Publications by authors named "Hua Luo"

100 Publications

A five-gene signature for predicting overall survival of esophagus adenocarcinoma.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(14):e25305

Department of Breast Surgery, Hangzhou TCM Hospital Affiliated to Zhejiang Chinese Medicine University, Hangzhou Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine.

Abstract: Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is common and aggressive with increasing trend of incidence. Urgent need for an effective signature to assess EAC prognosis and facilitate tailored treatment is required.Differentially expressed mRNAs (DEMs) were identified by analyzing EAC tissues and adjacent normal samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Then univariate regression analyses were performed to confirm prognostic DEMs. We used least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) to build a prognostic mRNA signature whose performance was assessed by Kaplan-Meier curve, receiver operating characteristic (ROC). GSE72874 were used as an external test set. The performances of the signature were also validated in internal TCGA and external test sets. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and tumor immunity analysis were performed to decipher the biological mechanisms of the signature.A 5-mRNA signature consisted of SLC26A9, SINHCAF, MICB, KRT19, and MT1X was developed to predict prognosis of EAC. The 5-mRNA signature was promising as a biomarker for predicting 3-year survival rate of EAC in the internal test set, the entire TCGA set, and the external test set with areas under the curve (AUC) = 0.849, 0.924, and 0.747, respectively. Patients were divided into low- and high-risk groups based on risk scores of the signature. The high-risk group was mainly associated with cancer-related pathways and low levels of B cell infiltration.The 5-mRNA prognostic signature we identified can reliably predict prognosis and facilitate individualized treatment decisions for EAC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000025305DOI Listing
April 2021

Saponins Modulate the Inflammatory Response and Improve IBD-Like Symptoms via TLR/NF-[Formula: see text]B and MAPK Signaling Pathways.

Am J Chin Med 2021 Apr 7:1-15. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, University of Macau, Macao 999078, P. R. China.

saponins (PNS) are the main active ingredients of (Burk) F. H. Chen, which are used as traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years and have various clinical effects, including anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, and cardiovascular protection. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a complex gastrointestinal inflammatory disease that cannot be cured completely nowadays. The anti-inflammatory and protective effects of PNS were analyzed and in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model. PNS inhibited the release of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-[Formula: see text] (TNF-[Formula: see text], interleukin-6 (IL-6), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in Pam3CSK4-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. In the animal study, compared with DSS-induced mice, PNS reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-[Formula: see text], IL-6, and MCP-1) in the colon tissues. Furthermore, PNS treatment led to a remarkable reduction in the activation of the inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase [Formula: see text]/[Formula: see text] (IKK[Formula: see text]/[Formula: see text], I[Formula: see text]B[Formula: see text] and p65 induced by DSS. On the other hand, PNS inhibited the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38, and extracellular regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). Taken together, our results suggested that PNS conferred profound protection for colitis mice through the downregulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and NF-[Formula: see text]B signaling pathways, which were associated with reducing inflammatory responses, alleviating tissue damage, and maintaining of intestinal integrity and functionality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0192415X21500440DOI Listing
April 2021

Metformin: The next angiogenesis panacea?

Authors:
Yu Ren Hua Luo

SAGE Open Med 2021 16;9:20503121211001641. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Orthopaedics, Taizhou Hospital of Zhejiang Province Affiliated to Wenzhou Medical University, Taizhou, China.

Angiogenesis, the development of new blood vessels from existing ones, is a critical process in wound healing and skeletal muscle hypertrophy. It also leads to pathological conditions such as retinopathy and tumor genesis. Metformin, the first-line treatment for type 2 diabetic mellitus, has a specific regulatory effect on the process of angiogenesis. Anti-angiogenesis can inhibit the occurrence and metastasis of tumors and alleviate patients' symptoms with polycystic ovary syndrome. Moreover, promoting angiogenesis effect can accelerate wound healing and promote stroke recovery and limb ischemia reconstruction. This review reorganizes metformin in angiogenesis, and the underlying mechanism in alleviating disease to bring some inspiration to relevant researchers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/20503121211001641DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7970164PMC
March 2021

The prediction value of Glasgow coma scale-pupils score in neurocritical patients: a retrospective study.

Brain Inj 2021 Feb 27:1-7. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Department of Intensive Care, Peking University Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, China.

Background: External validation is necessary before  its clinical recommendation in new setting. The aim is to externally validate Glasgow Coma Scale-pupils score (GCS-P) in neurocritical patients and to compare its performances with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and its derivatives.

Methods: GCS-P at admission was calculated for individual based on the model developed by Brennan et al. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs), Nagelkerke's R and Brier scores were used to assess external validity of GCS-P to predict mortality in neurocritical patients and to compare predictive performance with GCS and its derivatives.

Subjects: 4372 neurocritical patients from intensive care units of Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, United States between 2001 and 2012.

Results: GCS-P showed good discrimination (AUC 0.847 for in-hospital mortality and 0.774 for ninety-day mortality), modest calibration (Nagelkerke's R2 33.1% for in-hospital mortality and 23.3% for ninety-day mortality). Predictive performances of GCS and its derivatives was inferior to GCS-P.

Conclusions: GCP-P discriminated well in between death in neurocritical patients. GCP-P improved predictive performance for short-term mortality over GCS and its derivatives in neurocritical patients. It would be a simple, early and reasonable daily routine option for prognosis assessment in neurocritical setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02699052.2021.1890821DOI Listing
February 2021

The efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on emotional processing in apathetic patients with Parkinson's disease: A Placebo-controlled ERP study.

J Affect Disord 2021 Mar 28;282:776-785. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

Department of Neurology, The Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou 646000, Sichuan, China. Electronic address:

Background: Few studies have examined the effect of rTMS on impaired emotional processing in apathetic Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, which impelled us to use a combination of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) with event-related potentials (ERPs) to gain insight into the underlying mechanisms.

