Publications by authors named "Huan Gao"

131 Publications

Isotope fractionation (δC, δN) and microbial community response in degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons by biostimulation in contaminated soil.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Sep 3. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Key Laboratory of Environmental Engineering of Shaanxi Province, School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi'an, 710055, China.

This study investigated the isotope effects of δC and δN and microbial response during biodegradation of hydrocarbons by biostimulation with nitrate or compost in the petroleum-contaminated soil. Compost and KNO amendments promoted the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal accompanied by a significant increase of Actinobacteria and Firmicutes phyla. Soil alpha diversity decreased after 90 days of biostimulation. An inverse significant carbon isotope effect (ε = 16.6 ± 0.8‰) and strong significant nitrogen isotope effect (ε = -24.20 ± 9.54‰) were shown by the KNO supplementation. For compost amendment, significant carbon and nitrogen isotope effect were ε = 38.8 ± 1.1‰ and ε = -79.49 ± 16.41‰, respectively. A clear difference of the carbon and nitrogen stable isotope fractionation was evident by KNO or compost amendment, which indicated that the mechanisms of petroleum degradation by adding compost or KNO may be different.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-16055-yDOI Listing
September 2021

Ginsenoside Rg3 attenuates cisplatin-induced kidney injury through inhibition of apoptosis and autophagy-inhibited NLRP3.

J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2021 Aug 23:e22896. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Research and Development Department, Dalian Fusheng Natural Medicine Development Co., Ltd., Dalian, Liaoning, China.

The NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing (NLRP3) inflammasomes is centrally implicated in cisplatin (CP)-induced kidney injury. Autophagy is critical for inhibiting production of NLRP3 protein that effectively reduces the inflammatory response. Ginsenoside Rg3 (SY), an active component extracted from ginseng, is reported to protect against CP-induced nephrotoxicity. However, the mechanisms underlying renoprotection by SY have not been established to date. Our results indicate that SY attenuated CP-induced apoptosis and damage in vivo and in vitro, as evidenced by increased cell viability, decreased the proportion of late apoptotic cells, elevated mitochondrial membrane potential, and ameliorated histopathological damage of the kidney. SY ameliorated CP-induced human renal tubular (HK-2) cells and kidney injury through upregulation of LC3II/I and beclin-1, inhibition of p62, NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, and interleukin-1β. However, blockade of autophagy by 3-methyladenine reversed the suppression of SY on NLRP3 inflammasome activation and the protection of SY on HK-2 cells. Our collective results support the utility of SY as a therapeutic agent that effectively protects against CP-induced kidney injury by activating the autophagy-mediated NLRP3 inhibition pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbt.22896DOI Listing
August 2021

Simultaneously Enhancing Efficiency and Stability of Perovskite Solar Cells Through Crystal Cross-Linking Using Fluorophenylboronic Acid.

Small 2021 Sep 11;17(38):e2102090. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

State Key Laboratory of Organic Electronics and Information Displays & Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Nanjing University of Posts & Telecommunications, 9 Wenyuan Road, Nanjing, 210023, China.

Organic-inorganic metal halide perovskites are regarded as one of the most promising candidates in the photovoltaic field, but simultaneous realization of high efficiency and long-term stability is still challenging. Here, a one-step solution-processing strategy is demonstrated for preparing efficient and stable inverted methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI ) perovskite solar cells (PSCs) by incorporating a series of organic molecule dopants of fluorophenylboronic acids (F-PBAs) into perovskite films. Studies have shown that the F-PBA dopant acts as a cross-linker between neighboring perovskite grains through hydrogen bonds and coordination bonds between F-PBA and perovskite structures, yielding high-quality perovskite crystalline films with both improved crystallinity and reduced defect densities. Benefiting from the repaired grain boundaries of MAPbI with the organic cross-linker, the inverted PSCs exhibit a remarkably enhanced performance from 16.4% to approximately 20%. Meanwhile, the F-PBA doped devices exhibit enhanced moisture/thermal/light stability, and specially retain 80% of their initial power conversion efficiencies after more than two weeks under AM 1.5G one-sun illumination. This work highlights the impressive advantages of the perovskite crystal cross-linking strategy using organic molecules with strong intermolecular interactions, providing an efficient route to prepare high-performance and stable planar PSCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202102090DOI Listing
September 2021

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Exerts a Protective Role in MPTP-Induced Parkinson's Disease via the TLR4/PI3K/AKT/NF-κB Pathway Stimulated by α-Synuclein.

Neurochem Res 2021 Aug 4. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Department of Neurology, Affiliated BenQ Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, No. 71, Hexi Street, Jianye District, 210019, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.

Gut microbiota is closely related to the Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis. Additionally, aggregation of α-synuclein (α-syn) is central to PD pathogenesis. Here we identified the further mechanisms of gut microbiota in PD. A mouse model with PD was established via injection of MPTP. Normal or MPTP-induced PD like animals were treated with FMT from healthy normal mice. Pole test and traction test were performed to examine the effects of FMT on motor function of PD mice. Fecal SCFAs were assessed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The α-syn level in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SN) of mice was measured using western blot. Dopaminergic neurons and microglial activation in the SN were analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunofluorescence (IF) staining. FMT alleviated physical impairment, decreased fecal SCFAs in a mouse model of PD. Additionally, FMT decreased the expression of α-syn, as well as inhibited the activation of microglia in the SN, and blocked the TLR4/PI3K/AKT/NF-κB signaling in the SN and striatum. FMT could protect mice against PD via suppressing α-syn expression and inactivating the TLR4/PI3K/AKT/NF-κB signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-021-03411-0DOI Listing
August 2021

Development and Validation of a Ferroptosis-Related Gene Signature for Overall Survival Prediction in Lung Adenocarcinoma.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 7;9:684259. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Medical Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

