Publications by authors named "Huay Cheem Tan"

148 Publications

An Asian Perspective on Gender Differences in In-Hospital and Long-Term Outcome of Cardiac Mortality and Ischemic Stroke after Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Nov 20;31(1):106215. Epub 2021 Nov 20.

Department of Cardiology, National University Heart Centre, National University Health System, Singapore.

Objectives: Gender differences historically exist in cardiovascular disease, with women experiencing higher rates of major adverse cardiovascular events. We investigated these trends in a contemporary Asian cohort, examining the impact of gender differences on cardiac mortality and ischemic stroke after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) for ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).

Materials And Methods: We analysed 3971 consecutive patients who underwent primary PCI for STEMI retrospectively. The primary outcome was cardiac mortality and ischemic stroke in-hospital, at one year and on longer-term follow up (median follow up 3.62 years, interquartile range 1.03-6.03 years).

Results: There were 580 (14.6%) female patients and 3391 (85.4%) male patients. Female patients were older and had higher prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, previous strokes, and chronic kidney disease. Cardiac mortality was higher in female patients during in-hospital (15.5% vs. 6.2%), 1-year (17.4% vs. 7.0%) and longer term follow up (19.9% vs. 8.1%, log-rank test: p < 0.001). Similarly, females had higher incidence of ischemic stroke at in-hospital (2.6% vs. 1.0%), 1-year (3.6% vs. 1.4%) and in the longer-term (6.7% vs. 3.1%) as well (log-rank test: p < 0.001). Female gender remained an independent predictor of in-hospital cardiac mortality (HR 1.395, 95%CI 1.061-1.833, p=0.017) and on longer-term follow-up (HR 1.932 95%CI 1.212-3.080, p=0.006) even after adjusting for confounders.

Conclusions: Females were at higher risk of in-hospital and long-term cardiac mortality and ischemic stroke after PPCI for STEMI. Future studies are warranted to investigate the role of aggressive management of cardiovascular risk factors and follow-up to improve outcomes in the females with STEMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2021.106215DOI Listing
November 2021

Early Coronary Angiography Is Associated with Improved 30-Day Outcomes among Patients with Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest.

J Clin Med 2021 Nov 6;10(21). Epub 2021 Nov 6.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore 168753, Singapore.

We evaluated the association between early coronary angiography (CAG) and outcomes in resuscitated out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients, by linking data from the Singapore Pan-Asian Resuscitation Outcomes Study, with a national registry of cardiac procedures. The 30-day survival and neurological outcome were compared between patients undergoing early CAG (within 1-calender day), versus patients not undergoing early CAG. Inverse probability weighted estimates (IPWE) adjusted for non-randomized CAG. Of 976 resuscitated OHCA patients of cardiac etiology between 2011-2015 (mean(SD) age 64(13) years, 73.7% males), 337 (34.5%) underwent early CAG, of whom, 230 (68.2%) underwent PCI. Those who underwent early CAG were significantly younger (60(12) vs. 66(14) years old), healthier (42% vs. 59% with heart disease; 29% vs. 44% with diabetes), more likely males (86% vs. 67%), and presented with shockable rhythms (69% vs. 36%), compared with those who did not. Early CAG with PCI was associated with better survival and neurological outcome (adjusted odds ratio 1.91 and 1.82 respectively), findings robust to IPWE adjustment. The rates of bleeding and stroke were similar. CAG with PCI within 24 h was associated with improved clinical outcomes after OHCA, without increasing complications. Further studies are required to identify the characteristics of patients who would benefit most from this invasive strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10215191DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8584598PMC
November 2021

Post-ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Follow-Up Care During the COVID-19 Pandemic and the Possible Benefit of Telemedicine: An Observational Study.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 22;8:755822. Epub 2021 Oct 22.

Department of Cardiology, National University Heart Centre, National University Health System, Singapore, Singapore.

Infectious control measures during the COVID-19 pandemic have led to the propensity toward telemedicine. This study examined the impact of telemedicine during the pandemic on the long-term outcomes of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. This study included 288 patients admitted 1 year before the pandemic (October 2018-December 2018) and during the pandemic (January 2020-March 2020) eras, and survived their index STEMI admission. The follow-up period was 1 year. One-year primary safety endpoint was all-cause mortality. Secondary safety endpoints were cardiac readmissions for unplanned revascularisation, non-fatal myocardial infarction, heart failure, arrythmia, unstable angina. Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) was defined as the composite outcome of each individual safety endpoint. Despite unfavorable in-hospital outcomes among patients admitted during the pandemic compared to pre-pandemic era, both groups had similar 1-year all-cause mortality (11.2 vs. 8.5%, respectively, = 0.454) but higher cardiac-related (14.1 vs. 5.1%, < 0.001) and heart failure readmissions in the pandemic vs. pre-pandemic groups (7.1 vs. 1.7%, = 0.037). Follow-up was more frequently conducted via teleconsultations (1.2 vs. 0.2 per patient/year, = 0.001), with reduction in physical consultations (2.1 vs. 2.6 per patient/year, = 0.043), during the pandemic vs. pre-pandemic era. Majority achieved guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) during pandemic vs. pre-pandemic era (75.9 vs. 61.6%, = 0.010). Multivariable Cox regression demonstrated achieving medication target doses (HR 0.387, 95% CI 0.164-0.915, = 0.031) and GDMT (HR 0.271, 95% CI 0.134-0.548, < 0.001) were independent predictors of lower 1-year MACE after adjustment. The pandemic has led to the wider application of teleconsultation, with increased adherence to GDMT, enhanced medication target dosing. Achieving GDMT was associated with favorable long-term prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.755822DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8569238PMC
October 2021

Optimal glucose, HbA1c, glucose-HbA1c ratio and stress-hyperglycaemia ratio cut-off values for predicting 1-year mortality in diabetic and non-diabetic acute myocardial infarction patients.

Cardiovasc Diabetol 2021 10 19;20(1):211. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.

