Publications by authors named "Hua Zhang"

3,844 Publications

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Low shear stress inhibits endothelial mitophagy via caveolin-1/miR-7-5p/SQSTM1 signaling pathway.

Atherosclerosis 2022 Jul 31;356:9-17. Epub 2022 Jul 31.

Department of Cardiology, Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, 325000, China. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Mitophagy plays a crucial role in mitochondrial homeostasis and is closely associated with endothelial function. However, the mechanism underlying low blood flow shear stress (SS), detrimental cellular stress, regulating endothelial mitophagy is unclear. This study aimed to investigate whether low SS inhibits endothelial mitophagy via caveolin-1 (Cav-1)/miR-7-5p/Sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1) signaling pathway.

Methods: Low SS in vivo modeling was induced using a perivascular SS modifier implanted in the carotid artery of mice. In vitro modeling, low and physiological SS (4 and 15 dyn/cm, respectively) were exerted on human aortic endothelial cells using a parallel plate chamber system.

Results: Compared with physiological SS, low SS significantly inhibited endothelial mitophagy shown by down-regulation of SQSTM1, PINK1, Parkin, and LC 3II expressions. Deficient mitophagy deteriorated mitochondrial dynamics shown by up-regulation of Mfn1 and Fis1 expression and led to decreases in mitochondrial membrane potential. Cav-1 plays a bridging role in the process of low SS inhibiting mitophagy. The up-regulated miR-7-5p expression induced by low SS was suppressed after Cav-1 was silenced. The results of dual-luciferase reporter assays showed that miR-7-5p targeted inhibiting the SQSTM1 gene. Oxidative stress reaction shown by the elevation of reactive oxygen species and O and endothelial dysfunction by the decrease in nitric oxide and the increase in macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 were associated with the low SS inhibiting endothelial mitophagy process.

Conclusions: Cav-1/miR-7-5p/SQSTM1 signaling pathway was the mechanism underlying low SS inhibiting endothelial mitophagy that involves mitochondrial homeostasis impairment and endothelial dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2022.07.014DOI Listing
July 2022

A novel role of FoxO3a in the migration and invasion of trophoblast cells: from metabolic remodeling to transcriptional reprogramming.

Mol Med 2022 Aug 8;28(1):92. Epub 2022 Aug 8.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016, China.

Background: The forkhead box O3a protein (FoxO3a) has been reported to be involved in the migration and invasion of trophoblast, but its underlying mechanisms unknown. In this study, we aim to explore the transcriptional and metabolic regulations of FoxO3a on the migration and invasion of early placental development.

Methods: Lentiviral vectors were used to knock down the expression of FoxO3a of the HTR8/SVneo cells. Western blot, matrigel invasion assay, wound healing assay, seahorse, gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) based metabolomics, fluxomics, and RNA-seq transcriptomics were performed.

Results: We found that FoxO3a depletion restrained the migration and invasion of HTR8/SVneo cells. Metabolomics, fluxomics, and seahorse demonstrated that FoxO3a knockdown resulted in a switch from aerobic to anaerobic respiration and increased utilization of aromatic amino acids and long-chain fatty acids from extracellular nutrients. Furthermore, our RNA-seq also demonstrated that the expression of COX-2 and MMP9 decreased after FoxO3a knockdown, and these two genes were closely associated with the migration/invasion progress of trophoblast cells.

Conclusions: Our results suggested novel biological roles of FoxO3a in early placental development. FoxO3a exerts an essential effect on trophoblast migration and invasion owing to the regulations of COX2, MMP9, aromatic amino acids, energy metabolism, and oxidative stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s10020-022-00522-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9358829PMC
August 2022

Cardiac Arrhythmia classification based on 3D recurrence plot analysis and deep learning.

Front Physiol 2022 22;13:956320. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

School of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

Artificial intelligence (AI) aided cardiac arrhythmia (CA) classification has been an emerging research topic. Existing AI-based classification methods commonly analyze electrocardiogram (ECG) signals in lower dimensions, using one-dimensional (1D) temporal signals or two-dimensional (2D) images, which, however, may have limited capability in characterizing lead-wise spatiotemporal correlations, which are critical to the classification accuracy. In addition, existing methods mostly assume that the ECG data are linear temporal signals. This assumption may not accurately represent the nonlinear, nonstationary nature of the cardiac electrophysiological process. In this work, we have developed a three-dimensional (3D) recurrence plot (RP)-based deep learning algorithm to explore the nonlinear recurrent features of ECG and Vectorcardiography (VCG) signals, aiming to improve the arrhythmia classification performance. The 3D ECG/VCG images are generated from standard 12 lead ECG and 3 lead VCG signals for neural network training, validation, and testing. The superiority and effectiveness of the proposed method are validated by various experiments. Based on the PTB-XL dataset, the proposed method achieved an average F1 score of 0.9254 for the 3D ECG-based case and 0.9350 for the 3D VCG-based case. In contrast, recently published 1D and 2D ECG-based CA classification methods yielded lower average F1 scores of 0.843 and 0.9015, respectively. Thus, the improved performance and visual interpretability make the proposed 3D RP-based method appealing for practical CA classification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2022.956320DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9352947PMC
July 2022

Documenting the short-tailed albatross () clades historically present in British Columbia, Canada, through ancient DNA analysis of archaeological specimens.

Ecol Evol 2022 Aug 31;12(8):e9116. Epub 2022 Jul 31.

Ancient DNA Laboratory, Department of Archaeology Simon Fraser University Burnaby British Columbia Canada.

