Publications by authors named "Hua Zhou"

969 Publications

Bioavailability of the DL-methionine and the calcium salt of DL-methionine hydroxy analog compared with L-methionine for nitrogen retention in starter pigs.

J Anim Sci 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Sichuan Agricultural University, Institute of Animal Nutrition, Chengdu, China.

Two nitrogen balance studies were conducted to evaluate the relative bioavailability values (RBV) of DL-Methionine (DL-Met) and DL-Methionine hydroxy analog calcium salt (MHA-Ca) to L-Methionine (L-Met) as Met sources fed to pigs. In Exp. 1, 42 pigs were assigned to 7 treatments feeding with basal diet (BD) formulated to be deficient in Met (0.22% standardized ileal digestible basis) but adequate in other amino acids. Diets included (1) BD, (2) BD + 0.025% DL-Met, (3) BD + 0.050% DL-Met, (4) BD + 0.075% DL-Met, (5) BD + 0.025% L-Met, (6) BD + 0.050% L-Met, and (7) BD + 0.075% L-Met. Increasing levels of L-Met and DL-Met enhanced N retained (g/d) and N retention (% of intake) linearly (P < 0.01). Using a linear slope-ratio procedure, a product-to-product RBV of DL-Met compared to L-Met was 94% (95% confidence limits: 65 to 123%) based on N retained expressed as g/d and 99% (95% confidence limits: 70 to 128%) for N retention expressed as % of intake. In Exp. 2, 42 pigs were allotted to 7 treatments in another N-balance trial. Diets included (1) BD, (2) BD + 0.025% L-Met, (3) BD + 0.050% L-Met, (4) BD + 0.075% L-Met, (5) BD + 0.030% MHA-Ca, (6) BD + 0.060% MHA-Ca, and (7) BD + 0.089% MHA-Ca. An increase in dietary inclusion rates of L-Met increased (P < 0.01) N retained (g/d) linearly while increasing levels of MHA-Ca had no effects (P > 0.05) on N retained (g/d) and N retention (% of intake). Using linear slope-ratio regression, the RBV of MHA-Ca compared to L-Met was 70% (95% confidence limits: 59 to 81%) on a product-to-product basis or 83% on equimolar basis based on N retained expressed as g/d. Overall, the mean RBV of DL-Met to L-Met of 97% (95% confidence limits cover 100%) indicated that DL-Met and L-Met are equally bioavailable as Met sources in pigs. Compared to L-Met, the RBV of MHA-Ca was lower at 70% (95% confidence limits: 59 to 81%) on a product-to-product basis or 83% on equimolar basis in starter pigs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jas/skab151DOI Listing
May 2021

Short-chain fatty acids can improve lipid and glucose metabolism independently of the pig gut microbiota.

J Anim Sci Biotechnol 2021 May 6;12(1):61. Epub 2021 May 6.

Key Laboratory of Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition, Chengdu, 611130, Sichuan, China.

Background: Previous studies have shown that exogenous short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) introduction attenuated the body fat deposition in conventional mice and pigs. However, limited studies have evaluated the effects of exogenously introduced SCFAs on the lipid and glucose metabolism independently of the gut microbiota. This study was to investigate the effects of exogenous introduction of SCFAs on the lipid and glucose metabolism in a germ-free (GF) pig model.

Methods: Twelve hysterectomy-derived newborn pigs were reared in six sterile isolators. All pigs were hand-fed with sterile milk powder for 21 d, then the sterile feed was introduced to pigs for another 21 d. In the second 21-d period, six pigs were orally administrated with 25 mL/kg sterile saline per day and considered as the GF group, while the other six pigs were orally administrated with 25 mL/kg SCFAs mixture (acetic, propionic, and butyric acids, 45, 15, and 11 mmol/L, respectively) per day and regarded as FA group.

Results: Orally administrated with SCFAs tended to increase the adiponectin concentration in serum, enhance the CPT-1 activity in longissimus dorsi, and upregulate the ANGPTL4 mRNA expression level in colon (P < 0.10). Meanwhile, the mRNA abundances of ACC, FAS, and SREBP-1C in liver and CD36 in longissimus dorsi of the FA group were decreased (P < 0.05) compared with those in the GF group. Besides, the mRNA expression of PGC-1α in liver and LPL in longissimus dorsi tended to (P < 0.10) upregulate and downregulate respectively in the FA group. Moreover, oral administration of SCFAs tended to increase the protein level of GPR43 (P < 0.10) and decrease the protein level of ACC (P < 0.10) in liver. Also, oral administration of SCFAs upregulated the p-AMPK/AMPK ratio and the mRNA expressions of GLUT-2 and GYS2 in liver (P < 0.05). In addition, the metabolic pathway associated with the biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids was most significantly promoted (P < 0.05) by oral administration of SCFAs.

Conclusions: Exogenous introduction of SCFAs might attenuate the fat deposition and to some extent improve the glucose control in the pig model, which occurred independently of the gut microbiota.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40104-021-00581-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8101156PMC
May 2021

Modern simulation utilities for genetic analysis.

BMC Bioinformatics 2021 May 3;22(1):228. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Computational Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, 90095, USA.

Background: Statistical geneticists employ simulation to estimate the power of proposed studies, test new analysis tools, and evaluate properties of causal models. Although there are existing trait simulators, there is ample room for modernization. For example, most phenotype simulators are limited to Gaussian traits or traits transformable to normality, while ignoring qualitative traits and realistic, non-normal trait distributions. Also, modern computer languages, such as Julia, that accommodate parallelization and cloud-based computing are now mainstream but rarely used in older applications. To meet the challenges of contemporary big studies, it is important for geneticists to adopt new computational tools.