Background: Stress-induced hyperglycaemia at time of hospital admission has been linked to worse prognosis following acute myocardial infarction (AMI). In addition to glucose, other glucose-related indices, such as HbA1c, glucose-HbA1c ratio (GHR), and stress-hyperglycaemia ratio (SHR) are potential predictors of clinical outcomes following AMI. However, the optimal blood glucose, HbA1c, GHR, and SHR cut-off values for predicting adverse outcomes post-AMI are unknown. As such, we determined the optimal blood glucose, HbA1c, GHR, and SHR cut-off values for predicting 1-year all cause mortality in diabetic and non-diabetic ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) patients.

Methods: We undertook a national, registry-based study of patients with AMI from January 2008 to December 2015. We determined the optimal blood glucose, HbA1c, GHR, and SHR cut-off values using the Youden's formula for 1-year all-cause mortality. We subsequently analyzed the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the cut-off values in the diabetic and non-diabetic subgroups, stratified by the type of AMI.

Results: There were 5841 STEMI and 4105 NSTEMI in the study. In STEMI patients, glucose, GHR, and SHR were independent predictors of 1-year all-cause mortality [glucose: OR 2.19 (95% CI 1.74-2.76); GHR: OR 2.28 (95% CI 1.80-2.89); SHR: OR 2.20 (95% CI 1.73-2.79)]. However, in NSTEMI patients, glucose and HbA1c were independently associated with 1-year all-cause mortality [glucose: OR 1.38 (95% CI 1.01-1.90); HbA1c: OR 2.11 (95% CI 1.15-3.88)]. In diabetic STEMI patients, SHR performed the best in terms of area-under-the-curve (AUC) analysis (glucose: AUC 63.3%, 95% CI 59.5-67.2; GHR 68.8% 95% CI 64.8-72.8; SHR: AUC 69.3%, 95% CI 65.4-73.2). However, in non-diabetic STEMI patients, glucose, GHR, and SHR performed equally well (glucose: AUC 72.0%, 95% CI 67.7-76.3; GHR 71.9% 95% CI 67.7-76.2; SHR: AUC 71.7%, 95% CI 67.4-76.0). In NSTEMI patients, glucose performed better than HbA1c for both diabetic and non-diabetic patients in AUC analysis (For diabetic, glucose: AUC 52.8%, 95% CI 48.1-57.6; HbA1c: AUC 42.5%, 95% CI 37.6-47. For non-diabetic, glucose: AUC 62.0%, 95% CI 54.1-70.0; HbA1c: AUC 51.1%, 95% CI 43.3-58.9). The optimal cut-off values for glucose, GHR, and SHR in STEMI patients were 15.0 mmol/L, 2.11, and 1.68 for diabetic and 10.6 mmol/L, 1.72, and 1.51 for non-diabetic patients respectively. For NSTEMI patients, the optimal glucose values were 10.7 mmol/L for diabetic and 8.1 mmol/L for non-diabetic patients.

Conclusions: SHR was the most consistent independent predictor of 1-year all-cause mortality in both diabetic and non-diabetic STEMI, whereas glucose was the best predictor in NSTEMI patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12933-021-01395-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8524932PMC
October 2021

Prognostic Implications of Bicuspid and Tricuspid Aortic Valve Phenotype on Progression of Moderate Aortic Stenosis and Ascending Aorta Dilatation.

Am J Cardiol 2021 12 6;161:76-83. Epub 2021 Oct 6.

Department of Cardiology, National University Heart Centre Singapore, Singapore, Singapore; Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore. Electronic address:

Studies on the impact of aortic valve anatomy (bicuspid aortic valve [BAV] or tricuspid aortic valve [TAV]) on the progression of moderate aortic stenosis (AS) and ascending aorta (AA) dilatation and its prognostic implications are limited. From 1991 to 2016, 288 asymptomatic patients with moderate AS detected during index echocardiography with at least 1 year of echocardiographic follow-up were retrospectively studied. Baseline clinical and echocardiographic characteristics were compared between patients with BAV (n = 80) and patients with TAV (n = 208). Co-primary outcomes were 1-year hemodynamic and anatomic progression of AS and AA dilatation. Secondary end points were the incidence of AA rapid progressors, all-cause mortality, aortic valve replacement, and congestive heart failure. Determinants of AS progression, AA diameters, AA dilatation, and prognostic outcomes were evaluated. Similar 1-year progression of the aortic valve peak velocity, V (9 ± 18 vs 9 ± 23 cm/s), mean gradient (1.5 ± 2.3 vs 1.3 ± 3.2 mm Hg), and aortic valve area (AVA) (-0.04 ± 0.09 vs -0.05 ± 0.10 cm) were noted for BAV and TAV groups, respectively. One-year progressions of AA were similar at Valsalva (0.11 ± 0.88 vs 0.14 ± 1.10 mm) and tubular levels (0.12 ± 0.68 vs 0.30 ± 1.51 mm) in BAV and TAV groups, respectively. A trend toward increased rapid AA progression in patients with BAV (31.3%) was observed compared with patients with TAV (14.8%, p = 0.099). BAV was associated with progression of V (β = 0.17, p = 0.036), the dimensionless index (β = -0.17, p = 0.008), and AVA (β = -0.14, p = 0.048), but not mean gradient after adjusting for age, baseline severity indexes, gender, hypertension, diabetes, and body surface area. Although BAV was a determinant of larger baseline AA diameter, there was no significant association between BAV and AA rapid progressors. Adjusted Kaplan-Meier curves demonstrated no differences in congestive heart failure, aortic valve replacement, or mortality between valve morphology. In conclusion, there was a similar 1-year disease progression in terms of AVA, V, mean gradient, and AA diameters between patients with BAV and patients with TAV. BAV was associated with a significant increase in V, dimensionless index, and AVA after adjusting for important confounders. Close and prolonged follow-up is warranted in both groups of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2021.08.050DOI Listing
December 2021

The association of face mask use with self-reported cardiovascular symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Singapore Med J 2021 Oct 3. Epub 2021 Oct 3.

Department of Cardiology, National University Heart Centre Singapore, Singapore.