The short-tailed albatross () is a threatened seabird whose present-day range encompasses much of the North Pacific. Within this species, there are two genetic clades (Clades 1 and 2) that have distinctive morphologies and foraging ecologies. Due to a global population collapse in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the frequency of these clades among the short-tailed albatross population that historically foraged off British Columbia, Canada, is unclear. To document the species' historical genetic structure in British Columbia, we applied ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis to 51 archaeological short-tailed albatross specimens from the Yuquot site (Borden site number: DjSp-1) that span the past four millennia. We obtained a 141 bp cytochrome sequence from 43 of the 51 (84.3%) analyzed specimens. Analyses of these sequences indicate 40 of the specimens belong to Clade 1, while 2 belong to Clade 2. We also identified a single specimen with a novel cytochrome haplotype. Our results indicate that during the past four millennia most of the short-tailed albatrosses foraging near Yuquot belonged to Clade 1, while individuals from other lineages made more limited use of the area. Comparisons with the results of previous aDNA analyses of archaeological albatrosses from Japanese sites suggest the distribution of Clades 1 and 2 differed. While both albatross clades foraged extensively in the Northwest Pacific, Clade 1 albatrosses appear to have foraged along the west coast of Vancouver Island to a greater extent. Due to their differing distributions, these clades may be exposed to different threats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.9116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9339763PMC
August 2022

The Analysis of the Ubiquitylomic Responses to Infection in Bovine Mammary Gland Epithelial Cells.

J Inflamm Res 2022 27;15:4331-4343. Epub 2022 Jul 27.

Beijing Key Laboratory for Dairy Cow Nutrition, Beijing University of Agriculture, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: is one of the primary pathogens responsible for subclinical mastitis, a significant economic burden for dairy farms. An essential component of the immune response to infection is ubiquitination, which plays important roles in the complex interactions between the pathogen and host.

Materials And Methods: In the present study, quantitative ubiquitylomics was performed to profile changes in the global ubiquitinome of bovine mammary gland epithelial cells (BMECs) infected with .

Results: The most notable changes in the BMEC ubiquitinome were related to the adherens junction, ribosome, and tight junction pathways. Ubiquitination of CTNNB1, EGFR, ITGB1, CTNNA1, CTNNA2, CDH1, YES1, and SLC9A3R1 appears to be fundamental for regulating multiple cellular processes in BMECs in response to infection. In addition, broad ubiquitination of various effectors and outer membrane proteins was observed. Ubiquitinated proteins in -infected BMECs were associated with regulating cell junctions in the host, with potential implications for susceptibility to infection.

Conclusion: The preliminary findings suggest that extensive ubiquitination of CTNNB1, CDH1 and SLC9A3R1 and proteins closely related to cell junctions might play an important role in mastitis progression in dairy cows. The results provide evidence that ubiquitin modification of certain proteins in -infected BMECs could be a promising therapeutic strategy for reducing mammary gland injury and mastitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JIR.S368779DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9342659PMC
July 2022

Metagenomic and metabolomic analyses reveal synergistic effects of fecal microbiota transplantation and anti-PD-1 therapy on treating colorectal cancer.

Front Immunol 2022 15;13:874922. Epub 2022 Jul 15.

Department of Research and Development, Shenzhen Xbiome Biotech Co. Ltd., Shenzhen, China.

Anti-PD-1 immunotherapy has saved numerous lives of cancer patients; however, it only exerts efficacy in 10-15% of patients with colorectal cancer. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a potential approach to improving the efficacy of anti-PD-1 therapy, whereas the detailed mechanisms and the applicability of this combination therapy remain unclear. In this study, we evaluated the synergistic effect of FMT with anti-PD-1 in curing colorectal tumor-bearing mice using a multi-omics approach. Mice treated with the combination therapy showed superior survival rate and tumor control, compared to the mice received anti-PD-1 therapy or FMT alone. Metagenomic analysis showed that composition of gut microbiota in tumor-bearing mice treated with anti-PD-1 therapy was remarkably altered through receiving FMT. Particularly, genus, including FMT-increased , , and FMT-decreased might contribute to the enhanced efficacy of anti-PD-1 therapy. Furthermore, metabolomic analysis upon mouse plasma revealed several potential metabolites that upregulated after FMT, including punicic acid and aspirin, might promote the response to anti-PD-1 therapy their immunomodulatory functions. This work broadens our understanding of the mechanism by which FMT improves the efficacy of anti-PD-1 therapy, which may contribute to the development of novel microbiota-based anti-cancer therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2022.874922DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9336524PMC
July 2022

COVID-19 Influenced Survey on Students' Satisfaction With Psychological Acceptance Based on the Organization of Online Teaching and Learning in English.

Authors:
Hua Zhang Xinguo Li

Front Psychol 2022 13;13:940527. Epub 2022 Jul 13.

School of Foreign Languages, Anhui Polytechnic University, Wuhu, China.

Due to the epidemic, many offline educational institutions and even schools have begun to seek new teaching methods, and online teaching has become an important teaching method in this situation. Online teaching refers to the teaching mode in which teachers teach online through the Internet and students learn in online classrooms. Online teaching can reduce crowd contact between students and prevent the spread of the epidemic. However, due to the virtual nature of the Internet and the immaturity of the online teaching system, the current online teaching method cannot be accepted by the majority of teachers and students. Therefore, this paper conducts a satisfaction survey on the psychological acceptance ability of students under the online teaching organization of English majors, aiming to understand the actual psychological burden brought by online teaching to students. The content of the questionnaire includes students' satisfaction with courses and teaching, satisfaction with teacher-student interaction, satisfaction with platforms and resources, satisfaction with teaching performance, and overall satisfaction. The survey results show that students' satisfaction with courses is generally above 4 points, while their satisfaction with teaching is generally lower, ranging from 3.65 to 3.94 points. Students' satisfaction with teacher-student interaction is not very high, around 3.75. Students' satisfaction with the teaching platform is higher than that of teachers, with a score of 4.05 or more. In terms of students' satisfaction with teaching performance, male students' satisfaction is above 4.45 points, while female students' satisfaction is 4.35 points. For overall satisfaction, male students scored above 4.45, while female students scored 4.35. Since the satisfaction in all aspects is higher than 3 points, it can be seen that most English majors are quite satisfied with the online teaching.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.940527DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9328128PMC
July 2022

Travel on the road: does China's high-speed rail promote local tourism?

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 Jul 28. Epub 2022 Jul 28.

School of Business, Nanjing Audit University, Nanjing, 211815, China.

