Publications by authors named "Hua Peng"

201 Publications

Differences in Immune Responses between Children and Adults with COVID-19.

Curr Med Sci 2021 Feb 13;41(1):58-61. Epub 2021 Feb 13.

Department of Pediatrics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430022, China.

Over 85 590 000 individuals have been infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Although there have been an increasing number of reports on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), it is unclear why infected children show milder symptoms than adults. A retrospective case study was performed at two designated hospitals for COVID-19. Patients (56 children and 63 adults) with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and mild pneumonia were randomly enrolled in this study. The median age of the children was 7.0 years, and 51.79% of them were boys. The median age of the adults was 57 years, and 47.62% were men. The most common symptoms were fever, cough, sputum and diarrhoea. There were no significant differences in symptoms between children and adult patients. In terms of immunological indices on admission, adult patients displayed typical leukopenia and markedly higher levels of IL-2, IL-4, and IL-6 than child patients. The elevation of IL-2, IL-4 and IL-6 in adults induced more extensive lung injury. The effective and non-aggressive immune response successfully resisted SARS-CoV-2 invasion and maintained mild symptoms in child patients. The correlation of higher IL-2, IL-4, and IL-6 with the lung injury might be evidence that preventing excessive cytokine production can avoid further lung damage in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11596-021-2318-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7881906PMC
February 2021

Nanocomposite NiTi shape memory alloy with high strength and fatigue resistance.

Nat Nanotechnol 2021 Jan 21. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong, China.

Many established, but also potential future applications of NiTi-based shape memory alloys (SMA) in biomedical devices and solid-state refrigeration require long fatigue life with 10-10 duty cycles. However, improving the fatigue resistance of NiTi often compromises other mechanical and functional properties. Existing efforts to improve the fatigue resistance of SMA include composition control for coherent phase boundaries and microstructure control such as precipitation and grain-size reduction. Here, we extend the strategy to the nanoscale and improve fatigue resistance of NiTi via a hybrid heterogenous nanostructure. We produced a superelastic NiTi nanocomposite with crystalline and amorphous phases via severe plastic deformation and low-temperature annealing. The as-produced nanocomposite possesses a recoverable strain of 4.3% and a yield strength of 2.3 GPa. In cyclic compression experiments, the nanostructured NiTi micropillars endure over 10 reversible-phase-transition cycles under a stress of 1.8 GPa. We attribute the enhanced properties to the mutual strengthening of nanosized amorphous and crystalline phases where the amorphous phase suppresses dislocation slip in the crystalline phase while the crystalline phase hinders shear band propagation in the amorphous phase. The synergy of the properties of crystalline and amorphous phases at the nanoscale could be an effective method to improve fatigue resistance and strength of SMA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41565-020-00837-5DOI Listing
January 2021

Correction: Yu, D.Q., et al. Microscopic Characteristic and Chemical Composition Analysis of Three Medicinal Plants and Surface Frosts. 2019, , 4548.

Molecules 2021 Jan 13;26(2). Epub 2021 Jan 13.

College of Pharmacy, Anhui University of Chinese Medicine, Hefei 230012, China.

The authors would like to correct an error in the title paper [...].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26020379DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7828322PMC
January 2021

BET inhibition disrupts transcription but retains enhancer-promoter contact.

Nat Commun 2021 01 11;12(1):223. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

MRC Molecular Haematology Unit, MRC Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre Haematology Theme, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX3 9DS, UK.

Enhancers are DNA sequences that enable complex temporal and tissue-specific regulation of genes in higher eukaryotes. Although it is not entirely clear how enhancer-promoter interactions can increase gene expression, this proximity has been observed in multiple systems at multiple loci and is thought to be essential for the maintenance of gene expression. Bromodomain and Extra-Terminal domain (BET) and Mediator proteins have been shown capable of forming phase condensates and are thought to be essential for super-enhancer function. Here, we show that targeting of cells with inhibitors of BET proteins or pharmacological degradation of BET protein Bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) has a strong impact on transcription but very little impact on enhancer-promoter interactions. Dissolving phase condensates reduces BRD4 and Mediator binding at enhancers and can also strongly affect gene transcription, without disrupting enhancer-promoter interactions. These results suggest that activation of transcription and maintenance of enhancer-promoter interactions are separable events. Our findings further indicate that enhancer-promoter interactions are not dependent on high levels of BRD4 and Mediator, and are likely maintained by a complex set of factors including additional activator complexes and, at some sites, CTCF and cohesin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20400-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7801379PMC
January 2021

The complete chloroplast genome sequence of .