Introduction: Countries are mandating the use of face masks to stem the spread of COVID-19. Face mask use has been associated with discomfort due to its effects on thermoregulation, breathing and oxygenation. We evaluated the prevalence and severity of self-reported cardiovascular symptoms before and during face mask use.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 1001 participants residing in Singapore, who participated in a self-administered questionnaire between 25th April 2020 to 4th May 2020. Symptom severity before and during mask use and health-seeking behaviour information were collected. The study outcome was the self-reported worsening of cardiovascular symptoms, and its association with the type of mask worn, duration of mask worn per day, and intensity of physical activities during mask use.

Results: The commonest symptom reported during mask use was dyspnoea. Independent predictors for self-reported cardiovascular symptoms during mask use were moderate-high physical activity during mask use (OR 1.634, 95% CI 1.176-2.270, p=0.003), duration of mask use ≥3 hours (OR 1.672, 95% CI 1.189-2.352, p=0.003) and the type of mask used, after adjusting for age, sex, healthcare-based worker status and presence of comorbidities. N95 mask was associated with worse symptoms when compared to surgical mask. Participants with ≥3 worsening symptoms, or worsening dyspnoea, palpitations, fatigue and dizziness were more likely to seek medical help.

Conclusion: Face mask use is proven to be an effective way in curbing COVID-19 transmission. However, participants in this study had concerns regarding its use and these concerns should be urgently addressed to enable mask-use policies to be enacted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11622/smedj.2021140DOI Listing
October 2021

Rare anterior mediastinal abscess masquerading as cardiac tamponade.

Ann Acad Med Singap 2021 08;50(8):655-656

Department of Cardiology, National University Heart Centre, Singapore.

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August 2021

One-year outcomes of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction during the COVID-19 pandemic.

J Thromb Thrombolysis 2021 Aug 26. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Department of Cardiology, National University Heart Center, National University Health System, Singapore, Singapore.

The pandemic has led to adverse short-term outcomes for patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). It is unknown if this translates to poorer long-term outcomes. In Singapore, the escalation of the outbreak response on February 7, 2020 demanded adaptation of STEMI care to stringent infection control measures. A total of 321 patients presenting with STEMI and undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention at a tertiary hospital were enrolled and followed up over 1-year. They were allocated into three groups based on admission date-(1) Before outbreak response (BOR): December 1, 2019-February 6, 2020, (2) During outbreak response (DOR): February 7-March 31, 2020, and (3) control group: November 1-December 31, 2018. The incidence of cardiac-related mortality, cardiac-related readmissions, and recurrent coronary events were examined. Although in-hospital outcomes were worse in BOR and DOR groups compared to the control group, there were no differences in the 1-year cardiac-related mortality (BOR 8.7%, DOR 7.1%, control 4.8%, p = 0.563), cardiac-related readmissions (BOR 15.1%, DOR 11.6%, control 12.0%, p = 0.693), and recurrent coronary events (BOR 3.2%, DOR 1.8%, control 1.2%, p = 0.596). There were higher rates of additional PCI during the index admission in DOR, compared to BOR and control groups (p = 0.027). While patients admitted for STEMI during the pandemic may have poorer in-hospital outcomes, their long-term outcomes remain comparable to the pre-pandemic era.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11239-021-02557-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8390088PMC
August 2021

Public perceptions and knowledge of cholesterol management in a multi-ethnic Asian population: A population-based survey.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(8):e0256218. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Health Services and Systems Research, Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore, Singapore.

Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Hyperlipidemia is one of the important modifiable risk factors for CVDs. Raising public awareness of CVD risks is an important step in reducing CVD burdens. In this study, we aimed to assess public awareness and knowledge of cholesterol and its management in a multiethnic Asian population.

Methods: We recruited 1000 participants from three major ethnic groups for this nationwide population-based survey. A structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographics, knowledge of cholesterol and cholesterol-lowering medications. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with good knowledge on cholesterol and its management.

Results: Of the participants, 65% thought that high cholesterol produces symptoms and that lifestyle modification would be as effective as medication at lowering cholesterol. Nearly 70% believed that long term statin could lead to kidney or liver damage, and 56% thought that statin was associated with higher risk of cancer. A third saw herbal medicine or supplements as healthier and safer. About 45% believed that statin therapy should not be taken long term and that one could stop taking cholesterol medication when cholesterol is under control. Malays were more likely to have poor knowledge (adjusted OR 0.68; 95% CI 0.47-0.98; P = 0.039) compared to Chinese. Participants with intermediate education were more likely to have good knowledge of cholesterol and its management (adjusted OR 1.67; 95% CI 1.11-2.51; P = 0.013) compared to those with primary education.

Conclusion: Public knowledge and awareness of high cholesterol and its management remains poor in Asian multi-ethnic population. Understanding gaps in public knowledge can inform the implementation of health promotion programs to effectively raise awareness of cholesterol and its management.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0256218PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8362937PMC
August 2021

Comparison of Outcomes of Asymptomatic Moderate Aortic Stenosis With Preserved Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction in Patients ≥80 Years Versus 70-79 Years Versus <70 Years.

Am J Cardiol 2021 10 7;157:93-100. Epub 2021 Aug 7.

Department of Cardiology, National University Heart Centre Singapore, National University Health System, Singapore; Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore. Electronic address:

Aortic stenosis (AS) is increasingly diagnosed in the aging population with more studies focused on the prognostic outcomes of severe asymptomatic AS. However, little is known about the outcomes of moderate asymptomatic AS in the elderly population. From 2001 to 2020, 738 consecutive patients with asymptomatic moderate AS with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction were studied. They were allocated according to the age group at the index echocardiography: very elderly (≥80 years), elderly (70 to 79 years) and control group (<70 years). The primary study outcomes were aortic valve replacement (AVR), congestive cardiac failure (CCF) and all-cause mortality. Overall, about one-third of the subjects were in the very elderly, elderly and control groups each. The median follow-up duration was 114.2 (interquartile range, 27.0 to 183.7) months. There was significantly higher all-cause mortality in the very elderly group (47.9%) followed by elderly (34.8%) and control group (21.9%). Similarly, there was significantly higher CCF rates in the very elderly group (5.8%) compared to elderly (5.1%) and control group (2.8%). There were significantly lower rates of AVR offered and completed in the very elderly group compared to control group. Multivariable logistic regression demonstrated that age ≥80 years remained an independent predictor of mortality after adjusting for important prognostic cofounders (Adjusted HR 2.424, 95% CI 1.728 to 3.400, p < 0.001). Cox regression showed no significant difference in mortality between patients ≥80 years with moderate AS compared to a younger age-group ≥70 years with severe AS. In conclusion, very elderly patients of ≥80 years of age with moderate AS have worse prognostic outcomes than their younger counterparts. They share similar unfavorable prognostic outcomes as those of a younger age-group ≥70 years with severe AS. Closer surveillance are warranted in this group of at-risk elderly patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2021.07.015DOI Listing
October 2021

Combined evaluation of coronary artery disease and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T for prediction of adverse events in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2021 07 3;21(1):325. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Department of Cardiology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, China.