Following a Chinese saying: To be rich, roads first, high-speed rail (HSR) opening and station construction are indispensable for economic developing. Probing the nexus between HSR, as a vital part of modern transportation system, and local tourism development provides a scan for reviving tourism and gaining low-carbon transition after COVID-19 pandemic. Drawing on prefecture-level panel data, this study takes difference-in-difference and instrument variable methods to detect the overall and heterogeneous effects of HSR connection on cities' tourism development. The results showed that HSR connection had an overall positive effect on cities' domestic tourist arrivals. The heterogeneity of the effect from HSR to tourism development appears to be that central and western cities, non-resource-based cities, and small cities benefited more from the opening of HSR. From a dynamic perspective, HSR connection promoted local tourism development in the 0 and 1 year of HSR opening but failed to show a positive effect in the long term. Hence, the study proposed some adjustments for evaluating the efficiency of HSR with consideration for the tourism effect, redesigning the system of HSR with consideration for local heterogeneity, and optimizing the HSR environment. These measures can optimize China's HSR management and the design of HSR systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-22114-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9332094PMC
July 2022

Complex Interactions Between Circulating Fatty Acid Levels, Desaturase Activities, and the Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Prospective Cohort Study.

Front Nutr 2022 11;9:919357. Epub 2022 Jul 11.

College of Medicine, Biological Sciences and Psychology, University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom.

Objective: Maternal abnormal fatty acid desaturation has previously been linked to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). However, few studies have investigated this relationship longitudinally throughout pregnancy. In this study, we investigated the relationship between GDM and desaturase activities across the pregnancy trimesters.

Methods: A total of 661 women (GDM = 189, non-GDM = 472) were selected from the Complex Lipids in Mothers and Babies (CLIMB) cohort study. Clinical information and maternal serum were collected at 11-14, 22-28, and 32-34 weeks of gestation. Totally, 20 serum fatty acids were quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis at each timepoint. Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) product-to-precursor ratios were used to estimate desaturase and elongase activities including delta-5 desaturase, delta-6 desaturase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase, and elongase.

Results: After adjusting for major potential confounders including maternal age, BMI, primiparity, smoking, and alcohol consumption, we observed a significant increase in the levels of γ-linolenic acid (GLA) and eicosatrienoic acid (DGLA) in the first trimester of women with GDM, whereas GLA and DGLA were reduced in the third trimester, when compared to the non-GDM group. Arachidonic acid (AA) showed an upward trend in the GDM group throughout pregnancy. Estimated delta-6 desaturase and delta-5 desaturase activity were elevated in the first trimester (OR = 1.40, 95% CI 1.03-1.91; OR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.32-0.96) but attenuated in the third trimester (OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.58-1.07; OR = 2.64, 95% CI 1.46-4.78) in GDM pregnancies, respective to controls. Estimated delta-9-18 desaturase activity (OR = 3.70, 95% CI 1.49-9.19) was increased in women with GDM in later pregnancy.

Conclusions: Our study highlights the potential importance of fatty acid desaturase activities, particularly estimated delta-5 desaturase and delta-9-18 desaturase in the pathophysiology of GDM. These findings may have applications for the early diagnosis and management of GDM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2022.919357DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9313599PMC
July 2022

Study on Influencing Factors Analysis of Gastric Tube Insertion Length and Construction of Estimation Method.

Front Surg 2022 11;9:942881. Epub 2022 Jul 11.

Clinical Nursing Teaching and Research Section, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Background: Influenced by individual differences, the depth of gastric tube placement is often different. Clinically, it is necessary to seek a simple and accurate gastric tube insertion scheme to improve the clinical efficacy of indwelling gastric tube.

Materials And Methods: A total of 100 adult patients undergoing transesophageal manometry nose were included in the study. The length (NCL) of apex-cardia was measured. At the same time, we entered our institutional database, summarized the clinical data of 100 patients, and analyzed the risk factors affecting NCL using stepwise regression analysis.

Results: The NCL length scores of patients with different gender, age, marital status, height, weight, BMI, sitting height, sternum length, hairline-xiphoid process, nose tip-earlobe-xiphoid process and earlobe-xiphoid process were statistically significant ( < 0.05). Height, sitting height, gender, BMI and earlobe-xiphoid process were the factors that affected the NCL length score ( < 0.05). The prediction equation of the estimation method of gastric tube insertion length was as follows: NCL length score = 39.907 + 2.909× height +0.865× sitting height. Adjust to 0.506. NCL was positively correlated with height and sitting height. Among them, the correlation with height (= 0.711, < 0.001) and sitting height (= 0.397, < 0.001).

Conclusion: Height, sitting height, gender, BMI and earlobe-xiphoid process were the factors that affected the score of NCL length. There was a significant positive correlation between height, sitting height and NCL length. On this basis, the length of nasogastric tube insertion could be estimated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fsurg.2022.942881DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9309469PMC
July 2022

Hemangiopericytoma/solitary fibrous tumor of the cranial base: a case series and literature review.

BMC Surg 2022 Jul 27;22(1):289. Epub 2022 Jul 27.

Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, 410008, Hunan, China.

Background: Hemangiopericytomas (HPCs) are uncommon soft tissue tumors. HPCs that grow in the cranial base are rare. Therefore, skull-base surgeons tend to overlook this disease. This study aimed to increase the awareness of HPCs by summarizing case data from our institution and related publications. We also aimed to contribute to the number of reported cases for future systematic reviews of HPCs.

Methods: This study included all patients who underwent surgery for HPC/solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) between August 2015 and August 2019. All surgeries were performed at Xiangya Hospital Central South University. We analyzed clinical characteristics, surgical highlights, treatment modalities, and outcomes.

Results: We included six patients, aged 32-64 years. Lesions were located in the parapharyngeal space in three patients, pterygopalatine fossa in two, and saddle area in one. All patients underwent nasal endoscopic endonasal surgery. In five patients, tumors involved the internal carotid artery (ICA). The exposure and protection of the ICA during surgery are challenging but critical to complete tumor removal. The 3-year overall survival(OS) rate was 66.7%.

