Publications by authors named "Huan Yang"

839 Publications

Effects of post-silking low temperature on the physicochemical properties of waxy maize starch.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Physiology/Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Crop Cultivation and Physiology/Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center for Modern Production Technology of Grain Crops, Agricultural College of Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, PR China; Joint International Research Laboratory of Agriculture and Agri-Product Safety of the Ministry of Education, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, PR China. Electronic address:

Low temperature (LT) at late growth stages is an important abiotic stress that affects the grain end-use quality of summer maize. In the present work, two experiments were conducted to study the effects of LT on the structural and functional properties of starches using two waxy maize hybrids ('Suyunuo5' and 'Yunuo7'). In field trial, the plants were sown on July 1 (normal sowing date) and August 1 (late sowing date). In pot trial, the plants were sown on July 1, grown at ambient environment condition till silking, and suffered two post-silking temperatures (normal temperature and LT were set as 28/20 and 23/15 °C, respectively). The result showed that the starch was composed of more small granules with oval polytope when sown late (August 1) or subjected to LT post-silking. The LT-stressed starch grains presented high proportion of short amylopectin chains and low relative crystallinity (RC). LT reduced the pasting viscosity, gelatinization enthalpy, and gelatinization temperatures but increased the retrogradation tendency. In conclusion, the low pasting viscosity and high retrogradation tendency under LT condition were caused by the decreased granule size, amylopectin chain length, and RC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.07.171DOI Listing
July 2021

Bispecific CAR T cells against EpCAM and inducible ICAM-1 overcome antigen heterogeneity and generate superior anti-tumor responses.

Cancer Immunol Res 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Radiology, Weill Cornell Medicine

Adoptive transfer of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells has demonstrated unparalleled responses in hematological cancers, yet antigen escape and tumor relapse occur frequently. CAR T-cell therapy for patients with solid tumors faces even greater challenges due to the immunosuppressive tumor environment and antigen heterogeneity. Here, we developed a bispecific CAR to simultaneously target epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) in order to overcome antigen escape and to improve the durability of tumor responses. ICAM-1 is an adhesion molecule inducible by inflammatory cytokines and elevated in many types of tumors. Our study demonstrates superior efficacy of bispecific CAR T cells compared to CAR T cells targeting a single primary antigen. Bispecific CAR T achieved more durable anti-tumor responses in tumor models with either homogenous or heterogenous expression of EpCAM. We also showed that the activation of CAR T cells against EpCAM in tumors led to upregulation of ICAM-1, which rendered tumors more susceptible to ICAM-1 targeting by bispecific CAR T cells. Our strategy of additional targeting of ICAM-1 may have broad applications in augmenting the activity of CAR T cells against primary tumor antigens that are prone to antigen loss or downregulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-21-0062DOI Listing
August 2021

microRNA-26a shuttled by extracellular vesicles secreted from adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells reduce neuronal damage through KLF9-mediated regulation of TRAF2/KLF2 axis.

Adipocyte 2021 Dec;10(1):378-393

Department of Anesthesiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of University of South China, Hengyang, P. R. China.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nano-sized vesicles secreted actively by numeorus cells and have fundamental roles in intercellular communication through shuttling functional RNAs. This study sets out to elucidate the role of microRNA-26a (miR-26a) shuttled by EVs derived from adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) in neuronal damage. After extraction and identification of ASC-derived EVs (ASC-EVs), mouse cortical neuronal cells were selected to establish an in vivo cerebral ischemia/reperfusion mouse model and an in vitro oxygen glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/RP) cell model. The downstream genes of miR-26a were analyzed. The gain- and loss-of function of miR-26a and KLF9 was performed in mouse and cell models. Neuronal cells were subjected to co-culture with ASC-EVs and biological behaviors were detected by flow cytometry, Motic Images Plus, TTC, TUNEL staining, qRT-PCR and western blot analysis. ASC-EVs protected neuronal cells against neuronal damage following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion, which was related to transfer of miR-26a into neuronal cells. In neuronal cells, miR-26a targeted KLF9. KLF9 could suppress the expression of TRAF2 and KLF2 to facilitate neuronal damage. In vitro and in vivo results showed that miR-26a delivered by ASC-EVs inhibited neuronal damage. In summary, ASC-EVs-derived miR-26a can arrest neuronal damage by disrupting the KLF9-meidated suppression on TRAF2/KLF2 axis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21623945.2021.1938829DOI Listing
December 2021

Clinical Evaluation of the Efficacy and Safety of Co-Administration of Wuzhi Capsule and Tacrolimus in Adult Chinese Patients with Myasthenia Gravis.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2021 12;17:2281-2289. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Neurology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, 410008, People's Republic of China.

Background: Tacrolimus has been recommended as an effective immunosuppressant for patients with myasthenia gravis (MG), while the high price, variable bioavailability, and narrow therapeutic window restrict its clinical application. Wuzhi capsule (WZC) could improve tacrolimus blood concentration by inhibiting the metabolism of cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp). There are few studies focused on the coadministration of WZC and tacrolimus in autoimmune diseases. This study was aimed at quantifying the efficacy and safety of coadministration of WZC and tacrolimus in adult Chinese patients with MG.

Methods: In this retrospective study, 122 patients with MG on tacrolimus were enrolled. The initial tacrolimus dose was 2 mg/d. Patients with standard initial tacrolimus concentration were classified into group A (standard-dose group). Those failed to reach target concentration were divided into group B (high-dose group) and group C (co-administering WZC group), according to treatment adjustment of increasing tacrolimus dose and co-administration of WZC, respectively. A logistic analysis was used to identify factors associated with clinical outcome. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) were recorded for safety analysis.

Results: The tacrolimus concentration after coadministration of WZC was remarkably increased. It was higher compared with simply increasing the tacrolimus dose (<0.001). The multivariate logistic analysis indicated that the baseline quantitative MG score was a predictive factor for clinical outcomes (OR=0.189; 95% CI 0.082-0.436; <0.001). Fourteen patients (11.5%) reported ADRs after tacrolimus therapy. ADRs incidence was not related to WZC coadministration.