Results: We present TraitSimulation, an open-source Julia package that makes it trivial to quickly simulate phenotypes under a variety of genetic architectures. This package is integrated into our OpenMendel suite for easy downstream analyses. Julia was purpose-built for scientific programming and provides tremendous speed and memory efficiency, easy access to multi-CPU and GPU hardware, and to distributed and cloud-based parallelization. TraitSimulation is designed to encourage flexible trait simulation, including via the standard devices of applied statistics, generalized linear models (GLMs) and generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs). TraitSimulation also accommodates many study designs: unrelateds, sibships, pedigrees, or a mixture of all three. (Of course, for data with pedigrees or cryptic relationships, the simulation process must include the genetic dependencies among the individuals.) We consider an assortment of trait models and study designs to illustrate integrated simulation and analysis pipelines. Step-by-step instructions for these analyses are available in our electronic Jupyter notebooks on Github. These interactive notebooks are ideal for reproducible research.

Conclusion: The TraitSimulation package has three main advantages. (1) It leverages the computational efficiency and ease of use of Julia to provide extremely fast, straightforward simulation of even the most complex genetic models, including GLMs and GLMMs. (2) It can be operated entirely within, but is not limited to, the integrated analysis pipeline of OpenMendel. And finally (3), by allowing a wider range of more realistic phenotype models, TraitSimulation brings power calculations and diagnostic tools closer to what investigators might see in real-world analyses.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12859-021-04086-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8091532PMC
May 2021

Evaluation of Zhilong Huoxue Tongyu capsule in the treatment of acute cerebral infarction: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Phytomedicine 2021 Jun 9;86:153566. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Faculty of Chinese Medicine and State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Macau University of Science and Technology, Taipa, Macau, China. Electronic address:

Background: Zhilong Huoxue Tongyu capsule (ZL) is a Chinese patent medicine and used for the treatment of acute cerebral infarction (ACI) and its clinical application has gradually been widely recognized in China. However, the effects of ZL for patients with ACI have never been systematically evaluated.

Purpose: A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the efficacy of ZL in ACI.

Study Design: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCTs).

Materials And Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines. The comprehensive literature search was accomplished in 6 electronic databases to find relevant randomized controlled trials from their inception until October 31, 2020. The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions was used for methodological quality and independent evaluation. Review Manager 5.3 was used to analyze all the data obtained. The Clinical Effective Rate (CER) was the primary outcome, and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Score (NIHSS), Barthel Index (BI), and Modified Rankin Scale (MRS) were the secondary outcomes.

Results: Seven clinical studies recruiting 571 eligible patients were included in this meta-analysis. The results of meta-analysis suggested that compared with conventional treatment alone, ZL combined with conventional treatment significantly improved CER (RR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.12-1.29, p < 0.00001), decrease National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale Score (NIHSS) (MD = -2.60, 95% CI: -3.41-1.79, p < 0.00001), Barthel Index (BI) (MD = -9.75, 95% CI: 7.15-12.36, p < 0.00001) and Modified Rankin Scale (MRS) (MD = -0.57, 95% CI: -0.84-0.30, p < 0.00001). There were no reported adverse events in the studies. Most results were robust and the quality of evidence was from moderate to low.

Conclusion: ZL combined with conventional treatment can improve the short-term outcomes of ACI patients, indicating ZL is a promising treatment choice for ACI and may be used as adjunctive treatment to the conventional treatment of ACI. However, due to the limitations of included clinical trials, high-quality clinical trials with longer follow-ups are still needed to further assess the effectiveness and safety of ZL for ACI patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2021.153566DOI Listing
June 2021

Adverse events of sacubitril/valsartan: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Pharmacy, Ningbo Medical Center Lihuili Hospital, Ningbo, 315040, China Department of Pharmacy, Traditional Chinese Medical Hospital of Zhuji, Shaoxing, 311800, China.

Abstract: This review aimed to summarize the adverse events (AEs) reported during the use of sacubitril/valsartan versus ACEI/ARB. Studies containing safety outcomes or AEs during the use of sacubitril/valsartan versus ACEI/ARB were retrieved from the Medline, Embase, and Cochrane library databases and clinical trials. From the selected studies, the pooled risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) of dichotomous outcomes were assessed by a random or fixed effects model in our meta-analysis. Fourteen studies involving 20261 patients were included in this review. No significant differences were found in total AEs between the sacubitril/valsartan and ACEI/ARB groups. Compared with ACEI/ARB, sacubitril/valsartan decreased the risk of death, discontinuation due to AEs and renal dysfunction, while it increased the risk of hypotension. Specifically, sacubitril/valsartan decreased the risk of death compared with ACEI/ARB, while it increased the risk of hypotension for patients with heart failure (HF) and decreased the risk of discontinuation due to AEs in Caucasians. It also increased the risk of dizziness in Asians and decreased the risk of hyperkalemia and renal dysfunction, while it increased the risk of hypotension when the study duration ≥48 weeks. The available evidence showed that sacubitril/valsartan was associated with fewer side effects than ACEI/ARB, except for hypotension. Study duration, race, and patients with primary diseases affected the AEs of sacubitril/valsartan.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/FJC.0000000000001049DOI Listing
April 2021

Comprehensive characterization of the chemical constituents in Yiganmingmu oral liquid and the absorbed prototypes in cynomolgus monkey plasma after oral administration by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS based on the self built components database.

Chin Med 2021 Apr 28;16(1):35. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

College of Pharmacy and International Cooperative Laboratory of Traditional Chinese Medicine Modernization and Innovative Drug Development of Chinese Ministry of Education, Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510632, China.

Background: Yiganmingmu oral liquid (YGMM), a well known over-the-counter (OTC) drug in China, is composed of 12 types of valuable herbal medicines and has been widely used in clinical for the treatment of soreness and weakness of waist and knees, dizziness, memory loss, and fatigue. However, the chemical compositions of YGMM and its absorbed compounds in plasma remain unclear.

