Publications by authors named "Hua Hong"

241 Publications

Chronic Intermittent Hypobaric Hypoxia Decreases High Blood Pressure by Stabilizing the Vascular Renin-Angiotensin System in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

Front Physiol 2021 24;12:639454. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Physiology, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China.

Background And Aims: Previous studies have demonstrated the anti-hypertensive effect of chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (CIHH) in hypertensive rats. The present study investigated the anti-hypertensive effect of CIHH in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and the role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in anti-hypertensive effect of CIHH.

Methods: Fifteen-week-old male SHR and WKY rats were divided into four groups: the SHR without CIHH treatment (SHR-CON), the SHR with CIHH treatment (SHR-CIHH), the WKY without CIHH treatment (WKY-CON), and the WKY with CIHH treatment (WKY-CIHH) groups. The SHR-CIHH and WKY-CIHH rats underwent 35-days of hypobaric hypoxia simulating an altitude of 4,000 m, 5 h per day. Arterial blood pressure and heart rate were recorded by biotelemetry, and angiotensin (Ang) II, Ang1-7, interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF)-α, and IL-10 in serum and the mesenteric arteries were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The microvessel tension recording technique was used to determine the contraction and relaxation of the mesenteric arteries. Hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's staining were used to observe vascular morphology and fibrosis. Western blot was employed to detect the expression of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), ACE2, AT1, and Mas proteins in the mesenteric artery.

Results: The biotelemetry result showed that CIHH decreased arterial blood pressure in SHR for 3-4 weeks ( < 0.01). The ELISA and immunohistochemistry results showed that CIHH decreased Ang II, but increased Ang1-7 in serum and the mesenteric arteries of SHR. In the CIHH-treated SHR, IL-6 and TNF-α decreased in serum and the mesenteric arteries, and IL-10 increased in serum ( < 0.05-0.01). The microvessel tension results revealed that CIHH inhibited vascular contraction with decreased Ang1-7 in the mesenteric arteries of SHR ( < 0.05-0.01). The staining results revealed that CIHH significantly improved vascular remodeling and fibrosis in SHR. The western blot results demonstrated that CIHH upregulated expression of the ACE2 and Mas proteins, and downregulated expression of the ACE and AT1 proteins ( < 0.05-0.01).

Conclusion: CIHH decreased high blood pressure in SHR, possibly by inhibiting RAS activity, downregulating the ACE-Ang II-AT1 axis and upregulating the ACE2-(Ang1-7)-Mas axis, which resulted in antagonized vascular remodeling and fibrosis, reduced inflammation, and enhanced vascular relaxation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.639454DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8024534PMC
March 2021

[Diagnostic accuracy of MALDI-TOF mass spectrum in identification of oral Candidiasis isolates].

Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue 2020 Dec;29(6):567-572

Department of Oral Medicine, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology. Beijing 100081, China.

Purpose: To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in the identification of clinical oral Candida isolates.

Methods: In the first experiment, 170 suspected oral candidiasis patients were included. Unstimulated saliva was collected and cultured on solid plate (Sabouraud's agar) for 48 hours. Clinical isolates were analyzed by both PCR, which was used as golden standard, and MALDI-TOF MS. The diagnostic accuracy of MALDI-TOF MS for both C.albicans and non-C.albicans were investigated. In the second experiment, we tried to identify Candida isolates directly from positive liquid culture in a new cohort of 42 patients. MALDI-TOF MS identification of candida isolates were performed on positive liquid medium cultures directly. The data were analyzed using SPSS 18.0 software package.

Results: Totally, 230 clinical Candida isolates were isolated from 212 oral candidiasis patients enrolled. Out of the 230 analyzed clinical isolates, C. albicans (65.65%, 151/230) was the most frequently isolated species, followed by C. glabrata (11.74%, 27/230), and other candida species. The sensitivity and specificity of MALDI-TOF in identification of C. albicans were 93.33% and 92.73% respectively, and those for non-C. albicans were 83.64% and 89.2% respectively. Oral rinse followed by culturing in Sabouraud's liquid medium for 24 hours yield the diagnostic accuracy of 78.42% in MALDI-TOF MS identification.

Conclusions: C. albicans is the most frequent Candida spp. in oral candidiasis. MALDI-TOF MS is an effective and rapid method for identification of Candida spp. The on-plate based method generate much higher diagnostic accuracy than liquid culture based one.
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December 2020

Depth-enhanced head-mounted light field displays based on integral imaging.