Conclusions: HPC/SFTs are rare tumors of the cranial base that are prone to recurrence. Cranial base HPC/SFTs are often closely associated with the ICA. To our knowledge, this case series reports the largest number of cases of HPCs associated with the ICA. We believe that there is a strong relationship between patient prognosis and whether the tumor encircles the ICA and whether the tumor is completely resected. To confirm this suggestion, more cases are needed for further analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12893-022-01718-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9327149PMC
July 2022

The Association between Smoking Cessation and Depressive Symptoms: Diet Quality Plays a Mediating Role.

Nutrients 2022 Jul 25;14(15). Epub 2022 Jul 25.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, The College of Public Health of Qingdao University, Qingdao 266000, China.

Objective: This cross-sectional study aimed to explore the association between smoking cessation and depressive symptoms and investigate the mediating role of dietary quality.

Methods: We used data from the 2007-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Logistic regression models were applied to evaluate the associations between smoking cessation and depressive symptoms. Stratified analysis was performed according to different HEI levels. We examined the mediating role of HEI in the relationship between depressive symptoms and cessation duration using the Karlson-Holm-Breen (KHB) method.

Results: A total of 20,004 participants aged 20 years or older were included in the analyses. There were significant correlations between years for smoking cessation and depressive symptoms (OR: 0.985, 95% CI: 0.971~0.999) after adjusting for correlation covariables. A likelihood ratio test showed that there was an interaction between smoking cessation and diet quality ( = 0.047). In the mediation analysis, we estimated that the increase in HEI scores after quitting smoking could explain the 6.91% decline in depressive symptoms.

Conclusion: In this cross-sectional study, smoking cessation showed a protective effect on depressive symptoms and that diet quality can influence and mediate this association.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu14153047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9331914PMC
July 2022

Developing ROR1 Targeting CAR-T Cells against Solid Tumors in Preclinical Studies.

Cancers (Basel) 2022 Jul 25;14(15). Epub 2022 Jul 25.

SPH Biotherapeutics (HK) Limited, Unit G01/02, Building 15W, Science Park Phase III, Hong Kong Science and Technology Park, NT, Hong Kong.

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T-cells (CAR-T) have demonstrated promising clinical benefits against B-cell malignancies. Yet, its application for solid tumors is still facing challenges. Unlike haematological cancers, solid tumors often lack good targets, which are ideally expressed on the tumor cells, but not by the normal healthy cells. Fortunately, receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 1 (ROR1) is among a few good cancer targets that is aberrantly expressed on various tumors but has a low expression on normal tissue, suggesting it as a good candidate for CAR-T therapy. Here, we constructed two ROR1 CARs with the same antigen recognition domain that was derived from Zilovertamab but differing in hinge regions. Both CARs target ROR1 cancer cells specifically, but CAR with a shorter IgG4 hinge exhibits a higher surface expression and better functionality. We further tested the ROR1 CAR-T in three human solid tumor xenografted mouse models. Our ROR1 CAR-T cells controlled the solid tumor growth without causing any severe toxicity. Our results demonstrated that ROR1 CAR-T derived from Zilovertamab is efficacious and safe to suppress ROR1 solid tumors and , providing a promising therapeutic option for future clinical application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers14153618DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9331269PMC
July 2022

Room-temperature epitaxial welding of 3D and 2D perovskites.

Nat Mater 2022 Jul 25. Epub 2022 Jul 25.

Key Laboratory of Flexible Electronics (KLOFE) & Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Jiangsu National Synergetic Innovation Center for Advanced Materials (SICAM), Nanjing Tech University (NanjingTech), Nanjing, China.

Formation of epitaxial heterostructures via post-growth self-assembly is important in the design and preparation of functional hybrid systems combining unique properties of the constituents. This is particularly attractive for the construction of metal halide perovskite heterostructures, since their conventional solution synthesis usually leads to non-uniformity in composition, crystal phase and dimensionality. Herein, we demonstrate that a series of two-dimensional and three-dimensional perovskites of different composition and crystal phase can form epitaxial heterostructures through a ligand-assisted welding process at room temperature. Using the CsPbBr/PEAPbBr heterostructure as a demonstration, in addition to the effective charge and energy transfer across the epitaxial interface, localized lattice strain was observed at the interface, which was extended to the top layer of the two-dimensional perovskite, leading to multiple new sub-bandgap emissions at low temperature. Given the versatility of our strategy, unlimited hybrid systems are anticipated, yielding composition-, interface- and/or orientation-dependent properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41563-022-01311-4DOI Listing
July 2022

Incidences, Causes and Risk Factors of Unplanned Reoperations within 30 Days of Spine Surgery: A Single-Center Study Based on 35246 Patients.

Spine J 2022 Jul 22. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Department of Orthopedics, Peking University Third Hospital, No. 49 North Garden Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191, China; Engineering Research Center of Bone and Joint Precision Medicine, No. 49 North Garden Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191, China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Spinal Disease Research, No. 49 North Garden Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191, China. Electronic address:

Background Context: Unplanned reoperation, a quality indicator in spine surgery, has not been sufficiently investigated in a large-scale, single-center study.

Purpose: To assess the incidences, causes, and risk factors of unplanned reoperations within 30 days of spine surgeries in a single-center study.

Study Design: Retrospective observational study.

Patient Sample: A cohort of 35,246 patients who underwent spinal surgery in our hospital were included.

Outcome Measures: The rates, chief reasons, and risk factors for unplanned reoperations within 30 days of spine surgery.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data for patients who underwent spine surgeries for degenerative spinal disorders, tumor, or deformity and had subsequent unplanned operations within 30 days at a single tertiary academic hospital from January 2016 to July 2021. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the incidences, causes, and risk factors.

Results: Out of 35,246 spinal surgery patients, 297 (0.84%) required unplanned reoperations within 30 days of spine surgery. Patients with a thoracic degenerative disease (3.23%), spinal tumor (1.63%), and spinal deformity (1.50%) had significantly higher rates of reoperation than those with atlantoaxial (0.61%), cervical (0.65%), and lumbar (0.82%) degenerative disease. The common causes for reoperation included epidural hematoma (0.403%), wound infections (0.148%), neurological deficit (0.108%), and pedicle screw malposition (0.077%). Unplanned reoperations were classified as hyperacute (45.45%), acute (30.98%), subacute (15.82%), or chronic (7.74%). Univariate analysis indicated that 20 clinical factors were associated with unplanned reoperation (P<0.05). Multivariate Poisson regression analysis revealed that anemia (P<0.001), osteoporosis (P=0.048), ankylosing spondylitis (P=0.008), preoperative foot drop (P=0.011), deep venous thrombosis (P<0.001), and previous surgical history (P<0.001) were independent risk factors for unplanned spinal reoperation.