Methods: Apathetic and non-apathetic patients diagnosed with PD performed a facial emotion categorization task, and ERP data were collected before and after HF-rTMS or sham stimulation over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). We observed the behavioural results and early components of P100 and N170.

Results: After rTMS, accuracy (ACC) was higher for negative expressions, and reaction times (RTs) were shorter for all expressions in both apathetic and non-apathetic patients. P100 amplitudes significantly increased except for negative expressions in the right hemisphere, and hemisphere lateralization was reversed in apathetic patients. P100 amplitudes increased for all expressions bilaterally in non-apathetic patients. N170 amplitudes in apathetic patients increased, and hemisphere lateralization was normalized. Neither the apathetic sham group nor the non-apathetic cohort of patients showed changes in P100 or N170 lateralization.

Limitations: The effects of rTMS on PD patients relative to normal subjects should be compared and observed over a long period of time.

Conclusions: HF-rTMS over the right DLPFC is beneficial for emotional processing in both apathetic and non-apathetic PD patients but shows different sensitivities. The effect of rTMS on emotional processing impairments in apathetic PD patients is profound. Treatment with rTMS may be an important, novel nonpharmaceutical approach for apathy in PD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2020.12.099DOI Listing
March 2021

Magnetic resonance imaging and contrast-enhanced ultrasound findings of a recurrent primary breast angiosarcoma: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Feb;100(5):e24625

Department of Breast Surgery.

Rationale: Primary breast angiosarcoma (PBA) is a rare and overly aggressive entity and account for less than 1% of all breast cancer cases. PBA had a high rate of delayed preoperative diagnosis due to absent distinctive radiographic characteristics.

Patient Concerns: We report a case of a 47-year-old female patient who had a previous history of luminal cancer in the right breast with mastectomy; the patient complained of asymmetrically diffuse enlarged, accompanying with a painless mass in the left breast 12 years after the mastectomy of her right breast.

Diagnoses: The tumor mimicked idiopathic granulomatous mastitis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at the first presentation. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) was performed for further lesion characterization and showed heterogeneous rapid hyper enhanced. An ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy was performed, and the pathology report indicated a breast angiosarcoma.

Interventions: The patient underwent a nipple-sparing simple mastectomy with immediate reconstruction of the left breast.

Outcomes: After 8 months later, the tumor recurred, CEUS and MRI examination suggested PBA recurrence, then re-excision with implant removal was performed, the patient had a lung metastasis 4 months later eventually died 22 months after diagnosis.

Lessons: It is not easy to diagnose PBA with the radiographic examination. This case's importance is by combining CEUS and MRI to reflect enhanced morphology and hemodynamic characteristics of PBA and help diagnose breast angiosarcomas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000024625DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7870214PMC
February 2021

Research progress on quality assurance of genuine Chinese medicinal in Sichuan.

Chin Med 2021 Feb 8;16(1):19. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Sichuan Institute for Translational Chinese Medicine, Sichuan Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Chengdu, China.

The genuine Chinese medicinal (GCM), also known as Dao-di Herbs, is a synonym for high quality Chinese medicinal materials, which has been established in thousands of years of clinical practice and is a comprehensive standard for evaluating the quality of Chinese medicinal materials. The newest data from the Fourth National Survey of Chinese Medicinal Resources showed that Sichuan Province has 7290 types of Chinese medicine and 86 GCM, both ranking highly in China. The characteristics like diverse species, wide distribution, higher yield, and good quality are considered as advantages of geo-herbals grown in Sichuan. Resources guarantee and high-quality development of those medicine materials make a difference in local Chinese medicine quality promotion and Chinese medicine industry and technology development to serve the public's needs, assist targeted poverty alleviation, and strengthen ecological protection. This review aims to outline significant progress in the recent ten years regarding regionalization, germplasm resources, and quality evaluation around the quality assurance of GCM in Sichuan, China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13020-021-00428-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7871544PMC
February 2021

Dissecting the novel mechanism of reduning injection in treating Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) based on network pharmacology and experimental verification.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Jun 22;273:113871. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

State Key Laboratory of New-tech for Chinese Medicine Pharmaceutical Process, Lianyungang, Jiangsu, 222001, China; The Key Laboratory for the New Technique Research of TCM Extraction and Purification, Lianyungang, Jiangsu, 222047, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Reduning injection (RDNI) is a patented Traditional Chinese medicine that contains three Chinese herbal medicines, respectively are the dry aboveground part of Artemisia annua L., the flower of Lonicera japonica Thunb., and the fruit Gardenia jasminoides J.Ellis. RDNI has been recommended for treating Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the "New Coronavirus Pneumonia Diagnosis and Treatment Plan".

Aim Of The Study: To elucidate and verify the underlying mechanisms of RDNI for the treatment of COVID-19.

Methods: This study firstly performed anti-SARS-CoV-2 experiments in Vero E6 cells. Then, network pharmacology combined with molecular docking was adopted to explore the potential mechanisms of RDNI in the treatment for COVID-19. After that, western blot and a cytokine chip were used to validate the predictive results.

Results: We concluded that half toxic concentration of drug CC50 (dilution ratio) = 1:1280, CC50 = 2.031 mg crude drugs/mL (0.047 mg solid content/mL) and half effective concentration of drug (EC50) (diluted multiples) = 1:25140.3, EC50 = 103.420 μg crude drugs/mL (2.405 μg solid content/mL). We found that RDNI can mainly regulate targets like carbonic anhydrases (CAs), matrix metallopeptidases (MMPs) and pathways like PI3K/AKT, MAPK, Forkhead box O s and T cell receptor signaling pathways to reduce lung damage. We verified that RDNI could effectively inhibit the overexpression of MAPKs, PKC and p65 nuclear factor-κB. The injection could also affect cytokine levels, reduce inflammation and display antipyretic activity.

