Publications by authors named "Huan He"

382 Publications

Adsorption and photochemical capacity on 17α-ethinylestradiol by char produced in the thermo treatment process of plastic waste.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Sep 7;423(Pt A):127066. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500, China; Yunnan Provincial Key Laboratory of Carbon Sequestration and Pollution Control in Soils, Kunming 650500, China.

Plastic is a major component of solid waste. It is often thermally treated, generating microplastics and plastic-char which end up as landfill. This study investigated the potential of plastic-char for treating persistent organic pollutants of aqueous media using 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) as a target contaminant. The adsorption and photodegradation capacity of plastic-char were investigated, and the adsorption isotherms revealed that EE2 adsorption on char is heterogeneous and multilayered. The presence of Fe was found to greatly enhance EE2 adsorption rate and capacity as well as photochemical degradation ability of plastic-char. Quenching experiments proved that electron transfer between triplet states of plastic-char and Fe(III) and the production of HO were the rate-limited steps in the generation of reactive species. Hydroxyl radical and holes were found to be the predominant reactive species contributing to the EE2 photodegradation. This study not only elucidated the possible environmental behavior of plastic-char discharged as bottom ash in the natural transformation of persistent organic pollutants, but also suggested that water treatment may offer a use for some of the enormous volume of plastic waste now being generated worldwide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.127066DOI Listing
September 2021

Fate, mobility, and pathogenicity of drinking water treatment plant resistomes deciphered by metagenomic assembly and network analyses.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 4;804:150095. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092, China; International Joint Research Center for Sustainable Urban Water System, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092, China.

Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have been regarded as emerging environmental contaminants. The profile of resistome (collection of all ARGs) in drinking water and its fate during drinking water treatment remain unclear. This study applied metagenomic assembly combined with network analysis to decipher the profile, mobility, host, and pathogenicity of resistomes in two full-scale drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs), each applying conventional treatment and advanced treatment of ozonation followed by biological activated carbon filtration. In source waters and effluents of each treatment process collected from both DWTPs, 215 ARGs belonging to 20 types were detected with total concentration ranging from 6.30 ± 1.83 to 5.20 ± 0.26 × 10 copies/mL. Both the conventional and advanced DWTPs were revealed to effectively reduce the concentration of total ARGs, with the average removal efficiency of 3.61-log and 2.21-log, respectively. Multiple statistical analyses (including network analysis) indicated drinking water resistome correlated tightly with mobile gene elements (MGEs) and bacterial community, with the latter acting as the premier driver of resistome alteration in DWTPs. Further analysis of ARG-carrying contigs (ACCs) assembled from drinking water metagenomes (i) tracked down potential bacterial hosts of ARGs (e.g., Proteobacteria phylum as the major pool of resistome), (ii) provided co-localization information of ARGs and MGEs (e.g., MacB-E7196 plasmid1), and (iii) identified ARG-carrying human pathogens (e.g., Enterococcus faecium and Ralstonia pickettii). This work firstly determined the concentration, mobility incidence, and pathogenicity incidence of DWTP resistomes, based on which the actual health risk regarding antibiotic resistance could be quantitatively assessed in further study, providing a useful direction for decision-making concerning the risk control of ARGs in DWTPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.150095DOI Listing
September 2021

Discovery, Optimization, and Structure-Activity Relationship Study of Novel and Potent RSK4 Inhibitors as Promising Agents for the Treatment of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

J Med Chem 2021 Sep 9;64(18):13572-13587. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of New Drug Design, State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science & Technology, Shanghai 200237, China.

Ribosomal S6 protein kinase 4 (RSK4) was identified to be a promising target for the treatment of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in our previous research, whose current treatments are primarily chemotherapy and radiotherapy due to the lack of targeted therapy. However, few potent and specific RSK4 inhibitors are reported. In this study, a series of 1,4-dihydro--pyrimido[4,5-][1,3]oxazin-2-ones derivatives were designed and synthesized as novel and potent RSK4 inhibitors. Compound was identified with potent RSK4 inhibitory activity both and . significantly inhibited the proliferation and invasion of ESCC cells with IC values of 0.57 and 0.98 μM, respectively. It dose dependently inhibited the phosphorylation of RSK4 downstream substrates while exerting little effect on the substrates of RSK1-3 in ESCC cells. The markedly suppressed tumor growth and no observed toxicity to main organs in the ESCC xenograft mouse model suggested to be a promising RSK4-targeting agent for ESCC treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.1c00969DOI Listing
September 2021

Epidemiology and genetic characteristics of murine kobuvirus from faecal samples of , and in southern China.

J Gen Virol 2021 Sep;102(9)

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Research, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, PR China.

Recently, murine kobuvirus (MuKV), a novel member of the family , was identified in faecal samples of in China. The limited information on the circulation of MuKV in other murine rodent species prompted us to investigate its prevalence and conduct a genetic characterization of MuKV in , and in China. Between 2015 and 2017, 243 faecal samples of these three murine rodent species from three regions in southern China were screened for the presence of MuKV. The overall prevalence was 23.0% (56/243). Three complete MuKV polyprotein sequences were acquired, and the genome organization was determined. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that our sequences were closely related to Chinese strains and belong to the species in the genus . Additional studies are required to understand the true prevalence of MuKV in murine rodent populations in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jgv.0.001646DOI Listing
September 2021

[Evaluation of the application of dexmedetomidine combined with flurbiprofen axetil in extraction of multiple complex teeth under local anesthesia].

Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue 2021 Jun;30(3):302-305

Shanghai Stomatological Hospital, Fudan University. Shanghai 200001, China. E-mail:

Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of sedation and analgesia using dexmedetomidine combined with flurbiprofen axetil in multiple complex teeth extraction under local anesthesia.

