Publications by authors named "Hua Qin"

151 Publications

Resilience of soil microbial metabolic functions to temporary E. coli invasion.

Chemosphere 2022 Aug 6:135906. Epub 2022 Aug 6.

State Key Laboratory of Subtropical Silviculture, Zhejiang A&F University, Hangzhou, 311300, China; College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang A&F University, Hangzhou, 311300, China. Electronic address:

Due to the globalization and increasing human activities, there is a significant increase in bacterial invasions to the soil ecosystems. Soil resident communities are vulnerable to bacterial invasion and suffered legacy effects after unsuccessful invasion. However, whether such changes in the soil ecosystems are permanent or temporary remains unclear. Here, we investigated the functional resilience of soil ecosystems to bacterial invasion and intensive managements. We used Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli) as model strain examined the soil microbial metabolic functions, including enzyme activities, nitrogen and carbon use efficiency, community niche, and carbon metabolic potential, as well as soil physicochemical properties and microbial invader survival in 8 soil samples, 4 from natural hardwood forests and 4 from intensively managed Moso bamboo forests. The results showed that soil ecosystems were not resistant to E. coli invasion regardless of the intensity of management, which the finding was significantly reflected in the nutrient-acquiring activities or carbon utilization, or both. Besides, the invasion legacy effect (the effect after invader apoptosis) was positively related to E. coli survival time. However, most of the metabolic functions could recover almost to the initial state after 135 days of incubation, suggesting a strong recovery capacity of the soil ecosystems. These data indicate that E. coli invasion has a legacy effect on the functions of soil resident communities. However, soil ecosystems are highly resilient even under intensive human management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.135906DOI Listing
August 2022

Linking the chemical nature of soil organic carbon and biological binding agent in aggregates to soil aggregate stability following biochar amendment in a rice paddy.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Jul 19;847:157460. Epub 2022 Jul 19.

The State Key Laboratory of Subtropical Silviculture, Zhejiang A&F University, Lin'an, Hangzhou 311300, China. Electronic address:

Changes in soil aggregation with biochar amendment have been investigated extensively, but how biochar affects the chemical composition of organic carbon (C) and biological binding agents in aggregates and their linkage with soil aggregate stability remains unclear. Soil samples were collected in a rice paddy treated with 0 (C0, control), 10 t ha (C10), 20 t ha (C20) and 40 t ha (C40) biochar for twenty months. The amount and chemical composition of soil organic C (SOC), microbial abundances and glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP) were determined in bulk soil and four fractions: large macroaggregates (>2000 μm), small macroaggregates (250-2000 μm), microaggregates (53-250 μm), and silt + clay (<53 μm). Our results showed that the proportion of >250 μm water-stable aggregates and mean weight diameter were gradually increased with increasing biochar addition rate. The concentrations of SOC, readily oxidizable C and microbial biomass C increased most in the small macroaggregates, followed by microaggregates under biochar amendment. Increasing biochar addition rate gradually decreased the relative contents of alkyl C, O-alkyl C and carbonyl C, but increased those of aromatic C across the aggregates, resulting in a higher aromaticity and hydrophobicity of SOC with respect to the control. The abundances of bacteria, fungi and archaea and the content of GRSP were significantly enhanced in the large and small macroaggregates under the C40 treatment. The proportion of >250 μm aggregates was significantly correlated with the contents of soil organic C fractions, GRSP and microbial abundance. Structural equation modeling further revealed that changes in SOC hydrophobicity and GRSP content under biochar amendment had significant and direct effects on the soil aggregate size distribution. In summary, our findings suggest that biochar amendment in rice paddy could improve soil aggregation through altering the chemical composition of soil organic C and the abundance of biological binding agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.157460DOI Listing
July 2022

Ethylene inhibits rice root elongation in compacted soil via ABA- and auxin-mediated mechanisms.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2022 Jul 18;119(30):e2201072119. Epub 2022 Jul 18.

Future Food Beacon and School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, LE12 5RD, United Kingdom.

Soil compaction represents a major agronomic challenge, inhibiting root elongation and impacting crop yields. Roots use ethylene to sense soil compaction as the restricted air space causes this gaseous signal to accumulate around root tips. Ethylene inhibits root elongation and promotes radial expansion in compacted soil, but its mechanistic basis remains unclear. Here, we report that ethylene promotes abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis and cortical cell radial expansion. Rice mutants of ABA biosynthetic genes had attenuated cortical cell radial expansion in compacted soil, leading to better penetration. Soil compaction-induced ethylene also up-regulates the auxin biosynthesis gene . Mutants lacking OsYUC8 are better able to penetrate compacted soil. The auxin influx transporter OsAUX1 is also required to mobilize auxin from the root tip to the elongation zone during a root compaction response. Moreover, mutants penetrate compacted soil better than the wild-type roots and do not exhibit cortical cell radial expansion. We conclude that ethylene uses auxin and ABA as downstream signals to modify rice root cell elongation and radial expansion, causing root tips to swell and reducing their ability to penetrate compacted soil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2201072119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9335218PMC
July 2022

Study on the Effect of Prehospital Emergency Nursing Model Based on Network Information Sharing Platform in Acute Ischemic Stroke.

Comput Math Methods Med 2022 20;2022:3363672. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Pre-Hospital Emergency Department, Xingtai People's Hospital, 054000, China.

Background: Acute ischemic stroke is one of the most common emergencies in clinical medicine. Prehospital first aid of ischemic stroke has become the focus and focus of the global medical community. The combination of network information technology and prehospital first aid can better serve the treatment of ischemic stroke.

Objective: To explore the effect of prehospital emergency nursing model based on network information sharing platform in acute ischemic stroke.