Conclusion: The coadministration of WZC and tacrolimus can substantially elevate the tacrolimus concentration. It is a safe and economic treatment for adult Chinese patients with MG. Patients with a worse disease condition tend to present a better clinical outcome after tacrolimus therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S319500DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8286075PMC
July 2021

Reduced Reference Perceptual Quality Model With Application to Rate Control for Video-Based Point Cloud Compression.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2021 26;30:6623-6636. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

In rate-distortion optimization, the encoder settings are determined by maximizing a reconstruction quality measure subject to a constraint on the bitrate. One of the main challenges of this approach is to define a quality measure that can be computed with low computational cost and which correlates well with the perceptual quality. While several quality measures that fulfil these two criteria have been developed for images and videos, no such one exists for point clouds. We address this limitation for the video-based point cloud compression (V-PCC) standard by proposing a linear perceptual quality model whose variables are the V-PCC geometry and color quantization step sizes and whose coefficients can easily be computed from two features extracted from the original point cloud. Subjective quality tests with 400 compressed point clouds show that the proposed model correlates well with the mean opinion score, outperforming state-of-the-art full reference objective measures in terms of Spearman rank-order and Pearson linear correlation coefficient. Moreover, we show that for the same target bitrate, rate-distortion optimization based on the proposed model offers higher perceptual quality than rate-distortion optimization based on exhaustive search with a point-to-point objective quality metric. Our datasets are publicly available at https://github.com/qdushl/Waterloo-Point-Cloud-Database-2.0.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIP.2021.3096060DOI Listing
July 2021

Au Nanoclusters Ameliorate Infectious Colitis by Inducing Oxidative Stress.

Int J Nanomedicine 2021 5;16:4545-4557. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Xuzhou Key Laboratory of Laboratory Diagnostics, School of Medical Technology, Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, 221004, People's Republic of China.

Background: infection has always been a global burden, and it particularly threatens children between the ages of 1 and 5 years. Economically underdeveloped countries are dominated by infection. The most effective method to treat is antibiotics, but with the abuse of antibiotics and the prevalence of multidrug resistance, we urgently need a relatively safe non-antibiotic treatment to replace it. Ultrasmall Au nanoclusters (NCs) have special physical and chemical properties and can better interact with and be internalized by bacteria to disrupt the metabolic balance. The purpose of this study was to explore whether Au NCs may be a substitute for antibiotics to treat infections.

Methods: Au NCs and Sf301, R2448, and RII-1 were cocultured in vitro to evaluate the bactericidal ability of Au NCs. The degree of damage and mode of action of Au NCs in were clearly observed in images of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In vivo experiments were conducted to observe the changes in body weight, clinical disease activity index (DAI) and colon (including length and histopathological sections) of mice treated with Au NCs. The effect of Au NCs was analysed by measuring the content of lipocalin-2 (LCN2) and in faeces. Next, the changes in biofilm activity, the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the changes in metabolism-related and membrane-related genes, and the effect of Au NCs on the body weight of mice were determined to further analyse the mechanism of action and effect.

Results: Au NCs (100 μM) interfered with oxidative metabolism genes, induced a substantial increase in ROS levels, interacted with the cell membrane to destroy it, significantly killed , and effectively alleviated the intestinal damage caused by in mice. The activity of the biofilm formed by was reduced.

Conclusion: The effective antibacterial effect and good safety suggest that Au NCs represent a good potential alternative to antibiotics to treat infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S315481DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8275169PMC
July 2021

Leakage channels enabled multi-resonant all-solid photonic bandgap fiber for effective single-mode propagation.

Opt Express 2021 Jul;29(14):22455-22469

All-solid photonic bandgap fiber (AS-PBGF) has been fully demonstrated to be a promising candidate of large-mode-area fiber for its mode-dependent selectivity and spectral filtering mechanism. In the present work, the concepts of multiple-resonant coupling and leakage channels are taken into consideration simultaneously for mode area scaling of AS-PBGF. The single-mode performance and bending resistance of a modified structure, called leakage channels enabled multi-resonant AS-PBGF (LC-PBGF), are evaluated numerically. Robust single-mode transmission is guaranteed by a specially designed microstructure cladding with only four layers of germanium-doped rods. Multi-resonant cores in the inner layers and leakage channels in the outermost layer, resulting from missing rods in the microstructure cladding, are employed to generate modal dissipation of high-order modes under bent configuration. The missing germanium-doped rods in each layer are properly designed to eliminate the dependence on bending direction, leading to differential bending loss between fundamental mode and high-order-modes with high loss ratio. In addition, some typical derivative structures based on the LC-PBGF concept have also been proved to have great potential for effective single-mode operation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.430945DOI Listing
July 2021

TMEM97 ablation aggravates oxidant-induced retinal degeneration.

Cell Signal 2021 Jul 7;86:110078. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA; Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA. Electronic address:

The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is critical to the survival of the overlying photoreceptors. Subject to light exposure and active metabolism, the RPE and photoreceptors are particularly susceptible to oxidative damage that plays an important part in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Recent meta-analyses identified TMEM97 as a new putative AMD risk locus, though it is yet to be functionally verified. The role of TMEM97 in the retina and RPE is not known. Here we investigated TMEM97 function using the sodium iodate model of oxidant-induced retinal degeneration in TMEM97 knockout (KO) mice. We found markedly increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and loss of photoreceptos in TMEM97 KO mouse retinas relative to wild type (WT) controls. In vitro, sodium iodate treatment of CRISPR-mediated TMEM97 KO RPE cells resulted in diminished abundance of the master antioxidant transcription factor NRF2 and its target gene product SOD2, the mitochondrial superoxide dismutase, as well as elevated ROS and apoptosis markers. Moreover, TMEM97 KO affected proteins key to mitochondrial and lysosomal stability and impeded autophagy flux. These findings suggest that the absence of TMEM97 in RPE cells disturbs redox-balancing systems, thereby heightening oxidative stress. As TMEM97 is a druggable target, this study may inspire interest in basic and translational research in the context of retinal degeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cellsig.2021.110078DOI Listing
July 2021

Friedel Oscillations of Vortex Bound States under Extreme Quantum Limit in KCa_{2}Fe_{4}As_{4}F_{2}.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Jun;126(25):257002

National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China.