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2020 Dec 24;5(4):3843-3844. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

School of Ecology and Environmental Sciences and School of Life Sciences, Yunnan University, Kunming, China.

The first complete chloroplast genome (cpDNA) sequence of Brongn. was determined from Illumina HiSeq pair-end sequencing data in this study. The cpDNA is 140,595 bp in length, contains a large single-copy region (LSC) of 82,447 bp, and a small single-copy region (SSC) of 12,626 bp, which were separated by a pair of inverted repeats (IR) regions of 22,761 bp. The genome contains 130 genes, including 83 protein-coding genes, eight ribosomal RNA genes, and 39 transfer RNA genes. The further phylogenomic analysis showed that and clustered in a clade in Poaceae family.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2020.1839365DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7759296PMC
December 2020

An updated tribal classification of Lamiaceae based on plastome phylogenomics.

BMC Biol 2021 Jan 8;19(1). Epub 2021 Jan 8.

CAS Key Laboratory for Plant Diversity and Biogeography of East Asia, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, 650201, China.

Background: A robust molecular phylogeny is fundamental for developing a stable classification and providing a solid framework to understand patterns of diversification, historical biogeography, and character evolution. As the sixth largest angiosperm family, Lamiaceae, or the mint family, consitutes a major source of aromatic oil, wood, ornamentals, and culinary and medicinal herbs, making it an exceptionally important group ecologically, ethnobotanically, and floristically. The lack of a reliable phylogenetic framework for this family has thus far hindered broad-scale biogeographic studies and our comprehension of diversification. Although significant progress has been made towards clarifying Lamiaceae relationships during the past three decades, the resolution of a phylogenetic backbone at the tribal level has remained one of the greatest challenges due to limited availability of genetic data.

Results: We performed phylogenetic analyses of Lamiaceae to infer relationships at the tribal level using 79 protein-coding plastid genes from 175 accessions representing 170 taxa, 79 genera, and all 12 subfamilies. Both maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses yielded a more robust phylogenetic hypothesis relative to previous studies and supported the monophyly of all 12 subfamilies, and a classification for 22 tribes, three of which are newly recognized in this study. As a consequence, we propose an updated phylogenetically informed tribal classification for Lamiaceae that is supplemented with a detailed summary of taxonomic history, generic and species diversity, morphology, synapomorphies, and distribution for each subfamily and tribe.

Conclusions: Increased taxon sampling conjoined with phylogenetic analyses based on plastome sequences has provided robust support at both deep and shallow nodes and offers new insights into the phylogenetic relationships among tribes and subfamilies of Lamiaceae. This robust phylogenetic backbone of Lamiaceae will serve as a framework for future studies on mint classification, biogeography, character evolution, and diversification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12915-020-00931-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7796571PMC
January 2021

Genomic atlases of introgression and differentiation reveal breeding footprints in Chinese cultivated rice.

J Genet Genomics 2020 Oct 25;47(10):637-649. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

State Key Laboratory of Plant Genomics, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Innovation Academy for Seed Design, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address:

The long history of cultivation and breeding has left a variety of footprints in the genomes of Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.). In this study, we focus on two types of genomic footprints, introgression and differentiation, in a population of more than 1200 Chinese rice accessions. We found that a Xian/indica and a temperate Geng/japonica accession respectively contained an average of 19.3-Mb and 6.8-Mb alien introgressed chromosomal segments, of which many contained functional sequence variants, quantitative trait loci, or genes controlling flowering, grain, and resistance traits. Notably, we found most introgressions, including the known heterotic loci Hd3a and TAC1, were distributed differentially between the female and male parents of three-line indica hybrid rice, indicating their potential contribution to heterosis. We also found many differentiated regions between subgroups within a subpopulation contained agronomically important loci, such as DTH7, Hd1 for heading date, and qCT7 for cold tolerance, providing new candidates for studying local adaptation or heterosis. Tracing these footprints allows us to better understand the genetic exchange or differentiation underlying agronomic traits in modern Chinese rice cultivars. These findings also provide potential targets for rice genetic research and breeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgg.2020.10.006DOI Listing
October 2020

The complete chloroplast genome sequence of and its phylogenetic position.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2020 Nov 22;5(3):3807-3809. Epub 2020 Nov 22.