Methods: 78 patients with acute ischemic stroke from February 2020 to October 2021 were studied. Patients were randomly divided into study group ( = 39) and control group ( = 39). The control group was given routine first aid nursing. Prehospital first aid nursing based on network information sharing platform was used in the study group. Alarm response time, on-site first aid response time, hospital handover time, National Institutes of Health Stroke scale (NIHSS) at 12 and 24 hours after admission, Glasgow coma scale (GCS) at 12 and 24 hours after admission, incidence of poor prognosis, and nursing satisfaction score at 24 hours after admission were recorded.

Results: The emergency response time and hospital handover time in the study group were significantly shorter than those in the control group ( < 0.05). The NIHSS score and the incidence of poor prognosis at 12 and 24 hours after admission in the study group were lower than those in the control group ( < 0.05). The GCS scores at 12 hours and 24 hours after admission in the study group were higher than those in the control group ( < 0.05). The NSNS score of the study group was higher than that of the control group.

Conclusion: Prehospital first aid nursing based on network information sharing platform has great application value in patients with acute ischemic stroke. It can shorten the time of first aid, improve patients' consciousness, and reduce the incidence of poor prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/3363672DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9236781PMC
July 2022

[Effects of combined application of biochar with organic amendments on enzyme activity and microbial metabolic function of carbon sources in infertile red soil].

Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 2022 May;33(5):1283-1290

College of Environment and Resources, Zhejiang A&F University, Hangzhou 311300, China.

To improve carbon (C) sequestration and soil fertility of red soil, a two-year (2017 and 2018) field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of two organic amendments (, corn straw and sheep manure) applied alone or combined with biochar on soil nutrient content, enzyme activities involved in C cycling, and microbial substrate utilization rate in infertile red soil. There were six treatments, including control (non-amendment), corn straw, sheep manure and across biochar treatments (without and with biochar amendment, respectively). The organic amendments and biochar were applied in 2017 and 2018. The results showed that, compared with the control, organic amendments significantly increased soil pH, organic C, total nitrogen, available phosphorus and potassium contents. Compared with straw and manure alone, the biochar co-application with straw or manure significantly increased the contents of soil organic C, available potassium, and available nitrogen, without any significant interactive effects. Application of organic amendments significantly increased the activities of soil β-glucosidase (BG), cellobiohydrolase (CB), β-xylosidase (XYL), and peroxidase (PERO). The combined application of biochar and straw significantly reduced the activity of phenol oxidase (PHOX) by 28.6% and PERO by 22.2% in comparison with straw addition alone, respectively, while the combined application of biochar and manure significantly reduced the activities of α-glucosidase (AG) by 46.1%, BG by 50.9%, XYL by 41.6%, and PERO by 31.3% compared with manure addition alone, respectively. Compared with the control, the application of organic amendments significantly enhanced soil basal respiration and microbial utilization rates of carbohydrates, whereas biochar co-application significantly decreased microbial utilization rates of carbohydrates and carboxylic acids. Microbial C source utilization rates were significantly and positively correlated with the activities of BG and PERO. Thus, biochar co-application with organic amendments can enhance nutrient content and reduce enzymatic and microbial metabolic activities, thereby may facilitate C sequestration and fertility of infertile red soil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13287/j.1001-9332.202205.017DOI Listing
May 2022

Prevalence of depression and anxiety and their predictors among patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis in Northern China: a cross-sectional study.

Ren Fail 2022 Dec;44(1):933-944

Department of Nephrology, the Attached Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical University, Hohhot, China.

Objective: To investigate the prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) in Hohhot, a large city on the northern border of China, and to identify independent risk factors for depression and anxiety in these patients.

Methods: Patients receiving MHD for >3 months were enrolled in the four largest hemodialysis centers between September 2020 and December 2020. Depression and anxiety were assessed using the Zung self-rated depression scale (SDS) and Zung self-rated anxiety scale (SAS), respectively, with demographic and other data collected for logistic regression analyses.

Results: Among 305 MHD patients included in this study, the prevalence of depression was 55.1%, including 27.5%, 21.0%, and 6.6% with mild, moderate and severe cases, respectively. The prevalence of anxiety was 25.9%, with 20.0%, 4.6%, and 1.3% having mild, moderate, and severe cases, respectively. An independent protective factor for depression was family income of ≥1415 US dollars/month relative to <157 US dollars/month (odds ratio [OR] 0.209, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.065-0.673), and predictors of depression included ≥3 comorbidities (OR 18.527, 95% CI 1.674-205.028) and severe pruritus (OR 15.971, 95% CI 5.173-49.315). Independent predictors of anxiety included infrequent exercise (OR 3.289, 95% CI 1.411-7.664) and severe pruritus (OR 5.912, 95% CI 1.733-20.168). The correlation between depression and anxiety in these patients was significant ( = 0.775,  < 0.001).

Conclusion: MHD patients in Northern China had high prevalence rates of depression (55.1%) and anxiety (25.9%). Lower family income, more comorbidities, and a higher degree of pruritus were predictors of depression, while infrequent exercise and severe pruritus were predictors of anxiety. Depression correlated significantly with anxiety. Attention should be given to family income, comorbidity, exercise, and pruritus severity for improved management of depression and anxiety among MHD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0886022X.2022.2077761DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9154798PMC
December 2022

OsQHB Improves Salt Tolerance by Scavenging Reactive Oxygen Species in Rice.

Front Plant Sci 2022 4;13:848891. Epub 2022 May 4.

Biotechnology Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China.

Soil salinity is a major environmental stress that restricts the growth and yield of crops. Mining the key genes involved in the balance of rice salt tolerance and yield will be extremely important for us to cultivate salt-tolerance rice varieties. In this study, we report a -related homeobox () gene, quiescent-center-specific homeobox (), positively regulates yield-related traits and negatively regulates salt tolerance in rice. Mutation in led to a decrease in plant height, tiller number, panicle length, grain length and grain width, and an increase in salt tolerance. Transcriptome and qPCR analysis showed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging-related genes were regulated by OsQHB. Moreover, the mutants have higher ROS-scavenging enzymes activities and lower accumulation of ROS and malondialdehyde (MDA) under salt stress. Thus, our findings provide new insights into the role of rice gene family in rice development and salt tolerance, and suggest that is a valuable target for improving rice production in environments characterized by salt stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.848891DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9115556PMC
May 2022

[Effects of moso bamboo () expansion on soil microbial community in evergreen broad-leaved forest].

Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 2022 Apr;33(4):1091-1098

School of Environment and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang A&F University, Hangzhou 311300, China; Zhejiang Provincal Key Laboratory of Carbon Cycling in Forest Ecosystems and Carbon Sequestration, Hangzhou 311300, China.

The special eco-physiological characteristics of moso bamboo () facilitate their fast invasion in nature ecosystems. The widespread expansion of moso bamboo causes degradation of adjacent forest ecosystem and change of landscape, as well as soil properties and microbial community composition. However, how moso bamboo expansion affects soil microbial composition is far from fully understood. Herein, we selected four moso bamboo expansion transects with three forest types at the Anji Lingfeng temple forest farm, Zhejiang Province, including evergreen broadleaved forest (BLF), mixed and broadleaved forest (MEF) and forest (PEF). We examined the effects of moso bamboo expansion on soil properties and soil microbial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs). Our results showed that soil pH was higher in moso bamboo forest than in MEF and BLF by 0.37 and 0.32 unit. In contrast, soil organic carbon, ammonium, and nitrate contents significantly decreased. Biomass of soil microbial groups displayed a decreasing trend except arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and the microbial richness index (SR) and diversity index () decreased significantly. In summary, moso bamboo expansion affected soil nutrient and carbon inputs, which was an important factor affecting soil microbial community structure. Results of redundancy analysis showed that changes of soil organic carbon and ammonium content were the main factors driving soil microbial community.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13287/j.1001-9332.202204.030DOI Listing
April 2022

Dual-wavelength visible photodetector based on vertical (In,Ga)N nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy.

RSC Adv 2021 Apr 27;11(26):15632-15638. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics (SINANO), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) 215123 Suzhou China

Due to the wide applications of blue and red photodetectors, dual-wavelength (blue/red) photodetectors are promising for future markets. In this work, a dual-wavelength photodetector based on vertical (In,Ga)N nanowires and graphene has been fabricated successfully. By using the transparent graphene, both blue and red responses can be clearly detected. The rise time of response can reach 3.5 ms. Furthermore, the underlying mechanism of double responses has also been analyzed. The main reason contributing to the dual-wavelength response could be the different diameters of nanowires, leading to different In components within (In,Ga)N sections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1ra02439fDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9029541PMC
April 2021

Development of the First Tractable Genetic System for Parvimonas micra, a Ubiquitous Pathobiont in Human Dysbiotic Disease.

Microbiol Spectr 2022 04 13;10(2):e0046522. Epub 2022 Apr 13.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA.

Parvimonas micra is a Gram-positive obligate anaerobe and a typical member of the human microbiome. P. micra is among the most highly enriched species at numerous sites of mucosal dysbiotic disease and is closely associated with the development of multiple types of malignant tumors. Despite its strong association with disease, surprisingly little is known about P. micra pathobiology, which is directly attributable to its longstanding genetic intractability. To address this problem, we directly isolated a collection of P. micra strains from odontogenic abscess clinical specimens and then screened these isolates for natural competence. Amazingly, all of the P. micra clinical isolates exhibited various levels of natural competence, including the reference strain ATCC 33270. By exploiting this ability, we were able to employ cloning-independent methodologies to engineer and complement a variety of targeted chromosomal genetic mutations directly within low-passage-number clinical isolates. To develop a tractable genetic system for P. micra, we first adapted renilla-based bioluminescence for highly sensitive reporter studies. This reporter system was then applied for the development of the novel Theo+ theophylline-inducible riboswitch for tunable gene expression studies over a broad dynamic range. Finally, we demonstrate the feasibility of generating -based transposon sequencing (Tn-seq) libraries for forward genetic screening in P. micra. With the availability of a highly efficient transformation protocol and the current suite of genetic tools, P. micra should now be considered a fully genetically tractable organism suitable for molecular genetic research. The methods presented here provide a clear path to investigate the understudied role of P. micra in polymicrobial infections and tumorigenesis. Parvimonas micra is among the most highly enriched species at numerous sites of mucosal dysbiotic disease and is closely associated with numerous cancers. Despite this, little is known about P. micra pathobiology, which is directly attributable to its longstanding genetic intractability. In this study, we provide the first report of P. micra natural competence and describe the only tractable genetic system for this species. The methods presented here will allow for the detailed study of P. micra and its role in infection and tumorigenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/spectrum.00465-22DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9045310PMC
April 2022

The Correlation Between Mechanical Ventilation Duration, Pediatric Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Score, and Blood Lactate Level in Children in Pediatric Intensive Care.

Front Pediatr 2022 14;10:767690. Epub 2022 Mar 14.

The Second Clinical Medical College, Yangtze University, Jingzhou, China.

Objective: This study aimed to investigate whether the ventilation duration for children undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) is correlated with pediatric sequential organ failure (pSOFA) score, white blood cell (WBC) count, blood lactate level, and duration of fever.

Methods: Retrospectively reviewed that the medical records of patients who received IMV in the PICU of Jingzhou Central Hospital between January 2018 and December 2020. According to the duration of IMV in diagnosis-related groups, these patients were divided into two groups: group A, ventilation duration <96 h, and group B, ventilation duration ≥96 h. Each group's pSOFA scores, WBC counts, blood lactate levels, and durations of fever were compared. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the clinical risk factors of ventilation duration ≥96 h, and the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn.

