in the differentiation of PSP-SL from the other two variants.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-020-10360-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8363518PMC
September 2021

A Longitudinal Evaluation of Speech Rate in Primary Progressive Apraxia of Speech.

J Speech Lang Hear Res 2021 02 21;64(2):392-404. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

Purpose Individuals with primary progressive apraxia of speech (PPAOS) have apraxia of speech (AOS) in which disruptions in articulation or prosody predominate the speech pattern, referred to, respectively, as phonetic or prosodic subtypes. Many develop aphasia and/or dysarthria. Past research has demonstrated that simple temporal acoustic measures are sensitive to the presence of AOS. The aim of this study was to describe the change in temporal acoustic measures over time and assess if specific patterns of AOS or co-occurring aphasia or dysarthria impact the rate of change over time. Method Durations for multiple productions of the words , , , and , in an imitative speech task, were recorded for 73 patients, with two to six visits each. A linear mixed-effects model was used to assess the cross-sectional differences and longitudinal influence of AOS subtype and presence of aphasia/dysarthria on speech rate. Pearson correlations were calculated between rate measures and performance on other clinical measures. Results Cross-sectionally, patients with prosodic-predominant PPAOS produced words more slowly than those with phonetic-predominant PPAOS. Patients with either aphasia or dysarthria produced words more slowly than those without. Longitudinally, the speech rate of patients with phonetic-predominant PPAOS had a reduction of 0.5 syllables per second per year. Patients with prosodic-predominant AOS changed less quickly, as did those who developed aphasia. Dysarthria did not impact rate of change. There were strong associations between speech rate measures and other clinical indices of speech and language functioning. Conclusion Simple temporal acoustic measures may reflect the subtype of AOS (phonetic or prosodic predominant), serve as an index of progression of AOS, and inform prognostication relative to the presenting combination of speech and language features. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.13564724.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/2020_JSLHR-20-00253DOI Listing
February 2021

Tau and Amyloid Relationships with Resting-state Functional Connectivity in Atypical Alzheimer's Disease.

Cereb Cortex 2021 02;31(3):1693-1706

Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.

The mechanisms through which tau and amyloid-beta (Aβ) accumulate in the brain of Alzheimer's disease patients may differ but both are related to neuronal networks. We examined such mechanisms on neuroimaging in 58 participants with atypical Alzheimer's disease (posterior cortical atrophy or logopenic progressive aphasia). Participants underwent Aβ-PET, longitudinal tau-PET, structural MRI and resting-state functional MRI, which was analyzed with graph theory. Regions with high levels of Aβ were more likely to be functional hubs, with a high number of functional connections important for resilience to cascading network failures. Regions with high levels of tau were more likely to have low clustering coefficients and degrees, suggesting a lack of trophic support or vulnerability to local network failures. Regions strongly functionally connected to the disease epicenters were more likely to have higher levels of tau and, less strongly, of Aβ. The regional rate of tau accumulation was associated with tau levels in functionally connected regions, in support of tau accumulation in a functional network. This study elucidates the relations of tau and Aβ to functional connectivity metrics in atypical Alzheimer's disease, strengthening the hypothesis that the spread of the 2 proteins is driven by different biological mechanisms related to functional networks.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa319DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7869088PMC
February 2021

Predicting future rates of tau accumulation on PET.

Brain 2020 10;143(10):3136-3150

Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Clinical trials with anti-tau drugs will need to target individuals at risk of accumulating tau. Our objective was to identify variables available in a research setting that predict future rates of tau PET accumulation separately among individuals who were either cognitively unimpaired or cognitively impaired. All 337 participants had: a baseline study visit with MRI, amyloid PET, and tau PET exams, at least one follow-up tau PET exam; and met clinical criteria for membership in one of two clinical diagnostic groups: cognitively unimpaired (n = 203); or cognitively impaired (n = 134, a combined group of participants with either mild cognitive impairment or dementia with Alzheimer's clinical syndrome). Our primary analyses were in these two clinical groups; however, we also evaluated subgroups dividing the unimpaired group by normal/abnormal amyloid PET and the impaired group by clinical phenotype (mild cognitive impairment, amnestic dementia, and non-amnestic dementia). Linear mixed effects models were used to estimate associations between age, sex, education, APOE genotype, amyloid and tau PET standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR), cognitive performance, cortical thickness, and white matter hyperintensity volume at baseline, and the rate of subsequent tau PET accumulation. Log-transformed tau PET SUVR was used as the response and rates were summarized as annual per cent change. A temporal lobe tau PET meta-region of interest was used. In the cognitively unimpaired group, only higher baseline amyloid PET was a significant independent predictor of higher tau accumulation rates (P < 0.001). Higher rates of tau accumulation were associated with faster rates of cognitive decline in the cognitively unimpaired subgroup with abnormal amyloid PET (P = 0.03), but among the subgroup with normal amyloid PET. In the cognitively impaired group, younger age (P = 0.02), higher baseline amyloid PET (P = 0.05), APOE ε4 (P = 0.05), and better cognitive performance (P = 0.05) were significant independent predictors of higher tau accumulation rates. Among impaired individuals, faster cognitive decline was associated with faster rates of tau accumulation (P = 0.01). While we examined many possible predictor variables, our results indicate that screening of unimpaired individuals for potential inclusion in anti-tau trials may be straightforward because the only independent predictor of high tau rates was amyloidosis. In cognitively impaired individuals, imaging and clinical variables consistent with early onset Alzheimer's disease phenotype were associated with higher rates of tau PET accumulation suggesting this may be a highly advantageous group in which to conduct proof-of-concept clinical trials that target tau-related mechanisms. The nature of the dementia phenotype (amnestic versus non-amnestic) did not affect this conclusion.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awaa248DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7586089PMC
October 2020