Ferroptosis is an iron-dependent programmed cell death process. Recent studies have found that ferroptosis inducers hold promising potential in the treatment of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). However, the comprehensive analysis about the prognostic value of ferroptosis-related genes in LUAD remains to be elucidated. The RNA sequencing data and corresponding clinical information were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) databases. A total of 259 ferroptosis-related genes were extracted from FerrDb website. The ferroptosis-related prognostic signature was developed by least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) Cox regression analysis in TCGA LUAD cohort, and then validated by 5 independent GEO cohorts. Gene Ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) were performed to identify the difference in biological processes and functions between different risk groups. The expression levels of core prognostic genes were then verified in LUAD samples by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and erastin-treated LUAD cell lines by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The potential roles of GPX2 and DDIT4 as ferroptosis drivers in LUAD cell line were further confirmed by experiments. A total of 20 intersecting genes between 70 ferroptosis-related DEGs and 45 potential prognostic genes were obtained for LASSO Cox regression analysis. The ferroptosis-related prognostic signature was developed by 7 core prognostic DEGs, and stratified LUAD patients into two risk groups. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the overall survival (OS) of LUAD patients in the high-risk group was significantly worse than that of the low-risk group. External validation of 5 independent GEO cohorts further confirmed that the ferroptosis-related prognostic signature was an ideal biomarker for predicting the survival of LUAD patients. Significant enrichment of fatty acid metabolism and cell cycle-related pathways were found in different risk groups. The expression patterns of 7 core prognostic genes in LUAD and adjacent normal lung tissues were validated by IHC, which was almost consistent with the results from public database. Furthermore, the changes related to cell cycle and ferroptosis after erastin treatment were also validated in LUAD cell lines. In addition, silencing GPX2 or DDIT4 could partially reverse the erastin-induced ferroptosis. In summary, the ferroptosis-related prognostic signature based on 7 core prognostic DEGs indicated superior predictive performance of LUAD patients. Targeting ferroptosis holds potential to be a therapeutic alternative for LUAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.684259DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8294813PMC
July 2021

Drug repositioning based on network-specific core genes identifies potential drugs for the treatment of autism spectrum disorder in children.

Comput Struct Biotechnol J 2021 1;19:3908-3921. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Clinical Data Center, Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital/Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou 510080, Guangdong, China.

Identification of exact causative genes is important for drug repositioning based on drug-gene-disease relationships. However, the complex polygenic etiology of the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a challenge in the identification of etiological genes. The network-based core gene identification method can effectively use the interactions between genes and accurately identify the pathogenic genes of ASD. We developed a novel network-based drug repositioning framework that contains three steps: network-specific core gene (NCG) identification, potential therapeutic drug repositioning, and candidate drug validation. First, through the analysis of transcriptome data for 178 brain tissues, gene network analysis identified 365 NCGs in 18 coexpression modules that were significantly correlated with ASD. Second, we evaluated two proposed drug repositioning methods. In one novel approach (dtGSEA), we used the NCGs to probe drug-gene interaction data and identified 35 candidate drugs. In another approach, we compared NCG expression patterns with drug-induced transcriptome data from the Connectivity Map database and found 46 candidate drugs. Third, we validated the candidate drugs using an in-house mental diseases and compounds knowledge graph (MCKG) that contained 7509 compounds, 505 mental diseases, and 123,890 edges. We found a total of 42 candidate drugs that were associated with mental illness, among which 10 drugs (baclofen, sulpiride, estradiol, entinostat, everolimus, fluvoxamine, curcumin, calcitriol, metronidazole, and zinc) were postulated to be associated with ASD. This study proposes a powerful network-based drug repositioning framework and also provides candidate drugs as well as potential drug targets for the subsequent development of ASD therapeutic drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.csbj.2021.06.046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8280514PMC
July 2021

Development and validation of an immune gene set-based prognostic signature in cutaneous melanoma.

Future Oncol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Medical Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710061, China.

We aimed to fully understand the landscape of the skin cutaneous melanoma (SKCM) microenvironment and develop an immune prognostic signature that can predict the prognosis for SKCM patients. RNA sequencing data and clinical information were downloaded from the Cancer Genome Atlas and Gene Expression Omnibus databases. The immune-prognostic signature was constructed by LASSO Cox regression analysis. We calculated the relative abundance of 29 immune-related gene sets based on the mRNA expression profiles of 314 SKCM patients in the Cancer Genome Atlas training set. Hierarchical clustering was performed to classify SKCM patients into three clusters: immunity-high, -medium and -low. The values of our prognostic model in predicting disease progression, metastasis and immunotherapeutic responses were also validated. In conclusion, the prognostic model demonstrated a powerful ability to distinguish and predict SKCM patients' prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/fon-2021-0104DOI Listing
July 2021

Network Pharmacology-Based Dissection of the Active Ingredients and Protective Mechanism of the and Herb Pair against Insulin Resistance.

ACS Omega 2021 Jul 30;6(27):17276-17288. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Key Laboratory of Shaanxi Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine for TCM Compatibility, Shaanxi University of Chinese Medicine, Xi'an 712046, China.

The and herb pair (DQ) has been widely utilized in traditional Chinese medicine for the longevity and for preventing and treating cardio-cerebrovascular diseases. Often associated with cardio-cerebrovascular diseases are comorbidities such as insulin resistance. However, the protective mechanisms of DQ against insulin resistance remain not well understood. Through network pharmacology analysis, a total of 94 candidate active compounds selected from DQ (61 from Bunge and 33 from (Burk.) F. H. Chen) interacted with 52 corresponding insulin resistance-related targets, which mainly involved insulin resistance and the AMPK signaling pathway. Furthermore, the contribution index calculation results indicated 25 compounds as the principal components of this herb pair against insulin resistance. Among them, ginsenoside F2, protocatechuic acid, and salvianolic acid B were selected and validated to promote glucose consumption through activating AMPK phosphorylation and upregulating GLUT4 in insulin-resistant cell model (HepG2/IR) cells. These findings indicated that DQ has the potential for repositioning in the treatment of insulin resistance mainly through the AMPK signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.1c01209DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8280704PMC
July 2021

A Novel Ferroptosis-Related Gene Signature for Overall Survival Prediction in Patients With Breast Cancer.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 17;9:670184. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Breast Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common malignant tumor in women worldwide. However, advanced multidisciplinary therapy cannot rescue the mortality of high-risk breast cancer metastasis. Ferroptosis is a newly discovered form of regulating cell death that related to cancer treatment, especially in eradicating aggressive malignancies that are resistant to traditional therapies. However, the prognostic value of ferroptosis-related gene in breast cancer remains unknown.