Authors:
Xuan Wang Hong Hua

Opt Lett 2021 Mar;46(5):985-988

Conventional display systems based on integral imaging (InI) suffer from a major tradeoff between depth of field and spatial resolution. In this Letter, a new, to the best of our knowledge, a method for an InI-based light field display with an extended depth of field is proposed, where a digitally switchable multi-focal micro lens array can yield a depth of field spanning a depth range from zero to over three diopters without sacrificing either spatial resolution or form factor. A high optical performance display prototype was built and demonstrated with printed aperture arrays as a substitute for a custom-designed programmable shutter array that is still under construction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.413676DOI Listing
March 2021

Contrast-enhanced ultrasound diagnosis of prostatic sarcoma: Two case reports.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jan;100(2):e24038

Department of Ultrasound Medicine, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region People's Hospital, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, 010017, China.

Rationale: Prostatic sarcoma (PS) is a very rare malignant tumor that accounts for <0.1% of prostate malignancies, and Ewing's sarcoma is an extremely rare form of PS.

Patient Concerns: We reported on a 64-year-old patient with PS and a 36-year-old patient with Ewing's sarcoma, both of whom were examined by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) before surgery.

Diagnoses: The 2 cases were proven to be prostatic stromal sarcoma, which was confirmed by imaging manifestations and histopathological findings.

Interventions: The 64-year-old patient underwent radical prostatectomy, and the 36-year-old patient underwent chemotherapy combined with local radiotherapy.

Outcomes: PS showed diffuse enlargement of the prostate on sonography, and the necrotic liquefying area within the large vessels could be clearly displayed by CEUS. CEUS can be advocated as a valuable noninvasive and safe imaging diagnosis method for PS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000024038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7808539PMC
January 2021

Proteomics-based analysis indicating α-enolase as a potential biomarker in primary Sjögren's syndrome.

Gland Surg 2020 Dec;9(6):2054-2063

Department of Oral Medicine, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing, China.

Background: Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is a chronic autoimmune disease. Its etiology is not well understood. Salivary glands are the main target organ in pSS, investigating the changes of salivary protein in pSS patients may not only be a valuable way of identifying new biomarkers/antigens for pSS, but also of revealing the pathogenesis underlying this autoimmune disease. In the present study, we aimed to investigate new biomarkers and explore their potential role in pSS.

Methods: In this study, α-enolase (ENO1) was found to be overexpressed in pSS by 1D gel electrophoresis/mass spectrometry. The finding was verified by Western blots, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results in both saliva and labial salivary glands. The expression level of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody to ENO1 was then tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

Results: ENO1 autoantibody was found to be overexpressed in pSS compared with healthy controls. The effects of ENO1 overexpression on rat submandibular gland cell line SMG-C6 was investigated . The expressions of proteins related to saliva secretion and immunomodulatory were upregulated in ENO1 overexpressed SMG-C6 cells.

Conclusions: Both ENO1 and anti-ENO1 autoantibody are overexpressed in pSS patients. Nevertheless, their potential role in the pathogenesis of pSS warrants further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/gs-20-814DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7804532PMC
December 2020

Analytical model for the perceived retinal image formation of 3D display systems.

Opt Express 2020 Dec;28(25):38029-38048

The optical design process of conventional stereoscope-type head mounted displays for virtual and augmented reality applications typically neglects the inherent aberrations of the eye optics or refractive errors of a viewer, which misses the opportunity of producing personal devices for optimal visual experiences. Although a few research efforts have been made to simulate the retinal image formation process for some of the emerging 3D display systems such as light field displays that require modeling the eye optics to complete the image formation process, the existing works generally are specific for one type of display methods, unable to provide a generalized framework for different display methods for the benefit of comparison, and often require the use of at least two different software platforms for implementation which is challenging in handling massive data and implementing compensation of wavefront aberrations induced by display engine or eye refractive errors. To overcome those limits, we present a generalized analytical model for accurately simulating the visual responses such as retinal PSF, MTF, and image formation of different types of 2D and 3D display systems. This analytical model can accurately simulate the retinal responses when viewing a given display system, accounting for the residual eye aberrations of schematic eye models that match with the statistical clinical measurements, eye accommodative change as required, the effects of different eye refractive errors specific to viewers, and the effects of various wavefront aberrations inherited from a display engine. We further describe the numerical implementation of this analytical model for simulating the perceived retinal image with different types of HMD systems in a single computational platform. Finally, with a test setup, we numerically demonstrated the application of this analytical model in the simulation of the perceived retinal image, accommodative response and in the investigation of the eye refractive error impacts on the perceived retinal image based on the multifocal plane display, integral imaging based light field display, computational multilayer light field display, as well as the stereoscope and natural viewing for comparison.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.408585DOI Listing
December 2020

Focus issue introduction: 3D image acquisition and display: technology, perception, and applications.