We report the observation of discrete bound states with the energy levels deviating from the widely believed ratio of 1∶3∶5 in the vortices of an iron-based superconductor KCa_{2}Fe_{4}As_{4}F_{2} through scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Meanwhile Friedel oscillations of vortex bound states are also observed for the first time in related vortices. By doing self-consistent calculations of Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations, we find that at extreme quantum limit, the superconducting order parameter exhibits a Friedel-like oscillation, which modifies the energy levels of the vortex bound states and explains why it deviates from the ratio of 1∶3∶5. The observed Friedel oscillations of the bound states can also be roughly interpreted by the theoretical calculations, however some features at high energies could not be explained. We attribute this discrepancy to the high energy bound states with the influence of nearby impurities. Our combined STM measurement and the self-consistent calculations illustrate a generalized feature of vortex bound states in type-II superconductors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.126.257002DOI Listing
June 2021

Immune Response, Viral Shedding Time, and Clinical Characterization in COVID-19 Patients With Gastrointestinal Symptoms.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 17;8:593623. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Laboratory Medicine, Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, China.

Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are frequently observed in coronavirus disease (COVID-19) symptoms. Previous studies have mainly focused on epidemiology and characteristics in patients with GI symptoms, little is known about the roles of the immune response in susceptibility to and severity of infection. Here, we analyzed COVID-19 cases to determine immune response and clinical characteristics in COVID-19 patients with GI symptoms. Based on the presence of GI symptoms, 79 patients in Xuzhou were divided into GI and non-GI groups. A retrospective study investigating the clinical characteristics, selected laboratory abnormalities, immune response, treatment, and clinical outcome was performed to compare patients with or without GI symptoms. Approximately 25% of patients reported at least one GI symptom. Our results showed significantly higher rates of fatigue, increased LDH, increased CK, higher percentage increase neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), lymphopenia, and bilateral pneumonia in patients with GI symptoms. No significant changes in serum amylase (SAA), immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgM, C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), interleukin-6 (IL-6), viral shedding time, liver injury, and kidney injury between the two groups were observed. The clinical type on admission of patients with GI symptoms reported significantly higher rates of critical disease type (20 vs. 3.3%; = 0.033). However, the survival rate did not differ between the two groups. Increase in total lymphocytes and NLR as well as the elevation of CRP, SAA, PCT, IL-6, CK, and LDH were closely associated with COVID-19 with GI symptoms, implying reliable indicators COVID-19 patients with GI symptoms were more likely to develop into a severe disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.593623DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8247442PMC
June 2021

Improving maize's N uptake and N use efficiency by strengthening roots' absorption capacity when intercropped with legumes.

PeerJ 2021 23;9:e11658. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

College of Agronomy, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.

Maize's nitrogen (N) uptake can be improved through maize-legume intercropping. N uptake mechanisms require further study to better understand how legumes affect root growth and to determine maize's absorptive capacity in maize-legume intercropping. We conducted a two-year field experiment with two N treatments (zero N (N0) and conventional N (N1)) and three planting patterns (monoculture maize ( L.) (MM), maize-soybean ( L. .) strip intercropping (IMS), and maize-peanut ( L.) strip intercropping (IMP)). We sought to understand maize's N uptake mechanisms by investigating root growth and distribution, root uptake capacity, antioxidant enzyme activity, and the antioxidant content in different maize-legume strip intercropping systems. Our results showed that on average, the N uptake of maize was significantly greater by 52.5% in IMS and by 62.4% in IMP than that in MM. The average agronomic efficiency (AE) of maize was increased by 110.5 % in IMS and by 163.4 % in IMP, compared to MM. The apparent recovery efficiency (RE) of maize was increased by 22.3% in IMS. The roots of intercropped maize were extended into soybean and peanut stands underneath the space and even between the inter-rows of legume, resulting in significantly increased root surface area density (RSAD) and total root biomass. The root-bleeding sap intensity of maize was significantly increased by 22.7-49.3% in IMS and 37.9-66.7% in IMP, compared with the MM. The nitrate-N content of maize bleeding sap was significantly greater in IMS and IMP than in MM during the 2018 crop season. The glutathione (GSH) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities in the root significantly increased in IMS and IMP compared to MM. Strip intercropping using legumes increases maize's aboveground N uptake by promoting root growth and spatial distribution, delaying root senescence, and strengthening root uptake capacity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.11658DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8234926PMC
June 2021

Heat Adaptation Induced Cross Protection Against Ethanol Stress in s: Physiological Characteristics and Proteomic Analysis.

Front Microbiol 2021 18;12:686672. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

College of Biomass Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Ethanol is a toxic factor that damages membranes, disturbs metabolism, and may kill the cell. , considered as the cell factory during the manufacture of traditional fermented foods, encounters ethanol stress, which may affect the viability and fermentative performance of cells. In order to improve the ethanol tolerance of , a strategy based on cross protection was proposed in the current study. The results indicated that cross protection induced by heat preadaptation (45°C for 1.5 h) could significantly improve the stress tolerance (7.24-fold increase in survival) of upon exposure to ethanol (10% for 2.5 h). Based on this result, a combined analysis of physiological approaches and TMT-labeled proteomic technology was employed to investigate the protective mechanism of cross protection in . Physiological analysis showed that the heat preadapted cells exhibited a better surface phenotype, higher membrane integrity, and higher amounts of unsaturated fatty acids compared to unadapted cells. Proteomic analysis showed that a total of 163 proteins were differentially expressed in response to heat preadaptation. KEGG enrichment analysis showed that energy metabolism, membrane transport, peptidoglycan biosynthesis, and genetic information processing were the most abundant metabolic pathways after heat preadaptation. Three proteins (GpmA, AtpB, and TpiA) involved in energy metabolism and four proteins (ManM, OpuC, YidC, and HPr) related to membrane transport were up-regulated after heat preadaptation. In all, the results of this study may help understand the protective mechanisms of preadaptation and contribute to the improvement of the stress resistance of during industrial processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.686672DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8249775PMC
June 2021

Effects of Different Non-Cage Housing Systems on the Production Performance, Serum Parameters and Intestinal Morphology of Laying Hens.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Jun 4;11(6). Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Anhui Key Laboratory of Livestock and Poultry Product Safety Engineering, Institute of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine, Anhui Academy of Agriculture Science, No. 40 Nongke West Road, Hefei 230031, China.