Conclusions: The incidence of unplanned spinal reoperations was 0.84%. The chief common causes were epidural hematoma, wound infections, neurological deficit, and pedicle screw malposition. Anemia, osteoporosis, ankylosing spondylitis, preoperative foot drop, deep venous thrombosis, and previous surgical history led to an increased risk of unplanned reoperation within 30 days of spine surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.spinee.2022.07.098DOI Listing
July 2022

Case Report: Report of Infective Endocarditis Caused by and Literature Review.

Front Pediatr 2022 6;10:894049. Epub 2022 Jul 6.

Department of Pediatric Intensive Care Unit of Xi'an Children's Hospital, National Children's Regional Medical Center (Northwest), Children's Hospital, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

Objective: To report the clinical features of the first child with infective endocarditis (IE) caused by in mainland China and to raise awareness of the disease.

Methods: The clinical data of a child with IE caused by admitted to Xi'an Children's Hospital in July 2021 were collected, and the relevant literature was reviewed.

Results: The child was a female, 8 years old, admitted with fever for 4 days and right-sided limb weakness for 3 days. The illness started with suppurative tonsillitis, followed by headache, fatigue, right-sided mouth, slurred speech, right limb weakness, and unstable holding. Transthoracic echocardiography showed that the mitral valve vegetation was formed and vegetation could also be seen at the entrance of the pulmonary vein at the posterior wall of the left atrium. Cranial contrast-enhanced MRI + magnetic resonance angiography showed multiple intracranial pseudoaneurysm formation and pontine infarction. After was detected by metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) in cerebrospinal fluid and blood detected, the infection was controlled by anti-infective treatment with meropenem and vancomycin. On the 36th day after admission, due to severe headache and slurred speech, the head CT showed hemorrhage of right parietal pseudoaneurysm and cerebral sickle hernia, and right temporo-occipital hematoma evacuation, cerebrovascular malformation resection, and cranial decompression were performed immediately. After the surgery, her speech ability gradually recovered, the muscle strength of her left upper limb was about grade III, while the muscle strength of the rest of the limbs was normal. After a total of 60 days of hospitalization, her family requested to be discharged.

Conclusion: This pediatric patient is the first case of childhood IE caused by in mainland China, and the first time in the world that was detected by mNGS in patients with IE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2022.894049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9299070PMC
July 2022

Decreased lateral posterior tibial slope and medial tibial depth are underlying anatomic risk factors for posterior cruciate ligament injury: a case-control study.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2022 Jul 20;23(1):689. Epub 2022 Jul 20.

Department of Orthopaedics, the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016, China.

Objectives: To research whether medial PTS, lateral PTS and MTD were different between the PCL injury group and the PCL intact group.

Design: Retrospective case-control study, level of evidence III.

Methods: Fifty patients with PCL rupture from 2015 to 2020 in our hospital, and 50 patients matched by age and sex with intact PCL were enrolled in our study. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to assess the reliability of each parameter. The independent t-test was conducted to identify the differences in tibial morphometric characteristics between the PCL-injured and PCL-intact individuals, including the posterior tibial slope (PTS), meniscal slope (MS), medial tibial depth (MTD). A binary logistic regression model was established to evaluate the roles of those anatomic parameters of interest play in PCL injuries.

Results: The interobserver reliability of each parameter showed excellent agreement. Significant differences in the medial (P = .023) and lateral (P = .009) PTS were found between the PCL-injured group (3.68 ± 2.70 and 4.55 ± 3.19, respectively) and the controls (5.00 ± 2.73 and 6.39 ± 3.29, respectively). And the MTD was 1.98 ± 0.64 mm in the PCL-injured group and 2.37 ± 0.55 mm in the control group (P = 0.007). Binary logistic regression analysis showed that smaller lateral PTS and MTD were directly associated with PCL injury, with an OR of 1.17 and OR of 3.14, respectively. The medial PTS was independent to PCL injures.

Conclusion: Decreased lateral PTS and MTD were underlying anatomic risk factors for PCL injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12891-022-05653-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9297602PMC
July 2022

Excessive Visit-to-Visit Small and Dense Low-Density Lipoproteins Elevate Cerebral Small Vessel Disease Progression Risk in the Elderly.

Front Neurol 2022 29;13:851735. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Department of Cardiology, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong First Medical University, Jinan, China.

Objective: Small and dense low-density lipoprotein (sdLDL) elevation may be among the most sensitive early biomarkers for nascent cardiovascular disease. This study, therefore, investigated the association between visit-to-visit changes in sdLDL and cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) progression in older individuals, and the influence of () genotype on this association.

Methods: Between April 2007 and July 2009, 1,143 participants ≥60 years old were recruited from the Shandong region of China, and sdLDL was measured at baseline and at each follow-up visit. White matter hyperintensities (WMHs), lacunes, microbleeds, and enlarged perivascular spaces (EPVSs) were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. The genotype was determined and participants were stratified as εpositive or εnegative.

Results: During an average follow-up of 86.0 months, 225 participants (19.7%) developed WMH progression, 193 (16.9%) lacune progression, 170 (14.9%) microbleed progression, and 185 (16.2%) EPVS progression. Compared with patients in the first (lowest) tertile of visit-to-visit mean sdLDL, those in the second and third tertiles demonstrated significantly greater risks of WMH progression (53.5 and 105.3% higher), lacune progression (53.3 and 60.8%), microbleed progression (47.2 and 127.6%), and EPVS progression (54.0 and 135.0%) after adjustment for confounders (all adjusted values for trends <0.001). Compared with patients in the first tertile of visit-to-visit sdLDL SD, those in the second and third tertiles also demonstrated significantly greater risks of WMH progression (49.9% and 143.6%), lacune progression (75.3 and 178.0%), microbleed progression (12.7 and 64.7%), and EPVS progression (41.7 and 114.6%) after adjustment (all < 0.001). There were significant and positive visit-to-visit mean sdLDL × visit-to-visit sdLDL SD, visit-to-visit mean sdLD×ε-positive, visit-to-visit sdLDL SD×ε-positive, and visit-to-visit mean sdLDL×visit-to-visit sdLDL SD×ε-positive interactions influencing CSVD progression after confounder adjustment (all < 0.05).