Methods: Since chemical investigation is the first important step to reveal effects and action mechanisms of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), in this study, based on the self built components database, systematic characterization of the chemical profile of YGMM in vitro was carried out by using a reliable UPLC-Q-TOF-MS method. Moreover, to obtain better understanding of the absorbed prototypes in plasma, serum pharmacochemistry analysis of YGMM after oral administration was conducted by using cynomolgus monkeys as animal model.

Results: A total of 667 constituents from the 12 single herbal medicines were collected in the self built components database by searching the reported literatures, and 415 of them were initially screened as candidate compounds in YGMM by comparison of their experimental accurate mass measurements with those theoretical values. After that, 117 compounds including 17 phenolic acids, 25 flavonoids, 4 alkaloids, 10 phthalides, 5 monoterpenes, 8 triterpenoid saponins, 9 anthraquinones, and 39 other compounds, were unambiguously identified or tentatively characterized by analysing their MS/MS fragmentation patterns, and also by comparison with reference standards and those data reported in the literatures. 61 prototypes absorbed in plasma of cynomolgus monkey, including 13 phenolic acids, 21 flavonoids, 8 phthalides, 3 monoterpenes, 4 triterpenoid saponins, and 12 other compounds were tentatively assigned by serum pharmacochemistry analysis after oral administration.

Conclusion: It was the first comprehensive analysis of chemical constituents of YGMM and prototypes in plasma, and the data analysis strategy developed in this study showed high efficiency in the structural elucidations. The results might provide scientific evidence for further research on material basis of YGMM.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13020-021-00443-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8080328PMC
April 2021

Carbohydrates effects on nutrition and health functions in pigs.

Anim Sci J 2021 Jan;92(1):e13557

Key Laboratory of Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

The greatest improvement in carbohydrates studies on pig nutrition and health is that carbohydrates are classified more clearly, which is based not only on their chemical structure but also on their physiological characteristics. Besides its primary energy source, different types and structures of carbohydrates are a benefit for nutrition and health functions in pigs, which are involved in promoting growth performance and intestinal functions, regulating the community of gut microbiota, and modulating the lipids and glucose metabolism. The underlying mechanism of carbohydrates regulates the lipids and glucose metabolism through their metabolites (short-chain fatty acids [SCFAs]) and mainly via the SCFAs-GPR43/41-PYY/GLP1, SCFAs-AMP/ATP-AMPK, and SCFAs-AMPK-G6Pase/PEPCK pathways. Emerging research had evaluated an optimal combination in different types and structures of carbohydrates, which could enhance growth performance and nutrient digestibility, promote intestinal functions, and increase the abundances of butyrate-producing bacteria in pigs. Overall, compelling evidence supports the notion that carbohydrates play important roles in both nutrition and health functions in pigs. Moreover, identifying the carbohydrates combinations will be of both theoretical and practical values for developing the technology of carbohydrates balance in pigs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/asj.13557DOI Listing
January 2021

Three-dimensional-printed individualized porous implants: A new "implant-bone" interface fusion concept for large bone defect treatment.

Bioact Mater 2021 Nov 6;6(11):3659-3670. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Orthopedics, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, 100191, People's Republic of China.

Bone defect repairs are based on bone graft fusion or replacement. Current large bone defect treatments are inadequate and lack of reliable technology. Therefore, we aimed to investigate a simple technique using three-dimensional (3D)-printed individualized porous implants without any bone grafts, osteoinductive agents, or surface biofunctionalization to treat large bone defects, and systematically study its long-term therapeutic effects and osseointegration characteristics. Twenty-six patients with large bone defects caused by tumor, infection, or trauma received treatment with individualized porous implants; among them, three typical cases underwent a detailed study. Additionally, a large segmental femur defect sheep model was used to study the osseointegration characteristics. Immediate and long-term biomechanical stability was achieved, and the animal study revealed that the bone grew into the pores with gradual remodeling, resulting in a long-term mechanically stable implant-bone complex. Advantages of 3D-printed microporous implants for the repair of bone defects included 1) that the stabilization devices were immediately designed and constructed to achieve early postoperative mobility, and 2) that osseointegration between the host bone and implants was achieved without bone grafting. Our osseointegration method, in which the "implant-bone" interface fusion concept was used instead of "bone-bone" fusion, subverts the traditional idea of osseointegration.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioactmat.2021.03.030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8056181PMC
November 2021

Realization of Electron Antidoping by Modulating the Breathing Distortion in BaBiO.

Nano Lett 2021 May 22;21(9):3981-3988. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

School of Physical Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai 201210, China.

The recent proposal of antidoping scheme breaks new ground in conceiving conversely functional materials and devices; yet, the few available examples belong to the correlated electron systems. Here, we demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that the main group oxide BaBiO is a model system for antidoping using oxygen vacancies. The first-principles calculations show that the band gap systematically increases due to the strongly enhanced Bi-O breathing distortions away from the vacancies and the annihilation of Bi 6/O 2 hybridized conduction bands near the vacancies. Our further spectroscopic experiments confirm that the band gap increases systematically with electron doping, with a maximal gap enhancement of ∼75% when the film's stoichiometry is reduced to BaBiO. These results unambiguously demonstrate the remarkable antidoping effect in a material without strong electron correlations and underscores the importance of bond disproportionation in realizing such an effect.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.1c00750DOI Listing
May 2021

Association between vitamin D receptor polymorphisms and acute pancreatitis: A protocol for systematic review and meta analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(16):e25508

Department of Emergency.

Background: Several studies have been performed to investigate the association between vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphism and acute pancreatitis, but the results are inconclusive. We conducted this meta-analysis for a precise estimation of the association between BsmI (rs1544410), ApaI (rs7975232), TaqI (rs731236), and FokI (rs2228570) polymorphisms and acute pancreatitis.