CAS Key Laboratory for Plant Diversity and Biogeography of East Asia, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, P. R. China.

is a member of the genus , which distributes in Central and South America. Genetic information of would provide guidance for the phylogenetic position of this species. Here, we reported and characterized its complete chloroplast (cp) genome using Illumina pair-end sequencing data. The total chloroplast genome size of this species was 157,211 bp, including inverted repeats (IRs) of 26,103 bp, separated by a large single copy (LSC) and a small single copy (SSC) of 86,749 and 18,256 bp, respectively. A total of 132 genes, including 37 tRNA, 8 rRNA, and 87 protein-coding genes were identified. Phylogenetic analysis showed that formed a monophyletic clade with , and then grouped with . The systematic position of Southeast Asian species needs further studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2020.1837687DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7717450PMC
November 2020

The whole genome assembly and evolution analyze of carmine radish () Mitochondrion.

Authors:
Hua Peng Jian Gao

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2020 1;5(3):2252-2253. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Life Sciences and Technology, Yangtze Normal University, Fuling, China.

Carmine radish, which contained a high natural red pigment (red radish pigment), was peculiar produced in Fuling, Chongqing City. Here, the complete nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial (mt) genome of carmine radish () have been determined with a circular sequence with the lengths of 258,965 bp, comprised of 40 protein-coding genes, 23 tRNA genes, and three ribosomal RNA genes. To demonstrate the evolution of organelles genomes in plants, other plant mitochondrial genomes' evolution were also selected for analyze. The results showed that carmine radish is related to MS_Gensuke and Black radish , as well as related to Brassica nigra and Brassica carinata, comparing with other Brassicaceae species. This study will provide important genetic tools for other Brassicaceae species research and improve yields of economically important plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2020.1772136DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7510604PMC
June 2020

PD-L1 on dendritic cells attenuates T cell activation and regulates response to immune checkpoint blockade.

Nat Commun 2020 09 24;11(1):4835. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tsinghua University, 100084, Beijing, China.

Immune checkpoint blockade therapies have shown clinical promise in a variety of cancers, but how tumor-infiltrating T cells are activated remains unclear. In this study, we explore the functions of PD-L1 on dendritic cells (DCs), which highly express PD-L1. We observe that PD-L1 on DC plays a critical role in limiting T cell responses. Type 1 conventional DCs are essential for PD-L1 blockade and they upregulate PD-L1 upon antigen uptake. Upregulation of PD-L1 on DC is mediated by type II interferon. While DCs are the major antigen presenting cells for cross-presenting tumor antigens to T cells, subsequent PD-L1 upregulation protects them from killing by cytotoxic T lymphocytes, yet dampens the antitumor responses. Blocking PD-L1 in established tumors promotes re-activation of tumor-infiltrating T cells for tumor control. Our study identifies a critical and dynamic role of PD-L1 on DC, which needs to be harnessed for better invigoration of antitumor immune responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-18570-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7518441PMC
September 2020

Ratiometric fluorescence nanoprobe for monitoring of intracellular temperature and tyrosine based on a dual emissive carbon dots/gold nanohybrid.

Talanta 2020 Nov 14;219:121279. Epub 2020 Jun 14.

Faculty of Life Science and Technology,Kunming University of Science and Technology,Kunming,Yunnan Province, 650500,China; Faculty of Land Resource Engineering,Kunming University of Science and Technology,Kunming,Yunnan Province, 650500,China. Electronic address:

A novel dual-emission nitrogen doped carbon dots/gold nanohybrid (NCDs-Au) was designed for specific and sensitive ratiometric detection of intracellular temperature and tyrosine. In this probe, a reductive NCDs was successfully prepared with the use of natural biomass Dendrobium officinale as precursor. The new prepared NCDs acted as both reducers and stabilizers to synthesize a novel NCDs-Au nanohybrid by a facile one-step procedure along with a quantum yield of 14.3%. The prepared nanoprobe showed characteristic fluorescence emissions of NCDs and Au NCs with single-wavelength excitation. Notably, the nanoprobe shows an interesting wavelength-dependent dual response to temperature (448 nm) and tyrosine (660 nm), enabling the two targets to be detected proportionally. As an effective temperature sensor, the nanoprobe exhibited good temperature-dependent fluorescence with a sensational linear response from 5 to 75 °C. In addition, the sensor has a linear response toward tyrosine in the range of 0.5-175 μM with a detection limit of 0.19 μM. Moreover, the fluorescent nanoprobe was successfully applied to ratiometricly monitor the variation of temperature or tyrosine level in cells because of the low cytotoxicity, chemical stability and excellent fluorescence properties. These results suggested that the nanoprobe here has provided the possibility for rapidly biosensing with the acceptable selectivity and sensitivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2020.121279DOI Listing
November 2020

Phyllathin From Phyllanthus Amarus Ameliorates Epileptic Convulsion and Kindling Associated Post-Ictal Depression in Mice via Inhibition of NF-κB/TLR-4 Pathway.