Conclusion: Large and variable visit-to-visit changes in sdLDL are independent predictors of aggressive CSVD progression, and this association is strongly influenced by ε allele genotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2022.851735DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9277007PMC
June 2022

Expression Patterns Divergence of Reciprocal F Hybrids Between and Reveals Overdominance Mediating Interspecific Biomass Heterosis.

Front Plant Sci 2022 1;13:892805. Epub 2022 Jul 1.

The Key Laboratory for Quality Improvement of Agricultural Products of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Hangzhou, China.

Hybrid breeding has provided an impetus to the process and achievement of a higher yield and quality of crops. Interspecific hybridization is critical for resolving parental genetic diversity bottleneck problems. The reciprocal interspecific hybrids and their parents ( and ) have been applied in this study to elucidate the transcription regulatory mechanism of early biomass heterosis. Phenotypically, the seed biomass, plant height over parent heterosis, leaf area over parent heterosis, and fresh and dry biomass were found to be significantly higher in hybrids than in parents. Analysis of leaf areas revealed that the one-leaf stage exhibits the most significant performance in initial vegetative growth vigor and larger leaves in hybrids, increasing the synthesis of photosynthesis compounds and enhancing photosynthesis compound synthesis. Comparative transcriptome analysis showed that transgressive down-regulation (TDR) is the main gene expression pattern in the hybrids ( × , HB), and it was found that the genes of photosystem I and Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding may promote early growth vigor. Transgressive up-regulation (TUR) is the major primary gene expression pattern in the hybrids ( × , BH), and photosystem II-related genes mediated the performance of early biomass heterosis. The above results demonstrated that overdominance mediates biomass heterosis in interspecific hybrid cotton and the supervisory mechanism divergence of hybrids with different females. Photosynthesis and other metabolic process are jointly involved in controlling early biomass heterosis in interspecific hybrid cotton. The expression pattern data of transcriptome sequencing were supported using the qRT-PCR analysis. Our findings could be useful in theoretical and practical studies of early interspecific biomass heterosis, and the results provide potential resources for the theoretical and applied research on early interspecific biomass heterosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.892805DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9284264PMC
July 2022

Reference Values for Point-of-Care Echocardiographic Measurements of Preterm Infants in China.

Front Pediatr 2022 30;10:894152. Epub 2022 Jun 30.

Department of Epidemiology Center, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: Few studies have examined the reference value of the left ventricular structure and function in preterm infants. This study was designed to establish a point-of-care echocardiographic reference range of left ventricular structure and function based on different gestational age, weight, and body surface area (BSA) for preterm infants within 7 days after birth.

Methods: We retrospectively studied 489 patients with traditional echocardiographic data of left ventricular (LV) M-mode: LV end diastolic dimensions (LVED), LV end systolic dimension (LVES), end-diastolic interventricular septal thickness (IVSd), end diastolic LV posterior wall thickness (LVPWd), left atrial (LA) and aortic root (AO) diameters, and index of LA/AO, LV ejection fraction (LVEF), LV fractional shortening (LVFS), and pulsed wave Doppler: aortic valve flow rate (AV), peak mitral valve flow rate E(MV-E), peak mitral valve flow rate A(MV-A), and MV-E/A. The LV dimensions and the maximum blood flow velocities of the aortic valves and mitral valves according to gestational age, birth weight, and body surface area (BSA) are presented in percentiles tables. Percentile curves of aforesaid four cardiac measurements (LVED, LA diameter (LAD), MV-E, MV-E/A) using the R language Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) method were developed according to different gestational ages and weights.

Results: Measurements of all cardiac dimensions and Doppler maximum velocities of AV, MV-E, and MV-E/A showed a correlation with gestational age, weight, and BSA. LVED, LAD, MV-E, and MV-E/A showed a trend of increasing values with gestational age and weight on the percentile curves.

Conclusion: The percentile tables and graphs of these point-of-care echocardiographic data can provide reliable reference data for Chinese neonates. Normative values are recommended as a source of reference data for the identification of potentially abnormal echocardiography.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2022.894152DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9280336PMC
June 2022

Associations of muscle mass, strength, and quality with all-cause mortality in China: a population-based cohort study.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2022 Jul 15. Epub 2022 Jul 15.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China.

Background: It remains unclear about the association of muscle mass, strength, and quality with death in the general Chinese population of diverse economical and geographical backgrounds. The present study aimed to comprehensively examine such associations across different regions in China.

Methods: Based on the China Kadoorie Biobank study, the present study included 23,290 participants who were aged 38 to 88 years and had no prevalent cardiovascular diseases or cancer. Muscle mass and grip strength were measured using calibrated instruments. Arm muscle quality was defined as the ratio of grip strength to arm muscle mass. Low muscle mass, grip strength, and arm muscle quality were defined as the sex-specific lowest quintiles of muscle mass index, grip strength, and arm muscle quality, respectively. Cox proportional hazards models yielded hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for risks of all-cause mortality in relation to muscle mass, strength, and quality.

Results: During a median follow-up of 3.98 years, 739 participants died. The HR (95% CI) of all-cause mortality risk was 1.28 (1.08-1.51) for low appendicular muscle mass index, 1.38 (1.16-1.62) for low total muscle mass index, 1.68 (1.41-2.00) for low grip strength, and 1.41 (1.20-1.66) for low arm muscle quality in models adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and medical histories.

Conclusion: Low muscle mass, grip strength, and arm muscle quality are all associated with short-term increased risks of mortality, indicating the importance of maintaining normal muscle mass, strength, and quality for general Chinese adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CM9.0000000000002193DOI Listing
July 2022

Associations of muscle mass, strength, and quality with all-cause mortality in China: a population-based cohort study.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2022 Jul 15. Epub 2022 Jul 15.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China.