The evolution of parkinsonism in primary progressive apraxia of speech: A 6-year longitudinal study.

Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2020 12 7;81:34-40. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Department of Neurology, Movement Disorders, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; Department of Neurology, Behavioral Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: Primary progressive apraxia of speech (PPAOS) is a neurodegenerative syndrome in which patients present with an isolated motor speech disorder. Some PPAOS patients develop parkinsonism and other features of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and/or corticobasal syndrome (CBS) over time. We aimed to assess the evolution of parkinsonian characteristics in PPAOS patients who had been followed yearly for at least six years.

Methods: From a large cohort of 46 PPAOS patients, eight were followed yearly for > 6-years in multiple NIH-funded grants. Parkinsonian and other features, including bradykinesia, tremor, rigidity, postural instability, apraxia, ocular motor function and cognition were assessed at each visit, and research criteria applied for PSP and CBS diagnosis. Neurological, speech-language test scores, and [F]fluorodeoxyglucose PET (FDG-PET) and MRI midbrain volumes were assessed.

Results: A Parkinson's plus syndrome developed in all eight patients (100%). Bradykinesia was the earliest feature, followed by rigidity and postural instability. Tremor was not a significant feature. Parkinsonism, limb apraxia and ocular motor impairment tended to develop four-to-five years after onset with some patients having slight asymmetric parkinsonism. Six patients (75%) met research criteria for probable PSP, although only one for PSP-Richardson's syndrome; three patients met criteria for possible CBS. Slightly asymmetric, left-sided, hypometabolism was observed on FDG-PET, not matching asymmetry of Parkinsonism. Midbrain hypometabolism was absent-minimal. Three patients had progressive midbrain volumes in the PSP-Richardson's syndrome range.

Conclusions: A Parkinson's plus syndrome may inevitably develop in PPAOS supporting PPAOS as an early presentation of a Parkinson's plus disorder.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parkreldis.2020.09.039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7769910PMC
December 2020

Associations of quantitative susceptibility mapping with Alzheimer's disease clinical and imaging markers.

Neuroimage 2021 01 6;224:117433. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.

Altered iron metabolism has been hypothesized to be associated with Alzheimer's disease pathology, and prior work has shown associations between iron load and beta amyloid plaques. Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) is a recently popularized MR technique to infer local tissue susceptibility secondary to the presence of iron as well as other minerals. Greater QSM values imply greater iron concentration in tissue. QSM has been used to study relationships between cerebral iron load and established markers of Alzheimer's disease, however relationships remain unclear. In this work we study QSM signal characteristics and associations between susceptibility measured on QSM and established clinical and imaging markers of Alzheimer's disease. The study included 421 participants (234 male, median age 70 years, range 34-97 years) from the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging and Alzheimer's Disease Research Center; 296 (70%) had a diagnosis of cognitively unimpaired, 69 (16%) mild cognitive impairment, and 56 (13%) amnestic dementia. All participants had multi-echo gradient recalled echo imaging, PiB amyloid PET, and Tauvid tau PET. Variance components analysis showed that variation in cortical susceptibility across participants was low. Linear regression models were fit to assess associations with regional susceptibility. Expected increases in susceptibility were found with older age and cognitive impairment in the deep and inferior gray nuclei (pallidum, putamen, substantia nigra, subthalamic nucleus) (betas: 0.0017 to 0.0053 ppm for a 10 year increase in age, p = 0.03 to <0.001; betas: 0.0021 to 0.0058 ppm for a 5 point decrease in Short Test of Mental Status, p = 0.003 to p<0.001). Effect sizes in cortical regions were smaller, and the age associations were generally negative. Higher susceptibility was significantly associated with higher amyloid PET SUVR in the pallidum and putamen (betas: 0.0029 and 0.0012 ppm for a 20% increase in amyloid PET, p = 0.05 and 0.02, respectively), higher tau PET in the basal ganglia with the largest effect size in the pallidum (0.0082 ppm for a 20% increase in tau PET, p<0.001), and with lower cortical gray matter volume in the medial temporal lobe (0.0006 ppm for a 20% decrease in volume, p = 0.03). Overall, these findings suggest that susceptibility in the deep and inferior gray nuclei, particularly the pallidum and putamen, may be a marker of cognitive decline, amyloid deposition, and off-target binding of the tau ligand. Although iron has been demonstrated in amyloid plaques and in association with neurodegeneration, it is of insufficient quantity to be reliably detected in the cortex using this implementation of QSM.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.117433DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7860631PMC
January 2021