Methods: According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria of the study, 40 patients scheduled for multiple complex teeth (4-6) extraction were randomly divided into 2 groups: experimental group (sedation and analgesia using dexmedetomidine combined with flurbiprofen axetil in addition to local anesthesia, n=20) and control group (local anesthesia, n=20). The mean arterial pressure(MAP), heart rate(HR), Ramsay sedation score, VAS pain score of each patient at T0(basis value), T1 (during local anesthesia), T2(during extraction), T3(10 minutes after extraction) and the follow-up results were recorded. SAS 8.0 software was used for statistical analysis.

Results: Compared to T0 and control group at the same time, the experimental group revealed more stable mood and hemodynamic manifestation and better analgesic effect (P<0.05), from T1 to T3, patients in the control group showed increased blood pressure, heart rate, emotional fluctuation, bodily and facial pain(P<0.05). The follow-up results showed 5 and 0 patients taking painkillers in the control and experimental group, respectively(P<0.05).

Conclusions: Sedation and analgesia using dexmedetomidine combined with flurbiprofen axetil in addition to local anesthesia is a safe and effective approach in multiple complex teeth extraction.
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June 2021

Required Dose of Sugammadex or Neostigmine for Reversal of Vecuronium-Induced Shallow Residual Neuromuscular Block at a Train-of-Four Ratio of 0.3.

Clin Transl Sci 2021 Aug 26. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Department of Anesthesiology, General Hospital of Southern Theatre Command of PLA, Guangzhou, 510010, China.

Residual shallow neuromuscular block (NMB) is potentially harmful and contributes to critical respiratory events. Evidence for the optimal dose of sugammadex required to reverse vecuronium-induced shallow neuromuscular block is scarce. The aims of the present study were to find suitable doses of sugammadex and neostigmine to reverse a residual vecuronium-induced neuromuscular block from a TOF ratio of 0.3 to 0.9 and evaluate their safety and efficacy. In total, 121 patients aged 18-65 years were randomly assigned to 11 groups to receive placebo, sugammadex (doses of 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 mg/kg) or neostigmine (doses of 10, 25, 40, 55, or 70 μg/kg). The reversal time of sugammadex and neostigmine to antagonize a vecuronium-induced shallow residual NMB (i.e., TOF ratio of 0.3) and related adverse reactions were recorded. Several statistical models were tested to find an appropriate statistical model to explore the suitable doses of sugammadex and neostigmine required to reverse a residual vecuronium-induced neuromuscular block. Based on a monoexponential model with the response variable on a logarithmic scale, sugammadex 0.56 mg/kg may be sufficient to reverse vecuronium-induced shallow residual neuromuscular block at a TOF ratio of 0.3 under anesthesia maintained with propofol. Neostigmine may not provide prompt and satisfactory antagonism as sugammadex, even in shallow NMB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cts.13143DOI Listing
August 2021

Urinary phthalate metabolites among workers in plastic greenhouses in western China.

Environ Pollut 2021 Aug 9;289:117939. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Key Laboratory of Soil Resource & Biotech Applications, Shaanxi Academy of Sciences, Xi'an Botanical Garden of Shaanxi Province (Institute of Botany of Shaanxi Province), Xi'an, 710061, China.

Agricultural plastic greenhouse (PG) production can extend the growing season of crops to satisfy domestic consumption in countries such as China. Workers in PGs have potential higher phthalate exposure risks than the general population as phthalate accumulation has been observed in greenhouse soil, air, and crops. To date, biomonitoring tests of phthalates for the working population have not been carried out. To address this shortage, we conducted a pilot study in Shaanxi Province, China, among 35 healthy PG workers by follow-up recording their seasonal dietary habits and work activities and urine sample collection and measurement between 2018 and 2019. The objectives were to uncover the association between phthalate metabolites and the population characteristics, seasonal and diurnal variations and causes, and to estimate exposure risks and contributions of exposure pathways from PG production systems. A total of 13 phthalate metabolite concentrations (Σ phthalate metabolites) ranged from 102 to 781 (5th-95th) ng/mL (median: 300 ng/mL). Mono-n-butyl phthalate (MNBP) made up 51.3% of Σ phthalate metabolites, followed by the sum of four di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolites (24.2%), mono-2-isobutyl phthalate (MIBP) (13.4%), and mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) (9.8%). The concentrations of MNBP and MIBP in summer were significantly higher than the levels in winter (p < 0.0001). A total of 62.3% of the PG worker population was shown to have exposure risks, and the proportion was as high as 79.4% in summer. Phthalate exposure of the workers from PG production systems constituted over 20% of the total creatinine-based daily intake, and consuming vegetables and fruit planted in PGs and inhalation in PGs were the two largest exposure pathways. Our findings demonstrate that it is important to protect workers in PGs from phthalate exposure risks, and phasing out the use of plastic materials containing phthalates in PGs is imperative, to guarantee food safety in PGs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117939DOI Listing
August 2021

Virome in adult Aedes albopictus captured during different seasons in Guangzhou City, China.

Parasit Vectors 2021 Aug 18;14(1):415. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Research, Southern Medical University, 1838 Guangzhou North Road, Guangzhou, 510515, China.

Background: The mosquito Aedes albopictus is an important vector for many pathogens. Understanding the virome in Ae. albopictus is critical for assessing the risk of disease transmission, implementation of vector control measures, and health system strengthening.

Methods: In this study, viral metagenomic and PCR methods were used to reveal the virome in adult Ae. albopictus captured in different areas and during different seasons in Guangzhou, China.

Results: The viral composition of adult Ae. albopictus varied mainly between seasons. Over 50 viral families were found, which were specific to vertebrates, invertebrates, plants, fungi, bacteria, and protozoa. In rural areas, Siphoviridae (6.5%) was the most common viral family harbored by mosquitoes captured during winter and spring, while Luteoviridae (1.1%) was the most common viral family harbored by mosquitoes captured during summer and autumn. Myoviridae (7.0% and 1.3%) was the most common viral family in mosquitoes captured in urban areas during all seasons. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) was detected by PCR in a female mosquito pool. The first near full-length HBV genome from Ae. albopictus was amplified, which showed a high level of similarity with human HBV genotype B sequences. Human parechovirus (HPeV) was detected in male and female mosquito pools, and the sequences were clustered with HPeV 1 and 3 sequences.