Conclusion: RDNI can regulate ACE2, Mpro and PLP in COVID-19. The underlying mechanisms of RDNI in the treatment for COVID-19 may be related to the modulation of the cytokine levels and inflammation and its antipyretic activity by regulating the expression of MAPKs, PKC and p65 nuclear factor NF-κB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.113871DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7825842PMC
June 2021

Economical bluetooth low energy-based telemetry system with combined data processing method for long-term laboratory animal monitoring for biological rhythm research.

Chronobiol Int 2021 Mar 13;38(3):451-465. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

NHC Key Laboratory of Chronobiology, West China School of Basic Medical Sciences & Forensic Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

A telemetry system based on Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) was constructed to simultaneously collect locomotor activity and physiological signals of small animal cohorts for circadian rhythm experiments; it consists of miniature transmitters and mobile phone with customized App. The continuous sampling signals obtained from the 3-axis acceleration and temperature sensors in the transmitters are sent to the mobile phone in real-time through Internet of Things (IoT) for temporary storage and then imported into the computer for summary and rhythm analysis by the general open-source mathematical software. Unlike expensive and complicated commercial telemetry systems with industrial wireless standards, no special data receivers and software are needed. In our validation experiment, six rats were divided into two groups under natural dark and light-dark cycles. For two consecutive weeks, the transmitter mounted on the head of the rat-recorded locomotor activity, skin temperature, and ambient temperature of each rat at a frequency of 6 Hz. After processing with Local Weighted Regression Scatter Smoothing (LOWESS) and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) filtering, single cosinor and multi-components cosinor were then used to assess and characterize the circadian rhythm. The results showed that the rhythm values of the two groups of rats coincided with the corresponding light-dark cycle, and that the system was robust to data loss and error from BLE communication failures. Therefore, the proposed system provides a light-weight framework for long-term circadian rhythm monitoring in free-moving rodents to further simplify and promote experimental chronobiology animal studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07420528.2020.1868489DOI Listing
March 2021

The role of chemotherapy in patients with T1bN0M0 triple-negative breast cancer: a real-world competing risk analysis.

J Cancer 2021 1;12(1):10-17. Epub 2021 Jan 1.

Department of Breast Surgery, Guangxing Hospital Affiliated to Zhejiang Traditional Chinese Medicine University, Hangzhou Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, People's Republic of China.

The objective of the present study was to implement Kaplan-Meier analysis, competing risk analysis, and propensity score matching to evaluate whether the patients with T1bN0M0 triple-negative breast (TNBC) could benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. A total of 1849 patients were identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database from 2010 to 2015. All eligible patients were divided into two cohorts, the chemotherapy (1155 patients) and the no-chemotherapy (694 patients) cohorts. Similar 5-year breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) was observed in the chemotherapy and no-chemotherapy cohorts (96.1% vs. 96.0%, p=0.820). The results of the competing risk analysis showed a comparable 5-year breast cancer-specific death (BCSD) in both groups (chemotherapy 3.6% vs. no-chemotherapy 3.4%, p=0.778). Also, a higher 5-year other causes death (OCD) was observed in the no-chemotherapy cohort (0.7% vs. 5.4%, p<0.001). Multivariable competing risks regression models showed no association between chemotherapy and BCSS (HR, 1.21; 95%CI, 0.64-2.31; p=0.560). After 1:1 PSM, no significant difference was also observed for BCSD and OCD between two cohorts. The value of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with T1bN0M0 TNBC is less than the present guidelines recommend, suggesting that de-escalated treatment could be a potentially beneficial strategy in appropriately selected patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.52540DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7738821PMC
January 2021

Anti-COVID-19 drug screening: Frontier concepts and core technologies.

Chin Med 2020 Oct 28;15(1):115. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, University of Macau, Room 8008, Building N22, Avenida da Universidade, Taipa, Macao SAR, China.

The outbreak of COVID-19 has recently evolved into a global pandemic. Up to July 2020, almost every country has confirmed COVID-19 cases reported worldwide. Many leading experts have predicted that the epidemic will persist for relatively a long period of time. Thus far, there have been no remedies proven effective against the disease. As the nation where COVID-19 broke out first, China has adopted a combination of traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine to fight against the disease, and has achieved significant clinical result. Up to now, the COVID-19 pandemic has been effectively controlled in China. However, the rest of the world (except for a limited number of countries and regions) is still in deep water. This paper thoroughly summarizes interdisciplinary notions and techniques, including disease model, biochip, network pharmacology, and molecular docking technology, etc., providing a reference for researchers in the screening of drugs for COVID-19 prevention and treatment. These methodologies may facilitate researchers to screen out more potential drugs for treating COVID-19 pneumonia and to tackle this global crisis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13020-020-00393-zDOI Listing
October 2020

Berberine improves colitis by triggering AhR activation by microbial tryptophan catabolites.