Sensitivity-Specificity of Tau and Amyloid β Positron Emission Tomography in Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration.

Ann Neurol 2020 11 12;88(5):1009-1022. Epub 2020 Sep 12.

Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Objective: To examine associations between tau and amyloid β (Aβ) molecular positron emission tomography (PET) and both Alzheimer-related pathology and 4-repeat tau pathology in autopsy-confirmed frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD).

Methods: Twenty-four patients had [ F]-flortaucipir-PET and died with FTLD (progressive supranuclear palsy [PSP], n = 10; corticobasal degeneration [CBD], n = 10; FTLD-TDP, n = 3; and Pick disease, n = 1). All but 1 had Pittsburgh compound B (PiB)-PET. Braak staging, Aβ plaque and neurofibrillary tangle counts, and semiquantitative tau lesion scores were performed. Flortaucipir standard uptake value ratios (SUVRs) were calculated in a temporal meta region of interest (meta-ROI), entorhinal cortex and cortical/subcortical regions selected to match the tau lesion analysis. Global PiB SUVR was calculated. Autoradiography was performed in 1 PSP patient, with digital pathology used to quantify tau burden.

Results: Nine cases (37.5%) had Aβ plaques. Global PiB SUVR correlated with Aβ plaque count, with 100% specificity and 50% sensitivity for diffuse plaques. Twenty-one (87.5%) had Braak stages I to IV. Flortaucipir correlated with neurofibrillary tangle counts in entorhinal cortex, but entorhinal and meta-ROI SUVRs were not elevated in Braak IV or primary age-related tauopathy. Flortaucipir uptake patterns differed across FTLD pathologies and could separate PSP and CBD. Flortaucipir correlated with tau lesion score in red nucleus and midbrain tegmentum across patients, but not in cortical or basal ganglia regions. Autoradiography demonstrated minimal uptake of flortaucipir, although flortaucipir correlated with quantitative tau burden across regions.

Interpretation: Molecular PET shows expected correlations with Alzheimer-related pathology but lacks sensitivity to detect mild Alzheimer pathology in FTLD. Regional flortaucipir uptake was able to separate CBD and PSP. ANN NEUROL 2020;88:1009-1022.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.25893DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7861121PMC
November 2020

Communication Limitations in Patients With Progressive Apraxia of Speech and Aphasia.

Am J Speech Lang Pathol 2020 11 5;29(4):1976-1986. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

Purpose Individuals with primary progressive apraxia of speech (AOS) have AOS in which disruptions in articulation and prosody predominate the speech pattern. Many develop aphasia and/or dysarthria later in the disease course. The aim of this study was to describe the communication limitations in these patients, as measured by (a) the patient via the Communicative Participation Item Bank (CPIB) and (b) the speech-language pathologist via the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association's (ASHA) Functional Communication Measures (FCMs) and an adapted motor speech disorder (MSD) severity rating. Method Speech and language evaluations were completed for 24 patients with progressive AOS ( = 7 with isolated AOS; = 17 with a combination of AOS and aphasia). Descriptive comparisons were utilized to evaluate differences in communication measures among patients with various combinations of MSDs and aphasia. Differences associated with phonetic predominant or prosodic predominant AOS were also examined. Across the entire cohort, correlations were calculated between the participation ratings and other clinical assessment measures. Results The CPIB reflected greater limitations for those with aphasia and AOS compared to isolated AOS, but was not notably different when dysarthria occurred with AOS ( = 9/24). Across the cohort, there were statistically significant correlations between the CPIB and ASHA FCM-Motor Speech and Language Expression ratings and the MSD severity rating. The CPIB did not correlate with the ASHA FCM-Language Comprehension or other speech-language measures. Conclusions Patients with neurodegenerative AOS experience reduced participation in communication that is further exacerbated by co-occurring language deficits. The study suggests measures of severity cannot be assumed to correlate with measures of participation restrictions and offers a foundation for further research examining the day-to-day sequela of progressive speech and language disorders. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.12743252.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/2020_AJSLP-20-00012DOI Listing
November 2020

Dementia with Lewy bodies presenting as Logopenic variant primary progressive Aphasia.