Materials And Methods: In this study, a total of 1,057 breast cancer RNA expression data with clinical and follow-up information were downloaded from the TCGA cohort, multivariate Cox regression was used to construct the 11-gene prognostic ferroptosis-related gene signature. The breast cancer patients from the GEO cohort were used for validation. The expression levels of core prognostic genes were also verified in erastin-treated breast cancer cell lines by real-time polymerase chain action (PCR).

Results And Discussion: Our results showed that 78% ferroptosis-related genes were differentially expressed between breast cancer tumor tissue and adjacent non-tumorous tissues, including 29 of them which were significantly correlated with OS in the univariate Cox regression analysis. Patients were divided into high-risk group and low-risk group by the 11-gene signature. Patients with high-risk scores had a higher probability of death earlier than the low-risk group both in the TCGA construction cohort and in the GEO validation cohort (all < 0.001). Meanwhile, the risk score was proved to be an independent predictor for OS in both univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses (HR > 1, < 0.01). The predictive efficacy of the prognostic signature for OS was further verified by the time-dependent ROC curves. Moreover, we also enriched many immune-related biological processes in later functional analysis; the immune status showed a statistical difference between the two risk groups. In addition, the differences in expression levels of 11 core prognostic genes were examined in ferroptosis inducer-treated breast cancer cell lines.

Conclusion: In conclusion, a novel ferroptosis-related gene model can be used for prognostic prediction in breast cancer. New ferroptosis-related genes may be used for breast cancer targeting therapy in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.670184DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8247647PMC
June 2021

Biological-based control strategies for MBR membrane biofouling: a review.

Water Sci Technol 2021 Jun;83(11):2597-2614

Nanjing Research Institute of Environmental Protection, Nanjing Environmental Protection Bureau, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210013, China.

Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology has been paid extensive attention for wastewater treatment because of its advantages of high effluent quality and minimized occupation space and sludge production. However, the membrane fouling is always an inevitable problem, which causes high operation and maintenance costs and prevents the wide use of MBR technology. The membrane biofouling is the most complicated and has relatively slow progress among all types of fouling. In recent years, many membrane biofouling control methods have been developed. Different from the physical or chemical methods, the biological-based strategies are not only more effective for membrane biofouling control, but also milder and more environment-friendly and, therefore, have been increasingly employed. This paper mainly focuses on the mechanism, unique advantages and development of biological-based control strategies for MBR membrane biofouling such as quorum quenching, uncoupling, flocculants and so on. The paper summarizes the up-to-date development of membrane biofouling control strategies, emphasizes the advantages and promising potential of biological-based ones, and points out the direction for future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2021.168DOI Listing
June 2021

Visible light-induced alkylpyridylation of styrenes a reductive radical three-component coupling.

Org Biomol Chem 2021 Jun;19(25):5642-5648

School of Pharmaceutical and Materials Engineering, Taizhou University, 1139 Shifu Avenue, Taizhou 318000, China.

A visible light-induced and metal-free strategy for the intermolecular three-compoment alkylpyridylation of styrenes is reported. Hantzsch ester was found to be key to initiate the overall reductive radical coupling reaction. This radical process realized difunctionalization of styrenes, selectively yielding alkylated pyridines in good to excellent yields with a wide tolerance of functional groups, mild reaction conditions and simple operation. This new reaction complements existing visible light-induced variants of styrenes with NHP esters and expands the capabilities of radical-based cross-coupling reactions of pyridines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1ob00498kDOI Listing
June 2021

Modulating Polarization of Perovskite-Based Heterostructures via In Situ Semiconductor Generation and Enzyme Catalysis for Signal-Switchable Photoelectrochemical Biosensing.

Anal Chem 2021 06 27;93(23):8370-8378. Epub 2021 May 27.

Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Biomedical Functional Materials and Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, P. R. China.

Polarization of photoactive materials in current photoelectric (PE) systems is difficult to be adjusted, and thus electron-transfer routes of these systems are unchangeable, which limits their performance in photoelectrochemical (PEC) analysis. Herein, we attempted to modulate the polarization of perovskite-based heterostructures by both in situ semiconductor generation and enzyme catalysis. Owing to their band alignments, CsBiBr quantum dots (QDs) and BiOBr are confirmed to construct a Z-scheme structure, leading to a large anodic photocurrent. In the presence of ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (AAP), BiPO is generated on the surface of the CsBiBr QDs/BiOBr heterostructure, reassigning energy bands of BiOBr. Accordingly, polarization of the photoactive materials is converted, and a new Z-scheme structure with a reversed electron-transfer route is constructed, which leads to an evident cathodic photocurrent. Furthermore, abundant electron donors can be obtained by catalyzing AAP with alkaline phosphatase (ALP). In this case, photogenerated holes in BiOBr are preferentially annihilated by electron donors, thereby blocking transfer of photogenerated electrons in the CsBiBr QDs/BiOBr/BiPO heterostructure. Consequently, a second polarization conversion is triggered by enzyme catalysis, resulting in the recovery of an anodic photocurrent. Benefited from the polarization conversion, a PEC biosensor with a feature of two-wing signal switch is designed, which remarkably enlarges the range of the signal response and subsequently improves the analytical performance. As a result, ALP in small volume of human serum can be quantified with this method. In this work, polarization of perovskite-based photoactive materials is tuned, proposing an alternative perspective on the design of advanced PE systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.1c01457DOI Listing
June 2021

Hydrocarbon transformation pathways and soil organic carbon stability in the biostimulation of oil-contaminated soil: Implications of C natural abundance.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 7;788:147580. Epub 2021 May 7.