Conclusions: Large numbers of viral species were found in adult Ae. albopictus, including viruses from vertebrates, insects, and plants. The viral composition in Ae. albopictus mainly varied between seasons. Herein, we are the first to report the detection of HPeV and HBV in mosquitoes. This study not only provides valuable information for the control and prevention of mosquito-borne diseases, but it also demonstrates the feasibility of xenosurveillance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-021-04922-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8371599PMC
August 2021

Investigation of distribution, sources and flux of perfluorinated compounds in major southern Indian rivers and their risk assessment.

Chemosphere 2021 Aug 13;277:130228. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Department of Environmental Biotechnology, School of Environmental Sciences, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli, 620024, Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address:

Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are a group of emerging contaminants still less reported in rivers, particularly southern India. Therefore, we investigated the fate of 13 PFCs in three major rivers in southern India during post-monsoon and summer seasons. Twelve PFCs were detected, with an average total PFCs of 1853 ± 1463 pg/l. However, the total PFCs recorded in ppost-monsoon and summer seasons ranged from ND (none detected) to 10,545 pg/l and ND to 4960 pg/l, respectively. Among the individual congeners, perfluoro-n-hexanoic acid (PFHxA) had the highest detection average (929 ± 710 pg/l). The higher detection of short chain PFCs signifies their increasing wide usage as an alternative to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). Higher levels of PFCs were observed in summer than post-monsoon season in the river Kaveri, which is mainly attributed to the decrease in river flow. A multidimensional source identification revealed domestic and commercial wastewater as the major source. A correlation analysis showed that most of the detected PFCs share the common source and undergo co-migration into rivers. The flux of PFCs into the Bay of Bengal, loaded by the Kaveri (15 kg/yr) and the Tamiraparani (2.2 kg/yr) rivers, signifies lower per capita emissions than other rivers in India and other countries. Further, the PFC levels found in the rivers can be considered safe for human consumption and aquatic organisms based on international guidelines. Being the first hand report in southern Indian rivers, the results warrant further investigation to understand the exact sources, fate and removal in detail.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130228DOI Listing
August 2021

Distribution Characteristics and Relevance of Heavy Metals in Soils and Colloids Around a Mining Area in Nanjing, China.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2021 Aug 10. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

School of Environment, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, 210023, China.

Heavy metal pollution in agricultural soils poses a direct threat to food safety and human health. It has been shown that the colloids is the carrier of heavy metal transport in the polluted soil by heavy metals, but the sources of heavy metals in the soil and colloids and their interrelations are not transparent at present. This study aims to investigate the distribution characteristics of heavy metals in agricultural soils near mining areas, and reveal the relevance of heavy metal content in colloids with total content in soils and their chemical species in soils. Results showed that the concentrations of Mn, Zn, and Pb in agricultural soils and colloids were higher than those of other heavy metals. The content of heavy metals in colloids was positively correlated with the total content of heavy metals in soil. Heavy metals in soil could be easily combined by humus-like substances and tryptophan-like protein in the colloids. The primary source of heavy metals in soil and colloids was mining activities. This study provides theoretical support for revealing the pollution characteristics and migration of heavy metals in agricultural soils and colloids around mining areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-021-03350-0DOI Listing
August 2021

AHR mediates the aflatoxin B1 toxicity associated with hepatocellular carcinoma.

Signal Transduct Target Ther 2021 Aug 9;6(1):299. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Aflatoxin exposure is a crucial factor in promoting the development of primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in individuals infected with the hepatitis virus. However, the molecular pathways leading to its bioactivation and subsequent toxicity in hepatocytes have not been well-defined. Here, we carried out a genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 genetic screen to identify aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) targets. Among the most significant hits was the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), a ligand-binding transcription factor regulating cell metabolism, differentiation, and immunity. AHR-deficient cells tolerated high concentrations of AFB1, in which AFB1 adduct formation was significantly decreased. AFB1 triggered AHR nuclear translocation by directly binding to its N-terminus. Furthermore, AHR mediated the expression of P450 induced by AFB1. AHR expression was also elevated in primary tumor sections obtained from AFB1-HCC patients, which paralleled the upregulation of PD-L1, a clinically relevant immune regulator. Finally, anti-PD-L1 therapy exhibited greater efficacy in HCC xenografts derived from cells with ectopic expression of AHR. These results demonstrated that AHR was required for the AFB1 toxicity associated with HCC, and implicate the immunosuppressive regimen of anti-PD-L1 as a therapeutic option for the treatment of AFB1-associated HCCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41392-021-00713-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8352983PMC
August 2021

Degradation and deactivation of plasmid-encoded antibiotic resistance genes during exposure to ozone and chlorine.

Water Res 2021 Sep 6;202:117408. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

School of Earth Sciences and Environmental Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju 61005, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Degradation and deactivation kinetics of an antibiotic resistance gene (ARG) by ozone (O) and free available chlorine (FAC) were investigated in phosphate-buffered solutions at pH 7 for O (in the presence of tert‑butanol), and pH 6.8 or 8.1 for FAC. We used a plasmid (pUC19)-encoded ampicillin resistance gene (amp) in both extracellular (e-) and intracellular (i-) forms. The second-order rate constant (k) for degradation of 2686 base pair (bp) long e-pUC19 toward O, which was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay, was calculated to be ~2 × 10 Ms. The deactivation rate constants of e-pUC19 by O measured with various recipient E. coli strains were within a factor of 2 compared with the degradation rate constant for e-pUC19. The degradation/deactivation kinetics of i-pUC19 were similar to those of e-pUC19, indicating only a minor influence of cellular components on O reactivity toward i-pUC19. For FAC, the degradation and deactivation rates of e-pUC19 were decreased in the presence of tert‑butanol, implying involvement of direct FAC as well as some radical (e.g., OH) reactions. The degradation rates of e-amp segments by direct FAC reaction could be explained by a previously-reported two-step sequential reaction model, in which the rate constants increased linearly with e-amp segment length. The deactivation rate constants of e-pUC19 during exposure to FAC were variable by a factor of up to 4.3 for the different recipient strains, revealing the role of DNA repair in the observed deactivation efficiencies. The degradation/deactivation of e-pUC19 were significantly faster at pH 6.8 than at pH 8.1 owing to pH-dependent FAC speciation variation, whereas i-pUC19 kinetics exhibited much smaller dependence on pH, demonstrating intracellular plasmid DNA reactions with FAC occurred at cytoplasmic pH (~7.5). Our results are useful for predicting and/or measuring the degradation/deactivation efficiency of plasmid-encoded ARGs by water treatment with ozonation and chlorination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2021.117408DOI Listing
September 2021

