Publications by authors named "Hugh A McAllister"

3 Publications

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Resolving phylogeny and polyploid parentage using genus-wide genome-wide sequence data from birch trees.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2021 Feb 27;160:107126. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS, UK; Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AB, UK. Electronic address:

Numerous plant genera have a history including frequent hybridisation and polyploidisation (allopolyploidisation), which means that their phylogeny is a network of reticulate evolution that cannot be accurately depicted as a bifurcating tree with a single tip per species. The genus Betula, which contains many ecologically important tree species, is a case in point. We generated genome-wide sequence reads for 27 diploid and 36 polyploid Betula species or subspecies using restriction site associated DNA (RAD) sequences. These reads were assembled into contigs with a mean length of 675 bp. We reconstructed the evolutionary relationships among diploid Betula species using both supermatrix (concatenation) and species tree methods. We identified the closest diploid relatives of the polyploids according to the relative rates at which reads from polyploids mapped to contigs from different diploid species within a concatenated reference sequence. By mapping reads from allopolyploids to their different putative diploid relatives we assembled contigs from the putative sub-genomes of allopolyploid taxa. We used these to build new phylogenies that included allopolyploid sub-genomes as separate tips. This approach yielded a highly evidenced phylogenetic hypothesis for the genus Betula, including the complex reticulate origins of the majority of its polyploid taxa. Our phylogeny divides the genus into two well supported clades, which, interestingly, differ in their seed-wing morphology. We therefore propose to split Betula into two subgenera.
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February 2021

Molecular phylogeny and genome size evolution of the genus Betula (Betulaceae).

Ann Bot 2016 05 11;117(6):1023-35. Epub 2016 Apr 11.

School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS, UK,

Background And Aims: Betula L. (birch) is a genus of approx. 60 species, subspecies or varieties with a wide distribution in the northern hemisphere, of ecological and economic importance. A new classification of Betula has recently been proposed based on morphological characters. This classification differs somewhat from previously published molecular phylogenies, which may be due to factors such as convergent evolution, hybridization, incomplete taxon sampling or misidentification of samples. While chromosome counts have been made for many species, few have had their genome size measured. The aim of this study is to produce a new phylogenetic and genome size analysis of the genus.

Methods: Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA were sequenced for 76 Betula samples verified by taxonomic experts, representing approx. 60 taxa, of which approx. 24 taxa have not been included in previous phylogenetic analyses. A further 49 samples from other collections were also sequenced, and 108 ITS sequences were downloaded from GenBank. Phylogenetic trees were built for these sequences. The genome sizes of 103 accessions representing nearly all described species were estimated using flow cytometry.

Key Results: As expected for a gene tree of a genus where hybridization and allopolyploidy occur, the ITS tree shows clustering, but not resolved monophyly, for the morphological subgenera recently proposed. Most sections show some clustering, but species of the dwarf section Apterocaryon are unusually scattered. Betula corylifolia (subgenus Nipponobetula) unexpectedly clusters with species of subgenus Aspera Unexpected placements are also found for B. maximowicziana, B. bomiensis, B. nigra and B. grossa Biogeographical disjunctions were found within Betula between Europe and North America, and also disjunctions between North-east and South-west Asia. The 2C-values for Betula ranged from 0·88 to 5·33 pg, and polyploids are scattered widely throughout the ITS phylogeny. Species with large genomes tend to have narrow ranges.

Conclusions: Betula grossa may have formed via allopolyploidization between parents in subgenus Betula and subgenus Aspera. Betula bomiensis may also be a wide allopolyploid. Betula corylifolia may be a parental species of allopolyploids in the subsection Chinenses Placements of B. maximowicziana, B. michauxii and B. nigra need further investigation. This analysis, in line with previous studies, suggests that section Apterocaryon is not monophyletic and thus dwarfism has evolved repeatedly in different lineages of Betula Polyploidization has occurred many times independently in the evolution of Betula.
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May 2016

Matrix metalloproteinases and their tissue inhibitors in the lesions of cardiac and pulmonary sarcoidosis: an immunohistochemical study.

Hum Pathol 2002 Dec;33(12):1158-64

Pathology Section, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-1518, USA.

The pathogenesis of the tissue damage and fibrosis in sarcoidosis is poorly understood. The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) must be considered in this regard, because they control the lysis of connective tissue components. Immunohistochemical studies (peroxidase and dual labeling for confocal microscopy) of reactivity for MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-7, MMP-9, and the 4 membrane-type-MMPs were made on tissues from patients with cardiac (n = 4) and pulmonary (n = 5) sarcoidosis. The granulomas were histochemically similar in both organs. The multinucleated giant cells (MGCs) showed moderate reactivity for MMP-1 and MMP-9 and variable reactivity for MMP-2 and MMP-3; in addition, they showed colocalization of MT-1-MMP, which activates MMP-2. The reactivity of epithelioid cells (ECs) was moderate for MMP-2 and mild for other MMPs. Macrophages showed weaker reactivity for MMPs than did MGCs and ECs. All 3 types of cells showed very low reactivity for TIMPs. Staining for type IV collagen showed focal damage to the basement membranes of cardiac myocytes and pulmonary alveoli near the granulomas. The cells in sarcoid granulomas contain an abundance of MMPs and a paucity of TIMPs. The MGCs also contain MT-1-MMP and thus can activate MMP-2 in the granulomas. The MMPs can cause damage to adjacent cardiac myocytes and pulmonary alveoli, leading to the interstitial fibrosis produced by sarcoidosis.
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December 2002