Key Laboratory of Environmental Engineering of Shaanxi Province, School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi'an 710055, China.

Mineralization, assimilation, and humification are key processes to detoxify oil-contaminated soil by biostimulation remediation strategies, and these processes are affected by stimulants. In this study, we investigated the effects of either inorganic salts or organic stimulants (organic compost and sawdust) on hydrocarbon transformation. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and hydrocarbon components were determined by gravimetry and gas chromatography, and the C of CO, microbial biomass carbon (MBC), and humus were measured by stable isotope mass spectrometry. The results showed that organic compost was the most beneficial for the dissipation of hydrocarbons. After 60 days of remediation, the removal rates of TPH, saturates, aromatics, C7-C30 n-alkanes, and 16 PAHs were 35.7%, 39.6%, 15.9%, 80.5%, and 8.8%, respectively. A total of 84.7%-88.5% of the removed hydrocarbons were mineralized in all the treatments. The hydrocarbon degradation pathway in the control soil (without stimulant addition) was "assimilation → humification → mineralization". The hydrocarbon transformation pathways in the biostimulation treatments were "assimilation → mineralization → humification". The soil organic carbon (SOC) stability decreased during remediation, which was attributed to the enhanced microbial activity and the removal of recalcitrant hydrocarbons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147580DOI Listing
September 2021

Subgrouping by gene expression profiles to improve relapse risk prediction in paediatric B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

Cancer Med 2021 06 13;10(11):3782-3793. Epub 2021 May 13.

Clinical Data Center, Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital/Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, China.

Relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) remains a prevalent paediatric cancer and one of the most common causes of mortality from malignancy in children. Tailoring the intensity of therapy according to early stratification is a promising strategy but remains a major challenge due to heterogeneity and subtyping difficulty. In this study, we subgroup B-precursor ALL patients by gene expression profiles, using non-negative matrix factorization and minimum description length which unsupervisedly determines the number of subgroups. Within each of the four subgroups, logistic and Cox regression with elastic net regularization are used to build models predicting minimal residual disease (MRD) and relapse-free survival (RFS) respectively. Measured by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), subgrouping improves prediction of MRD in one subgroup which mostly overlaps with subtype TCF3-PBX1 (AUC = 0·986 in the training set and 1·0 in the test set), compared to a global model published previously. The models predicting RFS displayed acceptable concordance in training set and discriminate high-relapse-risk patients in three subgroups of the test set (Wilcoxon test p = 0·048, 0·036, and 0·016). Genes playing roles in the models are specific to different subgroups. The improvement of subgrouped MRD prediction and the differences of genes in prediction models of subgroups suggest that the heterogeneity of B-precursor ALL can be handled by subgrouping according to gene expression profiles to improve the prediction accuracy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.3842DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8178509PMC
June 2021

Changes of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Kidney and Liver Injuries in Rats Based on Metabolomics Analysis.

J Inflamm Res 2021 6;14:1807-1825. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Pharmacy, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, 130021, People's Republic of China.

Background: The bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was the classic inducer to establish many inflammatory disease models, especially multiple organ injury. Evidences indicated that the mechanism that causes inflammation response is not just related to cytokine release. The main aim of this study was to better elucidate the possible links between metabolic changes and the pathogenesis of LPS-induced acute liver and kidney in order to understand the mechanisms and screening therapeutic targets for developing early diagnostic strategies and treatments.

Methods: An experimental rat model was established by intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg/kg LPS. An untargeted metabolomics analysis of the serum in the LPS and control groups was carried out using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/QTOF-MS). LPS-induced pathological damage in the lungs, liver, kidneys, and colon was observed, along with changes in biochemical indexes, indicating that there was a severe inflammatory response in many organs after administration of LPS for 8 h. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) showed distinct separation in the serum metabolite profiles between the LPS and control groups, indicating significant changes in endogenous metabolites.

Results: The untargeted metabolomics analysis showed that there were 127 significantly different serum metabolites and 53 altered pathways after LPS administration, including pathways related to the metabolism of D-glutamine and D-glutamate, taurine and hypotaurine, beta-alanine, glutathione, and butanoate, which are involved in the inflammatory response, oxidative stress, and amino acid metabolism.

Conclusion: The study suggested that LPS-induced acute liver and kidney injury mainly involves inflammatory response, oxidative stress, and protein synthesis, finally causing multi-organ damage. Correcting the disturbances to the metabolites and metabolic pathways may help to prevent and/or treat LPS-induced acute liver and kidney damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JIR.S306789DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8110281PMC
May 2021

Impact of Intercropping on the Diazotrophic Community in the Soils of Continuous Cucumber Cropping Systems.

Front Microbiol 2021 31;12:630302. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, China.

Diazotrophs are important soil components that help replenish biologically available nitrogen (N) in the soil and contribute to minimizing the use of inorganic N fertilizers in agricultural ecosystems. However, there is little understanding of how diazotrophs respond to intercropping and soil physicochemical properties in cucumber continuous cropping systems. In this study, using the gene as a marker, we have examined the impacts of seven intercropping plants on diazotrophic community diversity and composition compared to a cucumber continuous cropping system during two cropping seasons. The results showed that intercropping increased the abundance of the gene, which was negatively correlated with available phosphorous in the fall. Diazotrophic diversity and richness were higher in the rape-cucumber system than in the monoculture. Multivariate regression tree analysis revealed that the diversity of the diazotrophic communties was shaped mainly by soil moisture and available phosphorous. were the dominant genera in all of the samples, which increased significantly in the mustard-cucumber system in the fall. There was no effect of intercropping on the structure of the diazotrophic community in this case. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis showed that cropping season had a greater effect than intercropping on the community structure of the diazotrophs. Overall, our results suggest that intercropping altered the abundance and diversity rather than the structure of the diazotrophic community, which may potentially affect the N fixation ability of continuous cropping systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.630302DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8044418PMC
March 2021

Prognostic Nutritional Index identifies risk of early progression and survival outcomes in Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer patients treated with PD-1 inhibitors.