Opt Express 2021 Jan;29(1):342-345

This feature issue of Optics Express is organized in conjunction with the 2020 OSA conference on 3D image acquisition and display: technology, perception and applications which was held virtually in Vancouver from 22 to 26, June 2020 as part of the imaging and sensing congress 2020. This feature issue presents 29 articles based on the topics and scope of the 3D conference. This review provides a summary of these articles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.417575DOI Listing
January 2021

Application of spectral CT in the diagnosis of contrast encephalopathy following carotid artery stenting: a case report.

BMC Neurol 2020 Nov 12;20(1):413. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Diagnosis and Treatment of Major Neurological Diseases, National Key Clinical Department and Key Discipline of Neurology, No.58 Zhongshan Road 2, Guangzhou, 510080, China.

Background: Contrast encephalopathy is a rare complication of carotid artery stenting (CAS). Contrast encephalopathy is a diagnosis of exclusion that often needs to be distinguished from high perfusion syndrome, cerebral haemorrhage, subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), cerebral infarction and so on.

Case Presentation: In this study, we report on a 70-year-old man who was admitted to the hospital with transient ischaemic attacks presenting paroxysmal weakness of limbs in the previous 2 years. He had severe stenosis of the left internal carotid artery diagnosed by digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and underwent CAS. Two hours after the operation, the patient developed paralysis of the right upper limb, unclear speech, fever and restlessness. Emergency skull computed tomography (CT) showed swelling and a linear high-density area in the left cerebral hemisphere. To clarify the components of this high-density area in the traditional CT, the patient had spectral CT, which made the diagnosis of the leakage of contrast clear. After 1 week of supportive treatment, the patient improved.

Conclusions: Spectral CT can easily distinguish the components of high-density areas on traditional CT, which is haemorrhage, calcification or iodine contrast leakage. Therefore, spectral CT is worth consideration for the differential diagnosis of complications of vascular intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12883-020-01992-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7661202PMC
November 2020

Roadmap on 3D integral imaging: sensing, processing, and display.

Opt Express 2020 Oct;28(22):32266-32293

This Roadmap article on three-dimensional integral imaging provides an overview of some of the research activities in the field of integral imaging. The article discusses various aspects of the field including sensing of 3D scenes, processing of captured information, and 3D display and visualization of information. The paper consists of a series of 15 sections from the experts presenting various aspects of the field on sensing, processing, displays, augmented reality, microscopy, object recognition, and other applications. Each section represents the vision of its author to describe the progress, potential, vision, and challenging issues in this field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.402193DOI Listing
October 2020

Further Comparison of 4 Display Modes for a Multi-Resolution Foveated Laparoscope.

Surg Innov 2021 Feb 7;28(1):85-93. Epub 2020 Sep 7.

Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, Arizona Simulation Technology & Education Center, Arizona Health Sciences Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA.

To overcome field of view and ergonomic limitations of standard laparoscopes, we are developing a multi-resolution foveated laparoscope (MRFL), which can simultaneously obtain both wide- and zoomed-in-view images. To facilitate the effectiveness of our MRFL, we have been investigating various ways of organizing and visualizing dual-view multi-resolution images acquired by the MRFL. In our prior study, we implemented and compared 6 display modes for the MRFL, assuming a typical clinical environment where a standard (but limited) resolution monitor is available. To take full advantage of our MRFL, displays having sufficient screen resolutions might be advantageous. The present study aims to further understand the effects of view configurations through displays with a standard high-definition (HD) resolution and a 4K resolution. In this study, we compare 3 display modes for limited-resolution displays against a new mode for sufficient-resolution displays. Twenty subjects performed 3 evaluation trials of a touching task with each display mode in an emulated MRFL environment. Various objective measurements including task completion time and the number of collisions, and subjective preference were recorded. . The new mode showed a better task completion time than the other modes, while it maintained a low number of collisions similar to the others. Moreover, the majority of participants selected the new mode as their most preferred one. With a sufficient display resolution, the co-registration between the unblocked and unwarped wide context view and the high-resolution zoomed-in view offered by the new mode was highly effective on both task performance and user preference.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1553350620957799DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7936989PMC
February 2021

Improved multi-resolution foveated laparoscope with real-time digital transverse chromatic correction.