This study investigated the effects of plastic-net housing system (NRS) and floor-litter housing system (LRS) on the production performance, serum parameters and intestinal morphology of Shendan laying hens. A total of 1200 30-week-old hens were randomly allocated to the NRS and LRS groups, each of which included five replicates with 120 chickens in each replicate. The experiment was conducted from 32 to 40 weeks of age. Indoor airborne parameters were measured every 2 weeks, and indoor ground contamination was measured monthly. The laying rate and mortality of hens were recorded daily, and egg quality traits and serum parameters were measured every 2 weeks. At 40 weeks of age, four birds per replicate from each experimental group were selected for intestinal morphological observation. The results showed that the airborne bacteria number in the LRS was significantly higher than that in the NRS ( < 0.05) for most of the experimental period (except at 32 and 38 weeks of age), and the bacterial numbers on the surfaces of the floor and floor eggs in the LRS were approximately 10 times higher than those in the NRS ( < 0.05). Compared with the LRS, the NRS improved the laying rate ( < 0.05), reduced serum malondialdehyde (MDA) ( < 0.05) and corticosterone (CORT) concentrations and increased serum glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, indicating favourable effects on antioxidative status. The NRS was significantly associated with an increased villus height (VH), villus height to crypt depth ratio (VCR) in the small intestine ( < 0.05) and increased VCR in the caecum ( < 0.05). Overall, the lower rate of bacterial contamination in the NRS than in the LRS indicated better environmental hygiene. The NRS enhanced the laying performance and antioxidant capacity of hens and was superior to the LRS in improving intestinal health. The current findings support the advantages of the NRS for the health and welfare of Shendan chickens during the peak laying period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11061673DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8230062PMC
June 2021

Serum Albumin Levels are a Predictor of COVID-19 Patient Prognosis: Evidence from a Single Cohort in Chongqing, China.

Int J Gen Med 2021 24;14:2785-2797. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400014, People's Republic of China.

Background: COVID-19 infections are still at pandemic levels globally and there are currently no specific drugs to treat these infections. Previous studies have demonstrated that serum albumin levels were abnormally low in COVID-19 patients and might be used as a prognosis biomarker. Supplemental albumin has been used as an experimental therapeutic method. However, dynamic evaluation of albumin in patients with COVID-19 was limited and whether serum albumin could predict the prognosis of these patients is unknown.

Methods: We enrolled 79 COVID-19 patients in the present study and reviewed electronic medical laboratory records. Data was processed using SPSS software (Version 20.0) and correlation analysis was performed between serum albumin and other clinical and laboratory findings.

Results: Serum albumin levels were gradually decreased both in severe and non-severe COVID-19 patients. Moreover, 17.7% of the patients presented with hypoalbuminemia at least one time during 3 consecutive weekly time points. The hypoalbuminemia group displayed more severe disease and comorbidity that included fever, fatigue, headache, and dizziness on admission. Moreover, serum albumin levels were positively correlated with lymphocyte and RBC numbers, Hb and prealbumin levels as well as with total T cell numbers and the presence of CD4 and CD8 T cells. In contrast, there was a negative correlation with C-reactive protein levels and this was an indicator of patient recovery.

Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that hypoalbuminemia was common in COVID-19 patients and its levels were linked to disease severity. Patients with fever, fatigue and headache or dizziness on admission were more likely to experience hypoalbuminemia. Dynamic monitoring of serum albumin is therefore necessary and should be performed during COVID-19 patient treatments as a tool for evaluating the prognosis of COVID-19 infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S312521DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8238547PMC
June 2021

Nomogram for short-term outcome assessment in AChR subtype generalized myasthenia gravis.

J Transl Med 2021 06 30;19(1):285. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Neurology, Huashan Hospital Fudan University, No.12 Middle Wulumuqi Road, Shanghai, 200040, China.

Background: An accurate prediction for prognosis can help in guiding the therapeutic options and optimizing the trial design for generalized myasthenia gravis (gMG). We aimed to develop and validate a predictive nomogram to assess the short-term outcome in patients with the anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) subtype gMG.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 165 patients with AChR subtype gMG who were immunotherapy naïve at the first visit from five tertiary centers in China. The short-term clinical outcome is defined as the achievement of minimal symptom expression (MSE) at 12 months. Of them, 120 gMG patients from Huashan Hospital were enrolled to form a derivation cohort (n = 96) and a temporal validation cohort (n = 24) for the nomogram. Then, this nomogram was externally validated using 45 immunotherapy naïve AChR subtype gMG from the other four hospitals. Multivariate logistic regression was used to screen independent factors and construct the nomogram.

Results: MSE was achieved in 70 (72.9%), 20 (83.3%), and 33 (73.3%) patients in the training, temporal validation, and external validation cohort, respectively. The duration ≤ 12 months (p = 0.021), ocular score ≤ 2 (p = 0.006), QMG score > 13 (p = 0.008), and gross motor score ≤ 9 (p = 0.006) were statistically associated with MSE in AChR subtype gMG. The nomogram has good performance in predicting MSE as the concordance indexes are 0.81 (95% CI, 0.72-0.90) in the development cohort, 0.944 (95% CI, 0.83-1.00) in the temporal validation cohort, and 0.773 (95% CI, 0.63-0.92) in the external validation cohort.