Background: This study was performed to investigate the clinical significance of combined evaluation of both coronary artery disease (CAD) and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) for prediction of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM).

Methods: We performed clinical evaluations, including coronary artery imaging and hs-cTnT measurement, in 162 patients with HCM.

Results: The patients were followed up for a median period of 3.7 years (interquartile range 2.4-5.6 years; total of 632.3 person-years [PYs]), during which time MACEs occurred in 24 (14.8%) patients. The incidence of MACEs was 6.4 and 2.7 per 100 PYs for patients with CAD and normal coronary arteries, respectively; similarly, the incidence was 5.8 and 2.1 per 100 PYs in patients with an elevated hs-cTnT concentration (> 14.0 ng/L) and a normal hs-cTnT concentration, respectively. The multivariate analysis suggested that CAD and an elevated hs-cTnT concentration tended to be positively associated with MACEs. When the groups were allocated according to these two markers, the patients were divided into four groups, which further improved the predictive values. The incidence of MACEs was 10.4 per 100 PYs in the CAD and elevated hs-cTnT group, which was much higher than the incidence in all other groups (range, 2.0-3.5 per 100 PYs). With the normal coronary arteries and normal hs-cTnT group serving as a reference, the adjusted hazard ratio was 5.0 (95% confidence interval 1.0-23.8; P = 0.046) for the CAD and elevated hs-cTnT group. In addition, the subgroup analysis showed similar findings among the patients without severe CAD.

Conclusions: In patients with HCM, combined evaluation of both CAD and hs-cTnT might facilitate more reliable prediction of MACEs than evaluation of a single marker. These may serve as clinically useful markers to guide risk management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12872-021-02135-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8254350PMC
July 2021

Outcomes of a multi-ethnic Asian population on combined treatment with clopidogrel and omeprazole in 12,440 patients.

J Thromb Thrombolysis 2021 Oct 6;52(3):925-933. Epub 2021 May 6.

National University Heart Centre, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.

Omeprazole is commonly co-prescribed with clopidogrel. Clopidogrel requires bio-activation by cytochrome P450 CYP2C19. Omeprazole may reduce clopidogrel's antithrombotic efficacy by inhibiting CYP2C19. Studies in Caucasians receiving omeprazole with clopidogrel showed no significant increase in death and myocardial infarction with this drug-drug interaction. There are limited large-scale studies in Asians, who may have a greater prevalence of CYP2C19 loss-of-function polymorphisms. A single centre retrospective cohort study was undertaken based on a review of medication records and prescription data. Patients prescribed clopidogrel from 2009 to 2012 were followed-up with until December 2012 (median:29 months). The primary outcome was all-cause mortality and secondary outcomes were myocardial infarction (MI), cerebrovascular accidents, and subsequent coronary interventions. Of 12,440 patients prescribed clopidogrel, 62%(n = 7714) were on omeprazole (63.8% Chinese, 13.9% Malay, 12.4% Indian, 10.0% others), and 38%(n = 4726) were not on omeprazole or other proton pump inhibitors (62.6% Chinese, 13.5% Malay, 10.7% Indian, 13.2% others). Mortality after co-prescription occurred in 14.3%(n = 1101) of patients, compared to 6.3%(n = 300) of patients prescribed clopidogrel only. Multivariate analysis using propensity score adjusted analysis showed no significant increase in all-cause mortality with co-prescription (adjusted hazards ratio [AHR] 1.13, [95%CI 0.95-1.35]). Patients on co-prescription had a higher risk of subsequent MI (16% vs 3.8%; AHR 2.03 [95%CI 1.70-2.44]), but not of cerebrovascular accidents (5.0% vs 2.0%; AHR 0.98 [95%CI 0.76-1.27]) or coronary interventions (1.7% vs 0.7%; AHR 1.28 [95%CI 0.83-1.96]). The risk of a subsequent MI was higher in the Malay (AHR 2.43 [95%CI 1.68-3.52]) and Chinese (AHR 2.06 [95%CI 1.63-2.60]) population as compared to the Indian (AHR 1.56 [95%CI 1.06-2.31]) population. In conclusion, the use of clopidogrel with omeprazole is associated with an increased risk of MI, but not mortality or stroke, in this multi-ethnic Asian population. These risks appear to vary among different ethnic groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11239-021-02472-wDOI Listing
October 2021

Long-term clinical outcomes of biodegradable polymer drug eluting stents versus second-generation durable polymer drug eluting stents for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

Cardiovasc Revasc Med 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

National University Heart Center, Singapore; Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore. Electronic address:

Background: Biodegradable polymer drug eluting stents (BP-DES) may offer the advantage of vascular healing in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Long-term outcome data comparing BP-DES and second-generation durable polymer drug eluting stents (DP-DES) in STEMI is lacking. This study aims to compare the long-term clinical outcomes of BP-DES versus second-generation DP-DES in STEMI.

Methods: This is an observational study of consecutive patients with STEMI who received either BP-DES (n = 854) or DP-DES (n = 708) during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) from 1st February 2007 to 31st December 2016. The primary outcome was target lesion failure (TLF), a composite of cardiac death, target vessel myocardial infarction (MI), and target lesion revascularization with follow up till 30th November 2019.

Results: The baseline demographics, lesion and procedural characteristic were similar between the two groups except for more prior MI and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the BP-DES group. At a median follow up of 4.2 years (interquartile range: 2.6-6.2 years), the incidence of TLF was similar between BP-DES and DP-DES (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.70-1.26). Likewise, incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE: all-cause death, any MI or target vessel revascularization) and definite stent thrombosis were similar in both groups (MACE: adjusted HR 1.04, 95% CI 0.82-1.32; definite stent thrombosis: adjusted HR 1.06, 95% CI 0.31-3.64).