J Cancer 2021 15;12(10):2960-2967. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Medical Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, No.277 Yanta West Road, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710061, People's Republic of China.

The prognostic nutritional index (PNI) is related to the prognosis of multiple malignancies. This study investigated whether the PNI has prognostic value in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with programmed death 1 (PD-1) inhibitors. We retrospectively analyzed advanced NSCLC patients treated with PD-1 inhibitors from July 2018 to December 2019. Pretreatment PNI was calculated by peripheral lymphocyte count and serum albumin level, and the cut-off value was determined. Subsequently, we investigated the relationship between PNI and early progression, and evaluated its prognostic role on survival outcomes. Ultimately, based on the results of survival analysis, a nomogram was established. A total of 123 patients were included. Of these, 24 (19.5%) patients had experienced early progression. Multivariate logistic analysis indicated that low PNI (odds ratio, 3.709, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.354-10.161; = 0.011) was closely correlated with early progression. Moreover, multivariate Cox regression analysis confirmed that low PNI was an independent risk factor for progression-free survival (hazard ratio [HR], 2.698, 95% CI, 1.752-4.153; < 0.001) and overall survival (HR, 7.222, 95% CI, 4.081-12.781; < 0.001), respectively. The prediction accuracy of nomogram based on PNI is moderate. PNI was an independent predictor of early progression and survival outcomes in advanced NSCLC patients treated with PD-1 inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.55936DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8040881PMC
March 2021

Bimodal regulation of the PRC2 complex by USP7 underlies tumorigenesis.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 05;49(8):4421-4440

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069, China.

Although overexpression of EZH2, a catalytic subunit of the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), is an eminent feature of various cancers, the regulation of its abundance and function remains insufficiently understood. We report here that the PRC2 complex is physically associated with ubiquitin-specific protease USP7 in cancer cells where USP7 acts to deubiquitinate and stabilize EZH2. Interestingly, we found that USP7-catalyzed H2BK120ub1 deubiquitination is a prerequisite for chromatin loading of PRC2 thus H3K27 trimethylation, and this process is not affected by H2AK119 ubiquitination catalyzed by PRC1. Genome-wide analysis of the transcriptional targets of the USP7/PRC2 complex identified a cohort of genes including FOXO1 that are involved in cell growth and proliferation. We demonstrated that the USP7/PRC2 complex drives cancer cell proliferation and tumorigenesis in vitro and in vivo. We showed that the expression of both USP7 and EZH2 elevates during tumor progression, corresponding to a diminished FOXO1 expression, and the level of the expression of USP7 and EZH2 strongly correlates with histological grades and prognosis of tumor patients. These results reveal a dual role for USP7 in the regulation of the abundance and function of EZH2, supporting the pursuit of USP7 as a therapeutic target for cancer intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkab209DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8096222PMC
May 2021

Enhanced electrochemiluminescence cytosensing based on abundant oxygen vacancies contained 2D nanosheets emitter coupled with DNA device cycle-amplification.

Talanta 2021 Jun 19;228:122230. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Biomedical Functional Materials and Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, 210023, People's Republic of China; School of Environment, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, 210023, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Developing efficient and sensitive cytosensing method has great significance for the detection of low abundant circulating tumor cells (CTCs). Electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor, as an attractive analytical tool, has shown a great potential in sensitive cell counting. Its detection efficiency is strongly dependent on the electrochemiluminescent materials, whose property is related to its morphology and surface vacancies. Herein, the ultrathin LuO-S nanosheets contain abundant oxygen vacancies were newly synthesized. Its special two-dimensional (2D) structure morphology and surface vacancy endowed it intensified and stable ECL emission. The possible mechanism was deduced from experiments and discussed. Then, through integrating with a DNA device cycle-amplification system plus signal conversion pretreatment, we constructed a crossed enhanced ECL cytosensing platform. In this system, the target cells were transformed into programmable sequences, which could be next coupled with DNA device cycle-amplification on the modified electrode surface. Using AgS quantum dots as the energy acceptor toward LuO-S donor, and CCRF-CEM cells (CEM) as the model CTCs, an enhanced ECL cytosensing platform was proposed, displaying good analytical performance for acute lymphoblastic leukemia cancer cell detection. The ECL signal responded proportionately on the CEM cells concentration in a wide range of 5 × 10 to 1 × 10 cells/mL, and a low detection limit of 10 cells/mL was obtained. This work provided an alternative way to design high-performance ECL luminophores, and also would be an effective solution for CTCs counting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2021.122230DOI Listing
June 2021

Progress on the left-right asymmetry patterning in amphioxus.

Yi Chuan 2021 Feb;43(2):134-141

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Marine Bioresources and Environment /Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Marine Biotechnology School of Marine Science and Fisheries, Jiangsu Ocean University, Lianyungang 222005, China;Co-Innovation Center of Jiangsu Marine Bio-industry Technology, Jiangsu Ocean University, Lianyungang 222005, China.

The mechanisms underlying the establishment of left-right (L-R) asymmetry in bilaterians is one of the central enigmas in developmental biology. Amphioxus is an important model in studying the mechanisms of animal asymmetry specification due to its particular phylogenetic position, vertebrate-like embryogenesis and body plan. Recently, with the establishments of artificial breeding technology, high-efficiency microinjection method and gene knockout technology, researchers have successfully dissected the mechanisms of amphioxus L-R asymmetry development. In this review, we summarize the major progress in understanding L-R asymmetry specification in amphioxus and propose a model of regulation of L-R asymmetry in this species. Hh protein is transported dominantly to the right side by cilia movement, leading to R>L Hh signaling andCerexpression. Cer inhibits expression of Nodal, leading to the asymmetric expression of Nodal-dependent genes. The L-R differences in the propagation of the Nodal pathway result in the correct morphological L-R asymmetry development in amphioxus embryo. BMP signaling probably does not provide the asymmetric cue, but is necessary for correct expression ofCer andNodal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.16288/j.yczz.20-246DOI Listing
February 2021

Effects of Eight Weeks Altitude Training on the Aerobic Capacity and Microcirculation Function in Trained Rowers.