Conclusion: The nomogram achieved an optimal prediction of MSE in AChR subtype gMG patients using the baseline clinical characters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12967-021-02961-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8247112PMC
June 2021

Risk Assessment and Prevention of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Transmission for Hospitalized Urological Patients After the COVID-19 Pandemic in Wuhan, China.

Eur Urol Open Sci 2020 Jul 30;20:20-27. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Department of Urology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Background: Emerging asymptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections were detected and multiple cases were found to be SARS-CoV-2 positive again, which raised an alarm for the patients hospitalized after the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.

Objective: We investigated the risk and prevention of hospital transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to hospitalized urological patients.

Design Setting And Participants: This is a retrospective study of 319 hospitalized urological patients enrolled between April 20, 2020 and May 11, 2020 from two tertiary hospitals in Wuhan, China.

Intervention: Chest computed tomography (CT) images, nucleic acid tests (NATs), and serum antibody were examined at the outpatient department and 1 wk after admission for all patients.

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: The chest CT images, NATs, serum antibody results, and clinical data were collected and analyzed.

Results And Limitations: None of the 319 patients was found to be SARS-CoV-2 NAT positive. Ten and four patients were detected to be immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgM positive, respectively. The chest CT features of 116 patients showed abnormal lung findings. During the 1-wk isolation, one patient initially being IgG positive only was found to be IgM positive, and another initially IgM-positive patient had a rising IgG level. Through risk assessment, we identified seven patients with very high and high risk for hospital transmission, and delayed the surgery while maintaining close follow-up. Five intermediate-risk patients were operated on successfully under paravertebral block or epidural anesthesia to avoid opening the airway with endotracheal intubation. The remaining 104 low-risk and 203 normal patients underwent normal surgery.

Conclusions: Of the 319 patients, seven were identified as very high and high risk, which reinforced the importance of epidemic surveillance of discharged COVID-19 patients and asymptomatic infections. Five intermediate-risk patients were operated on successfully under regional anesthesia.

Patient Summary: Our experience of risk assessment and management practice may provide a strategy to prevent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 transmission to hospitalized urological patients after the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euros.2020.07.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7392039PMC
July 2020

Femtosecond laser patterned superhydrophobic/hydrophobic SERS sensors for rapid positioning ultratrace detection.

Opt Express 2021 May;29(11):16904-16913

Ultratrace molecular detections are vital for precancer diagnosis, forensic analysis, and food safety. Superhydrophobic (SH) surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensors are regarded as an ideal approach to improve detection performance by concentrating analyte molecules within a small volume. However, due to the low adhesion of SH surfaces, the analyte droplet is prone to rolling, making it hard to deposit molecules on a predetermined position. Furthermore, the sediment with a very small area on the SH-SERS surface is difficult to be captured even with a Raman microscope. In this study, femtosecond laser fabricated hybrid SH/hydrophobic (SH/HB) surfaces are successfully applied to realize a rapid and highly sensitive SERS detection. By modulating dual surface structures and wetting behaviors, the analyte molecules can be enriched at the edge of HB pattern. This improves the convenience and speed of Raman test. On a hybrid SH/HB SERS substrate with a circular HB pattern at 300-µm-diameter, a femtomolar level (10 M) of rhodamine 6G can be detected by using analyte volumes of just 5 µL. The SERS enhancement factor can reach 5.7×10 and a good uniformity with a relative standard deviation of 6.98% is achieved. Our results indicate that the laser fabrication of hybrid SERS sensor offers an efficient and cost-effective approach for ultratrace molecular detection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.423789DOI Listing
May 2021

Recent Advances on MOF Derivatives for Non-Noble Metal Oxygen Electrocatalysts in Zinc-Air Batteries.

Nanomicro Lett 2021 Jun 7;13(1):137. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Key Laboratory of Material Chemistry for Energy Conversion and Storage (Ministry of Education), Hubei Key Laboratory of Material Chemistry and Service Failure, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, 430074, People's Republic of China.

Oxygen electrocatalysts are of great importance for the air electrode in zinc-air batteries (ZABs). Owing to the high specific surface area, controllable pore size and unsaturated metal active sites, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) derivatives have been widely studied as oxygen electrocatalysts in ZABs. To date, many strategies have been developed to generate efficient oxygen electrocatalysts from MOFs for improving the performance of ZABs. In this review, the latest progress of the MOF-derived non-noble metal-oxygen electrocatalysts in ZABs is reviewed. The performance of these MOF-derived catalysts toward oxygen reduction, and oxygen evolution reactions is discussed based on the categories of metal-free carbon materials, single-atom catalysts, metal cluster/carbon composites and metal compound/carbon composites. Moreover, we provide a comprehensive overview on the design strategies of various MOF-derived non-noble metal-oxygen electrocatalysts and their structure-performance relationship. Finally, the challenges and perspectives are provided for further advancing the MOF-derived oxygen electrocatalysts in ZABs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40820-021-00669-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8184897PMC
June 2021

Family History and Risk of Upper Gastrointestinal Cancer in the Linxian General Population.

Front Oncol 2021 28;11:605106. Epub 2021 May 28.

Metabolic Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology & Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States.

Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate family history (FH) of upper gastrointestinal (UGI) cancer and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), gastric cardia carcinoma (GCC), and gastric non-cardia carcinoma (GNCC) in the Linxian General Population Nutrition Intervention Trial (NIT) cohort. Methods: This prospective analysis was conducted using the Linxian NIT cohort data. Subjects with FH of UGI cancer was treated as an exposed group while the remainders were considered as a comparison group. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between FH of UGI cancer and risk of UGI cancer incidence and mortality were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models.