Pharmacol Res 2021 Feb 4;164:105358. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Key Laboratory of Systems Biomedicine (Ministry of Education), Shanghai Center for Systems Biomedicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China. Electronic address:

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are kind of recurrent inflammatory issues that occur in the gastrointestinal tract, and currently clinical treatment is still unideal due to the complex pathogenesis of IBD. Basically, gut barrier dysfunction is triggered by gut microbiota dysbiosis that is closely associated with the development of IBD, we thus investigated the therapeutic capacity of berberine (BBR) to improve the dysregulated gut microbiota, against IBD in rats, using a combinational strategy of targeted metabolomics and 16 s rDNA amplicon sequencing technology. Expectedly, our data revealed that BBR administration could greatly improve the pathological phenotype, gut barrier disruption, and the colon inflammation in rats with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. In addition, 16S rDNA-based microbiota analysis demonstrated that BBR could alleviate gut dysbiosis in rats. Furthermore, our targeted metabolomics analysis illustrated that the levels of microbial tryptophan catabolites in the gastrointestinal tract were significantly changed during the development of the colitis in rats, and BBR treatment can significantly restore such changes of the tryptophan catabolites accordingly. At last, our in vitro mechanism exploration was implemented with a Caco-2 cell monolayer model, which verified that the modulation of the dysregulated gut microbiota to change microbial metabolites coordinated the improvement effect of BBR on gut barrier disruption in the colitis, and we also confirmed that the activation of AhR induced by microbial metabolites is indispensable to the improvement of gut barrier disruption by BBR. Collectively, BBR has the capacity to treat DSS-induced colitis in rats through the regulation of gut microbiota associated tryptophan metabolite to activate AhR, which can greatly improve the disrupted gut barrier function. Importantly, our finding elucidated a novel mechanism of BBR to improve gut barrier function, which holds the expected capacity to promote the BBR derived drug discovery and development against the colitis in clinic setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2020.105358DOI Listing
February 2021

Anti-COVID-19 drug screening: Frontier concepts and core technologies.

Chin Med 2020 28;15:115. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, University of Macau, Room 8008, Building N22, Avenida da Universidade, Taipa, Macao SAR China.

The outbreak of COVID-19 has recently evolved into a global pandemic. Up to July 2020, almost every country has confirmed COVID-19 cases reported worldwide. Many leading experts have predicted that the epidemic will persist for relatively a long period of time. Thus far, there have been no remedies proven effective against the disease. As the nation where COVID-19 broke out first, China has adopted a combination of traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine to fight against the disease, and has achieved significant clinical result. Up to now, the COVID-19 pandemic has been effectively controlled in China. However, the rest of the world (except for a limited number of countries and regions) is still in deep water. This paper thoroughly summarizes interdisciplinary notions and techniques, including disease model, biochip, network pharmacology, and molecular docking technology, etc., providing a reference for researchers in the screening of drugs for COVID-19 prevention and treatment. These methodologies may facilitate researchers to screen out more potential drugs for treating COVID-19 pneumonia and to tackle this global crisis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13020-020-00393-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7592451PMC
October 2020

Dissecting the mechanism of Yuzhi Zhixue granule on ovulatory dysfunctional uterine bleeding by network pharmacology and molecular docking.

Chin Med 2020 23;15:113. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Department of Clinical Chinese Pharmacy, School of Chinese Materia Medica, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, No. 11 of North Three-ring East Road, Chao Yang District, Beijing, 100102 China.

Background: Yuzhi Zhixue Granule (YZG) is a traditional Chinese patent medicine for treating excessive menstrual flow caused by ovulatory dysfunctional uterine bleeding (ODUB) accompanied by heat syndrome. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms, potential targets, and active ingredients of this prescription are still unknown. Therefore, it is imperative to explore the molecular mechanism of YZG.

Methods: The active compounds in YZG were screened by the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP). The putative targets of YZG were collected via TCMSP and Search Tool for Interacting Chemicals (STITCH) databases. The Therapeutic Target Database (TTD) and Pharmacogenomics Knowledgebase (PharmGKB) databases were used to identify the therapeutic targets of ODUB. A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network containing both the putative targets of YZG and known therapeutic targets of ODUB was built. Furthermore, bioinformatics resources from the database for annotation, visualization and integrated discovery (DAVID) were utilized for Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses. Finally, molecular docking was performed to verify the binding effect between the YZG screened compounds and potential therapeutic target molecules.

Results: The study employed a network pharmacology method, mainly containing target prediction, network construction, functional enrichment analysis, and molecular docking to systematically research the mechanisms of YZG in treating ODUB. The putative targets of YZG that treat ODUB mainly involved PTGS1, PTGS2, ALOX5, CASP3, LTA4H, F7 and F10. The functional enrichment analysis suggested that the produced therapeutic effect of YZG against ODUB is mediated by synergistical regulation of several biological pathways, including apoptosis arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism, serotonergic synapse, complement and coagulation cascades and C-type lectin receptor signaling pathways. Molecular docking simulation revealed good binding affinity of the seven putative targets with the corresponding compounds.

Conclusion: This novel and scientific network pharmacology-based study holistically elucidated the basic pharmacological effects and the underlying mechanisms of YZG in the treatment of ODUB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13020-020-00392-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7584092PMC
October 2020

Nonpharmacological therapies for central poststroke pain: A systematic review.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Oct;99(42):e22611

Department of Neurology, the Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, Sichuan, China.

Background: Central poststroke pain (CPSP) is a neuropathic pain syndrome that can occur after a cerebrovascular accident. It has negative effects on mood, sleep, rehabilitation, and quality of life in stroke patients. This systematic review assessed the efficacy and safety of nonpharmacological therapies for treating CPSP.

Methods: The Cochrane, PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases were systematically searched for studies from inception to August 2020. Two authors worked independently and in duplicate to identify suitable studies.

Results: Eleven studies were identified. Pain related to CPSP was ameliorated by precentral gyrus stimulation (P = .01), caloric vestibular stimulation (P = 0.004), transcranial direct current stimulation (P < .05), and bee venom acupuncture point injection (P = .009). Acupuncture (P = .72) and electroacupuncture therapies (P > .05) were as effective for thalamic pain as oral carbamazepine treatment. Motor cortex stimulation, but not deep brain stimulation (DBS), was effective for treating refractory CPSP, and appeared to be more effective than thalamic stimulation for controlling bulbar pain secondary to Wallenberg syndrome. However, DBS in the ventral striatum or anterior limb of the internal capsule improved depression (P = .020) and anxiety in patients with refractory CPSP. Some serious adverse events were reported in response to invasive electrical brain stimulation, but most of these effects recovered with treatment.

