Publications by authors named "Hua Shao"

207 Publications

Continuous Theta-Burst Stimulation Over the Right Orbitofrontal Cortex in Treatment-Resistant Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Treatment: A Randomized Sham-Controlled Trial.

Int J Gen Med 2021 1;14:3109-3118. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Clinical Psychology Department, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Examining whether modulation of right orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) activity by continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS) affects obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms.

Patients And Methods: A total of 28 treatment-resistant OCD participants were treated with either active or sham cTBS of the OFC twice per day, for five days a week, for 2 weeks, in a double-blinded manner. Clinical response to treatment was determined using the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS).

Results: There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups after two weeks of treatment in the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale score (group*time interaction, F2,20=0.996, p=0.387) and other secondary outcome measures, including anxiety symptoms and responder rates. Depressive symptoms improved significantly in the active group (p=0.027), but the significant difference disappeared at 6 weeks (p=0.089).

Conclusion: This is the first randomized controlled study using cTBS in the right OFC to observe the improvement of treatment-resistant OCD symptoms. It is safe to use cTBS, but 2 weeks of treatment is not enough to achieve a curative effect. Future studies are needed to explore more advanced stimulation parameters suitable for the treatment of OCD.

Clinical Trial Registration: www.chictr.org.cn, identifier ChiCTR2000034814.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S318069DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8257072PMC
July 2021

Exosomes derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells reverse epithelial-mesenchymal transition potentially via attenuating Wnt/β-catenin signaling to alleviate silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

Toxicol Mech Methods 2021 Jul 5:1-40. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Shandong Academy of Occupational Health and Occupational Medicine, Shandong First Medical University & Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan 250062, Shandong, People's Republic of China.

Pulmonary fibrosis induced by silica dust is an irreversible, chronic, and fibroproliferative lung disease with no effective treatment at present. BMSCs-derived exosomes (BMSCs-Exo) possess similar functions to their parent cells. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic potential and underlying molecular mechanism for BMSCs-Exo in the treatment of silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis. The rat model of experimental silicosis pulmonary fibrosis was induced with 1.0mL of one-off infusing silica suspension using the non-exposed intratracheal instillation (50 mg/mL/rat). In vivo transplantation of BMSCs-Exo effectively alleviated silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis, including a reduction in collagen accumulation, inhibition of TGF-β1, and decreased HYP content. Treatment of BMSCs-Exo increased the expression of epithelial marker proteins including E-cadherin (E-cad) and cytokeratin19 (CK19) and reduced the expression of fibrosis marker proteins including α-Smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) after exposure to silica suspension. Furthermore, we found that BMSCs-Exo inhibited the expression of Wnt/β-catenin pathway components (P-GSK3β, β-catenin, Cyclin D1) in pulmonary fibrosis tissue. BMSCs-Exo is involved in the alleviation of silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis by reducing the level of profibrotic factor TGF-β1 and inhibiting the progression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Additionally, attenuation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway closely related to EMT may be one of the mechanisms involved in anti-fibrotic effects of exosomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15376516.2021.1950250DOI Listing
July 2021

Allelopathic, Phytotoxic, and Insecticidal Effects of Serg. Essential Oil and Its Major Constituents.

Front Plant Sci 2021 15;12:689875. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ürümqi, China.

The chemical profile of essential oil (EO) and its allelopathic, phytotoxic, and insecticidal activity was evaluated. Carvacrol, p-cymene, and γ-terpinene were detected as the major components of the EO, representing 85.9% of the total oil. About 50 g fresh plant material of in a 1.5-L air tight container completely inhibited the seed germination of and . Meanwhile, the EO exhibited potent phytotoxic activity, which resulted in 100% germination failure of both the test species when 2 mg/ml (for ) and 5 mg/ml (for ) oil was applied. The EO also triggered a significant insecticidal activity on with a LC value of 6.34 ppm. Carvacrol was identified as the main active compound responsible for both the plant suppressing effect and the insecticidal activity of the EO. Our study is the first on the allelopathic, phytotoxic, and insecticidal activity of EO, and the determination of the responsible compound, which indicated their potential of being further explored as environment friendly biopesticides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.689875DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8239391PMC
June 2021

High frequency ultrasound-guided pericardiocentesis performed in the sitting position: A novel apical approach.

Clin Cardiol 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Ultrasound, Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Harbin, China.

Background: So far, few approaches have been described to reduce inadvertent injury to structure of the heart and nearby organs in percutaneous pericardiocentesis.

Hypothesis: We hypothesized that an in-plane high frequency ultrasound-guided apical approach, performed in the sitting position, would provide additional benefits in terms of feasibility and safety for draining malignant pericardial effusion (MPE).

Methods: The authors selected 53 consecutive patients with moderate or large symptomatic MPE who underwent high frequency ultrasound-guided pericardiocentesis. After the procedure, all patients were followed for 90 days with the main purpose of detecting procedure success, procedure-related complications, and recurrent PE.

Results: Procedure success rate for pericardiocentesis was 100%. All patients were placed in the sitting position with their left hands extended above the heads. An apical puncture approach was performed in all cases (100%). The mean duration of catheter drainage was 8.1 ± 3.2 days. The mean initial amount of pericardial fluid drained was 956.3 ± 687.5 ml. Overall, six patients (11%) had recurrent PE; 3 (6%) had repeated percutaneous pericardiocentesis. There was no major complication and minor complications occurred in four patients (8%).