Methods: Appropriate studies were retrieved by searching Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and Google scholar databases, until January 31, 2021. Two reviewers independently conducted data extraction and literature quality evaluation. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to evaluate the strength of the association.All of the data were analyzed with Stata 16.0.

Results: The results of this meta-analysis will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal for publication.

Conclusions: This meta-analysis will summarize the association between BsmI, ApaI, TaqI, and FokI polymorphisms and the risk of acute pancreatitis.

Ethics And Dissemination: Ethical approval was not required for this study. The systematic review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal, presented at conferences, and shared on social media platforms.

Osf Registration Number: DOI 10.17605/OSF.IO/83W7R.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000025508DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8078433PMC
April 2021

An efficient approach for the synthesis of 1,2-dihydroxanthones enabled by one-pot Claisen condensation/cyclization reactions.

Org Biomol Chem 2021 May;19(18):4126-4131

Shuguang Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203, China.

1,2-Dihydroxanthones (DHXs) are core structures of natural products and useful building blocks in organic synthesis. So far, they have been less studied. In this report, a mild, efficient and green method for the synthesis of 1,2-dihydroxanthones has been developed in one pot through Claisen condensation and O-cyclization under waste-induced relay catalysis with minimum organic solvents. The by-product (HMDS or NH3·H2O) of the first step turned out to be the promoter for the second step, which could efficiently proceed in aqueous media without the addition of other catalysts. The reactions using trifluoroethyl salicylates could be performed under mild conditions to ensure the generation of vulnerable DHXs in high yields. The substrate scope is very broad regardless of the substituent type and its position on the structure. Specifically, the versatility of DHXs was demonstrated by their conversion to xanthones and other complex structures.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1ob00470kDOI Listing
May 2021

Discovery of a new series of PI3K-δ inhibitors from Virtual Screening.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2021 Apr 16;42:128046. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Discovery Chemistry, Merck & Co., Inc., Boston, MA, USA.

PI3K-δ mediates key immune cell signaling pathways and is a target of interest for treatment of oncological and immunological disorders. Here we describe the discovery and optimization of a novel series of PI3K-δ selective inhibitors. We first identified hits containing an isoindolinone scaffold using a combined ligand- and receptor-based virtual screening workflow, and then improved potency and selectivity guided by structural data and modeling. Careful optimization of molecular properties led to compounds with improved permeability and pharmacokinetic profile, and high potency in a whole blood assay.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2021.128046DOI Listing
April 2021

Chondroitin Sulfate/Polycaprolactone/Gelatin Electrospun Nanofibers with Antithrombogenicity and Enhanced Endothelial Cell Affinity as a Potential Scaffold for Blood Vessel Tissue Engineering.

Nanoscale Res Lett 2021 Apr 17;16(1):62. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Vascular Surgury, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong First Medical University, Jinan, 250021, China.

Electrospun polymer nanofibers have gained much attention in blood vessel tissue engineering. However, conventional nanofiber materials with the deficiencies of slow endothelialization and thrombosis are not effective in promoting blood vessel tissue repair and regeneration. Herein, biomimetic gelatin (Gt)/polycaprolactone (PCL) composite nanofibers incorporating a different amount of chondroitin sulfate (CS) were developed via electrospinning technology to investigate their effects on antithrombogenicity and endothelial cell affinity. Varying CS concentrations in PG nanofibers affects fiber morphology and diameter. The CS/Gt/PCL nanofibers have suitable porosity (~ 80%) and PBS solution absorption (up to 650%). The introduction of CS in Gt/PCL nanofibers greatly enhances their anticoagulant properties, prolongs their coagulation time, and facilitates cell responses. Particularly, 10%CS/Gt/PCL nanofibers display favorable cell attachment, elongation, and proliferation. Thus, the Gt/PCL nanofibers containing a certain amount of CS could be excellent candidates as a promising tissue-engineering scaffold in blood vessel repair and regeneration.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s11671-021-03518-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8053139PMC
April 2021

Enzymatic acylation of rutin with benzoic acid ester and lipophilic, antiradical, and antiproliferative properties of the acylated derivatives.

J Food Sci 2021 May 12;86(5):1714-1725. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Food Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.

Rutin (3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxy-flavone-3-rutinoside) was enzymatically acylated with benzoic acid and its esters (methyl benzoate and vinyl benzoate) using Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (Lipozyme TLIM). The acylation reaction was optimized by varying the reaction medium, reaction temperature, acyl donor, substrate molar ratio, and reaction time. The highest conversion yield (76%) was obtained in tert-amyl alcohol (60 °C, 72 hr) using vinyl benzoate (molar ratio of 1:10) as acyl donor. The acylation occurred at the 2'''-OH and 4'''-OH of the rhamnose unit and the 2''-OH position of the glucose moieties. Three novel rutin acylated derivatives (compounds 1-3) were purified and characterized by HR-MS and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. We found that acylation significantly improved lipophilicity, capacity to inhibit lipid peroxidation, anticancer capacity and substantially maintained the antioxidant activity of rutin. This research provides important insights in the acylation of flavonoids with different glycosyl moieties. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: In this study, three novel rutin derivatives were successfully synthesized and the highest conversion yield (76%) was obtained by reacting the rutin and vinyl benzoate at molar ratio of 1:10 in tert-amyl alcohol for 72 hr at 60 °C. Introducing a benzoic acid substituent into rutin molecule significantly improved their lipophilicity and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in lipophilic system. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that acylation significantly improved anticancer capacity and substantially maintained the antioxidant activity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.15703DOI Listing
May 2021

Investigating the mechanisms of Modified Xiaoyaosan (tiaogan-liqi prescription) in suppressing the progression of atherosclerosis, by means of integrative pharmacology and experimental validation.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 Apr 4;13(8):11411-11432. Epub 2021 Apr 4.

Department of Cardiovascular Disease, Shenzhen Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital, Shenzhen, China.