Results: A total of 42 patients were included, including 23 in group A and 19 in group B. The difference in pSOFA score between group A and group B was statistically significant ( < 0.05), while the differences in blood lactate level, duration of fever, and WBC count between the two groups were not statistically significant ( > 0.05). Logistic regression analysis was conducted to analyze the influencing factors of mechanical ventilation duration ≥96 h. An ROC curve was drawn with pSOFA score as a test variable and duration of mechanical ventilation ≥96 h as a state variable, revealing that the area under the curve was 0.76 (SE = 0.075, 95% CI: 0.614-0.906, = 0.005). The sensitivity and specificity were 68.4 and 73.9%, respectively, and the corresponding pSOFA score was 7.5.

Conclusion: When the pSOFA score ≥8, the risk of mechanical ventilation duration ≥96 h increases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2022.767690DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8967181PMC
March 2022

SALT AND ABA RESPONSE ERF1 improves seed germination and salt tolerance by repressing ABA signaling in rice.

Plant Physiol 2022 06;189(2):1110-1127

Biotechnology Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100081, China.

Rice (Oryza sativa) germination and seedling establishment, particularly in increasingly saline soils, are critical to ensure successful crop yields. Seed vigor, which determines germination and seedling growth, is a complex trait affected by exogenous (environmental) and endogenous (hormonal) factors. Here, we used genetic and biochemical analyses to uncover the role of an APETALA2-type transcription factor, SALT AND ABA RESPONSE ERF1 (OsSAE1), as a positive regulator of seed germination and salt tolerance in rice by repressing the expression of ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE5 (OsABI5). ossae1 knockout lines exhibited delayed seed germination, enhanced sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA) during germination and in early seedling growth, and reduced seedling salt tolerance. OsSAE1 overexpression lines exhibited the converse phenotype, with increased seed germination and salt tolerance. In vivo and in vitro assays indicated that OsSAE1 binds directly to the promoter of OsABI5, a major downstream component of the ABA signaling pathway and acts as a major regulator of seed germination and stress response. Genetic analyses revealed that OsABI5-mediated ABA signaling functions downstream of OsSAE1. This study provides important insights into OsSAE1 regulation of seed vigor and salt tolerance and facilitates the practical use of OsSAE1 in breeding salt-tolerant varieties suitable for direct seeding cultivation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/plphys/kiac125DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9157093PMC
June 2022

Effects and mechanisms of In surfactant on high Al-content AlGaN grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy.

Opt Express 2022 Jan;30(2):1782-1792

High Al-content AlGaN epilayers were grown on AlN template by using indium (In) surfactant with plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE), and deep ultraviolet emission at 235 nm was obtained at room temperature. The effects and mechanisms of In-surfactant on the crystalline quality and optical properties of AlGaN were investigated. It was found that In-surfactant could facilitate two-dimensional AlGaN growth by reducing activation barrier for Al/Ga atoms to cross steps and effectively increasing the migration rate on the growth surface, and thus improve surface morphology and decrease defect density. The photoluminescence measurements revealed that the optical properties were remarkably improved by adopting In as surfactant, and phase separation was also effectively eliminated. Furthermore, the concentration of impurities including oxygen and silicon was decreased, which is attributed to higher defects formation energy for these impurities with In-surfactant assisted epitaxy growth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.445600DOI Listing
January 2022

Orchestration of ethylene and gibberellin signals determines primary root elongation in rice.

Plant Cell 2022 03;34(4):1273-1288

Biotechnology Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China.

Primary root growth in cereal crops is fundamental for early establishment of the seedling and grain yield. In young rice (Oryza sativa) seedlings, the primary root grows rapidly for 7-10 days after germination and then stops; however, the underlying mechanism determining primary root growth is unclear. Here, we report that the interplay of ethylene and gibberellin (GA) controls the orchestrated development of the primary root in young rice seedlings. Our analyses advance the knowledge that primary root growth is maintained by higher ethylene production, which lowers bioactive GA contents. Further investigations unraveled that ethylene signaling transcription factor ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3-LIKE 1 (OsEIL1) activates the expression of the GA metabolism genes GIBBERELLIN 2-OXIDASE 1 (OsGA2ox1), OsGA2ox2, OsGA2ox3, and OsGA2ox5, thereby deactivating GA activity, inhibiting cell proliferation in the root meristem, and ultimately gradually inhibiting primary root growth. Mutation in OsGA2ox3 weakened ethylene-induced GA inactivation and reduced the ethylene sensitivity of the root. Genetic analysis revealed that OsGA2ox3 functions downstream of OsEIL1. Taken together, we identify a molecular pathway impacted by ethylene during primary root elongation in rice and provide insight into the coordination of ethylene and GA signals during root development and seedling establishment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/plcell/koac008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8972239PMC
March 2022

Association of off-the-job training with work performance and work-family conflict among physicians: a cross-sectional study in China.

BMJ Open 2022 01 11;12(1):e053280. Epub 2022 Jan 11.

Department of Social Medicine and Health Management, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China

Objectives: To determine whether experiences of off-the-job training in domestic (DT) and overseas study (OS) settings are associated with work performance and work-family conflict in physicians.

Design, Setting And Participants: We conducted a national cross-sectional survey in 77 public hospitals across seven provinces in China between July 2014 and April 2015. Participants were 3182 physicians.

Exposure: Participants were categorised into four groups: none, DT only, OS only and DT and OS.

Primary Outcome Measures: Work performance was assessed by work engagement, career attrition and patient-centred care. Work-family conflict was assessed by affecting care for family, feeling guilty towards family and receiving complaints from family.

Results: A total of 25.89% participants had experienced DT only, 8.71% OS only and 8.47% DT and OS. After adjustment for potential confounders, participants who had experiences of DT and OS compared with those with no training were more likely to report positive work performance (pride in work: OR=2.11, 95% CI: 1.43 to 3.10; enjoyment of work: OR=1.67, 95% CI: 1.11 to 2.51; turnover intention: OR=0.54, 95% CI: 0.38 to 0.77; early retirement: OR=0.63, 95% CI: 0.45 to 0.89; and exhaustion: OR=0.66, 95% CI: 0.45 to 0.98) and less work-family conflicts (feeling guilty towards family: OR=0.51, 95% CI: 0.35 to 0.74; and complaints from family: OR=0.66, 95% CI: 0.47 to 0.91). We found no obvious association between DT/OS experience with patient-centred care.