Conclusion: This novel in-plane high frequency US-guided apical approach has several advantages for percutaneous pericardiocentesis of MPE: performed in the sitting position; a benefit for patients with orthopnea; a maximum inserted wide angle to prevent damage to the myocardium; local enlargement of the PE region; high procedure success rate of pericardiocentesis; and excellent clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/clc.23657DOI Listing
June 2021

LINC00894 Enhances the Progression of Breast Cancer by Sponging miR-429 to Regulate ZEB1 Expression.

Onco Targets Ther 2021 25;14:3395-3407. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Thyroid and Breast Surgery, The Second People's Hospital of Lianyungang City, Lianyungang, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are known to regulate tumorigenesis. Although breast cancer tissues show a high expression of , its specific biological role in breast cancer progression is still unknown. In this study, lncRNA microarray was used to analyze the lncRNA expression in breast cancer tissues, and was selected for further analysis.

Materials And Methods: Expression of in 45 pairs of breast cancer tissues and normal tissues obtained from patients with breast cancer was assessed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, while proliferation and invasion of breast cancer cells were assessed using a Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), EdU assay, colony formation experiment, and transwell assays. A dual-luciferase reporter gene assay and bioinformatics analysis were employed to detect potential targets of . Additionally, RNA Binding Protein Immunoprecipitation (RIP) and Western blot assays were utilized to clarify its interaction and roles in the regulation of breast cancer progression.

Results: High expression of was observed in breast cancer cells, and its overexpression significantly expedited cell proliferation and invasion. Moreover, positively regulated the expression of by competitively binding to miR-429.

Conclusion: Taken together, these results suggest that competitively binds to miR-429 to mediate expression; consequently, it is implicated to play a role in the progression of breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S277284DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8164724PMC
May 2021

Glyburide attenuates B(a)p and LPS-induced inflammation-related lung tumorigenesis in mice.

Environ Toxicol 2021 Aug 26;36(8):1713-1722. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Toxicology, Zhengzhou University School of Public Health, Zhengzhou, Henan, China.

Glyburide (Gly) could inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome, as well as could be treated with Type 2 diabetes as a common medication. Despite more and more studies show that Gly could influence cancer risk and tumor growth, it remains unclear about the effect of Gly in lung tumorigenesis. To evaluate whether Gly inhibited lung tumorigenesis and explore the possible mechanisms, a benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)p] plus lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced non-diabetes mice model was established with B(a)p for 4 weeks and once a week (1 mg/mouse), then instilled with LPS for 15 weeks and once every 3 weeks (2.5 μg/mouse) intratracheally. Subsequently, Gly was administered by gavage (10 μl/g body weight) 1 week before B(a)p were given to the mice until the animal model finished (when Gly was first given named Week 0). At the end of the experiment called Week 34, we analyzed the incidence, number and histopathology of lung tumors, and detected the expression of NLRP3, IL-1β, and Cleaved-IL-1β protein. We found that vehicles and tricaprylin+Gly could not cause lung carcinogenesis in the whole process. While the incidence and mean tumor count of mice in B(a)P/LPS+Gly group were decreased compared with B(a)p/LPS group. Moreover, Gly could alleviate inflammatory changes and reduce pathological tumor nest numbers compared with mice administrated with B(a)p/LPS in histopathological examination. The B(a)p/LPS increased the expression of NLRP3, IL-1β, and Cleaved-IL-1β protein significantly than Vehicle, whereas decreased in B(a)P/LPS+Gly (0.96 mg/kg) group compared with B(a)p/LPS group. Results suggested glyburide might inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome to attenuate inflammation-related lung tumorigenesis caused by intratracheal instillation of B(a)p/LPS in non-diabetes mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tox.23293DOI Listing
August 2021

Step-type quantum wells with slightly varied InN composition for GaN-based yellow micro light-emitting diodes.

Appl Opt 2021 Apr;60(11):3006-3012

In this work, we propose adopting step-type quantum wells to improve the external quantum efficiency for GaN-based yellow micro light-emitting diodes. The step-type quantum well is separated into two parts with slightly different InN compositions. The proposed quantum well structure can partially reduce the polarization mismatch between quantum barriers and quantum wells, which increases the overlap for electron and hole wave functions without affecting the emission wavelength. Another advantage is that the slightly decreased InN composition in the quantum well helps to decrease the valence band barrier height for holes. For this reason, the hole injection capability is improved. More importantly, we also find that step-type quantum wells can make holes spread less to the mesa edges, thus suppressing the surface nonradiative recombination and decreasing the leakage current.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.422257DOI Listing
April 2021

Allelopathic Effect of (Krasch.) Poljak. Volatiles on Selected Species.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Mar 5;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011, China.

The chemical profile and allelopathic effect of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by a dominant shrub (Krasch.) Poljak. growing in northwestern China was investigated for the first time. was found to release volatile compounds into the surroundings to affect other plants' growth, with its VOCs suppressing root elongation of L. and L. by 65.47% and 60.37% at 10 g/1.5 L treatment, respectively. Meanwhile, volatile oils produced by stems, leaves, flowers and flowering shoots exhibited phytotoxic activity against and . At 0.5 mg/mL, stem, leaf and flower oils significantly reduced seedling growth of the receiver plants, and 1.5 mg/mL oils nearly completely prohibited seed germination of both species. GC/MS analysis revealed that among the total 37 identified compounds in the oils, 19 of them were common, with eucalyptol (43.00%, 36.66%, 19.52%, and 38.68% in stem, leaf, flower and flowering shoot oils, respectively) and camphor (21.55%, 24.91%, 21.64%, and 23.35%, respectively) consistently being the dominant constituents in all oils. Eucalyptol, camphor and their mixture exhibited much weaker phytotoxicity compared with the volatile oils, implying that less abundant compounds in the volatile oil might contribute significantly to the oils' activity. Our results suggested that was capable of synthesizing and releasing allelopathic volatile compounds into the surroundings to affect neighboring plants' growth, which might improve its competitiveness thus facilitate the establishment of dominance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10030495DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7999328PMC
March 2021

Activation of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway attenuates ROS-mediated autophagy induced by silica nanoparticles in H9c2 cells.