Atherosclerosis (AS)-related diseases remain among the leading causes of death worldwide. Modified Xiaoyaosan (also called Tiaogan-Liqi prescription, TGLQ), a traditional Chinese medical formulation, has been widely applied in the treatment of AS-related diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the underlying pharmacological mechanisms of TGLQ in acting on AS. A total of 548 chemical compounds contained in TGLQ, and 969 putative targets, were collected from the Computation Platform for Integrative Pharmacology of Traditional Chinese Medicine, while 1005 therapeutic targets for the treatment of AS were obtained from the DisGeNET, TTD and CTD databases. Moreover, the 63 key targets were screened by the intersection of the targets above, and by network topological analysis. Further functional enrichment analysis showed that the key targets were significantly associated with regulation of the immune system and inflammation, improvement of lipid and glucose metabolism, regulation of the neuroendocrine system and anti-thrombosis effect. The experiments confirmed that TGLQ could reduce plasma lipid profiles and plasma inflammatory cytokines, and also inhibit AS plaque formation, within the AS model ApoE-/- mice. The experiments validated the hypothesis that TGLQ could significantly reduce intracellular lipid accumulation, suppress the production of inflammatory cytokines of macrophages induced by oxidized-LDL, and inhibit the protein expression of heat shock protein 90 and toll-like receptor 4. This study identified a list of key targets of TGLQ in the treatment of AS by applying an integrative pharmacology approach, which was validated by and experimentation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.202832DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8109114PMC
April 2021

Towards a Framework for Better Understanding of Quiescent Cancer Cells.

Cells 2021 Mar 5;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Shuguang Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203, China.

Quiescent cancer cells (QCCs) are cancer cells that are reversibly suspended in G phase with the ability to re-enter the cell cycle and initiate tumor growth, and, ultimately, cancer recurrence and metastasis. QCCs are also therapeutically challenging due to their resistance to most conventional cancer treatments that selectively act on proliferating cells. Considering the significant impact of QCCs on cancer progression and treatment, better understanding of appropriate experimental models, and the evaluation of QCCs are key questions in the field that have direct influence on potential pharmacological interventions. Here, this review focuses on existing and emerging preclinical models and detection methods for QCCs and discusses their respective features and scope for application. By providing a framework for selecting appropriate experimental models and investigative methods, the identification of the key players that regulate the survival and activation of QCCs and the development of more effective QCC-targeting therapeutic agents may mitigate the consequences of QCCs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells10030562DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7999675PMC
March 2021

Wutou decoction ameliorates experimental rheumatoid arthritis via regulating NF-kB and Nrf2: Integrating efficacy-oriented compatibility of traditional Chinese medicine.

Phytomedicine 2021 May 20;85:153522. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicines, Macau University of Science and Technology, Taipa, Macau (SAR); Faculty of Chinese Medicines, Macau University of Science and Technology, Taipa, Macau (SAR); Joint Laboratory for Translational Cancer Research of Chinese Medicine of the Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China, Macau University of Science and Technology, Taipa, Macau (SAR). Electronic address:

Background: Thousands of years of clinical application of Wutou decoction (WTD) support its reliable efficacy and safety in treating rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear, and the synergistic involvement of assistant herbs in WTD in enhancing the sovereign herb in treating RA is unknown.

Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the efficacy-oriented compatibility of five herbs in WTD and the underlying mechanisms.

Methods: The anti-arthritic effects of WTD and the compatibilities of the five herbs in WTD were studied in vivo with adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) rat model and in vitro with LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophage. Network pharmacology analysis was conducted to identify the dominant pathways involved in the anti-arthritis mechanisms of WTD and how the five herbs work synergistically. The results were further verified by in vivo and in vitro experiments.

Results: Our data revealed that the five herbs in WTD exert synergistic anti-arthritic effects on RA. Moreover, Radix Aconite (AC) is the principal anti-inflammatory component in WTD according to the extent of therapeutic effects exerted on the AIA rats. In vivo and in vitro experiments demonstrated that WTD inhibited NF-κB phosphorylation and simultaneously increased the expression of Nrf2, which were the major pathways identified by the network pharmacology analysis. The major assistant component, Herba Ephedrae (EP), evidently inhibited NF-κB mediated inflammatory response. The other assistant component, Radix Astragali (AS), considerably enhanced the expression of Nrf2 when used alone or in combination with AC. These combinations improved the anti-arthritis effects on the AIA rats better than that of AC alone. Nevertheless, WTD always achieved the best effects than any combinations both in vivo and in vitro.

Conclusion: The ministerial herbs EP and AS intensify the anti-arthritic effects of AC by regulating the NF-κB-mediated inflammatory pathway and the Nrf2-mediated anti-oxidation pathway which are the major pathways of WTD for alleviating the symptoms of RA.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2021.153522DOI Listing
May 2021

Projected Dose Optimization of Amino- and Hydroxypyrrolidine Purine PI3Kδ Immunomodulators.

J Med Chem 2021 Apr 2;64(8):5137-5156. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Discovery Chemistry, Merck & Co., Inc., 33 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 United States.