Conclusion: Among patients with STEMI who underwent primary PCI, BP-DES and DP-DES implantation was associated with similar long-term clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carrev.2021.04.014DOI Listing
April 2021

Long-Term Outcomes of Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack after Non-Emergency Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Jul 14;30(7):105786. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Cardiology, National University Heart Centre Singapore, Singapore; Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore.

Objectives: Non-emergency percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has lower risk of stroke than emergency PCI. With increasing elective PCI and increasing risk of stroke after PCI, risk factors for stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) in non-emergency PCI and long-term outcomes needs to be better characterised. We aim to identify risk factors for cerebrovascular accidents in patients undergoing non-emergency PCI and long-term outcomes after stroke or TIA.

Materials And Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed on 1724 consecutive patients who underwent non-emergency PCI for non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), unstable and stable angina. The primary outcomes measured were stroke or TIA, myocardial infarction (MI) and all-cause death.

Results: Upon mean follow-up of 3.71 (SD 0.97) years, 70 (4.1%) had subsequent ischaemic stroke or TIA, and they were more likely to present with NSTEMI (50 [71.4%] vs 892 [54.0%], OR 2.13 [1.26-3.62], p = 0.004) and not stable angina (19 [27.1%] vs 648 [39.2%], OR 0.58 [0.34-0.99]). Femoral access was associated with subsequent stroke or TIA compared to radial access (OR 2.10 [1.30-3.39], p < 0.002). Previous stroke/TIA was associated with subsequent stroke/TIA (p < 0.001), death (p < 0.001) and MI (p = 0.002). Furthermore, subsequent stroke/TIA was significantly associated with subsequent MI (p = 0.006), congestive cardiac failure (CCF) (p = 0.008) and death (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: In patients undergoing non-emergency PCI, previous stroke/TIA predicted post-PCI ischaemic stroke/TIA, which was associated with death, MI, CCF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2021.105786DOI Listing
July 2021

The Global Effect of the COVID-19 Pandemic on STEMI Care: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Can J Cardiol 2021 09 20;37(9):1450-1459. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Cardiology, National University Heart Centre, National University Health System, Singapore; Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore.

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) requiring primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) worldwide. In this review we examine the global effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on incidence of STEMI admissions, and relationship between the pandemic and door to balloon time (D2B), all-cause mortality, and other secondary STEMI outcomes.

Methods: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to primarily compare D2B time and in-hospital mortality of STEMI patients who underwent primary PCI during and before the pandemic. Subgroup analyses were performed to investigate the influence of geographical region and income status of a country on STEMI care. An online database search included studies that compared the aforementioned outcomes of STEMI patients during and before the pandemic.

Results: In total, 32 articles were analyzed. Overall, 19,140 and 68,662 STEMI patients underwent primary PCI during and before the pandemic, respectively. Significant delay in D2B was observed during the pandemic (weighted mean difference, 8.10 minutes; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.90-12.30 minutes; P = 0.0002; I = 90%). In-hospital mortality was higher during the pandemic (odds ratio [OR], 1.27; 95% CI, 1.09-1.49; P = 0.002; I = 36%), however this varied with factors such as geographical location and income status of a country. Subgroup analysis showed that low-middle-income countries observed a higher rate of mortality during the pandemic (OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.13-2.05; P = 0.006), with a similar but insignificant trend seen among the high income countries (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.95-1.44; P = 0.13).

Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic is associated with worse STEMI performance metrics and clinical outcome, particularly in the Eastern low-middle-income status countries. Better strategies are needed to address these global trends in STEMI care during the pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cjca.2021.04.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8056787PMC
September 2021

Association between smoking status and outcomes in myocardial infarction patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

Sci Rep 2021 03 19;11(1):6466. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.

Smoking is one of the leading risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, including ischemic heart disease and hypertension. However, in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients, smoking has been associated with better clinical outcomes, a phenomenon termed the "smoker's paradox." Given the known detrimental effects of smoking on the cardiovascular system, it has been proposed that the beneficial effect of smoking on outcomes is due to age differences between smokers and non-smokers and is therefore a smoker's pseudoparadox. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between smoking status and clinical outcomes in ST-segment elevation (STEMI) and non-STEMI (NSTEMI) patients treated by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), using a national multi-ethnic Asian registry. In unadjusted analyses, current smokers had better clinical outcomes following STEMI and NSTEMI. However, after adjusting for age, the protective effect of smoking was lost, confirming a smoker's pseudoparadox. Interestingly, although current smokers had increased risk for recurrent MI within 1 year after PCI in both STEMI and NSTEMI patients, there was no increase in mortality. In summary, we confirm the existence of a smoker's pseudoparadox in a multi-ethnic Asian cohort of STEMI and NSTEMI patients and report increased risk of recurrent MI, but not mortality, in smokers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-86003-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7979717PMC
March 2021

Characteristics and outcomes of young patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention: retrospective analysis in a multiethnic Asian population.

Open Heart 2021 01;8(1)

Cardiology, National University Heart Centre, Singapore.

Objective: ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is associated with significant mortality leading to loss of productive life years, especially in younger patients. This study aims to compare the characteristics and outcomes of young versus older patients with STEMI undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) to help focus public health efforts in STEMI prevention.

Methods: Data from the Coronary Care Unit database of the National University Hospital, Singapore from July 2015 to June 2019 were reviewed. Patients were divided into young (<50 years old) or older (≥50 years old) groups.

Results: Of the 1818 consecutive patients with STEMI who underwent PPCI, 465 (25.6%) were <50 years old. Young compared with older patients were more likely to be male, current smokers, of Indian ethnicity, have family history of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and had lower 1 year mortality (3.4% vs 10.4%, p<0.0001). Although diabetes, hypertension or dyslipidaemia was less common among young patients, the prevalence of having any one of these risk factors was high in the range of 28% to 38%. Age was an independent predictor of mortality in the older but not younger patients with STEMI, and diabetes showed a trend towards mortality in both groups.