Background: It remains unclear about the association of muscle mass, strength, and quality with death in the general Chinese population of diverse economical and geographical backgrounds. The present study aimed to comprehensively examine such associations across different regions in China.

Methods: Based on the China Kadoorie Biobank study, the present study included 23,290 participants who were aged 38 to 88 years and had no prevalent cardiovascular diseases or cancer. Muscle mass and grip strength were measured using calibrated instruments. Arm muscle quality was defined as the ratio of grip strength to arm muscle mass. Low muscle mass, grip strength, and arm muscle quality were defined as the sex-specific lowest quintiles of muscle mass index, grip strength, and arm muscle quality, respectively. Cox proportional hazards models yielded hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for risks of all-cause mortality in relation to muscle mass, strength, and quality.

Results: During a median follow-up of 3.98 years, 739 participants died. The HR (95% CI) of all-cause mortality risk was 1.28 (1.08-1.51) for low appendicular muscle mass index, 1.38 (1.16-1.62) for low total muscle mass index, 1.68 (1.41-2.00) for low grip strength, and 1.41 (1.20-1.66) for low arm muscle quality in models adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and medical histories.

Conclusion: Low muscle mass, grip strength, and arm muscle quality are all associated with short-term increased risks of mortality, indicating the importance of maintaining normal muscle mass, strength, and quality for general Chinese adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CM9.0000000000002193DOI Listing
July 2022

Pilot study of a novel nanobody  Ga-NODAGA-SNA006 for instant PET imaging of CD8 T cells.

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2022 Jul 13. Epub 2022 Jul 13.

Department of Clinical Pharmacology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, No. 899 Ping-Hai Rd., Jiangsu, 215006, Suzhou, China.

Purpose: Positron emission tomography (PET) with specific diagnostic probes for quantifying CD8 T cells has emerged as a powerful technique for monitoring the immune response. However, most CD8 T cell radiotracers are based on antibodies or antibody fragments, which are slowly cleared from circulation. Herein, we aimed to develop and assess  Ga-NODAGA-SNA006 for instant PET (iPET) imaging of CD8 T cells.

Methods: A novel nanobody without a hexahistidine (His) tag, SNA006-GSC, was designed, site-specifically conjugated with NODAGA-maleimide and radiolabelled with  Ga. The PET imaging profiles of  Ga-NODAGA-SNA006 were evaluated in BALB/c MC38-CD8/CD8 tumour models and cynomolgus monkeys. Three volunteers with lung cancer underwent whole-body PET/CT imaging after  Ga-NODAGA-SNA006 administration. The biodistribution, pharmacokinetics and dosimetry of patients were also investigated. In addition, combined with immunohistochemistry (IHC), the quantitative performance of the tracer for monitoring CD8 expression was evaluated in BALB/c MC38-CD8/CD8 and human subjects.

Results:  Ga-NODAGA-SNA006 was prepared with RCP > 98% and SA > 100 GBq/μmol.  Ga-NODAGA-SNA006 exhibited specific uptake in MC38-CD8 xenografts tumours, CD8-rich tissues (such as the spleen) in monkeys and CD8 tumour lesions in patients within 1 h. Fast washout from circulation was observed in three volunteers (t < 20 min). A preliminary quantitative linear relationship (R = 0.9668, p < 0.0001 for xenografts and R = 0.7924, p = 0.0013 for lung patients) appeared between  Ga-NODAGA-SNA006 uptake and CD8 expression.  Ga-NODAGA-SNA006 was well tolerated by all patients.

Conclusion:  Ga-NODAGA-SNA006 PET imaging can instantly quantify CD8 expression with an ideal safety profile and is expected to be important for dynamically tracking CD8 T cells and monitoring immune responses for individualised cancer immunotherapy.

Trial Registration: NCT05126927 (19 November 2021, retrospectively registered).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00259-022-05903-9DOI Listing
July 2022

Deletion of Letmd1 leads to the disruption of mitochondrial function in brown adipose tissue.

Biochimie 2022 Jul 8. Epub 2022 Jul 8.

State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, China; Department of Reproduction and Gynecological Endocrinology, Medical University of Bialystok, Bialystok, Poland; Key Laboratory of Functional Dairy, Ministry of Education, Department of Nutrition and Health, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100083, China. Electronic address:

Human cervical cancer oncogene (HCCR-1), also named as LETMD1, is an LETM-domain containing outer mitochondrial membrane protein which plays an important role in carcinogenesis. The present study found that the loss of Letmd1 in mice led to severe abnormities, such as brown adipose tissue (BAT) whitening, impaired thermogenesis of both BAT and beige fat, cold intolerance, diet-induced obesity, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Mechanically, the deletion of Letmd1 in BAT caused decreased level of both mitochondrial and intracellular Ca. The reduced intracellular Ca could suppress the fission of mitochondria and ultimately lead to the disruption of BAT thermogenesis by regulating mitochondrial structures and functions. This study indicates that LETMD1 played a crucial role in BAT thermogenesis and energy homeostasis through regulating mitochondrial structures and functions, which provides a novel insight into therapeutic target exploration from oncogenes for metabolic disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biochi.2022.07.002DOI Listing
July 2022

Comparison of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and telbivudine in preventing hepatitis B transmission in mothers with high viral load.

Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2022 Jul 11. Epub 2022 Jul 11.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Beijing Youan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Objective: To add to the limited data that exist on the selection of drugs to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B virus (HBV).

Methods: This is a prospective cohort study that enrolled mothers with HBV-DNA ≥2 × 10  IU/ml. All enrolled mothers received either tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) or telbivudine (LdT) to prevent HBV transmission.