Dose Response 2020 Jul-Sep;18(3):1559325820946914. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Department of Neurosurgery, Affiliated Hospital of North Sichuan Medical College, Nanchong, China.

Background: Epilepsy is a chronic, complex, unprovoked, and recurrent disorder of the nervous system that affected several people worldwide. (PA) has been documented to have neuroprotective potential.

Aim: To evaluate the potential of standardized extract of PA and its possible mechanism of action against the Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced convulsion and kindling associated post-ictal depression in experimental mice.

Materials And Methods: Phyllathin was isolated from methanolic extract of PA and well-characterized using HPTLC, ESI-MS/MS, and LC/MS. Phyllathin containing a standardized extract of PA (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) was administered in convulsed and kindled mice, followed by an assessment of various parameters.

Results: The spectral analysis confirmed the molecular formula and weight of phyllanthin as CHO and 418.2342 Da. PA (100 and 200 mg/kg) significantly ameliorated PTZ-induced ( 0.05) duration, onset of tonic-clonic convulsion, and mortality in mice. It also significantly attenuated ( 0.05) PTZ-induced kindling in mice. Alteration in brain GABA, dopamine, and glutamate, NaKATPase, Ca-ATPase activities, and oxido-nitrosative stress in kindled mice was significantly restored ( 0.05) by PA treatment. It also significantly ( 0.05) down-regulated brain mRNA expressions of NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-1β, COX-2, and TLR-4. Histological aberrations induced by PTZ in the brain of a kindled rat was significantly ( 0.05) ameliorated by PA.

Conclusion: Phyllanthin containing a standardized extract of PA exerts its antiepileptic potential via balancing excitatory (glutamate) and inhibitory (GABA) brain monoamines, voltage-gated ion channels (NaK/Ca-ATPase) and inhibition of NF-κB/TLR-4 pathway to ameliorate neuroinflammation (TNF-α, IL-1β, and COX-2) in experimental mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1559325820946914DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7412921PMC
August 2020

Combined linkage mapping and association analysis reveals genetic control of maize kernel moisture content.

Physiol Plant 2020 Dec 18;170(4):508-518. Epub 2020 Oct 18.

Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Maize in Southwest Region, Maize Research Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, 611130, China.

The free moisture in crop kernels after being naturally dried is referred to as kernel moisture content (KMC). Maize KMC reflects grain quality and influences transportation and storage of seeds. We used an IBM Syn10 DH maize population consisting of 249 lines and an association panel comprising 310 maize inbred lines to identify the genetic loci affecting maize KMC in three environments. Using the IBM population detected 13 QTL on seven chromosomes, which were clustered into nine common QTL. Genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) identified 16 significant SNPs across the 3 environments, which were linked to 158 genes across the three environments. Combined QTL mapping and GWAS found two SNPs that were located in two of the mapped QTL, respectively. Twenty-three genes were linked with the loci co-localized in both populations. Of these 181 genes, five have previously been reported to be associated with KMC or to regulate seed development. These associations were verified by candidate gene association analysis. Two superior alleles and one favorable haplotype for Zm00001d007774 and Zm00001d047868 were found to influence KMC. These findings provide insights into molecular mechanisms underlying maize KMC and contribute to the use of marker-assisted selection for breeding low-KMC maize.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ppl.13180DOI Listing
December 2020

The Study of Clustering Effects of Behavior Risk Factors in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome in Southern China: A Cross-Sectional Study.

J Diabetes Res 2020 1;2020:6478393. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Xiangya Hospital at Central South University, Changsha, China.

Objectives: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is now becoming a serious public health threat. Some behaviors risk factors were considered to be associated with MetS and interacted to adversely affect MetS. However, the clustering effects of behavior risk factors of MetS among Chinese population remain unclear. The aim of this study is to observe the behavior risk factors and their clustering effects of MetS in China.

Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used. Subjects were recruited in the departments of Cardiology Clinic, Endocrine Clinic, and Health Management from March to December 2019. A demographic sheet was designed to collect the demographic and clinical characteristics of the subjects. International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short was applied to evaluate the level of PA in this study. Other behavior risk factors were observed by the questionnaire. The stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the determinants of MetS. The multiple logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the clustering effects of behavior risk factors in MetS.

Results: There are a total of 532 eligible subjects (56.6% females; mean age was 48.4 ± 15.3 years), and approximately 33.3% were diagnosed as MetS. The subjects with a smoking habit (heavy and long-time history) had a 1.833-fold higher risk for MetS than their counterparts (none and light smoking), and the subjects that preferred salty taste had a 1.626-fold higher risk for MetS than the comparison cohort. Smoking and alcohol drinking had the highest clustering effect on MetS among the behavior risk factors.