High Alt Med Biol 2021 Mar 12;22(1):24-31. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

School of Physical Education and Sport Training, Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai, China.

Meng, Zhijun, Huan Gao, Tao Li, Peng Ge, Yixiao Xu, and Binghong Gao. Effects of eight weeks altitude training on the aerobic capacity and microcirculation function in trained rowers. . 22:24-31, 2021. The mechanism of aerobic improvement after altitude training (AT) has not been resolved yet. Few studies have looked at microcirculation changes after AT in athletes. Thirty-three male rowers were recruited and divided into either the AT ( = 18, altitude 2,280 m) or the sea level training (ST group,  = 15, altitude 50 m) for 8 weeks training. Microcirculation function was monitored using a laser Doppler flowmeter. VO and ergometer 5 km time trial (Er5k) were conducted. Within the AT group there was an 8.8% increment in VO from pre- to post-training (4,708.9 ± 455.2 vs. 5,123.3 ± 391.2 ml/min,  < 0.01), whereas in ST group there was a 3.1% increase of VO from pre- to post-training (4,975.4 ± 501.1 vs. 5,128.0 ± 499.3 m/min,  = 0.125). Er5k performance in AT group was significantly improved (1,040.3 ± 26.3 vs. 1,033.2 ± 27.5 seconds,  = 0.038), whereas in ST group Er5k performance was not improved (1,059.6 ± 30.9 vs. 1,060.4 ± 33.2 seconds,  = 0.819). Postocclusive reactive hyperemia reserve and heat reserve in the forearm of AT subjects increased significantly after 8 weeks. Meanwhile, the AT group's resting blood flow and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) of the thigh were higher after AT. For the ST group, resting blood flow and CVC in the thigh decreased significantly at third week post-training. There was a low correlation between the change of VO and blood flow of the thigh ( = 0.45,  = 0.01). Trained rowers benefit more from 8 weeks of AT than from 8 weeks ST in terms of aerobic capacity. We have found that 8 weeks of AT increases thigh blood flow and improves endothelial function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ham.2020.0059DOI Listing
March 2021

Identification and validation of an autophagy-related long non-coding RNA signature as a prognostic biomarker for patients with lung adenocarcinoma.

J Thorac Dis 2021 Feb;13(2):720-734

Department of Medical Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

Background: Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is the most predominant pathological subtype of lung cancer, accounting for 40-70% of all lung cancer cases. Although significant improvements have been made in the screening, diagnosis, and precise management in recent years, the prognosis of LUAD remains bleak. This study aimed to investigate the prognostic significance of autophagy-related long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and construct an autophagy-related lncRNA prognostic model in LUAD.

Methods: The gene expression data of LUAD patients were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. All autophagy-related genes were downloaded from the Human Autophagy Database (HADb). Spearman's correlation test was exploited to identify potential autophagy-related lncRNAs. The multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to construct the prognostic signature, which divided LUAD patients into high-risk and low-risk groups. Subsequently, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to assess the predictive ability of this prognostic model for overall survival (OS) in these individuals. Then, the Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was conducted to execute pathway enrichment analysis. Finally, a multidimensional validation was exploited to verify our findings.

Results: A total of 1,144 autophagy-related lncRNAs were identified to construct the co-expression network via Spearman's correlation test (|R| >0.4 and P≤0.001). Ultimately, a 16 autophagy-related lncRNAs prognostic model was constructed, and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.775. The results of GSEA enrichment analysis showed that the genes in the high-risk group were mainly enriched in cell cycle and p53 signaling pathways. The results of the multidimensional database validation indicated that the expression level of BIRC5 was significantly correlated with the expression level of TMPO-AS1. Furthermore, both TMPO-AS1 and BIRC5 had a higher expression level in LUAD samples. LUAD patients with high expression levels of TMPO-AS1 and BIRC5 were correlated with advanced disease stage and poor OS.

Conclusions: In summary, our results suggested that the prognostic signature of the 16 autophagy-related lncRNAs has significant prognostic value for LUAD patients. Furthermore, TMPO-AS1 and BIRC5 are potential predictors and therapeutic targets in these individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd-20-2803DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7947511PMC
February 2021

Arctium lappa L. roots ameliorates cerebral ischemia through inhibiting neuronal apoptosis and suppressing AMPK/mTOR-mediated autophagy.

Phytomedicine 2021 May 21;85:153526. Epub 2021 Feb 21.

Department of Pharmacy, General Hospital of Northern Theater Command, 83 Wenhua Road, Shenyang, Liaoning 110016, China; School of Life Sciences and Biopharmaceutics, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, 103 Wenhua Road, Shenyang, Liaoning 110016, China. Electronic address:

Background: Arctium lappa L. roots are very popular cultivated vegetables, which possesses various pharmacological activities. Our previous studies have demonstrated that Arctium lappa L. roots exerted protective effects against HO, glutamate and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA)-induced neuronal injury in vitro. However, whether Arctium lappa L. roots could prevent against cerebral ischemia and the underlying mechanism remain unclear.

Purpose: The objective of the present study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of ethyl acetate extract of Arctium lappa L. roots (EAL) and the active ingredient 4,5-O-dicaffeoyl-1-O-[4-malic acid methyl ester]-quinic acid (DCMQA) in EAL against cerebral ischemia and explore the underlying mechanism.

Study Design: The neuroprotective effects of EAL and DCMQA were investigated in rats with permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and in oxygen glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R)-stimulated SH-SY5Y cells, respectively.