Conclusions: Nonpharmacological therapies appear to be effective in CPSP, but the evidence is relatively weak. Invasive electrical brain stimulation can be accompanied by serious adverse events, but most patients recover from these effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000022611DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7572005PMC
October 2020

Pulmonary vascular endothelial injury and acute pulmonary hypertension caused by COVID-19: the fundamental cause of refractory hypoxemia?

Cardiovasc Diagn Ther 2020 Aug;10(4):892-897

ICU of Peking University Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, China.

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a severe infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that binds to the cells; angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. In the first severe case of COVID-19 in Shenzhen city, we found that in addition to the typical clinical manifestations, our patient presented hemoptysis, refractory hypoxemia and pulmonary fibrosis-like changes on computed tomography (CT) involving alveoli and pulmonary interstitium in the early stage and acute pulmonary hypertension and right heart failure in the later stage, which were not completely justified by myocarditis, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), pulmonary fibrosis and high PEEP level. The lung compliance deterioration of this patient was not as serious as we expected, indicating classic ARDS was not existed. Simultaneously, the first autopsy report of COVID-19 in China showed normal-structured alveoli and massive thick excretion in the airway. Then, we speculated that the virus not only attacked alveolar epithelial cells, but also affected pulmonary vascular endothelial cells. Imbalance in the ACE2-RAAS- bradykinin axis and the cytokine storm could be an important mechanism leading to pathophysiological changes in pulmonary vascular and secondary refractory hypoxemia. Pulmonary vasculitis or capillaritis associated to immune damage and an inflammatory storm could exist in COVID-19 because of ground-glass opacities in the subpleural area, which are similar to connective tissue disease associated interstitial lung disease (CTD-ILD). Thus, this case elucidates new treatment measures for COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/cdt-20-429DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7487391PMC
August 2020

Training Experience in the US School Psychology Program: Understanding Asian International Students' Assets, Challenges, and Coping.

Contemp Sch Psychol 2020 Sep 10:1-12. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Graduate School of Education, University of California, Berkeley, 2121 Berkeley Way, Berkeley, CA 94720, Berkeley, CA 94720-1670 USA.

To address the rapidly increasing demand for culturally and linguistically diverse school psychologists and training needs for international school psychology students in the USA, this study was grounded in the risk and resilience framework and used semi-structured interviews to explore the nuanced experiences of Asian international trainees in school psychology programs in the USA. Participants included 11 Asian international students who were enrolled in or recently graduated from school psychology programs in the USA. Thematic analysis revealed that Asian international school psychology students identified some assets they have brought to the program, including their diverse perspectives and experiences, awareness and commitment to social justice, and the potential to diversify the school psychology workforce. Participants also identified several challenges they were facing, such as acculturative stress, microaggression and discrimination, training program-related issues, and working restrictions related to their visa status. Moreover, they identified some effective strategies (i.e., seeking resources and increasing internal strengths) they have used to cope with these challenges. The findings provide important implications for school psychology graduate programs in the USA to improve the training experiences and training outcomes for international students from Asia and other countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40688-020-00320-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7483058PMC
September 2020

Reflections on treatment of COVID-19 with traditional Chinese medicine.

Chin Med 2020 3;15:94. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, University of Macau, Macao SAR, China.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is spreading rapidly around the globe. By the establishment of an integrative system combining both traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and western medicine, China has achieved good clinical efficacy in the prevention and control of the pandemic. The advantages of TCM in the treatment of COVID-19 include effective relief of symptoms, retarding the development from mild and moderate to severe, improvement of cure rate, reducing death rates, and promotion of rehabilitation. Besides, according to the different severity levels of individual cases, the National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China issued treatment guidelines that provide corresponding prescriptions for patients. From the perspective of TCM, this review aims to analyze the role of a variety of TCM prescriptions in the treatment of COVID-19, focusing on the analysis of the "Three TCM prescriptions and three medicines" recommended by the Chinese authorities during the pandemic. We expect that this review will provide insights into the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 with TCM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13020-020-00375-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7468089PMC
September 2020

Hypocalcemia in sepsis: analysis of the subcellular distribution of Ca2+ in septic rats and LPS/TNF-α-treated HUVECs.

J Infect Dev Ctries 2020 08 31;14(8):908-917. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Department of Intensive Care Unit, Peking University Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen Peking University - The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology Medical Center, No.1120, Lianhua Road, Futian District, Shenzhen, 518000, China.

Introduction: Hypocalcemia has been widely recognized in sepsis patients. However, the cause of hypocalcemia in sepsis is still not clear, and little is known about the subcellular distribution of Ca2+ in tissues during sepsis.

Methodology: We measured the dynamic change in Ca2+ levels in body fluid and subcellular compartments, including the cytosol, endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, in major organs of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-operated rats, as well as the subcellular Ca2+ flux in HUVECs which treated by endotoxin and cytokines.

Results: In the model of CLP-induced sepsis, the blood and urinary Ca2+ concentrations decreased rapidly, while the Ca2+ concentration in ascites fluid increased. The Ca2+ concentrations in the cytosol, ER, and mitochondria were elevated nearly synchronously in major organs in our sepsis model. Moreover, the calcium overload in CLP-operated rats treated with calcium supplementation was more severe than that in the non-calcium-supplemented rats but was alleviated by treatment with the calcium channel blocker verapamil. Similar subcellular Ca2+ flux was found in vitro in HUVECs and was triggered by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/TNF-α.