Conclusions: Physicians with DT and OS experiences are more likely to have better work performance and less work-family conflict than those without such experience. Physicians face increasing pressure to pursue continuing education and experience associated distress. Therefore, hospitals and government policy-makers should promote DT and OS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2021-053280DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8753420PMC
January 2022

Formulation of a rational dosage regimen of ceftiofur hydrochloride oily suspension by pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) model for treatment of swine infection.

J Vet Sci 2021 Nov;22(6):e41

National Reference Laboratory of Veterinary Drug Residues (HZAU) and MARA Key Laboratory for Detection of Veterinary Drug Residues, Wuhan 430070, China.

Background: Our previously prepared ceftiofur (CEF) hydrochloride oily suspension shows potential wide applications for controlling swine infections, while the irrational dose has not been formulated.

Objectives: The rational dose regimens of CEF oily suspension against were systematically studied using a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model method.

Methods: The healthy and infected pigs were intramuscularly administered CEF hydrochloride oily suspension at a single dose of 5 mg/kg, and then the plasma and pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (PELF) were collected at different times. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimal bactericidal concentration, mutant prevention concentration (MPC), post-antibiotic effect (PAE), and time-killing curves were determined. Subsequently, the area under the curve by the MIC (AUC/MIC) values of desfuroylceftiofur (DFC) in the PELF was obtained by integrating pharmacokinetic data of the infected pigs and pharmacodynamic data using the sigmoid E (Hill) equation. The dose was calculated based on the AUC/MIC values for bacteriostatic action, bactericidal action, and bacterial elimination.

Results: The peak concentration, the area under the concentration-time curve, and the time to peak for PELF's DFC were 24.76 ± 0.92 µg/mL, 811.99 ± 54.70 μg·h/mL, and 8.00 h in healthy pigs, and 33.04 ± 0.99 µg/mL, 735.85 ± 26.20 μg·h/mL, and 8.00 h in infected pigs, respectively. The MIC of PELF's DFC against was 0.25 µg/mL. There was strong concentration-dependent activity as determined by MPC, PAE, and the time-killing curves. The AUC/MIC values of PELF's DFC for bacteriostatic activity, bactericidal activity, and virtual eradication of bacteria were 6.54 h, 9.69 h, and 11.49 h, respectively. Thus, a dosage regimen of 1.94 mg/kg every 72 h could be sufficient to reach bactericidal activity.

Conclusions: A rational dosage regimen was recommended, and it could assist in increasing the treatment effectiveness of CEF hydrochloride oily suspension against infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4142/jvs.2021.22.e41DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8636649PMC
November 2021

A Self-Powered Transparent Photodetector Based on Detached Vertical (In,Ga)N Nanowires with 360° Omnidirectional Detection for Underwater Wireless Optical Communication.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Nov 4;11(11). Epub 2021 Nov 4.

School of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China.

Underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) is a wireless communication technology using visible light to transmit data in an underwater environment, which has wide applications. Based on lift-off (In,Ga)N nanowires, this work has proposed and successfully demonstrated a self-powered photoelectrochemical (PEC) photodetector (PD) with excellent transmissivity. The transparent functionality of the PD is critical for 360° omnidirectional underwater detection, which was realized by detaching the (In,Ga)N nanowires from the opaque epitaxial substrates to the indium tin oxide (ITO)/glass. It was also found that the insulating SiO layer can enhance the photocurrent by about 12 times. The core-shell structure of the nanowires is beneficial for generating carriers and contributing to the photocurrent. Furthermore, a communication system with ASCII code is set to demonstrate the PD detection in underwater communication. This work paves an effective way to develop 360° omnidirectional PDs for the wide applications in UWOC system and underwater photodetection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11112959DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8621864PMC
November 2021

Salt Stress Promotes Abscisic Acid Accumulation to Affect Cell Proliferation and Expansion of Primary Roots in Rice.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Oct 8;22(19). Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Biotechnology Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China.

The primary root is the basic component of the root system and plays a key role in early seedling growth in rice. Its growth is easily affected by environmental cues, such as salt stress. Abscisic acid (ABA) plays an essential role in root development, but the molecular mechanism underlying ABA-regulated root growth in response to salt stress remains poorly understood. In this study, we report that salt stress inhibits primary root elongation and promotes primary root swelling. Moreover, salt stress induces the expression of ABA-responsive genes and ABA accumulation in the primary root, revealing that ABA plays an essential role in salt-modulated root growth. Transgenic lines of and , which constitutively express or , with enhanced or attenuated ABA signaling, show increased and decreased sensitivity to salt, correspondingly. Microscopic analysis indicates that salt and ABA inhibits cell proliferation and promotes cell expansion in the root apical meristem. Transcriptome analysis showed that ABA induces the expression of genes. Further investigations indicate that ABA exerts these effects largely through ABA signaling. Thus, our findings deepen our understanding of the role of ABA in controlling primary root growth in response to salt stress, and this knowledge can be used by breeders to cultivate rice varieties suitable for saline-alkali land.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms221910892DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8509385PMC
October 2021

The transcription regulator BrsR serves as a network hub of natural competence protein-protein interactions in .