Methods: The infarct volume, brain edema and neurological deficits were measured following MCAO. TUNEL and Nissl staining were performed to detect neuronal loss and apoptosis of neurons in rat brains. Cell survival was measured by MTT and LDH assay. In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) levels were determined by DCFH-DA and JC-1 fluorescent probe, respectively. Hoechst 33342 staining and Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining were performed to evaluate neuronal apoptosis. The expression levels of proteins were evaluated by western blot.

Results: EAL reduced brain infarct volume, ameliorated brain edema and improved neurological deficits in MCAO rats. In addition, EAL inhibited oxidative stress and inflammatory responses following MCAO. Besides, active compound DCMQA alleviated cytotoxicity as well as inhibited over-production of intracellular ROS and loss of MMP induced by OGD/R in SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, EAL and DCMQA inhibited apoptosis by decreasing the expressions of pro-apoptotic proteins including bax, cytochrome c and cleaved caspase-3 while promoting the bcl-2 expression in MCAO rats and OGD/R-stimulated neurons, respectively. In addition, DCMQA suppressed the production of autophagosomes and down-regulated expression of Beclin 1 and LC3. Furthermore, inhibiting AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway contributed to DCMQA-mediated suppression of autophagy induced by OGD/R.

Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that Arctium lappa L. roots protect against cerebral ischemia through inhibiting apoptosis and AMPK/mTOR-mediated autophagy in vitro and in vivo, providing a theoretical basis for the development of CQAs in Arctium lappa L. roots as neuroprotective drugs for the prevention and treatment of ischemic stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2021.153526DOI Listing
May 2021

Force Decoding of Caudal Forelimb Area and Rostral Forelimb Area in Chronic Stroke Rats.

IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2021 Oct 20;68(10):3078-3086. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Brain machine interfaces (BMIs) used for movement restoration primarily rely on studies of motor decoding. It has been proved that local field potentials (LFPs) from primary motor cortex and premotor cortex of normal rodents could be used for decoding motor signals. However, few studies have explored the decoding performance of these brain areas under motor cortex damage. In this work, we focus on force decoding performance of LFPs spectrum from both ipsilesional caudal forelimb area (CFA) and rostral forelimb area (RFA) of rodents with ischemia over CFA. After three months of ischemia induced by photothrombosis over CFA, the power of high-frequency bands (>120 Hz) from both CFA and RFA can decode force signals by Kalman filters. The fair performance of CFA indicates motor reorganization over penumbra. Further exploration of RFA decoding ability proves that at least four electrodes of RFA should be used on decoding and electrodes far from CFA of stroke rats could achieve almost as good results as those close to CFA of normal rats, which indicates the motor remapping. Experimental results show the long-term stability of PM LFPs decoding performance of stroke rats as the trained Kalman model could be used to accurately decode force some days later which provides a possibility for online decoding system. In conclusion, our work shows that even under CFA ischemia, high-frequency power of LFPs from RFA is still able to accurately decode force signals and has long stability, which provides the possibility of BMIs for motor function reconstruction of chronic stroke patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TBME.2021.3063903DOI Listing
October 2021

Insights into chronic zinc oxide nanoparticle stress responses of biological nitrogen removal system with nitrous oxide emission and its recovery potential.

Bioresour Technol 2021 May 2;327:124797. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby 2800, Denmark.

The nitrogen transformation performances and greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (NO) emissions in a sequencing batch reactor under chronic exposure to zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) were quantified and the system's self-recovery potentials were assessed. ZnO NPs posed a dose-dependent depression effect on the removal efficiencies of ammonia nitrogen (NH-N) and total nitrogen (TN), and the NO emissions. The suppressed NO emissions had a positive relationship with the activity ratios of nitrite/NO reductases and NO reductase, and were expected to be caused by the inhibited heterotrophic denitrification process. The inhibition of glucose metabolism key enzymes and electron transport chain activities would be responsible for the heterotrophic denitrification performances deterioration. Furthermore, the removal efficiencies of NH-N and TN were recovered to control levels through the nitrite-shunt. However, the NO emission increased significantly above the control during the recovery period mainly due to the irreversibility of the depressed nitrite oxidation activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.124797DOI Listing
May 2021

Analysis of Monitoring, Early Warning and Emergency Response System for New Major Infectious Diseases in China and Overseas.

Curr Med Sci 2021 Feb 13;41(1):62-68. Epub 2021 Feb 13.

Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430030, China.

In recent years, the impact of new major infectious diseases on people's normal life is becoming more and more frequent, which has brought great impact on people's life safety and social economy, especially the corona virus disease 2019, which has been sweeping the globe. Public health and disease prevention and control systems in different countries have different performances in response to the pandemic, but they all have exposed many shortcomings. Countries around the world urgently need to improve the monitoring, early warning and emergency response systems for new major infectious diseases. As the outpost and main part of medical rescue, the hospital urgently needs to establish a set of scientifically advanced emergency response mechanism that is suitable for the business process of the medical system and unified standards in order to improve the response efficiency and quality of emergency treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11596-021-2319-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7881914PMC
February 2021

Characteristics of the Jejunal Microbiota in 35-Day-Old Saba and Landrace Piglets.

Pol J Microbiol 2020 Sep 8;69(3):367-378. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Yunnan Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, Faculty of Animal Science and Technology, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming, China.