Environ Toxicol 2021 Jul 25;36(7):1389-1401. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Toxicology, Shandong Academy of Occupational Health and Occupational Medicine, Shandong First Medical University, Ji'nan, China.

Silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) as one of the most productive nano-powder, has been extensively applied in various fields. There has been increasing concern about the adverse effects of SiNPs on the health of ecological organisms and human. The potential cardiovascular toxicity of SiNPs and involved mechanisms remain elusive. Hence, in this study, we investigated the cardiovascular toxicity of SiNPs (60 nm) and explored the underlying mechanisms using H9c2 cardiomyocytes. Results showed that SiNPs induced oxidative stress and activated the Nrf2/HO-1 antioxidant pathway. Autophagy was also activated by SiNPs. Interestingly, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC)attenuated autophagy after inhibiting reactive oxygen species (ROS). Meanwhile, down-regulation of Nrf2 enhanced autophagy. In summary, these data indicated that SiNPs induce autophagy in H9c2 cardiomyocytes through oxidative stress, and the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway has a negative regulatory effect on autophagy. This study provides new evidence for the cardiovascular toxicity of SiNPs and provides a reference for the safe use of nanomaterials in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tox.23134DOI Listing
July 2021

Hesperetin attenuates silica-induced lung injury by reducing oxidative damage and inflammatory response.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Apr 28;21(4):297. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Shandong Academy of Occupational Health and Occupational Medicine, Shandong First Medical University and Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, Shandong 250062, P.R. China.

Oxidative stress and the inflammatory response are two important mechanisms of silica-induced lung injury. Hesperetin (HSP) is a natural flavonoid compound that is found in citrus fruits and has been indicated to exhibit strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The current study evaluated the protective effect of HSP on lung injury in rats exposed to silica. The results indicated that the degree of alveolitis and pulmonary fibrosis in the HSP-treated group was significantly decreased compared with the silica model group. The content of hydroxyproline (HYP) was also revealed to decrease overall in the HSP treated group compared with the silica model group, indicating that the degree of pulmonary fibrosis was decreased compared with the silica model group. The present study also demonstrated that HSP reduced oxidation levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX). Total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) was also increased following HSP treatment, indicating that HSP can alleviate oxidative stress in the lung tissue of silica-exposed rats. In addition, HSP was revealed to inhibit the synthesis and secretion of fibrogenic factor TGF-β1, reduce the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-4, TNF-α and increase the levels of anti-inflammatory factors IFN-γ and IL-10. The current study demonstrated that HSP can effectively attenuate silica-induced lung injury by reducing oxidative damage and the inflammatory response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.9728DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7885076PMC
April 2021

LncRNA Rian ameliorates sevoflurane anesthesia-induced cognitive dysfunction through regulation of miR-143-3p/LIMK1 axis.

Hum Cell 2021 May 22;34(3):808-818. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Anesthesiology, Pain and Perioperative Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, No. 1, Jianshe East Road, Erqi District, Zhengzhou, 450052, Henan, China.

Sevoflurane could stimulate neurotoxicity and result in postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been implicated in the regulation of nervous system disease. This study was performed to investigate role and mechanism of lncRNA Rian (RNA imprinted and accumulated in nucleus) in sevoflurane anesthesia-induced cognitive dysfunction. Mice post-sevoflurane anesthesia showed cognitive impairments and neuronal damage and apoptosis. However, intracerebroventricularly injection with Adenovirus (Ad) for the over-expression of Rian ameliorated sevoflurane-induced neuronal damage and apoptosis. Cognitive impairments induced by sevoflurane were attenuated by injection with Ad-Rian. Moreover, transfection with Ad-Rian also protected isolated primary hippocampal neurons against sevoflurane-induced decrease of cell viability and increase of lactic acid dehydrogenase (LDH) and apoptosis. Mechanistically, Rian bind to miR-143-3p, and decreased expression of LIMK1 (Lim kinase 1) through negative regulation of miR-143-3p. Knockdown of LIMK1 aggravated sevoflurane-induced decrease of cell viability and increase of LDH and apoptosis in neurons, while over-expression attenuated LIMK1 silence-induced neuronal damage post-sevoflurane anesthesia. In conclusion, Rian demonstrated neuroprotective effects against sevoflurane anesthesia-induced cognitive dysfunction through regulation of miR-143-3p/LIMK1 axis, providing promising target for sevoflurane anesthesia-induced cognitive dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13577-021-00502-6DOI Listing
May 2021

Chemical composition and phytotoxicity of essential oil from invasive plant, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Mar 16;211:111879. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

Xinjiang University, Resource and Environment Science College, Urumqi 830046, China. Electronic address:

Essential oils have been evaluated as appropriate phytotoxins with mechanisms of action that are different from those of synthetic herbicides applied in weed management activities, but little is known about the effect of Ambrosia artemisiifolia essential oil (EO) on weeds. Here, the chemical composition of A. artemisiifolia EO was analyzed using a Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry system. and the phytotoxic activities of the EO against monocot (Poa annua, Setaria viridis) and dicot (Amaranthus retroflexus, Medicago sativa) species are evaluated under laboratory and green-house conditions for the first time. The EO was rich in sesquiterpenes (62.51%), with germacrene D (32.92%), β-pinene (15.14%), limonene (9.90%), and caryophyllene (4.49%) being the major compounds based on Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry analysis results. A. artemisiifolia EO inhibited seed germination and seedling development significantly in the tested species even at low concentrations (0.25 mg mL). In addition, bioassay results for the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) increased and then decreased with an increase in EO concentration. Unlike the enzymatic activity, root cell viability declined significantly in the tested weeds in all EO treatments. Besides, a foliar spray experiment resulted in visible injury in leaves and a decrease in chlorophyll content and eventually led to wilting of all tested weeds. The EO (0.25-5.00 mg mL) altered Allium cepa root tip cells with a decline in mitotic index and an increase in chromosomal aberrations after 24 h treatment. The cytotoxic evaluation confirmed the mitotic inhibitory effect of EO, although the intensity varied under different concentrations. According to the results, A. artemisiifolia EO has the potential applications as a natural herbicide owing to its phytotoxic activity; which also helps to explain their potential involvement in allelopathic interaction of volatile compounds present in the EO that facilitate the invasion success of the exotic species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.111879DOI Listing
March 2021

Chemical Profile and Phytotoxic Action of Hibiscus trionum Essential Oil.

Chem Biodivers 2021 Feb 21;18(2):e2000897. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi, 830011, P. R. China.

The chemical profile and phytotoxic action of Hibiscus trionum essential oil (EO) was studied. In total 17 compounds were identified via GC/MS, representing 94.18 % of the entire oil, with phytol (40.37 %) being the dominant constituent. Bioassay revealed that the EO inhibited root elongation of Medicago sativa and Amaranthus retroflexus by 32.66 % and 61.86 % at 5 mg/mL, respectively; meanwhile, the major component phytol also exhibited significant phytotoxic activity, suppressing radical elongation of Pennisetum alopecuroides, M. sativa and A. retroflexus by 26.08 %, 27.55 % and 43.96 % at 1 mg/mL, respectively. The fact that the EO showed weaker activity than phytol implied that some constituents might trigger antagonistic action to decrease the oil's activity. Our study is the first on the chemical profile and phytotoxic effect of H. trionum EO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.202000897DOI Listing
February 2021

Identification and Validation of Two Lung Adenocarcinoma-Development Characteristic Gene Sets for Diagnosing Lung Adenocarcinoma and Predicting Prognosis.

Front Genet 2020 21;11:565206. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Department of Neurology, The Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China.

: Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is one of the main types of lung cancer. Because of its low early diagnosis rate, poor late prognosis, and high mortality, it is of great significance to find biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis. : Five hundred and twelve LUADs from The Cancer Genome Atlas were used for differential expression analysis and short time-series expression miner (STEM) analysis to identify the LUAD-development characteristic genes. Survival analysis was used to identify the LUAD-unfavorable genes and LUAD-favorable genes. Gene set variation analysis (GSVA) was used to score individual samples against the two gene sets. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis were used to explore the diagnostic and prognostic ability of the two GSVA score systems. Two independent data sets from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) were used for verifying the results. Functional enrichment analysis was used to explore the potential biological functions of LUAD-unfavorable genes. : With the development of LUAD, 185 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were gradually upregulated, of which 84 genes were associated with LUAD survival and named as LUAD-unfavorable gene set. While 237 DEGs were gradually downregulated, of which 39 genes were associated with LUAD survival and named as LUAD-favorable gene set. ROC curve analysis and univariate/multivariate Cox proportional hazards analyses indicated both of LUAD-unfavorable GSVA score and LUAD-favorable GSVA score were a biomarker of LUAD. Moreover, both of these two GSVA score systems were an independent factor for LUAD prognosis. The LUAD-unfavorable genes were significantly involved in p53 signaling pathway, Oocyte meiosis, and Cell cycle. : We identified and validated two LUAD-development characteristic gene sets that not only have diagnostic value but also prognostic value. It may provide new insight for further research on LUAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2020.565206DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7779611PMC
December 2020

Efficacy of 11C-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-fluorophenyl) tropane positron emission tomography combined with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in the diagnosis of early Parkinson disease: A protocol for systematic review and meta analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Dec;99(51):e23395

Department of Imaging, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China.

Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) has a high incidence in the elderly, and the late stage seriously affects the daily life of the patients. Most of the initial symptoms of PD are not obvious or atypical, which brings difficulties to the early diagnosis. Replacement therapy and neuroprotection after early diagnosis can significantly improve the prognosis and quality of life of patients. More and more evidence shows that 11C-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-fluorophenyl) tropane positron emission tomography ( 11C-CFT PET) combined with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) can effectively improve the accuracy of early diagnosis. However, there is no consistent conclusion at present. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of 11C-CFT PET combined with 18F-FDG PET in the diagnosis of early PD.

Methods: We will search 7 electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane library, PsycINFO, AMED, Scopus), ongoing trials and grey literature to collect related randomized controlled trials and will use Review Manager Software 5.2 and STATA Software 16.0 for analysis and synthesis.

Results: We will integrate the existing randomized controlled trials to evaluate the value of 11C-CFT PET combined with 18F-FDG PET in the diagnosis of early PD.

Conclusion: Our study may prove that 11C-CFT PET combined with 18F-FDG PET can effectively diagnose early PD.