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 09;118(39)

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97239;

Genome evolution is an essential and stringently regulated aspect of biological fitness. For bacteria, natural competence is one of the principal mechanisms of genome evolution and is frequently subject to multiple layers of regulation derived from a plethora of environmental and physiological stimuli. Here, we present a regulatory mechanism that illustrates how such disparate stimuli can be integrated into the natural competence phenotype. possesses an intriguing, but poorly understood ability to coordinately control its independently regulated natural competence and bacteriocin genetic pathways as a means to acquire DNA released from closely related, bacteriocin-susceptible streptococci. Our results reveal how the bacteriocin-specific transcription activator BrsR directly mediates this coordination by serving as an anti-adaptor protein responsible for antagonizing the proteolysis of the inherently unstable, natural competence-specific alternative sigma factor ComX. This BrsR ability functions entirely independent of its transcription regulator function and directly modulates the timing and severity of the natural competence phenotype. Additionally, many of the DNA uptake proteins produced by the competence system were surprisingly found to possess adaptor abilities, which are employed to terminate the BrsR regulatory circuit via negative feedback. BrsR-competence protein heteromeric complexes directly inhibit nascent transcription as well as stimulate the Clp-dependent proteolysis of extant BrsR proteins. This study illustrates how critical genetic regulatory abilities can evolve in a potentially limitless variety of proteins without disrupting their conserved ancestral functions. These unrecognized regulatory abilities are likely fundamental for transducing information through complex genetic networks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2106048118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8488657PMC
September 2021

Improved photocatalytic activity and stability of InGaN quantum dots/CNheterojunction photoelectrode for COreduction and hydrogen production.

Nanotechnology 2021 Sep 27;32(50). Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Key Lab of Nanodevices and Applications, Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123, People's Republic of China.

Photocatalytic conversion of COto produce fuel is considered a promising approach to reduce COemissions and tackle energy crisis. GaN-based materials have been studied for COreduction because of their excellent optical properties and band structure. However, low photocatalytic activity and severe photocorrosion of GaN-based photoelectrode greatly limit their applications. In this work, photocatalytic activity was improved by adopting InGaN quantum dots (QDs) combined with CNnano-sheets as photoanode, and thus the efficiency of COreduction and the selectivity of hydrogen production were increased significantly. In addition, the photoelectron-chemical corrosion of photoelectrodes has been apparently controlled. InGaN QDs/CNhas the highest CO and Hproductions rates of 14.69mol molhand 140mol molhwhich were 2.2 times and 14.5 times than that of InGaN film photoelectrode, respectively. The enhancement of photocatalytic activity is attributed to CNmodification and a large electric dipole forming on the surface of InGaN QDs, which facilitate the separation and transfer of photo-generated carriers and thus promote COreduction reaction. This work provides a promising strategy for the development of GaN-based photoanodes with superior stability and efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/ac2450DOI Listing
September 2021

Exploring the dynamic relationships between risk perception and behavior in response to the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak.

Soc Sci Med 2021 09 24;285:114267. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Columbia/Boone County Department of Public Health and Human Services, Columbia, MO, USA.

The relationships between risk perception and related behavior form a fundamental theme in risk analysis. Despite increasing attentions on the temporal dimension of risk perception and behavior in recent literature, the dynamic relationships between these two constructs remain understudied. Infectious disease outbreaks, such as the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, provide a key setting for analyzing evolving perceptions of and responses to natural or human-induced hazards. The main objectives of this research are: (1) to assess temporal changes in cognitive and affective dimensions of perceived COVID-19 risk as well as related protective behavior; and (2) to explore the dynamic relationships between COVID-19 risk perception and behavioral responses. Timely data on changing risk perception and behavior related to the COVID-19 outbreak were collected through two series of online surveys from four major cities (Seattle, Los Angeles, Chicago, and New York City; N = 736) and the central Midwest region of the United States (N = 1240) respectively during March-August 2020. The analysis revealed that: (1) the cognitive and affective dimensions of perceived COVID-19 risk and preventive behavior all changed over time; (2) there were both within- and across-time correlations between COVID-19 risk perception indicators and preventive actions; and (3) preventive actions showed varied feedback effects on individual aspects of perceived COVID-19 risk over time. Findings from this research support and expand major conceptual approaches to changing relationships between risk perception and behavior, particularly the risk reappraisal hypothesis. The study also has useful implications for health risk management and future research directions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2021.114267DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8305223PMC
September 2021

The Different Facets of Heart Rate Variability in Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

Front Psychiatry 2021 22;12:642333. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Interdisciplinary Center of Sleep Medicine, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a heterogeneous and multifactorial sleep related breathing disorder with high prevalence, is a recognized risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Autonomic dysfunction leads to adverse cardiovascular outcomes in diverse pathways. Heart rate is a complex physiological process involving neurovisceral networks and relative regulatory mechanisms such as thermoregulation, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone mechanisms, and metabolic mechanisms. Heart rate variability (HRV) is considered as a reliable and non-invasive measure of autonomic modulation response and adaptation to endogenous and exogenous stimuli. HRV measures may add a new dimension to help understand the interplay between cardiac and nervous system involvement in OSA. The aim of this review is to introduce the various applications of HRV in different aspects of OSA to examine the impaired neuro-cardiac modulation. More specifically, the topics covered include: HRV time windows, sleep staging, arousal, sleepiness, hypoxia, mental illness, and mortality and morbidity. All of these aspects show pathways in the clinical implementation of HRV to screen, diagnose, classify, and predict patients as a reasonable and more convenient alternative to current measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.642333DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8339263PMC
July 2021

Research on the method of designing cap lens using ant colony algorithm.

Sci Rep 2021 08 5;11(1):15966. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

School of Physics and Optoelectronics Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo, Shandong, China.

It is necessary to select the appropriate parameters defining a aspheric lens for coupling the light from a laser diode into the optical fiber by cap aspheric lenses. In this paper, the ant colony optimization algorithm is applied to the optimization of structural parameters of the cap aspheric lens, and the merit function defining the optimization problem and detailed design steps are given. A cap aspheric lens with center thickness of 1.1019 mm and effective focal length of 1.10331 mm is designed using a self-made MATLAB program of ant colony optimization algorithm, which can couple the light emitting from a laser diode into a single mode fiber with a diameter of 9 um, the light-emitting surface of the LD is 3 µm × 2 µm, and beam-divergence angle in the X and Y directions are ± 35° and ± 23.58°, respectively. The theoretical coupling efficiency is 89.8%, and the experiment shows that the maximum coupling efficiency and average coupling efficiency are 88.63% and 79.39%, respectively. Design and experimental results prove that the design method in this paper is feasible and effective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-95518-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8342422PMC
August 2021

Associations of immunological features with COVID-19 severity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Aug 3;21(1):738. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Hematology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430030, China.