The approvals of idelalisib and duvelisib have validated PI3Kδ inhibitors for the treatment for hematological malignancies driven by the PI3K/AKT pathway. Our program led to the identification of structurally distinct heterocycloalkyl purine inhibitors with excellent isoform and kinome selectivity; however, they had high projected human doses. Improved ligand contacts gave potency enhancements, while replacement of metabolic liabilities led to extended half-lives in preclinical species, affording PI3Kδ inhibitors with low once-daily predicted human doses. Treatment of C57BL/6-Foxp3-GDL reporter mice with 30 and 100 mg/kg/day of (MSD-496486311) led to a 70% reduction in Foxp3-expressing regulatory T cells as observed through bioluminescence imaging with luciferin, consistent with the role of PI3K/AKT signaling in Treg cell proliferation. As a model for allergic rhinitis and asthma, treatment of ovalbumin-challenged Brown Norway rats with 0.3 to 30 mg/kg/day of gave a dose-dependent reduction in pulmonary bronchoalveolar lavage inflammation eosinophil cell count.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.1c00237DOI Listing
April 2021

Nujiangexanthone A Inhibits Hepatocellular Carcinoma Metastasis via Down Regulation of Cofilin 1.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 12;9:644716. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Shuguang Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the malignant tumors with poor prognosis. High expression level of cofilin 1 (CFL1) has been found in many types of cancers. However, the role of CFL1 in HCC hasn't been known clearly. Here, we found that CFL1 was up regulated in human HCC and significantly associated with both overall survival and disease-free survival in HCC patients. Nujiangexanthone A (NJXA), the caged xanthones, isolated from gamboge plants decreased the expression of CFL1, which also inhibited the migration, invasion and metastasis of HCC cells and Down regulation of CFL1 inhibited aggressiveness of HCC cells, which mimicked the effect of NJXA. Mechanism study indicated that, knockdown of CFL1 or treatment with NJXA increased the level of F-actin and disturbed the balance between F-actin and G-actin. In conclusion, our findings reveal the role of CFL1 in HCC metastasis through the CFL1/F-actin axis, and suggest that CFL1 may be a potential prognostic marker and a new therapeutic target. NJXA can effectively inhibit the metastasis of HCC cells by down regulating the expression of CFL1, which indicates the potential of NJXA for preventing metastasis in HCC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.644716DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8006445PMC
March 2021

Clinical Characteristics of Chronic Lung Abscess Associated with Diagnosed Using Metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing.

Infect Drug Resist 2021 23;14:1191-1198. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310003, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: () is a Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium distributed in the oral cavity, with a potential to become pathogenic causing lung abscess. Due to the lack of specificity of symptoms and the difficulty in culture, the diagnosis of lung abscess associated with is delayed. It is essential to elucidate the clinical characteristics of lung abscess associated with .

Methods: From January 2019 to July 2020, five patients with chronic lung abscess associated with diagnosed by pathological biopsy and metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) were analyzed in this retrospective study.

Results: Among the five patients, four had a history of smoking, three had periodontitis, and two had a history of drinking. The average course of the disease was 6.5 months. High-density flake-like or mass shadows with irregular boundaries were observed in the chest computed tomography (CT) images of the five patients, and liquefactive necrosis was detected in the middle of the lesions; however, no gas-liquid plane or cavity was noted, making it difficult to distinguish a lung cancer. The pathological biopsy of the five patients showed chronic inflammation of lung tissue, and was detected by mNGS in the biopsy or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples. Two patients were treated with amoxicillin-clavulanate, two had metronidazole, and one had moxifloxacin. Among them, four recovered after receiving antibiotic treatment, and the remaining one underwent surgical resection due to poor antibiotic treatment effect.

Conclusion: Chronic lung abscess associated with , common in elderly male smokers with poor oral hygiene, is often diagnosed in a delayed manner and misdiagnosed as lung cancer. The mNGS technology is beneficial to the rapid determination of
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S304569DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8001108PMC
March 2021

Amikacin nebulization for the adjunctive therapy of gram-negative pneumonia in mechanically ventilated patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 26;11(1):6969. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Medical ICU, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, 1 Shuai Fu Yuan, Beijing, 100730, China.

Treatment of ventilated patients with gram-negative pneumonia (GNP) is often unsuccessful. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of nebulized amikacin (NA) as adjunctive therapy to systemic antibiotics in this patient population. PubMed, Embase, China national knowledge infrastructure, Wanfang, and the Cochrane database were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effect of NA as adjunctive therapy in ventilated adult patients with GNP. Heterogeneity was explored using subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis. The Grading of recommendations assessment, development, and evaluation approach was used to assess the certainty of the evidence. Thirteen RCTs with 1733 adults were included. The pooled results showed NA had better microbiologic eradication (RR = 1.51, 95% CI 1.35 to 1.69, P < 0.0001) and improved clinical response (RR = 1.23; 95% CI 1.13 to 1.34; P < 0.0001) when compared with control. Meanwhile, overall mortality, pneumonia associated mortality, duration of mechanical ventilation, length of stay in ICU and change of clinical pneumonia infection scores were similar between NA and control groups. Additionally, NA did not add significant nephrotoxicity while could cause more bronchospasm. The use of NA adjunctive to systemic antibiotics therapy showed better benefits in ventilated patients with GNP. More well-designed RCTs are still needed to confirm our results.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-86342-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7997905PMC
March 2021

Two-Year Outcomes of Midline lumbar Fusion Versus Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion in the Treatment of L4-L5 Degenerative Disease.

Biomed Environ Sci 2020 Nov;33(11):839-848

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191, China.

Objective: We aimed to compare the clinical and radiological outcomes of midline lumbar fusion (MIDLF) versus minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF) in patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis and/or stenosis in L4-L5 two years after surgery.

Methods: Consecutively treated patients with lumbar pathology who underwent MIDLF ( = 16) and a historical control group who underwent MI-TLIF ( = 34) were included. Clinical symptoms were evaluated using Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, and visual analog scale (VAS) scores before surgery and 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery.

Results: The mean operative time and hematocrit (HCT, Day 1) were significantly shorter and lower in MIDLF cases (174 min . 229 min, < 0.001; 0.34 . 0.36, = 0.037). The MI-TLIF group showed better improvement than the MIDLF group in ODI and VAS back and leg pain at 3 months postoperatively. VAS leg pain was higher in MIDLF than in MI-TLIF cases at 6 months. At 24 months follow-up, VAS back pain was higher in MI-TLIF than in MIDLF cases ( = 0.018).