Appl Opt 2020 Aug;59(22):G79-G91

A multi-resolution foveated laparoscope (MRFL) with autofocus and zooming capabilities was previously designed to address the limiting trade-off between spatial resolution and field of view during laparoscopic minimally invasive surgery. The MRFL splits incoming light into two paths enabling simultaneous capture of the full surgical field and a zoomed-in view of the local surgical site. A fully functional prototype was constructed to demonstrate and test the autofocus, zooming capabilities, and clinical utility of this new laparoscope. The test of the prototype in both dry lab and animal models was successful, but it also revealed several major limitations of the prototype. In this paper, we present a brief overview of the aforementioned MRFL prototype design and results, and the shortcomings associated with its optical and mechanical designs. We then present several methods to address the shortcomings of the existing prototype with a modified optical layout and redesigned mechanics. The performances of the new and old system prototypes are comparatively analyzed in accordance with the design goals of the new MRFL. Finally, we present and demonstrate a real-time digital method for correcting transverse chromatic aberration to further improve the overall image quality, which can be adapted to future MRFL systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.393088DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7538017PMC
August 2020

Diagnosis of oral syphilis remains a challenge - A case report.

Int J Infect Dis 2020 10 30;99:231-232. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Department of Oral Medicine, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing 100081, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.07.049DOI Listing
October 2020

Geometrical-lightguide-based head-mounted lightfield displays using polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal films.

Opt Express 2020 Jul;28(14):21165-21181

Integrating the promising waveguide or lightguide optical combiners to head-mounted lightfield display (LF-HMD) systems offers a great opportunity to achieve both a compact optical see-through capability required for augmented or mixed reality applications and true 3D scene with correct focus cues required for mitigating the well-known vergence-accommodation conflict. Due to the non-sequential ray propagation nature of these flat combiners and the ray construction nature of a lightfield display engine, however, adapting these two technologies to each other confronts several significant challenges. In this paper, we explore the feasibility of combining an integral-imaging-based lightfield display engine with a geometrical lightguide based on microstructure mirror arrays. The image artifacts and the key challenges in a lightguide-based LF-HMD system are systematically analyzed and are further quantified via a non-sequential ray tracing simulation. We further propose to utilize polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal (PDLC) films to address the inherent problems associated with a lightguide combiner such as increasing the viewing density and improving the image coupling uniformity. We finally demonstrate, to our best knowledge, the first lightguide-based LF-HMD system that takes the advantages of both the compact form factor of a lightguide combiner and the true 3D virtual image rendering capability of a lightfield display.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.397319DOI Listing
July 2020

Pituitary Apoplexy Leading to Cerebral Infarction: A Systematic Review.

Eur Neurol 2020 16;83(2):121-130. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Diagnosis and Treatment of Major Neurological Diseases, National Key Clinical Department and Key Discipline of Neurology, Guangzhou, China,

Background: Cerebral infarction caused by pituitary apoplexy (PA) is rare. To characterize the clinical features of cerebral infarction caused by PA, we performed a systematic review.

Summary: The clinical symptoms are mainly sudden headache, hemiplegia, visual impairment, disturbance of consciousness, and ophthalmalgia in patients with cerebral infarction caused by PA. Treatment for this type of infarction is different from treatment for general acute cerebral infarction. Compared to patients who underwent emergency surgery and conservative treatment, patients treated with delayed surgery showed a better prognosis and a lower mortality rate. Compared to patients who underwent craniotomy or conservative treatment, patients who underwent transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) not only improved well but also showed a lower mortality rate. Key Messages: PA rarely causes cerebral infarction, which is a critical condition with a poor prognosis and is more common in men. Delayed surgery and TSS appear to confer a better prognosis in patients with this condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000507190DOI Listing
December 2020

Finite-depth and vari-focal head-mounted displays based on geometrical lightguides.

Opt Express 2020 Apr;28(8):12121-12137

Existing waveguides and lightguides in optical see-through augmented reality (AR) displays usually guide collimated light, which results in a fixed image depth at optical infinity. In this paper, we explore the feasibility of integrating a lightguide with a varifocal optics engine to provide correct focus cues and solve the vergence-accommodation conflict in lightguide-based AR displays. The image performance and the cause of artifacts in a lightguide-based AR display with a varifocal optics engine are systematically analyzed. A non-sequential ray tracing method was developed to simulate the retinal image and quantify the effects of image focal depth on the image performance and artifacts for a vari-focal display engine of different depths. A prototype with varying image depths from 0 to 3 diopters was built and the experimental results validate the proposed system. A digital correction method is also proposed to correct the primary image artifact caused by the physical structure of the lightguide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.390928DOI Listing
April 2020

Association between hyperglycemia and the malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia in China.