Conclusions: The main finding of this study was that smoking and salty taste preference were the independent determinants of MetS. Smoking and alcohol consumption had the highest clustering effect on southern Chinese MetS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/6478393DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7354660PMC
July 2020

Expert consensus on the nursing management of critically ill elderly patients with coronavirus disease 2019.

Aging Med (Milton) 2020 Jun 12;3(2):74-81. Epub 2020 Apr 12.

Department of Neurology The First Hospital of Jilin University Changchun China.

The novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) was first detected in patients with pneumonia of an unknown cause in Wuhan, China in December 2019. It has since been confirmed as the pathogen for the new coronavirus pneumonia, recently named "coronavirus disease 2019" (COVID-19) by the World Health Organization. Although the general population is commonly susceptible to the disease, infected elderly people show fast progression and severe manifestations with a high proportion in critical condition as a result of compromised immunity and underlying diseases. In order to improve the quality of nursing, reduce complications, and decrease mortality of critically ill elderly patients, we assembled a national expert group with expertise in critical nursing to write this consensus, based on a literature review and a subsequent panel discussion. The consensus covers the assessment, clinical nursing, discharge care, and other aspects of care for critically ill elderly patients with COVID-19, aiming to share insights and provide guidance for clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/agm2.12107DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7338692PMC
June 2020

CD70 expression determines the therapeutic efficacy of expanded human regulatory T cells.

Commun Biol 2020 Jul 14;3(1):375. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Transplantation Research and Immunology Group, Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX3 9DU, UK.

Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are critical mediators of immune homeostasis. The co-stimulatory molecule CD27 is a marker of highly suppressive Tregs, although the role of the CD27-CD70 receptor-ligand interaction in Tregs is not clear. Here we show that after prolonged in vitro stimulation, a significant proportion of human Tregs gain stable CD70 expression while losing CD27. The expression of CD70 in expanded Tregs is associated with a profound loss of regulatory function and an unusual ability to provide CD70-directed co-stimulation to TCR-activated conventional T cells. Genetic deletion of CD70 or its blockade prevents Tregs from delivering this co-stimulatory signal, thus maintaining their regulatory activity. High resolution targeted single-cell RNA sequencing of human peripheral blood confirms the presence of CD27CD70 Treg cells. These findings have important implications for Treg-based clinical studies where cells are expanded over extended periods in order to achieve sufficient treatment doses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-020-1097-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7360768PMC
July 2020

Children Infected With SARS-CoV-2 From Family Clusters.

Front Pediatr 2020 23;8:386. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Institute of Maternal and Child Health, Tongji Medical College, Wuhan Children's Hospital, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is ongoing globally. Limited data are available for children with SARS-CoV-2 infection. A retrospective case study was conducted in one designated hospital for children with SARS-CoV-2 infection in Wuhan. Out of the 74 children with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, the median age was 5.8 years, with no notable variation based on gender. All of the children had had direct exposure to at least one family member with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. The most common symptoms were cough in 41 (55.4%) and fever in 38 (51.4%). Typical CT patterns of viral pneumonia were exhibited in 40 (54.1%) children, including ground-glass opacity and interstitial abnormalities. However, 17 (23.0%) children were classified as asymptomatic carriers, with neither symptoms nor radiological findings. Also, 68 (91.9%) children recovered fully and showed negative results on RT-PCR assay by nasopharyngeal swabs during our observation period. In contrast to the negative result for nasopharyngeal swab, 34% of the anal swabs showed a continued positive result. The mean hospitalization days of the children discharged after full recovery was 10.0 days. Within family clusters that had SARS-CoV-2 infection, children had mild or even asymptomatic illness. Although CT is highly sensitive, it should be avoided in follow-up of the disease in consideration of the radiological hazards and limited clinical benefits for mild illness in children. Furthermore, it is advocated that both nasopharyngeal and anal swabs should be confirmed negative for viral load prior to declaring full recovery so as to avoid oral-fecal transmission. Asymptomatic children with family clusters are potentially a little-known source of COVID-19. This therefore warrants an urgent reassessment of the transmission dynamics of the current outbreak.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2020.00386DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7324777PMC
June 2020

[Temporal and Spatial Variation Patterns of Picophytoplankton and Their Correlations with Environmental Factors During the Wet Season in East Lake Dongting].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2020 Jun;41(6):2679-2687

Key Laboratory of Agro-Environment in Midstream of Yangtze Plain, Ministry of Agriculture, Hunan Institute of Agro-Environment and Ecology, Hunan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Changsha 410125, China.