Conclusion: MIDLF is comparable to MI-TLIF at L4-5 in clinical outcomes and fusion rates, and the results verified the meaningful advantage of using MIDLF for the elderly with osteoporosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3967/bes2020.114DOI Listing
November 2020

Identification of blood-red color formation in edible bird's nests provides a new strategy for safety control.

Food Chem 2021 Aug 3;354:129454. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Faculty of Chinese Medicine and State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Macau University of Science and Technology, Taipa, Macao, PR China; Joint Laboratory for Translational Cancer Research of Chinese Medicine of the Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China, Macau University of Science and Technology, Taipa, Macao, PR China. Electronic address:

In order to reveal the color formation mechanism of blood-red edible bird's nests (EBNs) and develop a quick and specific strategy to distinguish the artificial fake one, multiple methods of UPLC-TOF/MS, UV, NMR, FT-IR and 2D IR were used to detect the chemical markers of the reddening reaction, the results showed that the reddening substances were CHNO and CHNO, which were verified as products of a phenol-keto tautomerism evolved from l-tyrosine. Moreover, natural and artificial red EBNs with varying degrees of chemical fumigation also can be successfully distinguished using the chemical markers, and the protein variation in SDS-PAGE gel could also support the distinction. This work established a systematic method of chemical identification for both natural and artificial blood-red EBNs, and provided a new identification strategy for food safety control that can promote the development of a healthier market of EBNs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129454DOI Listing
August 2021

Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of the complete chloroplast genome of (Actinidiaceae).

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2021 Mar 1;6(2):672-673. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

The Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Genetic and Improvement of Jiangxi Province, Institute of Biological Resources, Jiangxi Academy of Sciences, Nanchang, China.

The complete chloroplast (cp) genome of was sequenced and assembled using Illumina pair-end sequencing data. The cp genome is 157,021 bp in length and comprises a large single copy (LSC) region of 88,557 bp and a small single copy (SSC) region of 21,562 bp separated by two inverted repeat (IR) regions of 23,451 bp. A total of 113 unique genes were identified, including 79 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNA genes, and four rRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis based on cp genomes of 20 Actinidiaceae species revealed that was evolutionarily close to , , and
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2021.1881838DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7928189PMC
March 2021

Kuwanon G protects HT22 cells from advanced glycation end product-induced damage.

Exp Ther Med 2021 May 25;21(5):425. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Faculty of Chinese Medicine, State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Macau University of Science and Technology, Taipa, Macao SAR 999078, P.R. China.

The incidence of diabetic encephalopathy is increasing as the population ages. Evidence suggests that formation and accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) plays a pivotal role in disease progression, but limited research has been carried out in this area. A previous study demonstrated that Kuwanon G (KWG) had significant anti-oxidative stress and anti-inflammatory properties. As AGEs are oxidative products and inflammation is involved in their generation it is hypothesized that KWG may have effects against AGE-induced neuronal damage. In the present study, mouse hippocampal neuronal cell line HT22 was used. KWG was shown to significantly inhibit AGE-induced cell apoptosis in comparison with a control treatment, as determined by both MTT and flow cytometry. Compared with the AGEs group, expression of pro-apoptotic protein Bax was reduced and expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was increased in the AGEs + KWG group. Both intracellular and extracellular levels of acetylcholine and choline acetyltransferase were significantly elevated after KWG administration in comparison with controls whilethe level of acetylcholinesterase decreased. These changes in protein expression were accompanied by increased levels of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase synthesis and reduced production of malondialdehyde and reactive oxygen species. Intracellular signaling pathway protein levels were determined by western blot and immunocytochemistry. KWG administration was found to prevent AGE-induced changes to the phosphorylation levels of Akt, IκB-α, glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3)-α and β, p38 MAPK and NF-κB p65 suggesting a potential neuroprotective effect of KWG against AGE-induced damage was via the PI3K/Akt/GSK3αβ signaling pathway. The findings of the present study suggest that KWG may be a potential treatment for diabetic encephalopathy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.9869DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7967837PMC
May 2021

Macrophage 3D migration: A potential therapeutic target for inflammation and deleterious progression in diseases.

Pharmacol Res 2021 May 19;167:105563. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Faculty of Chinese Medicine and State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Macau University of Science and Technology, Taipa, Macao, PR China; Joint Laboratory for Translational Cancer Research of Chinese Medicine of the Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, PR China; Zhuhai Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Zhuhai City, Guangdong Province 519000, PR China. Electronic address:

Macrophages are heterogeneous cells that have different physiological functions, such as chemotaxis, phagocytosis, endocytosis, and secretion of various factors. All physiological functions of macrophages are integral to homeostasis, immune defense and tissue repair. However, in several diseases, macrophages are recruited from the blood towards inflammatory sites. This process is called macrophage migration, which promotes deleterious disease progression. Macrophage migration is a key player in many inflammatory diseases, autoimmune diseases and cancers because it contributes to the accumulation of proinflammatory factors, the destruction of tissues and the development of tumors. Therefore, macrophage migration is proposed to be a potential therapeutic target. Macrophages migrate between two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) environments, implying that distinct migratory features and mechanisms are involved. Compared with the 2D migration of macrophages, 3D migration involves more complex variations in cellular morphology and dynamics. The structure of the extracellular matrix, a key factor, is modified in diseases that influence macrophage 3D migration. Macrophage 3D migration relates to disease pathology. Research that focuses on macrophage 3D migration is an emerging field and was reviewed in this article to indicate the molecular and cellular mechanisms of macrophage migration in 3D environments and to provide potential targets for controlling disease progression associated with this migration.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2021.105563DOI Listing
May 2021

Carbamate and -Pyrimidine Mitigate Amide Hydrolysis: Structure-Based Drug Design of Tetrahydroquinoline IDO1 Inhibitors.