Results: There were 5,680 newly diagnosed UGI cancer cases during the follow-up period, with a total of 4,573 UGI cancer deaths occurred, including 2,603 ESCC, 1,410 GCC, and 560 GNCC deaths. A positive FH of UGI cancer was associated with a significantly increased risk of ESCC and GCC (Incidence: HR = 1.45, 95%CI: 1.35-1.56; HR = 1.27, 95%CI: 1.15-1.40; Mortality: HR = 1.40, 95%CI: 1.30-1.52; HR = 1.27, 95%CI: 1.14-1.42) after adjusting for age at baseline, gender, smoking status, alcohol drinking, education level, and frequency of fresh fruit and vegetable consumption. Subjects with FH in both parents had the highest risk of ESCC and GCC incidence (HR = 1.65, 95%CI: 1.40-1.95; HR = 1.42, 95%CI: 1.12-1.81) and deaths (HR = 1.65, 95%CI: 1.38-1.97; HR = 1.42, 95%CI: 1.09-1.85). Spouse diagnosed with UGI cancer did not increase the risk of any UGI cancers of the subjects. In subgroup analysis, FH of UGI cancer was shown to significantly increase the risk of GCC in non-drinkers (Incidence: HR = 1.31, 95%CI: 1.17-1.47; Mortality: HR = 1.33, 95%CI: 1.17-1.50). No associations were observed for risk of GNCC. Sensitivity analysis by excluding subjects who were followed up less than three years did not materially alter our results.

Conclusion: Our data point to the role of the FH of UGI cancer to the risk of ESCC and GCC incidence and mortality. The influence of family history on the risk of UGI cancer varies from different types of family members.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.605106DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8193945PMC
May 2021

The Central Roles of Noncoding RNA in Estrogen-Dependent Female Reproductive System Tumors.

Int J Endocrinol 2021 24;2021:5572063. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Gynecology, Shenzhen Second People's Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital of Shenzhen University Health Science Center, Shenzhen, China.

The pathogenesis of ovarian and endometrial cancers is closely associated with estrogen-related pathways. These estrogen-dependent tumors seriously threaten the health and quality of life in women. Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) are defined as RNAs that do not encode proteins, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), both of which have been reported in estrogen-dependent female reproductive system tumors. This review systematically summarizes the role of ncRNAs in estrogen-dependent tumors and common patterns of regulatory mechanisms to explore their future research directions in tumor diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. This may provide new ideas for the potential application of ncRNAs in estrogen-dependent female reproductive system tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5572063DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8169271PMC
May 2021

Current and Future Roles of Circular RNAs in Normal and Pathological Endometrium.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 26;12:668073. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Gynecology, Shenzhen Second People's Hospital/The First Affiliated Hospital of Shenzhen University Health Science Center, Shenzhen, China.

The uterine endometrium, which lines the mammalian uterus, is essential for embryo implantation. This lining undergoes significant changes during sexual and menstrual cycles. The endometrium is also associated with hormone-related diseases such as endometriosis and endometrial cancer. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) play a role in various biological processes. Recent studies have determined that circRNAs function in both normal and pathological endometrial environments. Here, we review high-throughput studies pertaining to circRNAs as well as individual circRNAs active in the endometrium, in order to explore the myriad functions of circRNAs in the endometrium and mechanisms underlying these functions, from panoramic and individual perspectives. Owing to their abundant expression, stability, and small size, circRNAs have displayed potential usefulness as diagnostic markers and treatment targets for endometrial-related diseases. Therefore, the specific role of circRNAs in the endometrium warrants systematic investigation in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2021.668073DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8187767PMC
May 2021

Temporal and spatial variations of soil C, N contents and C:N stoichiometry in the major grain-producing region of the North China Plain.

PLoS One 2021 11;16(6):e0253160. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Station of Soil and Fertilizer Extension Service, Zhengzhou, Henan, China.

Soil C, N contents and C:N stoichiometry are important indicators of soil quality, the variation characteristics of which have great significance for soil carbon-nitrogen cycle and sustainable utilization. Based on 597 observations along with soil profiles of 0-20cm depth in the 1980s and the 2010s, the temporal and spatial variations of soil C, N contents and C:N stoichiometry in the major grain-producing region of the North China Plain were illustrated. Results showed that there were significant changes in soil C, N contents over time, with increasing rates of 60.47% and 50%, respectively. The changes of C, N contents resulting in a general improvement of C:N stoichiometry. There was a significant decline in nugget effects of soil C, N contents from the 1980s to 2010s, the spatial autocorrelation of soil nutrients showed an increasing trend, and the effect of random variation was reduced. C:N stoichiometry was higher in Huixian City and Weihui City, and lower in Yanjin County, an apparent decline was observed in the spatial difference of soil C:N stoichiometry from the 1980s to 2010s. Soil C, N contents and C:N stoichiometry differed among soil types, agricultural land-use types, and topography in space. The temperature, precipitation, and fertilization structure were considered as the main factors that induce the temporal variations. These findings indicated that the soil nutrient elements in the farmland ecosystems changed in varying degrees in both time and space scales, and the variation was influenced by soil types, land-use types, topography, meteorological factors, and fertilization structure.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0253160PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8195419PMC
June 2021

Analysis of the characteristic compounds of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus from different geographical origins.

Phytochem Anal 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

College of Pharmacy, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, China.

Introduction: Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus (CSF) is widely used as a food ingredient and a traditional Chinese medicine. In China, CSF is cultivated in many places, including Sichuan, Guangdong, Zhejiang, and Fujian provinces. The types and chemical contents of CSF from different origins may vary greatly due to the difference in climate and environmental conditions. Therefore, comparing the chemical composition of CSF from various places is vital.

Objective: To rapidly select potential characteristic compounds for differentiating CSF from different origins.

Material And Methods: Thirty-one batches of CSF samples from different regions were analysed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography with hybrid quadrupole-orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry. Thereafter, chemometric methods, including principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA), were employed to find differential metabolites among the CSF samples from various origins.