Conclusions: Ca2+ influx from the blood into the intercellular space and Ca2+ release into ascites fluid may cause hypocalcemia in sepsis and that this process may be due to the synergistic effect of endotoxin and cytokines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3855/jidc.12341DOI Listing
August 2020

Role of marital status on the prognosis in esophagus adenocarcinoma: a real-world competing risk analysis.

Future Oncol 2020 Dec 5;16(35):2923-2937. Epub 2020 Sep 5.

Department of Breast Surgery, Hangzhou Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Hangzhou, 310007, Zhejiang, PR China.

The purpose of this study was to assess the role of marital status in esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). We identified 8341 EAC patients based on the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database during 2007-2015, of whom 7275 were male and 1066 were female. Temporal trends, competing risk analysis and propensity score matching were performed. There was an upward trend for the rate of unmarried patients in both male and female populations (p < 0.05). Unmarried status represented an independent risk factor for higher cancer-specific death (CSD) in males (hazard ratio: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.04-1.18; p = 0.001) but not in females (hazard ratio: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.81-1.13; p = 0.610). Married EAC patients experienced lower CSD compared with their unmarried counterparts in the male cohort.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/fon-2020-0613DOI Listing
December 2020

CTLA-4 immunotherapy exposes differences in immune response along with different tumor progression in colorectal cancer.

Aging (Albany NY) 2020 08;12(15):15656-15669

Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, University of Macau, Macao, China.

Tumor growth is accompanied by a changing tumor microenvironment and mutations that increase the resistance to therapy. Here, we used syngeneic models to evaluate the drug response of tumors of the same type of different sizes. We used the efficacy and Ki-67 immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay to assess the difference in responses in response to treatment with the same concentration of anti-CTLA-4. Flow cytometry analysis revealed changes in the immune subpopulations changes the spleen, peripheral blood, lymph node, and tumor tissue across different tumor growth phases. For example, naive CD4+T, CD4+TCM, CD8+TEM, T, B, Treg, CD8+TCM exhibited different percentages depending on the specific immune organ. To further expose the changes in the immune microenvironment, the level of expression of PD-1 and CTLA-4 showed statistically significant difference in related subsets for each four immune tissues in different tumor sizes. In addition, the ratios of CD4 + Teff/ CD4 + Treg and CD8 + T/Treg in corresponding immune tissue were also associated with statistically significant differences alongside tumor growth in different animal models. These results reveal the ongoing changes in the immune microenvironment during tumor progression and anti-CTLA-4 antibody immunotherapy effect depends on the expression level of immune factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.103765DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7467381PMC
August 2020

Effects of Marital Status on Prognosis in Women with Infiltrating Ductal Carcinoma of the Breast: A Real-World 1: 1 Propensity-Matched Study.

Med Sci Monit 2020 Jun 25;26:e923630. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Breast Surgery, Hangzhou Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND The effects of marital status on infiltrating ductal carcinoma of breast cancer (IDC) have not been studied in detail. This study investigated the impact of marital status on IDC patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS SEER databases were searched from 2010 to 2015 for subjects who were married, divorced, single, and widowed. The influence of marital status on breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) and overall survival (OS) of IDC patients was investigated through multivariate Cox regression analysis and Kaplan-Meier analysis. To prevent bias, propensity score matching (PSM) analysis was performed. RESULTS The 5-year OS was 89.6%in married patients, 84.9% in divorced patients, 83.5% in single patients, and 71.3% in widowed patients (p<0.001). The 5-year BCSS were 92.9%, 90.2%, 87.6%, and 86.4%, respectively (p<0.001). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that marriage was a protective factor for patients with IDC in terms of OS (divorced: HR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.21-1.32; p<0.001; single: HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.31-1.42; p<0.001; widowed: HR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.36-1.48; p<0.001) and BCSS (divorced: HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.09-1.21; p<0.001; single: HR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.21-1.33; p<0.001; widowed: HR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.25-1.40; p<0.001). Following subgroup and PSM analysis, married patients were shown to have better OS and BCSS as opposed to divorced, single, or widowed patients. CONCLUSIONS We identify marital status as a predictor of survival in those with IDC. Widowed patients showed the highest mortality risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.923630DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7333511PMC
June 2020

Intracystic papillary carcinoma of the breast in males: Three case reports.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Jun;99(25):e20278

Department of Breast Surgery, Hangzhou Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine.

Rationale: Intracystic papillary breast carcinoma is extremely rare in males with a favorable prognosis. Clinical and mammographic manifestations of IPC are not specific, and no consensus has been reached on its management.

Patient Concerns: Three cases of IPC of the breast in male patients who underwent surgery are presented. In each patient, clinical manifestations, radiological appearance, surgical procedures, pathological diagnosis, and prognosis were investigated.

Diagnosis: Ultrasonography showed a complex mass with cystic and nodular solid components in 2 patients and a solid hypoechoic mass in the other 1. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography(CEUS) was performed for 1 patient demonstrated a solid component of the characteristic enhancement patterns. The final diagnosis of IPC was made after an excisional biopsy.

Interventions: A mastectomy with sentinel lymph node mapping was carried out in 2 patients, and it was negative for metastatic disease. The third patient received a mastectomy without an investigation of the axillary lymph node status.

Outcomes: All the patients are disease-free during a median follow-up of 67 months (range, 13-120) months.

Lessons: It is difficult to diagnose IPC of the male breast before surgery, excisional biopsy is necessary. CEUS can be useful to diagnose IPC in male patients in the preoperative evaluation. Sentinel node biopsy may be considered in patients with IPC associated with DCIS or invasive carcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000020278DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7310891PMC
June 2020

Modulation of Stem Cells as Therapeutics for Severe Mental Disorders and Cognitive Impairments.