The balanced microbiological system is a significant hallmark of piglet health. One of the crucial factors affecting intestinal microbiota is the host's genetics. This study explored the difference in the diversity of jejunal microbiota between Saba (SB) and Landrace (LA) piglets. Nine Saba and nine Landrace piglets were fed with sow's milk until day 35. Jejunal contents were harvested for 16S rRNA sequencing. The birth weight, body weight, and average daily gain of Saba piglets were lower than those of Landrace piglets ( < 0.01). Firmicutes were the main phylum in Saba and Landrace piglets, and the Saba piglets had a higher ( < 0.05) abundance of Bacteroidetes compared with Landrace piglets. The two most abundant genera were and in the jejunum of Landrace and Saba piglets. Compared with Landrace piglets, the Saba piglets had significantly lower ( < 0.05) abundance of , and . The functional prediction showed that "d-glutamine and d-glutamate metabolism" and "one carbon pool by folate" pathways were enriched in Saba piglets, while "limonene and pinene degradation", "tryptophan metabolism", and "sulfur relay system" pathways were enriched in Landrace piglets. In summary, the growth performance was higher for Landrace piglets compared with Saba piglets due to their genetic characteristics. The rich diversity and fewer infection-associated taxa were observed in Saba piglets, partially accounting for their higher adaptability to environmental perturbations than Landrace piglets. Furthermore, different pig breeds may regulate their health through different metabolic pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.33073/pjm-2020-041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7810115PMC
September 2020

Effects of hypoxic preconditioning combined with altitude training on CD55, CD59 and the immune function of swimmers.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Jan;10(1):509-517

Laboratory of Hypoxia, Shanghai Research Institute of Sports Science, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Anti-doping Agency, Shanghai, China.

Background: Hypoxic preconditioning refers to a certain intensity and time of hypoxic exposure before hypoxic stress, which makes the body produce endogenous protection to enhance the body's tolerance to subsequent more severe hypoxia. However, there are few studies on the effects of hypoxic preconditioning combined with altitude training on the immune system of athletes.

Methods: Nine swimmers from Shanghai underwent 3-week hypoxic preconditioning [living high-training low (HiLo)] combined with 3-week altitude training. CD55 and CD59 expression in red blood cells (RBCs), CD55 and CD59 expression in white blood cells (WBCs), RBC count, WBC count, T lymphocyte CD3, CD4, CD8 expression, and immunoglobulins IgG, IgM, and IgA were measured 4 times: before the start of hypoxic preconditioning, in the first week of hypoxic preconditioning, at the end of hypoxic preconditioning (i.e., before the start of altitude training), and at the end of altitude training.

Results: CD55 and CD59 expression in RBCs significantly increased in the first week of hypoxic preconditioning (P<0.05), returned to baseline levels at the end of preconditioning, and significantly increased again during altitude training (P<0.05). CD55 and CD59 expression in WBCs decreased significantly during hypoxic preconditioning (P<0.05) and increased significantly during altitude training (P<0.05). CD3 expression first decreased and then increased in the hypoxic preconditioning phase, then decreased again in the altitude training phase. However, there was no significant difference in each phase. CD4/CD8 expression after altitude training was significantly lower than that before altitude training (P<0.05), but was not significantly different from that before the start of hypoxic preconditioning. IgG, IgM, and IgA did not fluctuate significantly throughout the experimental phase.

Conclusions: After hypoxic preconditioning combined with altitude training, the expression of CD55 and CD59 on the surface of RBCs and WBCs increased significantly, and T lymphocyte CD4/CD8 expression also increased. These results suggest an improvement in the complement regulation system and RBC immune function. Hypoxic preconditioning can therefore improve immunity and enhance the physical function of athletes during altitude training.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-20-2379DOI Listing
January 2021

Efficacy Analysis of Adjuvant Chemotherapy with Gemcitabine Plus Platinum or S-1 in Biliary Tract Carcinoma: A Multi-Center Retrospective Study.

Cancer Manag Res 2021 29;13:889-898. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Department of Medical Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Biliary tract cancers (BTCs) have a poor overall prognosis, as patients who underwent curative surgery frequently experience disease recurrence. At present, there is a paucity of well-documented adjuvant chemotherapy regimen. This study aimed to assess whether gemcitabine plus platinum or S-1 adjuvant chemotherapy have different impact on relapse-free survival (RFS).

Patients And Methods: We selected patients undergoing radical biliary tract cancer surgery, pathologically confirmed adenocarcinoma and received gemcitabine plus platinum (cisplatin or oxaliplatin) or S-1 adjuvant chemotherapy from September 2013 to May 2020. The primary study endpoint was RFS. The secondary endpoint was safety.

Results: Overall 136 patients were enrolled. The median follow-up was 32.3 months and the median RFS was 17.0 months (95% CI 8.9-25.1). The median RFS was 14.1 months (95% CI 6.7-21.5) in gemcitabine plus platinum group and 33.0 months (95% CI 9.3-56.7) in gemcitabine plus S-1 (GS) group, a non-significant difference both in univariate (P=0.092) and in multivariate analysis (P=0.058). Lymph node status (N- vs N+: HR=0.477, 95% CI 0.285-0.799; P=0.005) and chemotherapy cycles (<6 vs 6-8: HR=1.828, 95% CI 1.117-2.993; P=0.016) were independent impact factors for RFS. GS group had lower incidence of adverse reactions.

Conclusion: Compared with gemcitabine plus platinum, GS regimen has a tendency to obtain longer RFS (although there is no statistically significant difference) and less toxic. GS regimen has the potential to be investigated as a standard regimen for adjuvant chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S290083DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7853243PMC
January 2021

Secondary Degeneration of White Matter After Focal Sensorimotor Cortical Ischemic Stroke in Rats.

Front Neurosci 2020 18;14:611696. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Interdisciplinary Institute of Neuroscience and Technology, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Ischemic lesions could lead to secondary degeneration in remote regions of the brain. However, the spatial distribution of secondary degeneration along with its role in functional deficits is not well understood. In this study, we explored the spatial and connectivity properties of white matter (WM) secondary degeneration in a focal unilateral sensorimotor cortical ischemia rat model, using advanced microstructure imaging on a 14 T MRI system. Significant axonal degeneration was observed in the ipsilateral external capsule and even remote regions including the contralesional external capsule and corpus callosum. Further fiber tractography analysis revealed that only fibers having direct axonal connections with the primary lesion exhibited a significant degeneration. These results suggest that focal ischemic lesions may induce remote WM degeneration, but limited to fibers tied to the primary lesion. These "direct" fibers mainly represent perilesional, interhemispheric, and subcortical axonal connections. At last, we found that primary lesion volume might be the determining factor of motor function deficits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2020.611696DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7848148PMC
January 2021
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