Reopening International Borders without Quarantine: Contact Tracing Integrated Policy against COVID-19.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 07 14;18(14). Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Land Surveying and Geo-Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China.

With the COVID-19 vaccination widely implemented in most countries, propelled by the need to revive the tourism economy, there is a growing prospect for relieving the social distancing regulation and reopening borders in tourism-oriented countries and regions. This need incentivizes stakeholders to develop border control strategies that fully evaluate health risks if mandatory quarantines are lifted. In this study, we have employed a computational approach to investigate the contact tracing integrated policy in different border-reopening scenarios in Hong Kong, China. Explicitly, by reconstructing the COVID-19 transmission from historical data, specific scenarios with joint effects of digital contact tracing and other concurrent measures (i.e., controlling arrival population and community nonpharmacological interventions) are applied to forecast the future development of the pandemic. Built on a modified SEIR epidemic model with a 30% vaccination coverage, the results suggest that scenarios with digital contact tracing and quick isolation intervention can reduce the infectious population by 92.11% compared to those without contact tracing. By further restricting the inbound population with a 10,000 daily quota and applying moderate-to-strong community nonpharmacological interventions (NPIs), the average daily confirmed cases in the forecast period of 60 days can be well controlled at around 9 per day (95% CI: 7-12). Two main policy recommendations are drawn from the study. First, digital contact tracing would be an effective countermeasure for reducing local virus spread, especially when it is applied along with a moderate level of vaccination coverage. Second, implementing a daily quota on inbound travelers and restrictive community NPIs would further keep the local infection under control. This study offers scientific evidence and prospective guidance for developing and instituting plans to lift mandatory border control policies in preparing for the global economic recovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18147494DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8303901PMC
July 2021

Model-Based Meta-Analysis in Psoriasis: A Quantitative Comparison of Biologics and Small Targeted Molecules.

Front Pharmacol 2021 1;12:586827. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Clinical Research Center, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children's Health, Beijing, China.

The response time-course information of biologics and small targeted molecules for the treatment of moderate to severe plaque psoriasis which helps clinicians to understand the onset of action and maintenance of effect are unclear. Quantitative information about the efficacy comparation of different systemic agents are needed. Model-based meta-analysis was conducted and longitudinal models were developed by applying two clinical end points commonly reported in the clinical trials of psoriasis: the proportion of patients achieving ≥75% reduction from baseline Psoriasis Area and Severity Index score (PASI75) and the proportion of patients achieving ≥90% reduction from baseline Psoriasis Area and Severity Index score (PASI90). A total of 80 trials of thirteen biological agents and four small targeted molecules covering 235 treatment arms and 40323 patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis were included in this analysis. The drugs were divided into five classes of biologics and three classes of small molecules. Two longitudinal models of PASI75 and PASI90 were used to describe the time-varying drug effect and dose-effect relationship. The typical response-time courses for PASI75 and PASI90 increased over time and finally reached to the platform. For PASI75 end point at week 12, of all the therapeutic drugs, risankizumab administered as 150 mg at week 0, week 4, and q12w showed the most efficacious with PASI75 was 85.95% (95%CI, 75.71-92.60%), followed by ixekizumab administered as 160 mg at week 0, and q4w with PASI75 was 85.9% (95%CI, 76.12-92.79%). As for PASI90 end point at week 12, ixekizumab 160 mg at week 0, and q4w showed the greatest percentage of person achieved PASI90 (67.2%; 95%CI, 49.91-77.2%), followed by risankizumab 150 mg at week 0, week 4, and q12w (65.5%; 95%CI, 47.8-75.7%). What's more, the risankizumab provided the highest response of PASI90 at week 16 and week 24. This study provided a quantitative efficacy comparation of 17 systemic agents for psoriasis in term of efficacy only and that safety was not considered. Risankizumab and ixekizumab showed superiority for both the two end points.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.586827DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8281289PMC
July 2021

Analysis of electrostatic levitation control system and oscillation method for material properties measurement.

Rev Sci Instrum 2021 Jun;92(6):065111

State Key Laboratory of High-Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 1295 Dingxi Road, Changning District, Shanghai 200050, China.

Electrostatic levitation is an important method of studying material properties. Without using a container, a physical object is levitated between electrostatic plates and melted to the liquid state using a laser. Then, measurements are made via fast cooling or oscillation. Control technology is critical to the electrostatic levitation system. Uncertainty regarding the sample charge during the start-up and laser-melting periods often causes disturbances or causes levitation to fail. In this paper, we design a two-step adaptive control strategy with charge estimation and feed-forward control. This method can better adapt to charge uncertainty during the initial stage. In addition, we propose an innovative new method of superimposing oscillation signals via software to measure the material surface tension and viscosity. Unlike the traditional method, this approach does not require extra hardware resources and is flexible with regard to regulating the frequency and amplitude. A control system model with an accurate electric field model is established and used to simulate control progress in order to illustrate the advantage of our control method. Experiments based on a high-speed vision-servo system also validate the effectiveness of the adaptive and oscillation control strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0026974DOI Listing
June 2021

Detection of Virus-Related Sequences Associated With Potential Etiologies of Hepatitis in Liver Tissue Samples From Rats, Mice, Shrews, and Bats.