Picophytoplankton (<3 μm), comprising picocyanobacteria (PCY) and photosynthetic picoeukaryotes (PPEs), are considerably important in the material circulation and energy flow of aquatic ecosystems. To explore the temporal and spatial variation patterns of picophytoplankton and their correlations with environmental factors in lotic Yangtze-connected lakes, field investigations were performed on a monthly basis during the wet season (May to August) in 2019 in East Lake Dongting, a Yangtze-connected lake. The results indicated that both the Chla biomass and abundances of picophytoplankton exhibited significant spatial and temporal variability (<0.05). The picophytoplankton Chla biomass showed an average concentration of 8.52 μg·L and accounted for 41.6% to total phytoplankton on an average. From May to August, Chla biomass of picophytoplankton kept increasing with increasing temperature, especially in the north and south of the lake, and it was the lowest in the east of the lake. PCY dominated picophytoplankton abundance in East Lake Dongting and was 3.4 times the abundance of PPEs on an average. Similar spatial and temporal variation patterns were observed between PCY and PPEs. The abundances of PCY and PPEs both increased first and then decreased during the wet season. Spatially, picophytoplankton showed a trend to migrate from the northern lake to the southern lake from May to July, and the abundance significantly declined in August and peaked mainly in the north of the lake. The analysis results showed that picophytoplankton in East Lake Dongting exhibited significant spatial and temporal variability during the wet season; the water level and N:P ratio were determined to be the most important factors explaining the variation of the abundance proportion of PCY and PPEs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13227/j.hjkx.201912223DOI Listing
June 2020

The BET inhibitor CPI203 promotes ex vivo expansion of cord blood long-term repopulating HSCs and megakaryocytes.

Blood 2020 Nov;136(21):2410-2415

Nuffield Division of Clinical Laboratory Medicine, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford.

Although cytokine-mediated expansion of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) can result in high yields of hematopoietic progenitor cells, this generally occurs at the expense of reduced bone marrow HSC repopulating ability, thereby limiting potential therapeutic applications. Because bromodomain-containing proteins (BCPs) have been demonstrated to regulate mouse HSC self-renewal and stemness, we screened small molecules targeting various BCPs as potential agents for ex vivo expansion of human HSCs. Of 10 compounds tested, only the bromodomain and extra-terminal motif inhibitor CPI203 enhanced the expansion of human cord blood HSCs without losing cell viability in vitro. The expanded cells also demonstrated improved engraftment and repopulation in serial transplantation assays. Transcriptomic and functional studies showed that the expansion of long-term repopulating HSCs was accompanied by synchronized expansion and maturation of megakaryocytes consistent with CPI203-mediated reprogramming of cord blood hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. This approach may therefore prove beneficial for ex vivo gene editing, for enhanced platelet production, and for the improved usage of cord blood for transplantation research and therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020005357DOI Listing
November 2020

The Inhibitory PVRL1/PVR/TIGIT Axis in Immune Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Gastroenterology 2020 Aug 20;159(2):434-436. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

The Department of Pathology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2020.06.024DOI Listing
August 2020

Pan-Genome of Wild and Cultivated Soybeans.

Cell 2020 07 17;182(1):162-176.e13. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

State Key Laboratory of Plant Cell and Chromosome Engineering, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Innovation Academy for Seed Design, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China; College of Advanced Agriculture Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address:

Soybean is one of the most important vegetable oil and protein feed crops. To capture the entire genomic diversity, it is needed to construct a complete high-quality pan-genome from diverse soybean accessions. In this study, we performed individual de novo genome assemblies for 26 representative soybeans that were selected from 2,898 deeply sequenced accessions. Using these assembled genomes together with three previously reported genomes, we constructed a graph-based genome and performed pan-genome analysis, which identified numerous genetic variations that cannot be detected by direct mapping of short sequence reads onto a single reference genome. The structural variations from the 2,898 accessions that were genotyped based on the graph-based genome and the RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data from the representative 26 accessions helped to link genetic variations to candidate genes that are responsible for important traits. This pan-genome resource will promote evolutionary and functional genomics studies in soybean.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.05.023DOI Listing
July 2020

Effects of Mindfulness-based Interventions on Dementia Patients: A Meta-analysis.

West J Nurs Res 2020 12 14;42(12):1163-1173. Epub 2020 May 14.

Xiangya School of Nursing, Central South University, Changsha, China.