ACS Med Chem Lett 2021 Mar 26;12(3):389-396. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Departments of Discovery Chemistry, Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Drug Metabolism, Computational and Structural Chemistry, Discovery Process Chemistry, Discovery Pharmaceutical Science, and Quantitative Biosciences, Merck & Co., Inc., 33 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, United States.

Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO1) has emerged as an attractive target for cancer immunotherapy. An automated ligand identification system screen afforded the tetrahydroquinoline class of novel IDO1 inhibitors. Potency and pharmacokinetic (PK) were key issues with this class of compounds. Structure-based drug design and strategic incorporation of polarity enabled the rapid improvement on potency, solubility, and oxidative metabolic stability. Metabolite identification studies revealed that amide hydrolysis in the D-pocket was the key clearance mechanism for this class. Strategic survey of amide isosteres revealed that carbamates and -pyrimidines, which maintained exquisite potencies, mitigated the amide hydrolysis issue and led to an improved rat PK profile. The lead compound is a potent IDO1 inhibitor, with clean off-target profiles and the potential for quaque die dosing in humans.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsmedchemlett.0c00525DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7957919PMC
March 2021

The Nutritional Significance of Intestinal Fungi: Alteration of Dietary Carbohydrate Composition Triggers Colonic Fungal Community Shifts in a Pig Model.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 Apr 27;87(10). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of the Ministry of Education of China, Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition and Feed of the Ministry of Agriculture of China, Key Laboratory of Animal Disease-Resistant Nutrition of Sichuan Province, Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China

Carbohydrates represent the most important energy source in the diet of humans and animals. A large number of studies have shown that dietary carbohydrates (DCHO) are related to the bacterial community in the gut, but their relationship with the composition of intestinal fungi is still unknown. Here, we report the response of the colonic fungal community to different compositions of DCHO in a pig model. Three factors, ratio (2:1, 1:1, and 1:2) of amylose to amylopectin (AM/AP), level of nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP; 1%, 2%, and 3%), and mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS; 400, 800, and 1,200 mg/kg body weight), were considered according to an L9 (3) orthogonal design to form nine diets with different carbohydrate compositions. Sequencing based on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform targeting the internal transcribed spacer 1 region showed that the fungal community in the colon of the pigs responded to DCHO in the order of MOS, AM/AP, and NSP. A large part of some low-abundance fungal genera correlated with the composition of DCHO, represented by , , , , , , and , were also associated with the concentration of glucose and fructose, as well as the activity of β-d-glucosidase in the colonic digesta, suggesting a role of these fungi in the degradation of DCHO in the colon of pigs. Our study provides direct evidence for the relationship between the composition of DCHO and the fungal community in the colon of pigs, which is helpful to understand the function of gut microorganisms in pigs. Although fungi are a large group of microorganisms along with bacteria and archaea in the gut of monogastric animals, the nutritional significance of fungi has been ignored for a long time. Our previous studies revealed a distinct fungal community in the gut of grazing Tibetan pigs (J. Li, D. Chen, B. Yu, J. He, et al., Microb Biotechnol 13:509-521, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1111/1751-7915.13507) and a close correlation between fungal species and short-chain fatty acids, the main microbial metabolites of carbohydrates in the hindgut of pigs (J. Li, Y. Luo, D. Chen, B. Yu, et al., J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr 104:616-628, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1111/jpn.13300). These groundbreaking findings indicate a potential relationship between intestinal fungi and the utilization of DCHO. However, no evidence directly proves the response of intestinal fungi to changes in DCHO. Here, we show a clear alteration of the colonic fungal community in pigs triggered by different compositions of DCHO simulated by varied concentrations of starch, nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP), and oligosaccharides. Our results highlight the potential involvement of intestinal fungi in the utilization of nutrients in monogastric animals.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00038-21DOI Listing
April 2021

Structural Revision of Guttiferone F and 30--Cambogin.

J Nat Prod 2021 Apr 8;84(4):1397-1402. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Shuguang Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203, People's Republic of China.

Guttiferone F, a natural polyprenylated polycyclic acylphloroglucinol, was originally assigned as the 30-epimer of garcinol by NMR data analyses. Conversion of guttiferone F in the presence of acid afforded its cyclized form (), which was previously assigned as 30--cambogin. However, the absolute configurations of guttiferone F and have not been determined. Reinvestigation of the structures of those two compounds, using X-ray and NMR data analyses and chemical transformation, revealed that the original assignment of the C-30 absolute configuration in guttiferone F and should be inverted. Guttiferone F is indeed garcinol, and , which was previously identified as 30--cambogin, is cambogin.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jnatprod.0c01031DOI Listing
April 2021

0D/2D Coordination Complexes: Magnetic Studies, Protection, and Mechanism against Ischemic Myocardial Damage by Reducing the Activation of the PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway.

ACS Omega 2021 Mar 18;6(8):5408-5414. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Medicine Department, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China.

The synthesis of two new coordination compounds was carried out by applying 4-(3-carboxyphenyl)picolinic acid (Hcppa) as building units under the hydrothermal reaction conditions, whose chemical formulae are [Cu(Hcppa)(HO)]·2HO () and [Cu(μ-cppa)(HO)] (). The analysis of structures suggested that featured a discrete molecular structure, which was extended into the three-dimensional supramolecular network with the topology of topology, whereas complex showed a two-dimensional layered network with the topology. The magnetic performances of the two synthesized compounds reveal antiferromagnetic coupling between consecutive metal ions. Their application values on ischemic myocardial damage were assessed, and the detailed mechanism of the synthetic complexes was also investigated. The Elabscience Annexin V detection kit was used in this research to determine the percentage of apoptotic cardiomyocytes after different complex treatments. In addition, the relative expression of PI3K/Akt in the myocardium after the application of the compound was determined using the real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.0c05601DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7931381PMC
March 2021