Results: A total of 270 mothers received TDF treatment and 275 mothers received LdT treatment. The predelivery decline in HBV-DNA in the TDF group was higher than the LdT group (3.92 ± 0.93 log IU/ml vs. 3.76 ± 0.94 log IU/ml, P = 0.043). In the primary analysis, the MTCT rate of the TDF group was comparable to that of the LdT group, both in the intention-to-treat analysis (1.5% [4/275] vs. 1.8% [5/273], P > 0.99) and the per-protocol analysis (0% in both groups, P > 0.99). The alanine aminotransferase elevation rates in the TDF group were lower than in the LdT group (17.3% vs. 27.4%, P = 0.005). Less anorexia and more arthralgia were observed in the LdT group than the TDF group.

Conclusions: TDF and LdT are both effective in preventing MTCT of HBV, but they may cause different adverse events. TDF is more effective in reducing HBV viral load and had fewer alanine aminotransferase abnormalities than LdT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijgo.14341DOI Listing
July 2022

[Genetic analysis of a Chinese patient with congenital disorders of glycosylation-If].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi 2022 Jul;39(7):731-734

Department of Reproductive Genetics, Momen and Infants Hospital of Zhengzhou, Zhengzhou, Henan 450012, China.

Objective: To explore the genetic basis for a Chinese patient with congenital disorders of glycosylation-If (CDG-If).

Methods: Whole exome sequencing (WES) was carried out for the patient.

Results: The patient, a 5-year-old girl, has featured severe mental retardation. She had learned to walk at 4 years old and was only able to make sounds like "ma ma" occasionally. She was found to harbor compound heterozygous variants of the MPDU1 gene, namely c.389G>A and c.470T>C, both of which were unreported previously.

Conclusion: Above finding has enriched the mutational spectrum of CDG-If among the Chinese population, with c.218G>A being the commonest mutation, along with a more severe phenotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn511374-20201026-00750DOI Listing
July 2022

Mesoscale Study on Splitting Tensile Damage Characteristics of Concrete Based on X-ray Computed Tomography and Digital Image Correlation Technology.

Materials (Basel) 2022 Jun 22;15(13). Epub 2022 Jun 22.

College of Civil and Transportation Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210009, China.

In this paper, the mesoscale damage properties of concrete and mortar were studied experimentally under Brazilian disc splitting tensile tests combining X-ray computed tomography (CT) and digital image correlation (DIC) technology. Considering the factors of water/cement ratios and loading rates, the influence of meso components on the macro tensile properties and failure modes of concrete were studied. The experimental results and analysis indicate that the following: (1) the existence of coarse aggregate makes the tensile strength of concrete lower than that of mortar and reduces the sensitivity of tensile strength to the loading rates; (2) the failure modes of mortar and concrete Brazilian discs differ in the crack initiation positions and localization phenomena. Under high loading rates, the local failure plays a critical role in the strength improvement of concrete; (3) for concrete, interface failure and mortar failure are the main failure modes under low loading rates, whereas aggregate failure gradually becomes the main failure mode with increasing loading rates. The decrease in water/cement ratios improves the strength of the mortar matrix and interfacial bonding performance, leading to more serious aggregate damage and higher strength.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma15134416DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9267466PMC
June 2022

DNA methylation profiling identifies subgroups of lung adenocarcinoma with distinct immune cell composition, DNA methylation age, and clinical outcome.

Clin Cancer Res 2022 Jun 8. Epub 2022 Jun 8.

New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, ny, United States.

Purpose: Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is a clinically heterogenous disease, which is highlighted by the unpredictable recurrence in low-stage tumors and highly variable responses observed in patients treated with immunotherapies, which cannot be explained by mutational profiles. DNA methylation-based classification and understanding of microenviromental heterogeneity may allow stratification into clinically relevant molecular subtypes of LUADs.

Experimental Design: We characterize the genome-wide DNA methylation landscape of 88 resected LUAD tumors. Exome sequencing focusing on a panel of cancer-related genes was used to genotype these adenocarcinoma samples. Bioinformatic and statistical tools, the immune cell composition, DNA methylation age (DNAm age), and DNA methylation clustering were used to identify clinically relevant subgroups.

Results: Deconvolution of DNA methylation data identified immunologically hot and cold subsets of lung adenocarcinomas. Additionally, concurrent factors were analyzed that could affect the immune microenvironment, such as smoking history, ethnicity, or presence of KRAS or TP53 mutations. When the DNAm age was calculated, a lower DNAm age was correlated with the presence of a set of oncogenic drivers, poor overall survival, and specific immune cell populations. Unsupervised DNA methylation clustering identified 6 molecular subgroups of LUAD tumors with distinct clinical and microenvironmental characteristics.

Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that DNA methylation signatures can stratify lung adenocarcinoma into clinically relevant subtypes, and thus such classification of LUAD at the time of resection may lead to better methods in predicting tumor recurrence and therapy responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-22-0391DOI Listing
June 2022

A Temporal-Aware Relation and Attention Network for Temporal Action Localization.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2022 14;31:4746-4760. Epub 2022 Jul 14.

Temporal action localization is currently an active research topic in computer vision and machine learning due to its usage in smart surveillance. It is a challenging problem since the categories of the actions must be classified in untrimmed videos and the start and end of the actions need to be accurately found. Although many temporal action localization methods have been proposed, they require substantial amounts of computational resources for the training and inference processes. To solve these issues, in this work, a novel temporal-aware relation and attention network (abbreviated as TRA) is proposed for the temporal action localization task. TRA has an anchor-free and end-to-end architecture that fully uses temporal-aware information. Specifically, a temporal self-attention module is first designed to determine the relationship between different temporal positions, and more weight is given to features within the actions. Then, a multiple temporal aggregation module is constructed to aggregate the temporal domain information. Finally, a graph relation module is designed to obtain the aggregated graph features, which are used to refine the boundaries and classification results. Most importantly, these three modules are jointly explored in a unified framework, and temporal awareness is always fully used. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed method can outperform all state-of-the-art methods on the THUMOS14 dataset with an average mAP that reaches 67.6% and obtain a comparable result on the ActivityNet1.3 dataset with an average mAP that reaches 34.4%. Compared with A2Net (TIP20), PCG-TAL (TIP21), and AFSD (CVPR21) TRA can achieve improvements of 11.7%, 4.4%, and 1.8%, respectively on the THUMOS14 dataset.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIP.2022.3182866DOI Listing
July 2022
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