Results: PCA revealed 77.9% of the total variance and divided all CSF samples into three categories corresponding to their origins. OPLS-DA displayed better discrimination of CSF from different sources, with R X, R Y, and Q of 0.801, 0.985, and 0.849, respectively. Finally, 203 differential metabolites were obtained from CSF from different origins using the variable importance in projection of the OPLS-DA model, 30 of which were identified, and five coumarin compounds were selected as marker compounds discriminating CSF from different origins.

Conclusion: This work provides a practical strategy for classifying CSF from different origins and offers a research foundation for the quality control of CSF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pca.3069DOI Listing
June 2021

RIP3 impedes transcription factor EB to suppress autophagic degradation in septic acute kidney injury.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Jun 8;12(6):593. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Division of Nephrology, Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.

Autophagy is an important renal-protective mechanism in septic acute kidney injury (AKI). Receptor interacting protein kinase 3 (RIP3) has been implicated in the renal tubular injury and renal dysfunction during septic AKI. Here we investigated the role and mechanism of RIP3 on autophagy in septic AKI. We showed an activation of RIP3, accompanied by an accumulation of the autophagosome marker LC3II and the autophagic substrate p62, in the kidneys of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced septic AKI mice and LPS-treated cultured renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs). The lysosome inhibitor did not further increase the levels of LCII or p62 in LPS-treated PTECs. Moreover, inhibition of RIP3 attenuated the aberrant accumulation of LC3II and p62 under LPS treatment in vivo and in vitro. By utilizing mCherry-GFP-LC3 autophagy reporter mice in vivo and PTECs overexpression mRFP-GFP-LC3 in vitro, we observed that inhibition of RIP3 restored the formation of autolysosomes and eliminated the accumulated autophagosomes under LPS treatment. These results indicated that RIP3 impaired autophagic degradation, contributing to the accumulation of autophagosomes. Mechanistically, the nuclear translocation of transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master regulator of the lysosome and autophagy pathway, was inhibited in LPS-induced mice and LPS-treated PTECs. Inhibition of RIP3 restored the nuclear translocation of TFEB in vivo and in vitro. Co-immunoprecipitation further showed an interaction of RIP3 and TFEB in LPS-treated PTECs. Also, the expression of LAMP1 and cathepsin B, two potential target genes of TFEB involved in lysosome function, were decreased under LPS treatment in vivo and in vitro, and this decrease was rescued by inhibiting RIP3. Finally, overexpression of TFEB restored the autophagic degradation in LPS-treated PTECs. Together, the present study has identified a pivotal role of RIP3 in suppressing autophagic degradation through impeding the TFEB-lysosome pathway in septic AKI, providing potential therapeutic targets for the prevention and treatment of septic AKI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03865-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8187512PMC
June 2021

Redox modifications of cysteine residues regulate the cytokine activity of HMGB1.

Mol Med 2021 Jun 7;27(1):58. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Laboratory of Biomedical Science, The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, NY, USA.

Background: High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear protein with extracellular inflammatory cytokine activity. It is passively released during cell death and secreted by activated cells of many lineages. HMGB1 contains three conserved redox-sensitive cysteine residues: cysteines in position 23 and 45 (C23 and C45) can form an intramolecular disulfide bond, whereas C106 is unpaired and is essential for the interaction with Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) 4. However, a comprehensive characterization of the dynamic redox states of each cysteine residue and of their impacts on innate immune responses is lacking.

Methods: Primary human macrophages or murine macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cells were activated in cell cultures by redox-modified or point-mutated (C45A) recombinant HMGB1 preparations or by lipopolysaccharide (E. coli.0111: B4). Cellular phosphorylated NF-κB p65 subunit and subsequent TNF-α release were quantified by commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.

Results: Cell cultures with primary human macrophages and RAW 264.7 cells demonstrated that fully reduced HMGB1 with all three cysteines expressing thiol side chains failed to generate phosphorylated NF-КB p65 subunit or TNF-α. Mild oxidation forming a C23-C45 disulfide bond, while leaving C106 with a thiol group, was required for HMGB1 to induce phosphorylated NF-КB p65 subunit and TNF-α production. The importance of a C23-C45 disulfide bond was confirmed by mutation of C45 to C45A HMGB1, which abolished the ability for cytokine induction. Further oxidation of the disulfide isoform also inactivated HMGB1.

Conclusions: These results reveal critical post-translational redox mechanisms that control the proinflammatory activity of HMGB1 and its inactivation during inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s10020-021-00307-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8185929PMC
June 2021

hTERT Promotes CRC Proliferation and Migration by Recruiting YBX1 to Increase NRF2 Expression.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 17;9:658101. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Gastroenterology, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China.

High human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) expression is related to severe Colorectal Cancer (CRC) progression and negatively related to CRC patient survival. Previous studies have revealed that hTERT can reduce cancer cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and accelerate cancer progression; however, the mechanism remains poorly understood. NFE2-related factor 2 (NRF2) is a molecule that plays a significant role in regulating cellular ROS homeostasis, but whether there is a correlation between hTERT and NRF2 remains unclear. Here, we showed that hTERT increases CRC proliferation and migration by inducing NRF2 upregulation. We further found that hTERT increases NRF2 expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. Our data also revealed that hTERT primarily upregulates NRF2 by increasing NRF2 promoter activity rather than by regulating NRF2 mRNA or protein stability. Using DNA pull-down/MS analysis, we found that hTERT can recruit YBX1 to upregulate NRF2 promoter activity. We also found that hTERT/YBX1 may localize to the P2 region of the NRF2 promoter. Taken together, our results demonstrate that hTERT facilitates CRC proliferation and migration by upregulating NRF2 expression through the recruitment of the transcription factor YBX1 to activate the NRF2 promoter. These results provide a new theoretical basis for CRC treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.658101DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8165255PMC
May 2021

Altered Functional Connectivity in Children with ADHD Revealed by Scalp EEG: An ERP Study.

Neural Plast 2021 11;2021:6615384. Epub 2021 May 11.