This study aims to systematically evaluate the efficacy of mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) in improving mental health and quality of life for people with dementia. Comprehensive literature search was performed using the PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and CINAHL databases from their inception till June 26, 2019. In total, nine articles met the eligibility criteria and were included. The results of the meta-analysis showed a statistically significant decrease in depressive symptoms (SMD = -0.39, 95% CI: - 0.62 to - 0.15), in people with dementia who were treated with MBI. However, there were no significant improvements in anxiety, stress, or quality of life. These findings suggest that MBI is a promising alternative to conventional interventions in the treatment of depression among dementia patients and warrant further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0193945920916750DOI Listing
December 2020

Children Hospitalized With Severe COVID-19 in Wuhan.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2020 07;39(7):e91-e94

Department of Neurology, Wuhan Children's Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Background: Novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is spreading globally. Little is known about the risk factors for the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 in children.

Methods: A retrospective case-control study was taken in children with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronary virus-2 infection in Wuhan Children's Hospital. Risk factors associated with the development of COVID-19 and progression were collected and analyzed.

Results: Eight of 260 children diagnosed with severe COVID-19 pneumonia were included in the study. Thirty-five children with COVID-19 infection matched for age, sex and date of admission, and who classified as non-severe type, were randomly selected from the hospital admissions. For cases with severe pneumonia caused by COVID-19, the most common symptoms were dyspnea (87.5%), fever (62.5%) and cough (62.5%). In laboratory, white blood cells count was significantly higher in severe children than non-severe children. Levels of inflammation bio-makers such as hsCRP, IL-6, IL-10 and D-dimer elevated in severe children compared with non-severe children on admission. The level of total bilirubin and uric acid clearly elevated in severe children compared with non-severe children on admission. All of severe children displayed the lesions on chest CT, more lung segments were involved in severe children than in non-severe children, which was only risk factor associated with severe COVID-19 pneumonia in multivariable analysis.

Conclusions: More than 3 lung segments involved were associated with greater risk of development of severe COVID-19 in children. Moreover, the possible risk of the elevation of IL-6, high total bilirubin and D-dimer with univariable analysis could identify patients to be severe earlier.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002739DOI Listing
July 2020

Leveraging plastomes for comparative analysis and phylogenomic inference within Scutellarioideae (Lamiaceae).

PLoS One 2020 7;15(5):e0232602. Epub 2020 May 7.

CAS Key Laboratory for Plant Diversity and Biogeography of East Asia, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China.

Scutellaria, or skullcaps, are medicinally important herbs in China, India, Japan, and elsewhere. Though Scutellaria is the second largest and one of the more taxonomically challenging genera within Lamiaceae, few molecular systematic studies have been undertaken within the genus; in part due to a paucity of available informative markers. The lack of informative molecular markers for Scutellaria hinders our ability to accurately and robustly reconstruct phylogenetic relationships, which hampers our understanding of the diversity, phylogeny, and evolutionary history of this cosmopolitan genus. Comparative analyses of 15 plastomes, representing 14 species of subfamily Scutellarioideae, indicate that plastomes within Scutellarioideae contain about 151,000 nucleotides, and possess a typical quadripartite structure. In total, 590 simple sequence repeats, 489 longer repeats, and 16 hyper-variable regions were identified from the 15 plastomes. Phylogenetic relationships among the 14 species representing four of the five genera of Scutellarioideae were resolved with high support values, but the current infrageneric classification of Scutellaria was not supported in all analyses. Complete plastome sequences provide better resolution at an interspecific level than using few to several plastid markers in phylogenetic reconstruction. The data presented here will serve as a foundation to facilitate DNA barcoding, species identification, and systematic research within Scutellaria, which is an important medicinal plant resource worldwide.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0232602PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7205251PMC
September 2020

A novel heterozygous mutation in the HMBS gene in a patient with acute intermittent porphyria and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome.

Mol Med Rep 2020 Jul 4;22(1):516-524. Epub 2020 May 4.

Department of Hematology and Oncology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of The Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200438, P.R. China.

Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is a rare inherited disorder, which is caused by the partial deficiency of hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS), an enzyme of the heme biosynthetic pathway. Abdominal pain, neuropsychiatric disturbance and neuropathy are the typical manifestations of the disease. Complications such as posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), a rare type of brain lesion present on MRI, are also observed in patients with AIP. The present study reports on the case of a 36‑year‑old Chinese female patient with AIP and PRES. Genomic DNA were obtained from peripheral blood leukocytes and genomic regions of the HMBS gene were amplified as 2 fragments, which together contained all the exons and flanking intronic regions. Sanger sequencing of the amplified DNA fragments from the patient and the patient's family revealed a novel frameshift deletion (c.405‑406delAA) in exon 8 of the HMBS gene. This mutation leads to a subsequent truncated protein (p.Glu135AspfsX74). The recombinant mutant protein had 62% activity relative to the wild‑type protein but similar thermostability. It was confirmed that this novel mutation was the cause of AIP. Accumulation of D‑aminolevulinic acid (ALA) due to HMBS dysfunction is a potential mechanism of PRES. The manifestation of PRES may be associated with ALA‑induced cytotoxicity and the destruction of the blood‑brain barrier. In summary, in the present study, a novel pathogenic HMBS mutation was identified, expanding on the molecular heterogeneity of AIP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2020.11117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7248523PMC
July 2020

Tai Chi is Effective in Delaying Cognitive Decline in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment: Evidence from a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2020 25;2020:3620534. Epub 2020 Mar 25.

Department of Nursing, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008, China.

To determine whether Tai Chi (TC) is effective in slowing cognitive decline in older populations with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on Tai Chi and MCI. We searched eight electronic databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, Wanfang, Web of Science, MEDLINE, CNKI, EBSCO, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) for appropriate RCTs published up to August 2019. For those studies included, the data were extracted, methodological quality was evaluated, and then meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager software (version 5.3). A total of 11 of the studies were available for systematic review, which together included 1061 participants, met the inclusion criteria, and ten of these were included in the meta-analysis. For most RCTs, the methodological quality was moderate. The meta-analysis revealed that Tai Chi could significantly improve global cognitive function; memory and learning; mental speed and attention; ideas, abstraction, figural creations, and mental flexibility; and visuospatial perception. The present review adds to the evidence showing that Tai Chi is potentially beneficial in improving cognitive functions among elderly people with MCI. However, strictly designed and well-reported RCTs are required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/3620534DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7132349PMC
March 2020

Targeting tumors with IL-21 reshapes the tumor microenvironment by proliferating PD-1intTim-3-CD8+ T cells.

JCI Insight 2020 04 9;5(7). Epub 2020 Apr 9.

Key Laboratory of Infection and Immunity of CAS, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

The lack of sufficient functional tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in the tumor microenvironment (TME) is one of the primary indications for the poor prognosis of patients with cancer. In this study, we developed an Erbitux-based IL-21 tumor-targeting fusion protein (Erb-IL21) to prolong the half-life and improve the antitumor efficacy of IL-21. Compared with Erb-IL2, Erb-IL21 demonstrated much lower toxicity in vivo. Mechanistically, Erb-IL21 selectively expanded functional cytotoxic T lymphocytes but not dysfunctional CD8+ T cells in the TME. We observed that the IL-21-mediated antitumor effect largely depended on the existing intratumoral CD8+ T cells, instead of newly migrated CD8+ T cells. Furthermore, Erb-IL21 overcame checkpoint blockade resistance in mice with advanced tumors. Our study reveals that Erb-IL21 can target IL-21 to tumors and maximize the antitumor potential of checkpoint blockade by expending a subset of tumor antigen-specific CD8+ T cells to achieve effective tumor control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.132000DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7205272PMC
April 2020

Infants Born to Mothers With a New Coronavirus (COVID-19).

Front Pediatr 2020 16;8:104. Epub 2020 Mar 16.

Department of Pediatric, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

A novel viral respiratory disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is responsible for an epidemic of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in cases in China and worldwide. Four full-term, singleton infants were born to pregnant women who tested positive for COVID-19 in the city of Wuhan, the capital of Hubei province, China, where the disease was first identified. Of the three infants, for who consent to be diagnostically tested was provided, none tested positive for the virus. None of the infants developed serious clinical symptoms such as fever, cough, diarrhea, or abnormal radiologic or hematologic evidence, and all four infants were alive at the time of hospital discharge. Two infants had rashes of unknown etiology at birth, and one had facial ulcerations. One infant had tachypnea and was supported by non-invasive mechanical ventilation for 3 days. One had rashes at birth but was discharged without parental consent for a diagnostic test. This case report describes the clinical course of four live born infants, born to pregnant women with the COVID-19 infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2020.00104DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7098456PMC
March 2020

Author Correction: A next-generation tumor-targeting IL-2 preferentially promotes tumor-infiltrating CD8 T-cell response and effective tumor control.

Nat Commun 2020 Apr 1;11(1):1716. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Key Laboratory of Infection and Immunity of CAS, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China.

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-15532-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7113269PMC
April 2020