Front Psychiatry 2020 30;11:80. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Department of Anesthesiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, United States.

Severe mental illnesses (SMI) such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder affect 2-4% of the world population. Current medications and diagnostic methods for mental illnesses are not satisfying. In animal studies, stem cell therapy is promising for some neuropsychiatric disorders and cognitive/social deficits, not only treating during development (targeting modulation and balancing) but also following neurodegeneration (cell replacement and regenerating support). We believe that novel interventions such as modulation of particular cell populations to develop cell-based treatment can improve cognitive and social functions in SMI. With pathological synaptic/myelin damage, oligodendrocytes seem to play a role. In this review, we have summarized oligodendrogenesis mechanisms and some related calcium signals in neural cells and stem/progenitor cells. The related benefits from endogenous stem/progenitor cells within the brain and exogenous stem cells, including multipotent mesenchymal-derived stromal cells (MSC), fetal neural stem cells (NSC), pluripotent stem cells (PSC), and differentiated progenitors, are discussed. These also include stimulating mechanisms of oligodendrocyte proliferation, maturation, and myelination, responsive to the regenerative effects by both endogenous stem cells and transplanted cells. Among the mechanisms, calcium signaling regulates the neuronal/glial progenitor cell (NPC/GPC)/oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) proliferation, migration, and differentiation, dendrite development, and synaptic plasticity, which are involved in many neuropsychiatric diseases in human. On the basis of numerous protein annotation and protein-protein interaction databases, a total of 119 calcium-dependent/activated proteins that are related to neuropsychiatry in human are summarized in this investigation. One of the advanced methods, the calcium/cation-channel-optogenetics-based stimulation of stem cells and transplanted cells, can take advantage of calcium signaling regulations. Intranasal-to-brain delivery of drugs and stem cells or local delivery with the guidance of brain imaging techniques may provide a unique new approach for treating psychiatric disorders. It is also expected that preconditioning stem cell therapy following precise brain imaging as pathological confirmation has high potential if translated to cell clinic use. Generally, modulable cell transplantation followed by stimulations should provide paracrine protection, synaptic modulation, and myelin repair for the brain in SMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00080DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7205035PMC
April 2020

Treatment efficacy analysis of traditional Chinese medicine for novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19): an empirical study from Wuhan, Hubei Province, China.

Chin Med 2020 15;15:34. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

1State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Macao, China.

Background: A novel coronavirus was identified in December, 2019 in Wuhan, China, and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) played an active role in combating the novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) caused by this fast-spreading virus COVID-19. Thus, we aimed to explore TCM characteristics of clinical efficacy to NCP, as well as to optimize Qingfei Paidu decoction (QFPDD) and the recommended formulas to NCP by National Health Commission (NHC).

Methods: Chinese medical sciences theory and clinical application of TCM were analyzed. A total of 54 NCP patients were observed in a hospital from Wuhan, whose clinical characteristics and utilization of Chinese Medicines (CMs) were described. Paired t test was used to measure the change of patients' hemogram during hospitalization period, indicating the effect of CMs. Multiple linear regression analysis was applied to explore the factors affecting the length of hospital stay. Network pharmacology analysis was applied to figure out the performance of NHC-recommended formulas of five disease stages at levels of compounds, targets and pathways.

Result: The average length of hospital stay was 8.96 days. Patients over 45 stayed 9.79 days in hospital in average, longer than 7.64 days of patients under 45. Comparing the hemograms between admission and discharge of hospital, the number of leukocytes, neutrophil, lymphocyte and platelet increased, while the numbers of erythrocytes, hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit decreased. According to the standard coefficients of regression, the factor affecting the length of stay for the most was CMs in category of invigorating spleen and removing dampness (ISRD), followed by administrating CMs, male, and cough. Thirty-two CMs were screened after deleting duplication from QFPDD and NHC-recommended formulas. Compound quercetin, luteolin, kaempferol, acacetin etc., were all involved in the treatment of various disease stages on the compound level both in generality and individuality.

Conclusion: TCM has a systemic theoretical understanding on the pathological evolution and a positive clinical efficacy on NCP. The CMs of ISRD improved patients' recovery, suggesting the importance of regulating intestinal function and keeping microenvironmental balance in TCM treatment of NCP. The active compounds from QFPDD and NHC-recommended formulas contribute to recovery of varied disease progresses during TCM treating NCP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13020-020-00317-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7156896PMC
April 2020

TMPO-AS1/miR-98-5p/EBF1 feedback loop contributes to the progression of bladder cancer.

Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2020 05 19;122:105702. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Department of Urology, Institute of Urology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, No.37 Guoxue Alley, Chengdu, 610000, Sichuan, PR China. Electronic address:

As reported in numerous studies, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) exert significant effect on the regulation of tumor development. LncRNA TMPO antisense RNA 1 (TMPO-AS1) has been confirmed to be implicated in the development of several cancers. However, its clinical significance is still largely unknown in bladder cancer (BCa). In this study, high expression of TMPO-AS1 was revealed in BCa tissues and cell lines, and TMPO-AS1 predicted poor prognosis. Moreover, TMPO-AS1 facilitated cell growth. Additionally, TMPO-AS1 also boosted the migration and invasion of BCa cells. Mechanistically, overexpressed EBF transcription factor 1 (EBF1) in BCa cell was verified to promote the transcription of TMPO-AS1. Later, we found that TMPO-AS1 was a cytoplasmic RNA and could sponge miR-98-5p. Besides, it was validated that EBF1 is a target gene of miR-98-5p and negatively correlated with miR-98-5p in terms of expression level. According to the results of rescue experiments, we observed that EBF1 overexpression restored the repressive effect of TMPO-AS1 silencing on BCa development. Our research is the first to disclose the biological role and molecular mechanism of TMPO-AS1 in BCa, and TMPO-AS1 might be identified as a new therapeutic target for BCa patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocel.2020.105702DOI Listing
May 2020

Bioinformatics analysis of esophageal cancer unveils an integrated mRNA-lncRNA signature for predicting prognosis.