Background: COVID-19 has spread widely worldwide, causing millions of deaths. We aim to explore the association of immunological features with COVID-19 severity.

Methods: We conducted a meta-analysis to estimate mean difference (MD) of immune cells and cytokines levels with COVID-19 severity in PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, the Cochrane Library and the grey literature.

Results: A total of 21 studies with 2033 COVID-19 patients were included. Compared with mild cases, severe cases showed significantly lower levels of immune cells including CD3 T cell (× 10, MD, - 413.87; 95%CI, - 611.39 to - 216.34), CD4 T cell (× 10, MD, - 203.56; 95%CI, - 277.94 to - 129.18), CD8 T cell (× 10, MD, - 128.88; 95%CI, - 163.97 to - 93.79), B cell (× 10/L; MD, - 23.87; 95%CI, - 43.97 to - 3.78) and NK cell (× 10/L; MD, - 57.12; 95%CI, - 81.18 to - 33.06), and significantly higher levels of cytokines including TNF-α (pg/ml; MD, 0.34; 95%CI, 0.09 to 0.59), IL-5 (pg/ml; MD, 14.2; 95%CI, 3.99 to 24.4), IL-6 (pg/ml; MD, 13.07; 95%CI, 9.80 to 16.35), and IL-10 (pg/ml; MD, 2.04; 95%CI, 1.32 to 2.75), and significantly higher levels of chemokines as MCP-1 (SMD, 3.41; 95%CI, 2.42 to 4.40), IP-10 (SMD, 2.82; 95%CI, 1.20 to 4.45) and eotaxin (SMD, 1.55; 95%CI, 0.05 to 3.05). However, no significant difference was found in other indicators such as Treg cell (× 10, MD, - 0.13; 95%CI, - 1.40 to 1.14), CD4/CD8 ratio (MD, 0.26; 95%CI, - 0.02 to 0.55), IFN-γ (pg/ml; MD, 0.26; 95%CI, - 0.05 to 0.56), IL-2 (pg/ml; MD, 0.05; 95%CI, - 0.49 to 0.60), IL-4 (pg/ml; MD, - 0.03; 95%CI, - 0.68 to 0.62), GM-CSF (SMD, 0.44; 95%CI, - 0.46 to 1.35), and RANTES (SMD, 0.94; 95%CI, - 2.88 to 4.75).

Conclusion: Our meta-analysis revealed significantly lower levels of immune cells (CD3 T, CD4 T, CD8 T, B and NK cells), higher levels of cytokines (TNF-α, IL-5, IL-6 and IL-10) and higher levels of chemokines (MCP-1, IP-10 and eotaxin) in severe cases in comparison to mild cases of COVID-19. Measurement of immunological features could help assess disease severity for effective triage of COVID-19 patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-021-06457-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8329624PMC
August 2021

Small intestine duplication cyst with recurrent hematochezia: a case report and literature review.

BMC Gastroenterol 2021 Jun 1;21(1):246. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Gastroenterology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430030, China.

Background: Small intestine duplication cysts (SIDCs) are rare congenital anatomical abnormalities of the digestive tract and a rare cause of hematochezia.

Case Presentation: We describe an adult female presented with recurrent hematochezia. The routine gastric endoscope and colonic endoscope showed no positive findings. Abdominal CT scan indicated intussusception due to the "doughnut" sign, but the patient had no typical symptoms. Two subsequent capsule endoscopes revealed a protruding lesion with bleeding in the distal ileum. Surgical resection was performed and revealed a case of SIDC measuring 6 * 2 cm located inside the ileum cavity. The patient remained symptom-free throughout a 7-year follow-up period.

Conclusion: SIDCs located inside the enteric cavity can easily be misdiagnosed as intussusception by routine radiologic examinations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12876-021-01627-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8170808PMC
June 2021

Chemical conversion of human epidermal stem cells into intestinal goblet cells for modeling mucus-microbe interaction and therapy.

Sci Adv 2021 04 14;7(16). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Research Center for Tissue Repair and Regeneration affiliated to the Medical Innovation Research Division and 4th Medical Center, PLA General Hospital and PLA Medical College, 28 Fu Xing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100853, China.

Intestinal goblet cells secrete mucus layers protecting the intestinal epithelia against injuries. It is challenging to study the interaction of goblet cells, mucus layers, and gut microbiota because of difficulty in producing goblet cells and mucus models. We generate intestinal goblet cells from human epidermal stem cells with two small molecular inhibitors Repsox and CHIR99021 in the presence of basic fibroblast growth factor and bone morphogenetic protein 4 at high efficiency (~95%) of conversion for a short time (6 to 8 days). Induced goblet cells are functional to secrete mucus, deliver fluorescent antigen, and form mucus layers modeling the mucus-microbe interaction in vitro. Transplantation of induced goblet cells and oral administration of chemical induction media promote the repair of the intestinal epithelia in a colitis mouse model. Thus, induced goblet cells can be used for investigating mucus-microbe interaction, and chemical cocktails may act as drugs for repairing the intestinal epithelia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abb2213DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8046373PMC
April 2021

Time-dependence and comparison of regional and overall anthropometric features between Asian and Caucasian populations with obstructive sleep apnea: a cumulative meta-analysis.

J Thorac Dis 2021 Mar;13(3):1746-1759

Interdisciplinary Center of Sleep Medicine, Charité University Hospital, Berlin, Germany.

Background: Anthropometric measurements are simple and reachable tools for self-evaluating and screening patients with a high risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, the accumulated relationship of obesity on the anthropometric characteristics of OSA is not well understood. The aim of the study was to show the time-dependent trend of OSA patients and compare overall and regional anthropometric between two ethnicities.