Registration Number: International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO): CRD42020203442.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000023395DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7748366PMC
December 2020

Emodin attenuates silica-induced lung injury by inhibition of inflammation, apoptosis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Feb 23;91:107277. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Shandong Academy of Occupational Health and Occupational Medicine, Shandong First Medical University & Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Ji'nan, Shandong, China; The University of Queensland, Queensland Alliance for Environmental Health Sciences (QAEHS), Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. Electronic address:

Silicosis is a fatal pulmonary disease caused by the inhalation of silica dust, and characterized by inflammation and fibrosis of the lung, with no effective treatment to date. Here we investigate the effect of emodin, an anthraquinone derivative isolated from rhubarb using a mouse silicosis model and in vitro cultured human macrophages and alveolar epithelial cells. Results from histological examination indicated that emodin reduced the degree of alveolitis and fibrosis in the lungs of mice exposed to silica particles. We also demonstrated that emodin effectively inhibited the phosphorylation of Smad3 and NF-κB and reduced the levels of inflammatory factors in the lung tissue of mice treated with silica particles. In addition, we found that emodin inhibited apoptosis and demonstrated an anti-fibrotic effect by down-regulating the pro-apoptotic protein Bax and up-regulating the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Furthermore, emodin increased E-cadherin levels, reduced the expression of Vimentin, α-SMA and Col-I, as well as pro-inflammatory factors TGF-β1, TNF-α and IL-1β in vivo and in vitro. These results suggested that emodin can regulate epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) through the inhibition of the TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway and the NF-κB signaling pathway to prevent alveolar inflammation and apoptotic process. Overall, this study showed that emodin can alleviate pulmonary fibrosis in silicosis through regulating the inflammatory response and fibrotic process at multiple levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2020.107277DOI Listing
February 2021

Chemical composition and phytotoxic activity of the essential oil of growing in Xinjiang, China.

Nat Prod Res 2020 Nov 13:1-6. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi, China.

The chemical profile and phytotoxic activity of the essential oil extracted from was investigated. In total 17 compounds were identified by GC/MS, representing 99.17% of the entire oil, among which α-thujone (64.46%) and eucalyptol (10.15%) were the most abundant constituents. The major components, their mixture as well as the essential oil exhibited significant phytotoxic activity against , , and , with their IC values ranged from 1.55 ∼ 6.21 mg/mL (α-thujone), 1.42 ∼ 17.81 mg/mL (eucalyptol), 0.23 ∼ 1.05 mg/mL (the mixture), and 1.89 ∼ 4.69 mg/mL (the essential oil) on the four tested species. The mixture of the major constituents exerted more potent effect compared with each individual compound, indicating the possible involvement of synergistic effect of these two compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2020.1837806DOI Listing
November 2020

Toluene diisocyanate-induced inflammation and airway remodeling involves autophagy in human bronchial epithelial cells.

Toxicol In Vitro 2021 Feb 27;70:105040. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Shandong Academy of Occupational Health and Occupational Medicine, Shandong First Medical University and Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, Shandong 250062, China.

Toluene-diisocyanate (TDI) is one of the main causes of occupational asthma. To study the role of autophagy in TDI-induced airway inflammation and airway remodeling in bronchial airway epithelial (16HBE) cells. We treated 16HBE cells with TDI-human serum albumin (TDI-HSA) conjugate to observe reactive oxygen species (ROS) release, autophagy activation, airway inflammation and airway remodeling. 3-Methyladenine (3-MA) and Rapamycin (Rapa) intervention were used to explore the effects of autophagy on inflammatory response and protein expression related to airway remodeling in 16HBE cells treated with TDI-HSA. Experimental results suggested that various concentrations of TDI-HSA (0, 40, 80 and 120 μg/mL) increased the release of ROS and the expression of Nrf2, activated autophagy and increased the expression of AMPK, Beclin-1, LC3 and decreased the expression of p62, promoted the levels of IL-5, IL-6 and IL-8 in 16HBE cells. Results also showed that E-cadherin expression decreased but an increase was observed in α-SMA and MMP-9 in the TDI-HSA group. The treatment of TDI-HSA combined with Rapa aggravated the above reaction whereas the inverse was true for TDI-HSA combined with 3-MA. These results indicated that autophagy is involved in TDI-induced airway inflammation and airway remodeling as a positive regulatory mechanism, inhibiting autophagy can significantly alleviate the TDI-induced inflammatory response and attenuate airway remodeling protein expression in 16HBE cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2020.105040DOI Listing
February 2021

Comparative proteomic analysis of silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats based on tandem mass tag (TMT) quantitation technology.

PLoS One 2020 29;15(10):e0241310. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Shandong Academy of Occupational Health and Occupational Medicine, Shandong First Medical University & Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Ji'nan, Shandong, China.

Silicosis is a systemic disease characterized by chronic persistent inflammation and incurable pulmonary fibrosis with the underlying molecular mechanisms to be fully elucidated. In this study, we employed tandem mass tag (TMT) based on quantitative proteomics technology to detect differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in lung tissues of silica-exposed rats. A total of 285 DEPs (145 upregulated and 140 downregulated) were identified. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses were performed to predict the biological pathway and functional classification of the proteins. Results showed that these DEPs were mainly enriched in the phagosome, lysosome function, complement and the coagulation cascade, glutathione metabolism, focal adhesion and ECM-receptor interactions. To validate the proteomics data, we selected and analyzed the expression trends of six proteins including CD14, PSAP, GM2A, COL1A1, ITGA8 and CLDN5 using parallel reaction monitoring (PRM). The consistent result between PRM and TMT indicated the reliability of our proteomic data. These findings will help to reveal the pathogenesis of silicosis and provide potential therapeutic targets. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD020625.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0241310PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7595299PMC
December 2020

Genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation in testis of male rat exposed to chlorpyrifos.

Toxicol Res (Camb) 2020 Jul 4;9(4):509-518. Epub 2020 Aug 4.

Queensland Alliance for Environmental Health Sciences (QAEHS), The University of Queensland 20 Cornwall Street, Woolloongabba, QLD 4102, Australia.