Front Microbiol 2021 8;12:653873. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Research, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Hepatitis is a major global health concern. However, the etiology of 10-20% hepatitis cases remains unclear. Some hepatitis-associated viruses, like the hepatitis E virus, are zoonotic pathogens. Rats, shrews, and bats are reservoirs for many zoonotic pathogens. Therefore, understanding the virome in the liver of these animals is important for the investigation of the etiologies of hepatitis and monitoring the emerging zoonotic viruses. In this study, viral metagenomics and PCR methods were used to investigate viral communities in rats, mice, house shrews, and bats livers. Viral metagenomic analysis showed a diverse set of sequences in liver samples, comprising: sequences related to herpesviruses, orthomyxoviruses, anelloviruses, hepeviruses, hepadnaviruses, flaviviruses, parvoviruses, and picornaviruses. Using PCR methods, we first detected hepatovirus sequences in (3.85%). We also reported the first detection of Zika virus-related sequences in rats and house shrews. Sequences related to influenza A virus and herpesviruses were detected in liver. Higher detection rates of pegivirus sequences were found in liver tissue and serum samples from rats (7.85% and 15.79%, respectively) than from house shrews. Torque teno virus sequences had higher detection rates in the serum samples of rats and house shrews (52.72% and 5.26%, respectively) than in the liver. Near-full length genomes of pegivirus and torque teno virus were amplified. This study is the first to compare the viral communities in the liver of bats, rats, mice, and house shrews. Its findings expand our understanding of the virome in the liver of these animals and provide an insight into hepatitis-related viruses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.653873DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8221242PMC
June 2021

TEMPORARY REMOVAL: Direct Oral Anticoagulants Compared With Dalteparin for Treatment of Cancer-Associated Thrombosis: A Living, Interactive Systematic Review and Network Meta-analysis.

Mayo Clin Proc 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

The publisher regrets that this article has been temporarily removed. A replacement will appear as soon as possible in which the reason for the removal of the article will be specified, or the article will be reinstated. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at https://www.elsevier.com/about/our-business/policies/article-withdrawal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2020.10.041DOI Listing
June 2021

Genome- and community-level interaction insights into the ecological role of archaea in rare earth element mine drainage in South China.

Water Res 2021 Aug 7;201:117331. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control and Remediation Technology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China; Guangdong Provincial Engineering Research Center for Heavy Metal Contaminated Soil Remediation, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China; Guangdong Laboratory for Lingnan Modern Agriculture, College of Natural Resources and Environment, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China. Electronic address:

Microbial communities play crucial roles in mine drainage generation and remediation. Despite the wide distribution of archaea in the mine ecosystem, their diversity and ecological roles remain less understood than bacteria. Here, we retrieved 56 archaeal metagenome-assembled genomes from a river impacted by rare earth element (REE) mining activities in South China. Genomic analysis showed that archaea represented four distinct lineages, including phyla of Thaumarchaeota, Micrarchaeota, Nanoarchaeota and Thermoplasmata. These archaea represented a considerable fraction (up to 40%) of the total prokaryote community, which might contribute to nitrogen and sulfur cycling in the REE mine drainage. Reconstructed metabolic potential among diverse archaea taxa revealed that archaea were involved in the network of ammonia oxidation, denitrification, sulfate redox reaction, and required substrates supplied by other community members. As the dominant driver of ammonia oxidation, Thaumarchaeota might provide substrates to support the survival of two nano-sized archaea belonging to Micrarchaeota and Nanoarchaeota. Despite the absence of biosynthesis pathways for amino acids and nucleotides, the potential capacity for nitrite reduction (nirD) was observed in Micrarchaeota, indicating that these nano-sized archaea encompassed diverse metabolisms. Moreover, Thermoplasmata, as keystone taxa in community, might be the main genetic donor for the other three archaeal phyla, transferring many environmental resistance related genes (e.g., V/A-type ATPase and Vitamin B12-transporting ATPase). The genetic interactions within archaeal community through horizontal gene transfer might be the key to the formation of archaeal resistance and functional partitioning. This study provides putative metabolic and genetic insights into the diverse archaea taxa from community-level perspectives, and highlights the ecological roles of archaea in REE contaminated aquatic environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2021.117331DOI Listing
August 2021

Insights into Mechanism of Aβ Fibril Growth on Surface of Graphene Oxides: Oxidative Degree Matters.

Adv Healthc Mater 2021 08 29;10(16):e2100436. Epub 2021 May 29.

Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion and New Carbon Materials of Hubei Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Institute of Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430081, P. R. China.

The filamentous β-amyloid deposition has been regarded as the hallmark pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Nanomaterials such as graphene oxides (GOs) have achieved significant progress in the therapy of AD, but the molecular pathway of the growth propagation remains challenging to investigate, especially on the surfaces of materials. The thermodynamics and kinetics of fibril elongation on GO surfaces with different oxidative degrees have been investigated by a combination of in vitro experiments and simulations. ThT kinetics, calorimetric measurements, and TEM observations suggest that low oxidative GO-10 promotes the fibril elongation, while both high oxidative GO-20 and GO-40 inhibit the fibril elongation. Computational results reveal that the apparent regulation behaviors of GOs on filament growth depend on the balance between the promoting effect by templating the incoming of monomers and the retarding effect by capturing the monomer during docking and locking phases through hydrogen bonding. This work will promote the understanding of the interplay between biomolecules and materials, thus providing new thoughts for the rational design of novel materials for amyloidosis therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adhm.202100436DOI Listing
August 2021

Adjuvant Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Concluded Living Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

JCO Clin Cancer Inform 2021 05;5:588-599

Huntsman Cancer Institute, Salt Lake City, UT.

Purpose: Multiple large clinical trials have investigated adjuvant tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) to reduce the risk of cancer recurrence and progression to metastasis in high-risk renal cell carcinoma. We sought to maintain living and interactive evidence on this topic, until a high level of certainty is reached for key clinical outcomes such that further updates become unnecessary and unlikely to change clinical practice.