Conclusion: Young patients with STEMI are more often smokers, of Indian ethnicity and had family history of IHD, although cardiometabolic risk factors are also prevalent. Mortality is lower, but not negligible, among the young patients with STEMI. Public health efforts are needed to reduce the prevalence of these risk factors among the constitutionally susceptible population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/openhrt-2020-001437DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7812097PMC
January 2021

ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction hospitalisations remain unchanged during COVID-19.

Singapore Med J 2020 Nov 30. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Department of Cardiology, National University Heart Centre Singapore, Singapore.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11622/smedj.2020157DOI Listing
November 2020

Catheter-Based Left Ventricular Assist Device for the Management of Cardiogenic Shock Complicating Acute Myocardial Infarction: A First-in-Singapore Experience.

Ann Acad Med Singap 2020 Sep;49(9):707-711

Department of Cardiology, National University Heart Centre, Singapore.

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September 2020

The impact of chronic kidney disease on long-term outcomes following semi-urgent and elective percutaneous coronary intervention.

Coron Artery Dis 2021 Sep;32(6):517-525

Department of Cardiology, National University Heart Centre.

Introduction: The effects of chronic kidney disease (CKD) on outcomes in patients undergoing semi-urgent and elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are unclear. This study aims to investigate impact of CKD on long-term outcomes of this population.

Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent semi-urgent and elective PCI from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2015 at a tertiary academic center. They were stratified into five groups - group 1 [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥90 ml/min/1.73m2], group 2 (eGFR 60-89 ml/min/1.73m2), group 3 (eGFR 30-59 ml/min/1.73 m2), group 4 (eGFR <30 ml/min/1.73m2), and group 5 (dialysis). Demographics, risk factors in relation to endpoints of all-cause mortality, contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), three-point major adverse cardiac events (MACE) (cardiac death, subsequent myocardial infarction, subsequent stroke), and four-point MACE (including target lesion revascularization) were analyzed.

Results: One thousand six hundred nine patients were included. Advanced CKD patients were more likely to be female and older, with higher prevalence of co-morbidities. Compared to group 1, group 4 patients were associated with increased risk of three-point [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.94, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06-3.55; P = 0.031] and four-point MACE (aHR 2.15, 95% CI: 1.21-3.80; P = 0.009). However, higher contrast volume usage [odds ratio (OR) 2.20, 95% CI: 1.04-4.68; P = 0.040) was associated with increased CIN risk but not reduced eGFR (OR 1.62, 95% CI: 0.57-4.65; P = 0.369).

Conclusion: Advanced CKD patients undergoing PCI were associated with higher co-morbid burden. Despite adjustments for co-morbidities, these patients had higher mortality and worse cardiovascular outcomes at 3 years following contemporary PCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCA.0000000000000980DOI Listing
September 2021

Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Door-to-Balloon Time for Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention - Results From the Singapore Western STEMI Network.

Circ J 2021 01 7;85(2):139-149. Epub 2020 Nov 7.

Department of Cardiology, National University Heart Centre, National University Health System.

Background: Little is known about the effect of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the outbreak response measures on door-to-balloon time (D2B). This study examined both D2B and clinical outcomes of patients with STEMI undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI).Methods and Results:This was a retrospective study of 303 STEMI patients who presented directly or were transferred to a tertiary hospital in Singapore for PPCI from October 2019 to March 2020. We compared the clinical outcomes of patients admitted before (BOR) and during (DOR) the COVID-19 outbreak response. The study outcomes were in-hospital death, D2B, cardiogenic shock and 30-day readmission. For direct presentations, fewer patients in the DOR group achieved D2B time <90 min compared with the BOR group (71.4% vs. 80.9%, P=0.042). This was more apparent after exclusion of non-system delay cases (DOR 81.6% vs. BOR 95.9%, P=0.006). Prevalence of both out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (9.5% vs. 1.9%, P=0.003) and acute mitral regurgitation (31.6% vs. 17.5%, P=0.006) was higher in the DOR group. Mortality was similar between groups. Multivariable regression showed that longer D2B time was an independent predictor of death (odds ratio 1.005, 95% confidence interval 1.000-1.011, P=0.029).

Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic and the outbreak response have had an adverse effect on PPCI service efficiency. The study reinforces the need to focus efforts on shortening D2B time, while maintaining infection control measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1253/circj.CJ-20-0800DOI Listing
January 2021

Cost-Effectiveness of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation in Intermediate and Low Risk Severe Aortic Stenosis Patients in Singapore.

Ann Acad Med Singap 2020 Jul;49(7):423-433

Department of Cardiology, National University Heart Centre, Singapore.

Introduction: Singapore has the world's second most efficient healthcare system while costing less than 5% GDP. It remains unclear whether transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is cost-effective for treating intermediate-low risk severe aortic stenosis (AS) patients in a highly efficient healthcare system.

Materials And Methods: A two-phase economic model combining decision tree and Markov model was developed to assess the costs, effectiveness, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of transfemoral (TF) TAVI versus surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) in intermediate-low risk patients over an 8-year time horizon. Mortality and complications rates were based on PARTNER 2 trial cohort A and Singapore life table. Costs were mainly retrieved from Singapore National University Health System database. Health utility data were obtained from Singapore population based on the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D). A variety of sensitivity analyses were conducted.

Results: In base case scenario, the incremental effectiveness of TF-TAVI versus SAVR was 0.19 QALYs. The ICER of TF-TAVI was S$33,833/QALY. When time horizon was reduced to 5 years, the ICER was S$60,825/QALY; when event rates from the propensity analysis was used, the ICER was S$21,732/QALY and S$44,598/QALY over 8-year and 5-year time horizons, respectively. At a willingness to pay threshold of S$73,167/QALY, TF-TAVI had a 98.19% probability of being cost-effective after 100,000 simulations. The model was the most sensitive to the costs of TF-TAVI procedure.

Conclusion: TF-TAVI is a highly cost-effective option compared to SAVR for intermediate-low risk severe AS patients from a Singapore healthcare system perspective. Increased procedure experience, reduction in device cost, and technology advance may have further increased the cost-effectiveness of TF-TAVI per scenario analysis.
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July 2020

Beta-blockers and renin-angiotensin system inhibitors in acute myocardial infarction managed with inhospital coronary revascularization.