School of Life Science and Technology, Center for Information in Medicine, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 611731, China.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental brain disorders in childhood. Despite extensive researches, the neurobiological mechanism underlying ADHD is still left unveiled. Since the deficit functions, such as attention, have been demonstrated in ADHD, in our present study, based on the oddball P3 task, the corresponding electroencephalogram (EEG) of both healthy controls (HCs) and ADHD children was first collected. And we then not only focused on the event-related potential (ERP) evoked during tasks but also investigated related brain networks. Although an insignificant difference in behavior was found between the HCs and ADHD children, significant electrophysiological differences were found in both ERPs and brain networks. In detail, the dysfunctional attention occurred during the early stage of the designed task; as compared to HCs, the reduced P2 and N2 amplitudes in ADHD children were found, and the atypical information interaction might further underpin such a deficit. On the one hand, when investigating the cortical activity, HCs recruited much stronger brain activity mainly in the temporal and frontal regions, compared to ADHD children; on the other hand, the brain network showed atypical enhanced long-range connectivity between the frontal and occipital lobes but attenuated connectivity among frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes in ADHD children. We hope that the findings in this study may be instructive for the understanding of cognitive processing in children with ADHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6615384DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8133851PMC
May 2021

Causes and Consequences of Chronic Sleep Deficiency and the Role of Orexin.

Front Neurol Neurosci 2021 28;45:128-138. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Sleep is one of the pillars of health. Experimental models of acute sleep loss, of chronic partial sleep deprivation, and of sleep fragmentation in healthy sleepers are helpful models of sleep deficiency produced by insufficient sleep duration, sleep timing, and sleep disorders. Sleep deficiency is associated with changes in markers associated with risk for disease. These include metabolic, inflammatory, and autonomic markers of risk. In addition, sleep disruption and sleep deficits lead to mood instability, lack of positive outlook, and impaired neurobehavioral functioning. On a population level, insufficient sleep is associated with increased risk for hypertension and diabetes. Sleep disturbance is very common, and about half the population will report that they have experienced insomnia at some time in their lives. Approximately 10% of the population describe daytime impairment due to sleep disturbance at night, consistent with a diagnosis of insomnia disorder. The hypothalamic neuropeptides, orexin-A and orexin-B, act through G-protein-coupled receptors (orexin-1 and orexin-2 receptors). Dual and selective orexin-2 receptor antagonists have shown efficacy in inducing sleep in men and women with insomnia disorder by accelerating sleep onset and improving sleep efficiency and total sleep time. Further study comparing these medications, in short- and longer-term use models, is recommended. Greater understanding of comparative effects on mood, neurobehavioral, and physiological systems will help determine the extent of clinical utility of dual versus selective orexin receptor antagonists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000514956DOI Listing
May 2021

[Analysis of blood components of Yougui Yin in normal rats and rats with kidney deficiency caused by adenine based on UPLC-MS technology].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2021 May;46(9):2287-2297

Chongqing Key Laboratory of New Drug Screening from Traditional Chinese Medicine, Pharmacology of Chinese Materia Medica-the Key Discipline Constructed by the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Chinese Medicine, Southwest University Chongqing 400715, China Southwest University Hospital Chongqing 400715, China.

Based on the serum medicinal method, this study aims to investigate the migrating components of Yougui Yin in the blood after intragastric administration, and to provide reference for the basic research of its pharmacodynamics. The kidney deficiency rat model was replicated by adenine method. Normal rats and model rats were administered orally for a single gavage of Yougui Yin. The components in blood were rapidly analyzed and identified by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) and multiple reaction monitoring(MRM), and the migrating components in blood of Yougui Yin were explored by multivariate statistical analysis. The results showed that there were 42 characteristic peaks in the plasma of normal rats by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS technology and 13 chemical components were identified, including 6 alkaloids, 2 flavonoids, 2 triterpenoid saponins, 1 iridoid, 1 phenylpropanoid and 1 monoterpenoid. There were 22 characteristic peaks in the plasma of kidney-deficiency rats, and 12 chemical components were identified, including 2 iridoids, 6 alkaloids, 2 flavonoids, 1 monoterpenoid and 1 triterpenoid saponin. Verbascoside, isoacteoside, acteoside, pinoresinoldiglucoside, loganin and morroniside were identified by MRM both in the plasma of normal rats and kidney-deficiency rats. Compared with 85 monomer components in Yougui Yin, 17 common prototype components were found by UPLC-MS in the plasma of normal rats and kidney deficiency rats, including verbascoside, isoacteoside, acteoside, rehmapicrogenin derived from Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata, pinoresinol diglucoside and geniposidic acid from Eucommiea Cortex, loganin and morroniside derived from Corni Fructus, mesaconine, benzoylmesaconine, benzoylaconitine, benzoylhypacoitine, mesaconitine, aconitine derived from Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata, liquiritin, isoliquiritin and glycyrrhizic acid derived from Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma. Thirty-one metabolites of medicinal ingredients not found in the plasma of adenine-induced kidney deficiency rats were also detected in the plasma of normal rats. Twelve metabolites of medicinal materials not found in the plasma of normal rats were detected in the plasma of kidney deficiency rats. The results of the study provide reference for explaining the material basis and mechanism of Yougui Yin in the treatment of kidney deficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20201015.201DOI Listing
May 2021

Function of Non-coding RNA in -Infected Gastric Cancer.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 11;8:649105. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Gastroenterology, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Gastric cancer is a common malignant tumor of the digestive system. Its occurrence and development are the result of a combination of genetic, environmental, and microbial factors. infection is a chronic infection that is closely related to the occurrence of gastric tumorigenesis. Non-coding RNA has been demonstrated to play a very important role in the organism, exerting a prominent role in the carcinogenesis, proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, metastasis, and chemoresistance of tumor progression. infection affects the expression of non-coding RNA at multiple levels such as genetic polymorphisms and signaling pathways, thereby promoting or inhibiting tumor progression or chemoresistance. This paper mainly introduces the relationship between -infected gastric cancer and non-coding RNA, providing a new perspective for gastric cancer treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmolb.2021.649105DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8144459PMC
May 2021
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