In our previous study, we found that subchronic exposure of chlorpyrifos (CPF) can cause reproductive damage in male rats. However, the mechanisms underlying the reproductive effects of CPF are not well understood. DNA methylation is essential for epigenetic gene regulation in development and disease. Therefore, we aim to compare DNA methylation profiles between controls and CPF-treated rats in order to identify the epigenetic mechanism of male reproductive toxicity induced by CPF. Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation with high-throughput sequencing (MeDIP-seq) was used to investigate the genome-wide DNA methylation pattern in testes of control and CPF-treated rats for 90 days. We identified 27 019 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) (14 150 upmethylated and 12 869 downmethylated) between CPF-exposed and control groups. The DMR-related genes are mainly involved in 113 pathways predicted by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis. The result showed that high methylation gene PIK3CD may play a key role in epigenetic regulation of multiple pathways, such as Ras signaling pathway, AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications, HIF-1 signaling pathway, VEGF signaling pathway, and glioma and Fc epsilon RI signaling pathway in rats exposed to CPF. Our study provides significant explanations for the epigenetic mechanism of male reproductive toxicology induced by CPF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxres/tfaa050DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7467273PMC
July 2020

Chemical profile and phytotoxic action of Onopordum acanthium essential oil.

Sci Rep 2020 08 11;10(1):13568. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi, 830011, Xinjiang, China.

The potential of utilizing Onopordum acanthium essential oil and its major constituents as environment friendly herbicides was investigated. In total 29, 25, and 18 compounds were identified from flower, leaf, and stem oils, representing 94.77%, 80.02%, and 90.74% of the total oil, respectively. Flower and stem oils were found to be rich in n-alkanes, which accounted for 57.33% in flower oil, and 82.33% in stem oil. Flower oil exerted potent inhibitory activity on both receiver species, Amaranthus retroflexus and Poa annua, which nearly completely suppressed seed germination at 5 mg/mL, and β-eudesmol is the most likely responsible compound for its phytotoxicity; in comparison, leaf and stem oils exhibited much weaker inhibitory activity on A. retroflexus, and stimulatory effect on P. annua when tested concentration was below 2.5 mg/mL. Alkanes in the oils were found to exert relatively weak plant growth regulatory activity. This report is the first on the chemical profile and phytotoxic action of O. acanthium oil as well as the phytotoxicity of β-eudesmol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-70463-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7419562PMC
August 2020

Oxidative stress-mediated mitochondrial pathway-dependent apoptosis is induced by silica nanoparticles in cardiomyocytes.

Toxicol Mech Methods 2020 Nov 20;30(9):646-655. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Department of Toxicology, Shandong Academy of Occupational Health and Occupational Medicine, Shandong First Medical University & Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Ji'nan, People's Republic of China.

The use of silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) is increasing in popularity; however, the emissions released during manufacturing, use and during the disposal stages potentially harm the environment. SiNPs can enter the body and cause cardiac toxicity indirectly or directly. However, toxicological data on SiNPs in cardiac cells , and the detailed molecular mechanisms by which damage is caused remain unclear. In the present study, oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis and cytotoxicity induced by SiNPs in cells were examined. cells were used to explore the mechanisms of toxicity by treating cells with 0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 µg/ml SiNPs, with and without 3 mM of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), for 24 h. The results showed that SiNPs decreased cell viability and proliferation by increasing the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and inducing apoptosis in cells. ROS levels were significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), and GSH-peroxidase (Px) were significantly decreased following exposure to SiNPs. Treatment with NAC attenuated LDH release; the levels of ROS, SOD, GSH, and GSH-Px production were increased, and SiNPs-induced mitochondrial pathway-dependent apoptosis was reduced. These results demonstrate that apoptosis and cytotoxicity induced by SiNPs in cells are a result of ROS-mediated oxidative stress. These data suggest that exposure to SiNPs is a potential risk factor for cardiovascular disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15376516.2020.1805664DOI Listing
November 2020

The expression and prognostic significance of Topo-II and c-erbB-2 in breast cancer.

Minerva Med 2020 Jul 17. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Thyroid and Breast Surgery, The Second People's Hospital of Lianyungang City, Liangyungang, P.R. China.

Background: This study aimed to investigate the expression and prognostic significance of topoisomeraseII (Topo-II)and c-erbB-2.

Methods: A total of 92 cases of patients with breast cancer who came to our hospital for treatment from November 2013 to January 2016 were included as the experimental group, and 90 healthy subjects who came to our hospital for physical examination during the same period were selected as the control group. ELISA was used to detect the expression levels of Topo-II and c-erbB-2 in serum of each group. The correlation among expression levels, degree of tumor differentiation and pathological types of Topo-II and c-erbB-2 in serum of patients with breast cancer were observed.

Results: The expression levels of Topo-II and c-erbB-2 in the experimental group were higher than those in the control group (P<0.05). The expression levels of Topo-II and c-erbB-2 in serum of patients with different stages increased with the clinical stages. The survival rate of patients with different expression levels of Topo-II and c-erbB-2 was compared, it was found that the survival rate of the low-expression group (80.49%) was significantly higher than that of the high-expression group (50.98%). The ROC curve was used to analyze Topo-II and c-erbB-2, the result showed that the sensitivity, specificity and AUC of Topo-II in the diagnosis of breast cancer was 72.22%, 94.56% and 0.8641, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity and AUC of c-erbB-2 in the diagnosis of breast cancer were 94.45%, 66.30% and 0.8379, respectively.