Methods: We created a living interactive evidence synthesis platform to maintain a continuously updated meta-analysis on TKI monotherapy in adjuvant renal cell carcinoma. We implemented an automated search strategy with weekly updates to identify randomized phase 2 and 3 clinical trials. Study selection, appraisal, and data extraction were done in duplicate. Cumulative meta-analysis was performed using Analyzer Module in Living Interactive Evidence platform. For each outcome (overall survival [OS], disease-free survival [DFS], and all-cause and treatment-related adverse events), we assessed certainty of evidence using GRADE approach and conducted trial sequential analysis.

Results: This final update includes five randomized trials including recently updated data from PROTECT trial. Meta-analysis shows that adjuvant TKI monotherapy offers no benefit in OS (hazard ratio, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.91 to 1.12, high certainty) or DFS (hazard ratio, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.86 to 1.00, high certainty) and significantly increases adverse event risk. Lack of benefit was consistent across subgroups including highest-risk patients (test for subgroup differences: .32). Optimal information size criteria were met, and there was high certainty of evidence for lack of DFS and OS benefit for adjuvant TKIs.

Conclusion: There is no guidance on when to stop maintaining a living review. In this example, we used trial sequential analysis and high certainty of evidence (future clinical trials unlikely to change current conclusions) as a benchmark to conclude a living review in view of convincing evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/CCI.21.00035DOI Listing
May 2021

Misfolding and Self-Assembly Dynamics of Microtubule-Binding Repeats of the Alzheimer-Related Protein Tau.

J Chem Inf Model 2021 06 25;61(6):2916-2925. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634, United States.

Pathological aggregation of intrinsically disordered tau protein, driven by the interactions between microtubule-binding (MTB) domains, is associated with Alzheimer's disease. The MTB domain contains either three or four repeats with sequence similarities. Compared to amyloid β, many aspects of the misfolding and aggregation mechanisms of tau are largely unknown. In this study, we systematically investigated the dynamics of monomer misfolding and dimerization of each MTB repeat using atomistic discrete molecular dynamic simulations. Our results revealed that all the four repeat monomers (R1-R4) were very dynamic, featuring frequent conformational conversion and lacking stable conformations. While R1, R2, and R4 monomers occasionally adopted partially helical conformations, R3 monomers frequently formed β-sheets. In dimerization simulations, R3 displayed the strongest aggregation propensity with high β-sheet contents, while R1 was the least prone to aggregation. The R2 and R4 dimers contained both helix and β-sheet structures. The β-sheets in R4 assemblies were dominant with β-hairpin conformation. In R2 and R3 dimers, intermolecular β-sheets were mainly driven by residues around the paired helical filament (PHF) regions. Residues around the PHF6* in R2 and PHF6 in R3 had significantly higher intermolecular contacts than other regions, suggesting that these residues play a key role in the amyloid aggregation of tau. Our results on the structural ensembles and early aggregation dynamics of each tau MTB repeat will help understand the nucleation and fibrillization of tau.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jcim.1c00217DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8238895PMC
June 2021

Vinegar/Tetramethylpyrazine Induces Nutritional Preconditioning Protecting the Myocardium Mediated by VDAC1.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 20;2021:6670088. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Jiangxi Academy of Clinical Medical Sciences, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006, China.

Vinegar is good for health. Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) is the main component of its flavor, quality, and function. We hypothesized that vinegar/TMP pretreatment could induce myocardial protection of "nutritional preconditioning (NPC)" by low-dose, long-term supplementation and alleviate the myocardial injury caused by anoxia/reoxygenation (A/R). To test this hypothesis, TMP content in vinegar was detected by HPLC; A/R injury model was prepared by an isolated mouse heart and rat cardiomyocyte to evaluate the myocardial protection and mechanism of vinegar/TMP pretreatment by many enzymatic or functional, or cellular and molecular biological indexes. Our results showed that vinegar contained TMP, and its content was in direct proportion to storage time. Vinegar/TMP pretreatment could improve hemodynamic parameters, decrease lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phosphokinase activities, and reduce infarct size and apoptosis in the isolated hearts of mice with A/R injury. Similarly, vinegar/TMP pretreatment could increase cell viability, decrease LDH activity, and decrease apoptosis against A/R injury of cardiomyocytes. Vinegar/TMP pretreatment could also maintain the mitochondrial function of A/R-injured cardiomyocytes, including improving oxygen consumption rate and extracellular acidification rate, reducing reactive oxygen species generation, mitochondrial membrane potential loss, mitochondrial permeability transition pore openness, and cytochrome c releasing. However, the protective effects of vinegar/TMP pretreatment were accompanied by the downregulation of VDAC1 expression in the myocardium and reversed by pAD/VDAC1, an adenovirus that upregulates VDAC1 expression. In conclusion, this study is the first to demonstrate that vinegar/TMP pretreatment could induce myocardial protection of NPC due to downregulating VDAC1 expression, inhibiting oxidative stress, and preventing mitochondrial dysfunction; that is, VDAC1 is their target, and the mitochondria are their target organelles. TMP is one of the most important myocardial protective substances in vinegar.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6670088DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8081599PMC
April 2021

Capsaicin protects cardiomyocytes against lipopolysaccharide-induced damage via 14-3-3γ-mediated autophagy augmentation.

Front Pharmacol 2021 27;12:659015. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Jiangxi Academy of Clinical Medical Sciences, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, China.