Methods: A cumulative meta-analysis was performed to assess obesity metrics in patients with and without OSA between Asians and Caucasians. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Scopus up to Jun 2020. Included studies used body mass index (BMI), neck circumference (NC), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) as measures of anthropometric features in the adult OSA population and controls, utilized in-lab polysomnography or home sleep testing with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) or respiratory disturbance index (RDI) classification, reported ethnicity/race, and were published in English. Any studies lacking one of these criteria or sufficient data were excluded.

Results: Forty studies with a total of 19,142 subjects were investigated. Comparison of changes between patients with and without OSA showed that OSA patients had a higher BMI [mean difference (MD) 3.12, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.51-3.73], NC (MD 3.10, 95% CI: 2.70-3.51), WC (MD 9.84, 95% CI: 8.42-11.26) and waist-hip ratio (MD 0.04, 95% CI: 0.03-0.05) than the control subjects. The accumulated time-dependent increase in population with OSA was significantly apparent with all anthropometric features. BMI increased from 2000 (MD 0.50) to 2012 (MD 3.08-3.48) and remained stable afterwards (MD 2.70-3.17), NC increased from 2000 (MD 0.40) to 2013 (MD 3.09) and remained stable afterwards too (MD 3.06-3.21). WC increased from 2000 (MD 2.00) to 2012 (MD 9.37-10.03) and also remained stable afterwards (MD 8.99-9.84). WHR was stable from 2000 to 2004 with an MD of 0.01 and then stable from 2007 onwards with an increased MD of 0.03-0.04. Compared with Caucasian patients, Asian patients had lower obesity relevant variates.

Conclusions: BMI, NC, WC and WHR are associated with OSA in both ethnic groups. Anthropometry for overall and regional obesity could facilitate differentiation of patients with OSA from individuals without OSA by ethnicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd-20-1799DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8024799PMC
March 2021

Correction to: Efficient and rapid conversion of human astrocytes and ALS mouse model spinal cord astrocytes into motor neuron-like cells by defined small molecules.

Mil Med Res 2021 Apr 6;8(1):24. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Research Center for Tissue Repair and Regeneration affiliated to the Medical Innovation Research Division and 4th Medical Center, PLA General Hospital and PLA Medical College, 28 Fu Xing Road, Haidian District, Beijing, 100853, P. R. China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40779-021-00312-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8022435PMC
April 2021

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus facilitates ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) growth and polychlorinated biphenyls degradation in a soil applied with nanoscale zero-valent iron.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jun 24;215:112170. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China.

Nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) shows an excellent degradation effect on chlorinated contaminants in soil, but poses a threat to plants in combination with phytoremediation. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus can reduce the phyototoxicity of nZVI, but their combined impacts on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) degradation and plant growth remain unclear. Here, a greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to investigate the influences of nZVI and/or Funneliformis caledonium on soil PCB degradation and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) antioxidative responses. The amendment of nZVI significantly reduced not only the total and homolog concentrations of PCBs in the soil, but also the ryegrass biomass as well as soil available P and root P concentrations. Moreover, nZVI significantly decreased leaf superoxide disutase (SOD) activity, while tended to decrease the protein content. In contrast, the additional inoculation of F. caledonium significantly increased leaf SOD activity and protein content, while tended to increase the catalase activity and tended to decrease the malondialdehyde content. The additional inoculation of F. caledonium also significantly increased soil alkaline phosphatase activity, and tended to increase root P concentration, but had no significantly effects on soil available P concentration, the biomass and P acquisition of ryegrass, which could be attributed to the fixation of soil available nutrients by nZVI. Additionally, F. caledonium facilitated PCB degradation in the nZVI-applied soil. Thus, AM fungus can alleviate the nZVI-induced phytotoxicity, showing great application potentials in accompany with nZVI for soil remediation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112170DOI Listing
June 2021

Linking enhanced soil nitrogen mineralization to increased fungal decomposition capacity with Moso bamboo invasion of broadleaf forests.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 25;771:144779. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

State Key Laboratory of Subtropical Silviculture, Zhejiang A&F University, Hangzhou 311300, China; Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Carbon Cycling in Forest Ecosystems and Carbon Sequestration, Zhejiang A&F University, Hangzhou 311300, China.

Plant invasion can markedly alter soil fungal communities and nitrogen (N) availability; however, the linkage between the fungal decomposition capacity and N mineralization during plant invasion remains largely unknown. Here, we examined the relationship between net mineralization rates and relevant functional genes, as well as fungal species composition and function following Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) invasion of evergreen broadleaf forests, by studying broadleaf forests (non-invaded), mixed bamboo-broadleaf forests (moderately invaded) and bamboo forests (heavily invaded). Fungal species composition and functional genes involved in organic matter decomposition (laccase and cellobiohydrolase), N mineralization (alkaline peptidases) and nitrification (ammonia monooxygenase) were determined via high-throughput sequencing and real-time PCR. Both net ammonification and nitrification rates were generally increased with bamboo invasion into the broadleaf forest, where the net ammonification rate, on average, was 10.8 times higher than the nitrification rate across the three forest types. The fungal species composition and ecological guilds were altered with bamboo invasion, as demonstrated by the increased proportion of saprotrophs but decreased proportion of symbiotrophs in the bamboo forest. The increased net ammonification rate in bamboo forest was positively correlated with both fungal species composition and functional groups, and the fungal lcc gene (for lignin breakdown) abundance explained 67% of the variation of the net ammonification rate. In addition, the gene abundance of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) explained 62% of the variation of net nitrification rate across the three forest types. The increased soil ammonification and nitrification rates following bamboo invasion of broadleaf forests suggest that the bamboo-invasion associated increase in soil N supply provided a positive feedback that facilitated bamboo invasion into broadleaf forests.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.144779DOI Listing
June 2021
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