Conclusions: In conclusion, Topo-II and c-erbB-2 are highly expressed in breast cancer and are closely related to breast cancer. Moreover, the detection of Topo-II and c-erbB-2 in serum can help diagnose gestational diabetes mellitus quickly and effectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0026-4806.20.06637-9DOI Listing
July 2020

Understanding the mechanisms of silica nanoparticles for nanomedicine.

Wiley Interdiscip Rev Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2021 01 29;13(1):e1658. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

School of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Jinan-Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, China.

As a consequence of recent progression in biomedicine and nanotechnology, nanomedicine has emerged rapidly as a new discipline with extensive application of nanomaterials in biology, medicine, and pharmacology. Among the various nanomaterials, silica nanoparticles (SNPs) are particularly promising in nanomedicine applications due to their large specific surface area, adjustable pore size, facile surface modification, and excellent biocompatibility. This paper reviews the synthesis of SNPs and their recent usage in drug delivery, biomedical imaging, photodynamic and photothermal therapy, and other applications. In addition, the possible adverse effects of SNPs in nanomedicine applications are reviewed from reported in vitro and in vivo studies. Finally, the potential opportunities and challenges for the future use of SNPs are discussed. This article is categorized under: Nanotechnology Approaches to Biology > Nanoscale Systems in Biology Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Emerging Technologies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/wnan.1658DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7757183PMC
January 2021

Postoperative expressions of TRACP5b and CA125 in patients with breast cancer and their values for monitoring bone metastasis.

J BUON 2020 Mar-Apr;25(2):688-695

Thyroid and Breast Surgery Department, the second People's Hospital of Lianyungang City, Lianyungang 222006, P.R. China.

Purpose: To explore the diagnostic values of serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP5b) and serum carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) for bone metastasis of breast cancer.

Methods: 118 patients pathologically diagnosed with breast cancer in the second People's Hospital of Lianyungang from September 2014 to June 2017 were selected. Among them, 60 patients who were confirmed with bone metastasis by whole-body bone imaging combined with clinical manifestations and other imaging methods were included in a bone metastasis group, and 58 patients who were confirmed without bone metastasis were included in a non-bone metastasis group. Another 61 patients who were pathologically confirmed with benign breast lesion formed a benign lesion group. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect TRACP5b level and electrochemiluminescence (ECL) was used to detect CA125 level.

Results: The expression levels of TRACP5b and CA125 in the bone metastasis group were significantly higher than those in the non-bone metastasis and benign lesion groups (p<0.05), and the expression levels in the non-bone metastasis group were higher than those in the benign lesion group (p<0.05). In bone metastasis of breast cancer, the expression level of TRACP5b was correlated with the number of tumor nodules, lymph node metastasis, tumor local infiltration and TNM staging (p<0.05), while the expression level of CA125 was correlated with the number of tumor nodules, lymph node metastasis and TNM staging (p<0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that TNM staging, estrogen receptor (ER), TRACP5b, and CA125 were risk factors for bone metastasis of breast cancer patients.

Conclusion: In conclusion, TRACP5b and CA125 may be involved in the occurrence and progression of bone metastasis of breast cancer. Detection of TRACP5b and CA125 has good sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing bone metastasis of breast cancer, so TRACP5b and CA125 may become new biomarkers for diagnosing the disease.
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January 2021

Demonstration of ohmic contact using ${{\rm MoO}_{\rm x}}/{\rm Al}$MoO/Al on p-GaN and the proposal of a reflective electrode for AlGaN-based DUV-LEDs.

Opt Lett 2020 Apr;45(8):2427-2430

The ${{\rm MoO}_{\rm x}}/{\rm Al}$MoO/Al electrode was designed and fabricated on p-GaN and sapphire with good ohmic behavior and decent deep ultraviolet (DUV) reflectivity, respectively. The influences of ${{\rm MoO}_{\rm x}}$MoO thickness and annealing condition on the electrical and optical behaviors of the ${{\rm MoO}_{\rm x}}/{\rm Al}$MoO/Al structure were investigated. Surface morphology of ${{\rm MoO}_{\rm x}}$MoO with different thicknesses reveals a 3D growth mode. Partial decomposition of ${{\rm MoO}_{\rm x}}$MoO was discovered, which helps in the formation of ohmic contact between ${{\rm MoO}_{\rm x}}$MoO and Al. The potential for application in deep ultraviolet light-emitting-diodes (DUV-LEDs) has also been demonstrated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.387275DOI Listing
April 2020

Comparable Effect of Two-Step Versus Extended Infusions on the Pharmacokinetics of Imipenem in Patients with Sepsis and Septic Shock.

Adv Ther 2020 05 10;37(5):2246-2255. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Zhongda Hospital, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, China.

Introduction: The present study aimed to compare the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) parameters of imipenem administered by two-step (50% delivered in a 30-min bolus, 50% for the following 90 min) or extended (administered continuously for 2 h) infusion.

Methods: Patients with sepsis and septic shock were prospectively enrolled and randomized into four groups. Subjects in the two-step or extended groups were given two doses of imipenem (0.5 g q6h and 1.0 g q8h). The plasma imipenem concentrations were measured at given time points after the fifth dose. The PK/PD target was defined as the achievement of a fractional time above the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of > 40%.

Results: Thirty-five patients were eventually enrolled. No significant difference was observed in the percentage of patients achieving 40% T > MIC between the different infusion modes with the same dosage, although the two-step groups exhibited a significantly shorter T compared with the extended groups (0.5 g q6h: 1.5 ± 0.8 vs. 2.0 ± 0.0 h; 1.0 g q8h: 1.0 ± 0.6 vs. 2.0 ± 0.0 h; both, p < 0.05). All four groups achieved 40% T > MIC when MIC was 0.5-4.0 μg/ml, but only regimens with a higher dose (1.0 g q8h) achieved target when MIC was 8 μg/ml.