Neurocase 2020 10 16;26(5):259-263. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic , Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

We report a patient presenting with clinical features of logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia (lvPPA) who was later diagnosed with probable dementia with Lewy bodies. LvPPA is a neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by anomia, word-finding difficulty, impaired comprehension, and phonological errors. The most common underlying pathology for lvPPA is Alzheimer's disease. However, our patient with clinical features of logopenic progressive aphasia was later diagnosed with probable dementia with Lewy bodies. This case demonstrates that lvPPA can also be an initial manifestation of a phenotype of dementia with Lewy bodies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13554794.2020.1795204DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7530001PMC
October 2020

Progressive dysexecutive syndrome due to Alzheimer's disease: a description of 55 cases and comparison to other phenotypes.

Brain Commun 2020 27;2(1):fcaa068. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Neurology Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55902, USA.

We report a group of patients presenting with a progressive dementia syndrome characterized by predominant dysfunction in core executive functions, relatively young age of onset and positive biomarkers for Alzheimer's pathophysiology. Atypical frontal, dysexecutive/behavioural variants and early-onset variants of Alzheimer's disease have been previously reported, but no diagnostic criteria exist for a progressive dysexecutive syndrome. In this retrospective review, we report on 55 participants diagnosed with a clinically defined progressive dysexecutive syndrome with F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography and Alzheimer's disease biomarkers available. Sixty-two per cent of participants were female with a mean of 15.2 years of education. The mean age of reported symptom onset was 53.8 years while the mean age at diagnosis was 57.2 years. Participants and informants commonly referred to initial cognitive symptoms as 'memory problems' but upon further inquiry described problems with core executive functions of working memory, cognitive flexibility and cognitive inhibitory control. Multi-domain cognitive impairment was evident in neuropsychological testing with executive dysfunction most consistently affected. The frontal and parietal regions which overlap with working memory networks consistently demonstrated hypometabolism on positron emission tomography. Genetic testing for autosomal dominant genes was negative in all eight participants tested and at least one ε allele was present in 14/26 participants tested. EEG was abnormal in 14/17 cases with 13 described as diffuse slowing. Furthermore, CSF or neuroimaging biomarkers were consistent with Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology, although CSF p-tau was normal in 24% of cases. Fifteen of the executive predominate participants enrolled in research neuroimaging protocols and were compared to amnestic ( = 110), visual ( = 18) and language ( = 7) predominate clinical phenotypes of Alzheimer's disease. This revealed a consistent pattern of hypometabolism in parieto-frontal brain regions supporting executive functions with relative sparing of the medial temporal lobe (versus amnestic phenotype), occipital (versus visual phenotype) and left temporal (versus language phenotype). We propose that this progressive dysexecutive syndrome should be recognized as a distinct clinical phenotype disambiguated from behavioural presentations and not linked specifically to the frontal lobe or a particular anatomic substrate without further study. This clinical presentation can be due to Alzheimer's disease but is likely not specific for any single aetiology. Diagnostic criteria are proposed to facilitate additional research into this understudied clinical presentation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/braincomms/fcaa068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7325839PMC
May 2020

Utility of FDG-PET in diagnosis of Alzheimer-related TDP-43 proteinopathy.

Neurology 2020 07 9;95(1):e23-e34. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

From the Departments of Neurology (M.B., H.B., D.T.J., D.S.K., B.F.B., R.C.P., K.A.J.), Radiology (C.G.S., M.L.S., C.R.J., V.L., J.L.W.), and Laboratory Medicine and Pathology (J.E.P.), Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN; and Department of Neuroscience (M.E.M., L.P., D.W.D.), Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL.