Sci Rep 2020 09 16;10(1):15184. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Department of Cardiology, National University Heart Centre Singapore, 1E Kent Ridge Road, NUHS Tower Block, Level 9, Singapore, 119228, Singapore.

Pivotal trials of beta-blockers (BB) and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEI/ARB) in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were largely conducted prior to the widespread adoption of early revascularization. A total of 15,073 patients with AMI who underwent inhospital coronary revascularization from January 2007 to December 2013 were analyzed. At 12 months, BB was significantly associated with a lower incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE, adjusted HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.70-0.93) and all-cause mortality (adjusted HR 0.69, 95% CI 0.55-0.88), while ACEI/ARB was significantly associated with lower all-cause mortality (adjusted HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.66-0.98) and heart failure (HF) hospitalization (adjusted HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.68-0.95). Combined BB and ACEI/ARB use was associated with the lowest incidence of MACE (adjusted HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.57-0.86), all-cause mortality (adjusted HR 0.55, 95% CI 0.40-0.77) and HF hospitalization (adjusted HR 0.64, 95% CI 0.48-0.86). This were consistent for left ventricular ejection fraction < 50% or ≥ 50%. In conclusion, in AMI managed with revascularization, both BB and ACEI/ARB were associated with a lower incidence of 12-month all-cause mortality. Combined BB and ACEI/ARB was associated with the lowest incidence of all-cause mortality and HF hospitalization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-72232-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7495427PMC
September 2020

Causes and prognosis of symptomatic pericardial effusions treated by pericardiocentesis in an Asian academic medical centre.

Singapore Med J 2020 Mar 11;61(3):137-141. Epub 2019 Jul 11.

Department of Cardiology, National University Heart Centre, Singapore.

Introduction: This study aimed to investigate the causes, clinical management and outcomes of clinically significant pericardial effusions, and evaluate the practice of pericardiocentesis within an academic medical centre in Singapore, a multiethnic country in Southeast Asia.

Methods: Consecutive patients undergoing pericardiocentesis at a single Asian academic medical centre were identified. Patient demographics, echocardiographic findings, investigations, pericardiocentesis procedural details and clinical progress were tracked using a comprehensive electronic medical records system.

Results: Of 149 patients who underwent pericardiocentesis, malignancy (46.3%) was the most common cause of pericardial effusions, followed by iatrogenic postsurgical complications (17.4%). 77.3% of effusions were large and 69.8% demonstrated tamponade physiology. Pericardiocentesis guided by echocardiography and fluoroscopy was successful in 99.3% of patients and had a complication rate of 2.0%. Likelihood of effusion recurrence and survival to discharge was determined by the aetiology of the pericardial effusion. 24.6% of malignant effusions recurred, and the survival rate 12 months after drainage of a malignant pericardial effusion was 45.0%. Short-term mortality was highest among patients presenting with tamponade due to acute aortic syndromes and those with myocardial rupture due to ischaemic heart disease.

Conclusion: Cancer and iatrogenic complications were the most common causes of pericardial effusion in this large cohort of Singapore patients. Pericardiocentesis has a high success rate and relatively low complication rate. Prognosis and clinical course after pericardiocentesis are determined by the underlying cause of the pericardial effusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11622/smedj.2019065DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7905117PMC
March 2020

Sleep apnoea and cardiovascular outcomes after coronary artery bypass grafting.

Heart 2020 10 18;106(19):1495-1502. Epub 2020 May 18.

Department of Cardiology, National University Heart Centre, Singapore.

Objective: Patients with advanced coronary artery disease are referred for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and it remains unknown if sleep apnoea is a risk marker. We evaluated the association between sleep apnoea and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) in patients undergoing non-emergent CABG.

Methods: This was a prospective cohort study conducted between November 2013 and December 2018. Patients from four public hospitals referred to a tertiary cardiac centre for non-emergent CABG were recruited for an overnight sleep study using a wrist-worn Watch-PAT 200 device prior to CABG.

Results: Among the 1007 patients who completed the study, sleep apnoea (defined as apnoea-hypopnoea index ≥15 events per hour) was diagnosed in 513 patients (50.9%). Over a mean follow-up period of 2.1 years, 124 patients experienced the four-component MACCE (2-year cumulative incidence estimate, 11.3%). There was a total of 33 cardiac deaths (2.5%), 42 non-fatal myocardial infarctions (3.7%), 50 non-fatal strokes (4.9%) and 36 unplanned revascularisations (3.2%). The crude incidence of MACCE was higher in the sleep apnoea group than the non-sleep apnoea group (2-year estimate, 14.7% vs 7.8%; p=0.002). Sleep apnoea predicted the incidence of MACCE in unadjusted Cox regression analysis (HR 1.69; 95% CI 1.18 to 2.43), and remained statistically significant (adjusted HR 1.57; 95% CI 1.09 to 2.25), after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, left ventricular ejection fraction, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, chronic kidney disease and excessive daytime sleepiness.

Conclusion: Sleep apnoea is independently associated with increased MACCE in patients undergoing CABG.

Trial Registration Number: NCT02701504.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2019-316118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7509387PMC
October 2020

Intravascular lithotripsy for the treatment of severe calcific neointimal hyperplasia in a bare metal stent 17 years after implantation.

Coron Artery Dis 2021 Mar;32(2):172-174

Department of Cardiology, National University Heart Centre, Singapore.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCA.0000000000000905DOI Listing
March 2021

The Lipid Paradox is present in ST-elevation but not in non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients: Insights from the Singapore Myocardial Infarction Registry.

Sci Rep 2020 04 22;10(1):6799. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.