Conclusion: The two-step and extended regimens of imipenem are comparable to the PK/PD target in the treatment of sepsis and septic shock. A higher dose (1.0 g q8h) should be considered for target achievement at an MIC of > 8 μg/ml.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT02616354.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12325-020-01339-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7223128PMC
May 2020

Glyburide attenuates ozone-induced pulmonary inflammation and injury by blocking the NLRP3 inflammasome.

Environ Toxicol 2020 Aug 13;35(8):831-839. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, China.

Glyburide is a classic antidiabetic drug that is dominant in inflammation regulation, but its specific role in ozone-induced lung inflammation and injury remains unclear. In order to investigate whether glyburide prevents ozone-induced pulmonary inflammation and its mechanism, C57BL/6 mice were intratracheally pre-instilled with glyburide or the vehicle 1 hour before ozone (1 ppm, 3 hours) or filtered air exposure. After 24 hours, the total inflammatory cells and total protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were detected. The pathological alternations in lung tissues were evaluated by HE staining. The expression of NLRP3, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-18 protein in lung tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry. Western blotting was used to examine the levels of caspase-1 p10 and active IL-1β protein. Levels of IL-1β and IL-18 in BALF were measured using ELISA kits. Glyburide treatment decreased the total cells in BALF, the inflammatory score, and the mean linear intercept induced by ozone in lung tissues. In addition, glyburide inhibited the expression of NLRP3, IL-18, and IL-1β protein in lung tissues, and also suppressed NLRP3 inflammasome activation, including caspase-1 p10, active IL-1β protein in lung tissues, IL-1β, and IL-18 in BALF. These results demonstrate that glyburide effectively attenuates ozone-induced pulmonary inflammation and injury via blocking the NLRP3 inflammasome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tox.22919DOI Listing
August 2020

Beneficial Endophytic Bacterial Populations Associated With Medicinal Plant Alleviate Salt Stress and Confer Resistance to .

Front Plant Sci 2020 14;11:47. Epub 2020 Feb 14.

CAS Key Laboratory of Biogeography and Bioresource in Arid Land, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Urumqi, China.

As a result of climate change, salinity has become a major abiotic stress that reduces plant growth and crop productivity worldwide. A variety of endophytic bacteria alleviate salt stress; however, their ecology and biotechnological potential has not been fully realized. To address this gap, a collection of 117 endophytic bacteria were isolated from wild populations of the herb in Sheikh Zuweid and Rafah of North Sinai Province, Egypt, and identified based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences. The endophytes were highly diverse, including 17 genera and 30 species. The number of bacterial species obtained from root tissues was higher (n = 18) compared to stem (n = 14) and leaf (n = 11) tissue. The endophytic bacteria exhibited several plant growth-promoting activities , including auxin synthesis, diazotrophy, phosphate solubilization, siderophore production, and production of lytic enzymes (i.e., chitinase, cellulase, protease, and lipase). Three endophytes representing species associated with such as EGY05, EGY21, and EGY25 were selected based on their activities for growth chamber assays to test for their ability to promote the growth of tomato ( L.) under various NaCl concentrations (50-200 mM). All three strains significantly (P < 0.05) promoted the growth of tomato plants under salt stress, compared to uninoculated controls. In addition, inoculated tomato plants by all tested strains decreased (P < 0.05) the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase). Six strains, representing and species EGY01, EGY05, EGY16, EGY21, EGY25, and EGY31 were selected based on antagonistic activity to for pot experiments under salt stress. All tested strains reduced the disease severity index (DSI) of tomato plants at all tested salt concentrations. Gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry analysis of cell-free extracts of (EGY16) showed at least ten compounds were known to have antimicrobial activity, with the major peaks being benzene, 1,3-dimethyl-, p-xylene, dibutyl phthalate, bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and tetracosane. This study demonstrates that diverse endophytes grow in wild thyme populations and that some are able to alleviate salinity stress and inhibit pathogenesis, making them promising candidates for biofertilizers and biocontrol agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.00047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7033553PMC
February 2020

Two Phytotoxins Isolated from the Pathogenic Fungus of the Invasive Weed Xanthium italicum.

Chem Biodivers 2020 Apr 18;17(4):e2000043. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

CAS Key Laboratory of Biogeography and Bioresource in Arid Land, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi, 830011, P. R. China.

Alternariol and altenuisol were isolated as the major phytotoxins produced by an Alternaria sp. pathogenic fungus of the invasive weed Xanthium italicum. Altenuisol exhibited stronger phytotoxic effect compared with alternariol. At 10 μg/mL, alternariol and altenuisol promoted root growth of the monocot plant Pennisetum alopecuroides by 11.1 % and 75.2 %, respectively, however, inhibitory activity was triggered by the increase of concentration, with root elongation being suppressed by 35.5 % and 52.0 % with alternariol and altenuisol at 1000 μg/mL, respectively. Alternariol slightly inhibited root length of the dicot plant Medicago sativa at 10-1000 μg/mL, whereas altenuisol stimulated root growth by 51.0 % at 10 μg/mL and inhibited root length by 43.4 % at 200 μg/mL. Alternariol and altenuisol did not exert strong regulatory activity on another dicot plant, Amaranthus retroflexus, when tested concentration was low, however, when the concentration reached 1000 μg/mL, they reduced root length by 68.1 % and 51.0 %, respectively. Alternariol and altenuisol exerted similar effect on shoot growth of three tested plants but to a lesser extent. It is noteworthy to mention that this is the first report on the phytotoxicity of altenuisol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.202000043DOI Listing
April 2020
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