Objective: To evaluate FDG-PET as an antemortem diagnostic tool for Alzheimer-related TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) proteinopathy.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional neuroimaging-histologic analysis of patients with antemortem FDG-PET and postmortem brain tissue from the Mayo Clinic Alzheimer's Disease Research Center and Study of Aging with Alzheimer spectrum pathology. TDP-43-positive status was assigned when TDP-43-immunoreactive inclusions were identified in the amygdala. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analyses compared TDP-43-positive (TDP-43[+]) with TDP-43-negative cases (TDP-43[-]), correcting for field strength, sex, Braak neurofibrillary tangle, and neuritic plaque stages. Cross-validated logistic regression analyses were used to determine whether regional FDG-PET values predict TDP-43 status. We also assessed the ratio of inferior temporal to medial temporal (IMT) metabolism as this was proposed as a biomarker of hippocampal sclerosis.

Results: Of 73 cases, 27 (37%) were TDP-43(+), of which 6 (8%) had hippocampal sclerosis. SPM analysis showed TDP-43(+) cases having greater hypometabolism of medial temporal, frontal superior medial, and frontal supraorbital (FSO) regions ( < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed only FSO and IMT to be associated with TDP-43(+) status, identifying up to 81% of TDP-43(+) cases ( < 0.001). An IMT/FSO ratio was superior to the IMT in discriminating TDP-43(+) cases: 78% vs 48%, respectively.

Conclusions: Alzheimer-related TDP-43 proteinopathy is associated with hypometabolism in the medial temporal and frontal regions. Combining FDG-PET measures from these regions may be useful for antemortem prediction of Alzheimer-related TDP-43 proteinopathy.

Classification Of Evidence: This study provides Class II evidence that hypometabolism in the medial temporal and frontal regions on FDG-PET is associated with Alzheimer-related TDP-43 proteinopathy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000009722DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7371379PMC
July 2020

Longitudinal flortaucipir ([F]AV-1451) PET uptake in semantic dementia.

Neurobiol Aging 2020 08 18;92:135-140. Epub 2020 Apr 18.

Departments of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

To assess volume loss and flortaucipir uptake in patients with semantic dementia (SD) over time. Eight SD patients (3 female) underwent clinical evaluations, flortaucipir positron emission tomography, and brain magnetic resonance imaging at 2 visits. Voxel-level comparisons of magnetic resonance imaging gray and white matter volume loss and flortaucipir positron emission tomography uptake were performed in SPM12, comparing SD patients to controls at each visit. T-tests on difference images and paired t-tests of flortaucipir uptake were also performed. At the voxel level, SD patients showed asymmetric, bilateral gray volume loss in the temporal lobes, which, via visual inspection, extended posteriorly at follow-up. White matter loss and flortaucipir uptake were noted in SD patients in the left temporal lobe only, which appeared to extend posteriorly, without involvement of the right hemisphere at follow-up. Longitudinal analyses did not support significant changes in flortaucipir uptake between visits. The biological mechanisms of flortaucipir signal in suspected underlying TAR-DNA binding protein 43 pathology are unknown. A 1-year interval is not sufficient time to demonstrate significant longitudinal flortaucipir uptake changes in SD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2020.04.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7365267PMC
August 2020

Ioflupane 123I (DAT scan) SPECT identifies dopamine receptor dysfunction early in the disease course in progressive apraxia of speech.

J Neurol 2020 Sep 9;267(9):2603-2611. Epub 2020 May 9.

Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science, 200 1st Street S.W., Rochester, MN, 55905, USA.

Objective: To describe I-FP-CIT (DAT scan) SPECT findings in progressive apraxia of speech (PAOS) patients and to compare those findings with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and corticobasal syndrome (CBS).

Background: PAOS is a neurodegenerative syndrome in which patients present with apraxia of speech, a motor speech disorder affecting programming and planning of speech. Patients with PAOS predictably develop Parkinsonism. DAT scan is a neuroimaging tool that assesses the integrity of presynaptic dopamine transporters in striatum and is usually abnormal in PSP and CBS.

Methods: As part of an NIH-funded grant, we performed a DAT scan on 17 PAOS patients early in the disease course. DaTQUANT software was used to quantify uptake in the left and right caudate and anterior/posterior putamen, with striatum to background ratios (SBRs). The PAOS cohort was compared to 15 PSP and 8 CBS patients.

Results: Five PAOS patients (29%) showed abnormalities in at least one striatal region on DAT scan. When the five PAOS patients with abnormal DAT were compared to the PSP and CBS patients, the only difference observed was lower uptake in the posterior putamen in PSP (p = 0.03). There were no differences is putamen/caudate ratio or in symmetry of uptake, across all groups. There was also no difference in MDS-UPDRS-III scores between PAOS patients with and without abnormal DAT scans (p = 0.56).

Conclusions: Abnormal DAT scan is observed early in the disease course in approximately 30% of PAOS patients, with striatal abnormalities similar to those in PSP and CBS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-020-09883-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7426240PMC
September 2020
-->