The myocardium is susceptible to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced damage in sepsis, and cardiac dysfunction is a leading cause of mortality in patients with sepsis. The changes in cardiomyocyte autophagy in sepsis and the effects and mechanism of action of capsaicin (Cap) remain unclear. The potential pathway of 14-3-3γ-dependent autophagy and the effects and mechanisms of Cap were studied in LPS-induced injury to primary cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. The results showed that cardiomyocyte viability decreased, lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase activities increased, 14-3-3γ expression was downregulated, and autophagy was inhibited after LPS challenge. Cap pretreatment augmented autophagy by upregulating 14-3-3γ expression and activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and unc-51 like autophagy-activating kinase 1 (ULK1), suppressing mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), alleviating cardiac dysfunction and improving the inflammation response, whereas pAD/14-3-3γ-shRNA nullified the above effects. Cap pretreatment also decreased the levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10; suppressed intracellular oxidative stress; reduced the intracellular/mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS); balanced GSH/GSSG; increased GSH-Px, catalase, and SOD activities; and decreased MDA contents. It also increased ATP content, activated complex Ⅰ and complex Ⅲ, stabilized the mitochondrial membrane potential, and decreased the mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening, thereby improving mitochondrial function. Pretreatment with Cap can regulate autophagy by upregulating 14-3-3γ expression, inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation, maintaining mitochondrial function, and protecting cardiomyocytes against LPS-induced injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.659015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8111444PMC
April 2021

CoP imbedded g-CN heterojunctions for highly efficient photo, electro and photoelectrochemical water splitting.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Oct 20;599:23-33. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845, Australia; College of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029, China.

Nanorod-like CoP nanoparticles were fabricated from different precursors of Co(OH) and CoO by gas-solid reaction, then further embedded into g-CN nanosheets to form intimate heterojunctions via the (011) crystal planes of CoP nanoparticles. The heterojunction hybrid obtained from Co(OH) exhibits superior activity in photo, electro and photoelectrochemical water splitting processes. In photocatalytic water half-splitting for hydrogen evolution reaction, the as-obtained 0.5% CoP-CN achieved a rate at 959.4 μmol·h·g and 59.1 μmol·h·g when irradiated by simulated sunlight and visible light respectively, almost 3.1 times and 15.8 times that of pristine g-CN, For photocatalytic water full-splitting, a stoichiometric evolution of H (14.7 μmol·h·g) and O (7.6 μmol·h·g) was observed on 3%Pt-0.5% CoP-CN composite. The onset potential for electrochemical HER process was drastically reduced after deposition with 0.5% CoP. Meanwhile, a higher photocurrent response and larger anodic photocurrent was detected over 0.5% CoP-CN photoanode during the photoelectrochemical water splitting process, relative to pristine g-CN and its analogues. The comprehensive enhancements for catalytic activity of 0.5% CoP-CN could be attributed to its reduced over-potentials, more negative photo-reductive potentials, boosted interfacial charge transfer efficiency, as well as a much higher solar to hydrogen efficiency. The contrastive redox roles of CoP in both photocatalytic water half-splitting and full-splitting processes have been fully explored and revealed. This design on covalent organic framework of highly efficient CoP-based heterojunctions holds great promise for direct water splitting applications in utilizing solar energy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.04.088DOI Listing
October 2021

Detoxification of Oral Exposure to Benzo(a)pyrene by Lactobacillus plantarum CICC 23121 in Mice.

Mol Nutr Food Res 2021 06 10;65(12):e2001149. Epub 2021 May 10.

College of Biological Science & Biotechnology, Beijing Key Laboratory of Forest Food Processing and Safety, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, 100083, China.

This study's previous work showed that the carcinogen and mutagen benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) can be adsorbed by Lactobacillus cells in vitro. However, in vivo BaP detoxification by lactic acid bacteria has not yet been investigated. The present study evaluates the effects of orally administered Lactobacillus plantarum CICC 23121 in BaP-treated mice. Oral administration of 50 mg kg BaP perturbed the intestinal microflora, caused Proteobacteria to predominate, and severely damaged DNA. However, oral administration of 5 × 10 CFU mL CICC 23121 in BaP-treated mice enhances fecal BaP excretion from 181.70 ± 1.04 µg/(g∙h) to 271.47 ± 11.71 µg/(g∙h) after 6 h. Fecal BaP excretion reaches up to 280.66 ± 22.97 µg/(g∙h) after the first 4 days of orally administered CICC 23121 and decreased to 94.31 ± 2.64 µg/(g∙h) by day 11. Intestinal microbiota are restored and Firmicutes predominates. CICC 23121 alleviates BaP-induced DNA damage and reduces tail length from 56.37 ± 5.31  to 39.69 ± 4.27 µm. Therefore, oral CICC23121 consumption is a promising strategy for reducing BaP toxicity in mice. To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first report to demonstrate in vivo that Lactobacillus cells can detoxify BaP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.202001149DOI Listing
June 2021

A Living, Interactive Systematic Review and Network Meta-analysis of First-line Treatment of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma.

Eur Urol 2021 Apr 3. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Context: Identifying the most effective first-line treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) is challenging as rapidly evolving data quickly outdate the existing body of evidence, and current approaches to presenting the evidence in user-friendly formats are fraught with limitations.

Objective: To maintain living evidence for contemporary first-line treatment for previously untreated mRCC.

Evidence Acquisition: We have created a living, interactive systematic review (LISR) and network meta-analysis for first-line treatment of mRCC using data from randomized controlled trials comparing contemporary treatment options with single-agent tyrosine kinase inhibitors. We applied an advanced programming and artificial intelligence-assisted framework for evidence synthesis to create a living search strategy, facilitate screening and data extraction using a graphical user interface, automate the frequentist network meta-analysis, and display results in an interactive manner.

Evidence Synthesis: As of October 22, 2020, the LISR includes data from 14 clinical trials. Baseline characteristics are summarized in an interactive table. The cabozantinib + nivolumab combination (CaboNivo) is ranked the highest for the overall response rate, progression-free survival, and overall survival, whereas ipilimumab + nivolumab (NivoIpi) is ranked the highest for achieving a complete response (CR). NivoIpi, and atezolizumab + bevacizumab (AteBev) were ranked highest (lowest toxicity) and CaboNivo ranked lowest for treatment-related adverse events (AEs). Network meta-analysis results are summarized as interactive tables and plots, GRADE summary-of-findings tables, and evidence maps.