Lowering low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) levels form the cornerstone approach of cardiovascular risk reduction, and a higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) is thought to be protective. However, in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients, higher admission LDL-C and TG levels have been shown to be associated with better clinical outcomes - termed the 'lipid paradox'. We studied the relationship between lipid profile obtained within 72 hours of presentation, and all-cause mortality (during hospitalization, at 30-days and 12-months), and rehospitalization for heart failure and non-fatal AMI at 12-months in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) patients treated by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We included 11543 STEMI and 8470 NSTEMI patients who underwent PCI in the Singapore Myocardial Infarction Registry between 2008-2015. NSTEMI patients were older (60.3 years vs 57.7 years, p < 0.001) and more likely to be female (22.4% vs 15.0%, p < 0.001). In NSTEMI, a lower LDL-C was paradoxically associated with worse outcomes for death during hospitalization, within 30-days and within 12-months (all p < 0.001), but adjustment eliminated this paradox. In contrast, the paradox for LDL-C persisted for all primary outcomes after adjustment in STEMI. For NSTEMI patients, a lower HDL-C was associated with a higher risk of death during hospitalization but in STEMI patients a lower HDL-C was paradoxically associated with a lower risk of death during hospitalization. For this endpoint, the interaction term for HDL-C and type of MI was significant even after adjustment. An elevated TG level was not protective after adjustment. These observations may be due to differing characteristics and underlying pathophysiological mechanisms in NSTEMI and STEMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-63825-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7176706PMC
April 2020

Transplantation of Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Obese Diabetic Rats Following Myocardial Infarction: Role of Thymosin Beta-4.

Cells 2020 04 12;9(4). Epub 2020 Apr 12.

National Heart Research Institute Singapore, National Heart Centre Singapore, Singapore 169609, Singapore.

Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are bone-marrow derived cells that are critical in the maintenance of endothelial wall integrity and protection of ischemic myocardium through the formation of new blood vessels (vasculogenesis) or proliferation of pre-existing vasculature (angiogenesis). Diabetes mellitus (DM) and the metabolic syndrome are commonly associated with ischemic heart disease through its pathological effects on the endothelium and consequent endothelial dysfunction. Thymosin-β4 (Tβ4) which expressed in the embryonic heart is critical in epicardial and coronary artery formation. In this study, we explored the effects of Tβ4 treatment on diabetic EPCs in vitro and intramyocardial injection of Tβ4-treated and non-Tβ4 treated EPCs following acute myocardial infarction (MI) of diabetic rats in vivo. It was found that 10 ng/mL Tβ4 increased migration, tubule formation, and angiogenic factor secretion of diabetic EPCs in vitro. In vivo, although implantation of Tβ4 treated diabetic EPCs significantly increased capillary density and attracted more c-Kit positive progenitor cells into the infarcted hearts as compared with implantation of non-Tβ4 treated diabetic EPCs, the significantly improved left ventricular ejection fraction was only found in the rats which received non-Tβ4 treated EPCs. The data suggests that a low dose Tβ4 increases diabetic EPC migration, tubule formation, and angiogenic factor secretion. However, it did not improve the effects of EPCs on left ventricular pump function in diabetic rats with MI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9040949DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7226991PMC
April 2020

Elderly Asian Patients Have Lower Revascularisation Rates and Poorer Outcomes for ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Compared to Younger Patients.

Ann Acad Med Singap 2020 Jan;49(1):3-14

Department of Cardiology, National Heart Centre Singapore, Singapore.

Introduction: There is limited information on elderly patients presenting with ST- elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). This study aimed to study the outcomes of elderly Asian patients with STEMI compared to younger patients.

Materials And Methods: The study utilised data from 2007 to 2012 from the Singapore Myocardial Infarction Registry, a mandatory national population-based registry. Elderly patients were defined as ≥80 years of age, middle-aged to old (MAO) patients were defined as 45-80 years of age and young patients were defined as ≤45 years of age. The primary outcome of the study was 1-year mortality and secondary outcomes included in-hospital complications and mortality.

Results: There were 12,409 STEMI patients with 1207 (9.7%) elderly patients, 10,093 (81.3%) MAO patients and 1109 (8.9%) young patients. Elderly patients had more cardiovascular risk factors and lower rates of total percutaneous coronary intervention (26.0% vs 72.4% vs 85.5%, respectively; <0.0001) compared to MAO and young patients. They had higher 1-year mortality (60.6% vs 18.3% vs 4.1%, respectively; <0.0001) when compared to MAO and young patients.

Conclusion: Elderly patients with STEMI have poorer outcomes than MAO and young patients. This is potentially attributable to a myriad of factors including age, higher burden of comorbidities and a lesser likelihood of receiving revascularisation and guideline-recommended medical therapy.
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January 2020

Treating Very Long Coronary Artery Lesions in the Contemporary Drug-Eluting-Stent Era: Single Long 48 mm Stent Versus Two Overlapping Stents Showed Comparable Clinical Outcomes.

Cardiovasc Revasc Med 2020 09 13;21(9):1115-1118. Epub 2020 Feb 13.

Department of Cardiology, National University Heart Center, Singapore; Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore. Electronic address:

Background/purpose: Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of diffuse coronary artery disease (CAD) is associated with higher adverse clinical events. This study aimed to compare the clinical outcomes of patients treated with single long 48 mm contemporary drug eluting stents (SL-DES) versus two overlapping contemporary drug eluting stents (OL-DES) for very-long CAD.

Methods/materials: We analyzed the clinical outcome of 117 patients with SL-DES and 101 patients with OL-DES who underwent PCI between 1st July 2013 to 31st December 2016. The primary endpoint was target lesion failure (TLF) at two years, defined as a composite of cardiac mortality, target vessel myocardial infarction and target lesion revascularization.

Results: Mean age was 60.8 ± 10.5 years for SL-DES group and 60.5 ± 11.9 years in the OL-DES group. SL-DES has longer mean lesion length as compared to OL-DES (43.1 ± 3.7 mm vs. 41.83 ± 2.3 mm p = 0.003). There was no difference in TLF at two years between SL-DES and OL-DES (5.3% vs. 6.4%, adjusted odds ratio 1.43, 95% CI 0.50-4.11). There was one case of probable ST in each group. Contrast volume usage was lower for SL-DES than OL-DES in patients who underwent single vessel PCI.

Conclusions: Treatment of very-long CAD showed comparable TLF at two years for SL-DES versus OL-DES. Our results suggest that both strategies are reasonable treatment options for patients with diffuse CAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carrev.2020.02.005DOI Listing
September 2020
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