Oncol Lett 2020 Feb 11;19(2):1434-1442. Epub 2019 Dec 11.

Department of Cardiology, The First People's Hospital of Xiaoshan, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 311201, P.R. China.

Esophageal cancer (ESCA) carries a poor prognosis among gastrointestinal malignancies. The present study developed a signature based on mRNAs and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) to predict prognosis in ESCA by using The Cancer Genome Atlas database. By using least absolute shrinkage and selection operator penalized regression, a set of RNAs (three mRNAs and two lncRNAs) was identified and used to build a risk score system of ESCA prognosis, which was used to stratify patients having considerable diverse survival in the training set [hazard ratio (HR), 3.932; 95% CI, 1.555-9.944; P<0.002] into high- and low-risk groups. The authentication of the results was achieved through the test set (HR, 3.150; 95% CI, 1.113-8.918; P<0.02) and the entire set (HR, 3.181; 95% CI, 1.686-6.006; P<0.0002). The results from multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis in the entire set suggested that the prognostic significance of this signature may be independent of patients' clinicopathological characteristics. Furthermore, this signature was associated with several molecular signaling pathways of cancer according to Gene Set Enrichment Analysis. In addition, a nomogram was built and the risk score and TNM stage were integrated to estimate the 1- and 3-year overall survival rates. The results from the present study demonstrated that the integrated mRNA-lncRNA signature may be considered as a novel biomarker for the prognosis of ESCA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2019.11208DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6956414PMC
February 2020

Inflammation and Endothelial Function Relevant Genetic Polymorphisms and Carotid Plaque in Chinese Population.

J Atheroscler Thromb 2020 Sep 17;27(9):978-994. Epub 2020 Jan 17.

Department of Neurology, the Third Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University.

Aim: To examine the association between carotid plaque and variants in genes involved in inflammation and endothelial function.

Methods: This was a multicenter, cross-sectional survey in southwestern China. The residents aged ≥ 40 years volunteered to participate in the face-to-face survey in eight communities. A total of 2,377 subjects with high stroke risk were enrolled. Carotid plaque and plaque phenotype were assessed by carotid ultrasound. Genotypes of 19 variants in 10 genes related to inflammation and endothelial function were examined. Gene-gene interaction was analyzed by generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR).

Results: Carotid plaques were found in 852 (35.8%) subjects, and 454 (53.3%) had stable plaques, whereas 398 (46.7%) had vulnerable plaques. PPARA rs4253655, HABP2 rs7923349, and IL1A rs1609682 were associated with the presence of carotid plaque, and NOS2A rs2297518 and PPARA rs4253655 were associated with vulnerable plaque in univariate analysis. The GMDR analysis revealed that there was a significant gene-gene interaction among HABP2 rs7923349, ITGA2 rs1991013, IL1A rs1609682, and NOS2A rs8081248, and the high-risk interactive genotype among the four variants was independently associated with a higher risk of carotid vulnerable plaque after adjusting the covariates (OR, 2.86, 95% CI: 1.32-7.13, P=0.003).

Conclusion: The prevalence of carotid plaque was very high in the high-risk stroke population in southwestern China. Variants in genes involved in the endothelial function and inflammation were associated with the carotid plaque. The high-risk interactive genotype among rs7923349, rs1991013, rs1609682, and rs8081248 was independently associated with a higher risk of vulnerable plaque.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5551/jat.53074DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7508723PMC
September 2020

Prevalence of stroke and stroke related risk factors: a population based cross sectional survey in southwestern China.

BMC Neurol 2020 Jan 7;20(1). Epub 2020 Jan 7.

Department of Neurology, The People's Hospital of Deyang City, No 173, North Taishan Road, Deyang, 618000, Sichuan, China.

Background: Stroke and its risk factors epidemiological survey can help identify individuals at higher risk and therefore promote stroke prevention strategies. The aim of this study was to estimate the current prevalence of stroke and high risk stroke population, and evaluate stroke associated risk factors in southwestern China.

Methods: This was a multi-center, cross sectional survey in southwestern China from May 2015 to September 2015. The eight communities were selected at random, and 17,413 residents aged ≥40 years volunteered to participate in this survey. Data were collected through face-to-face survey using a structured questionnaire. Five hundred twenty-one participants with incomplete questionnaires on stroke history or risk factors records were excluded.

Results: A total of 16,892 people included in analysis. The overall prevalence of stroke was 3.1% (95% CI 2.6-3.9%), 17.1% of participants were the high risk stroke population. After full adjustments, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, overweight, lack of exercise and family history of stroke were significantly associated with overall stroke and ischemic stroke. The largest contributor was hypertension (population-attributable risk 23.6%), followed by dyslipidemia, physical inactivity, family history of stroke, diabetes, and overweight. However, only hypertension (OR = 3.66, 95% CI 1.82-8.23) was significantly associated with hemorrhagic stroke.

Conclusions: The prevalence of stroke and high risk stroke population was high among adults aged ≥40 years in southwestern China. Hypertension, dyslipidemia and lack of exercise were stronger contributors for stroke, these findings suggest that individual-level and population-level interventions for these leading risk factors are necessary to prevent stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12883-019-1592-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6947997PMC
January 2020