Conclusions: This innovative living and interactive review provides the best current evidence on the comparative effectiveness of multiple treatment options for patients with untreated mRCC. Trial-level comparisons suggest that CaboNivo is likely to cause more AEs but is ranked best for all efficacy outcomes, except NivoIpi offers the best chance of CR. Pembrolizumab + axitinib and NivoIpi are acceptable alternatives, except NivoIpi may not be preferred for patients with favorable risk. Although network meta-analysis provides rankings with statistical adjustments, there are inherent biases in cross-trial comparisons with sparse direct evidence that does not replace randomized comparisons.

Patient Summary: It is challenging to decide the best option among the several treatment combinations of immunotherapy and targeted treatments for newly diagnosed metastatic kidney cancer. We have created interactive evidence summaries of multiple treatment options that present the benefits and harms and evidence certainty for patient-important outcomes. This evidence is updated as soon as new studies are published.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2021.03.016DOI Listing
April 2021

Salt-resistant nanosensor for fast sulfadimethoxine tracing based on oxygen-doped g-CN nanoplates.

Mikrochim Acta 2021 04 6;188(5):153. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

School of Environment, Nanjing Normal University, Wenyuan Road 1, Nanjing, 210023, China.

A novel oxygen-doped g-CN nanoplate (OCNP) structure that can serve as an efficient sulfadimethoxine (SDM) sensing platform has been developed. Taking advantage of its inherent oxygen-containing functional groups and 2D layered structure with π-conjugated system, OCNP exhibits effective radiative recombination of surface-confined electron-hole pairs and efficient π-π interaction with SDM. This causes rapid fluorescence response and thus ensures the fast and continuous monitoring of SDM. Based on the fluorescence experiments and band structure calculation, the mechanism of the SDM-induced quenching phenomenon was mainly elucidated as the photoinduced electron transfer process under a dynamic quenching mode. Under optimized conditions, the as-proposed nanosensor, which emitted strong fluorescence at 375 nm with an excitation wavelength at 255 nm, presents an excellent analytical performance toward SDM with a wide linear range from 3 to 60 μmol L and a detection limit of 0.85 μmol L (S/N = 3). In addition, this strategy exhibits satisfactory recovery varied from 94 to 103% with relative standard derivations (RSD) in the range 0.9 to 6.8% in real water samples. It also shows marked tolerability to a series of high concentrations of metals and inorganic salts. This strategy not only broadens the application of oxygen-doped g-CN nanomaterial in antibiotic sensing field but also presents a promising potential for on-line contaminant tracing in complex environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00604-021-04800-6DOI Listing
April 2021

Knockout of Two Cry-Binding Aminopeptidase N Isoforms Does Not Change Susceptibility of Larvae to subsp. Cry4Ba and Cry11Aa Toxins.

Insects 2021 Mar 5;12(3). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

State Key Laboratory of Ecological Pest Control for Fujian and Taiwan Crops, College of Plant Protection, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University (FAFU), Fuzhou 350002, China.

The insecticidal Cry4Ba and Cry11Aa crystal proteins from subsp. (Bti) are highly toxic to larvae. The glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored APN was identified as an important membrane-bound receptor for multiple Cry toxins in numerous Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, and Diptera insects. However, there is no direct molecular evidence to link APN of to Bti toxicity . In this study, two Cry4Ba/Cry11Aa-binding GPI-APN isoforms (APN1 and APN2) were individually knocked-out using CRISPR/Cas9 mutagenesis, and the APN1/APN2 double-mutant homozygous strain was generated using the reverse genetics approach. ELISA assays showed that the high binding affinity of Cry4Ba and Cry11Aa protoxins to the midgut brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) from these APN knockouts was similar to the background from the wild-type (WT) strain. Likewise, the bioassay results showed that neither the single knockout of APN1 or APN2, nor the simultaneous disruption of APN1 and APN2 resulted in significant changes in susceptibility of larvae to Cry4Ba and Cry11Aa toxins. Accordingly, our results suggest that APN1 and APN2 may not mediate Bti Cry4Ba and Cry11Aa toxicity in larvae as their binding proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/insects12030223DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8002144PMC
March 2021

The complete mitochondrial genome of Chapuis, 1875 (Coleoptera: Scolytinae).

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2021 Mar 18;6(3):1066-1067. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

College of Forestry, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, China.

Chapuis, 1875 (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) is a major boring pest of Chinese firs. The length of the complete mitochondria genome of was 17,054 bp with 29.7% GC content, including 30.0% A, 11.3% C, 18.4% G and 40.3% T. The genome encoded 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs, and 2 rRNAs. Phylogenetic analysis showed that was closely related to . This study provided useful genetic information for the subsequent studying the prevention of .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2021.1899082DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7995866PMC
March 2021

PMD estimation and its enabled feedforward adaptive equalization based on superimposed FrFT training sequences.

Opt Lett 2021 Apr;46(7):1526-1529

Fractional Fourier transform (FrFT) training sequences (TSs) have been proposed to superimpose with signals to achieve time synchronization and polarization mode dispersion (PMD) estimation simultaneously before equalization. The feasibility of the proposed scheme is verified by experiment of a 30 GBaud/s PDM quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) system. Without sacrificing spectrum efficiency, the proposed PMD estimation is robust against amplifier spontaneous emission (ASE) noise and has steady performance in a wide PMD range from 0 ps to 108 ps. The root mean square error (RMSE) of PMD is 5.6 ps by experimental verification. Further, the PMD estimated before equalization is utilized to adjust the numbers of taps in a subsequently tap-varied equalizer, which achieves feedforward adaptive equalization (FFD-AEQ). The number of the AEQ taps is adjusted to an optimal value with the prior-PMD information estimated by FrFT TSs. The experimental results show that the tap-varied AEQ has 52.6% power consumption decrease compared to the tap-fixed AEQ with 13 taps.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.417598DOI Listing
April 2021
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