Oral Dis 2020 Oct 24;26(7):1402-1413. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Oral Medicine, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology & National Engineering Laboratory for Digital and Material Technology of Stomatology & Beijing Key Laboratory of Digital Stomatology, Beijing, P. R. China.

Objectives: This study aimed to examine the association between hyperglycemia and the malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia (OLK).

Patients And Methods: This retrospective case-control study involved 133 patients with the malignant transformation of OLK into oral squamous cell carcinoma (case group) and 266 patients with untransformed OLK (control group). The clinical history and follow-up data included age, gender, lesion size and location, and fasting plasma glucose. Logistic regression analysis, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, and univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to assess the effects of risk factors on the malignant transformation of OLK.

Results: Hyperglycemia (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 4.7, p = .001), non-homogenous OLK (AHR = 3.0, p < .001), location of the lesion on the ventral surface of the tongue or floor of the mouth (AHR = 3.6, p < .001), and epithelial dysplasia (AHR = 2.8, p = .005) had significant effects on the malignant transformation of OLK.

Conclusion: Hyperglycemia, non-homogenous OLK, location of the lesion on the ventral surface of the tongue or floor of the mouth, and epithelial dysplasia might be associated with malignant transformation of OLK.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/odi.13372DOI Listing
October 2020

Systematic method for modeling and characterizing multilayer light field displays.

Authors:
Mohan Xu Hong Hua

Opt Express 2020 Jan;28(2):1014-1036

Conventional stereoscopic displays are subject to the well-known vergence-accommodation conflict (VAC) problem due to their lack of the ability to render correct focus cues of a 3D scene. A computational multilayer light field display has been explored as one of the approaches that can potentially overcome the VAC problem owing to the promise of rendering a true 3D scene by sampling the directions of the light rays apparently emitted by the 3D scene. Several pioneering works have demonstrated working prototypes of multilayer light field displays and the potential capability of rendering nearly correct focus cues. However, there is no systematic investigation upon methods for modeling and analyzing such a display, which is essential for further optimization and development of high-performance multilayer light field display systems. In this paper, we proposed a systemic analysis method for the multilayer light field displays by simulating the perceived retinal image which takes the display factors, the view-dependency of the reference light field, the diffraction effect, and the visual factors into consideration. Then we applied this model to investigate the accommodative response when observing the display engine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.381047DOI Listing
January 2020

Surgical management of middle aortic syndrome in an adult.

J Vasc Surg Cases Innov Tech 2020 Mar 12;6(1):38-40. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Department of Vascular Surgery, Kaiser Permanente San Francisco Medical Center, San Francisco, Calif.

Middle aortic syndrome (MAS), a coarctation of the lower thoracic and/or abdominal aorta, is typically diagnosed and treated in the pediatric population. We present a 48-year-old patient with a long-standing history of hypertension who was lost to follow-up owing to a lack of insurance coverage. After two myocardial infarcts owing to severe hypertension, a vascular workup including a computed tomography angiogram revealed a diagnosis of MAS. He underwent open vascular reconstruction with a thoracoabdominal Dacron bypass graft. He was discharged within 1 week with no hypertension or claudication. Adult patients diagnosed with MAS should undergo open or endovascular surgical repair with close follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvscit.2019.10.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7016340PMC
March 2020

Fluorescence staining vs. routine KOH smear for rapid diagnosis of oral candidiasis-A diagnostic test.

Oral Dis 2020 Jul 16;26(5):941-947. Epub 2020 Feb 16.

Department of Oral Medicine, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, National Engineering Laboratory for Digital and Material Technology of Stomatology, Beijing, China.

Objective: A diagnostic test was designed to evaluate the accuracy and applicability of fluorescence staining with fluorescein-labelled chitinase versus routine 10% potassium hydroxide (KOH) smear for rapid diagnosis of oral candidiasis.

Methods: In total, 124 subjects with suspected oral candidiasis symptoms/signs were sequentially enrolled in this study. The diagnostic efficacy indexes (sensitivity, specificity, Youden index, predictive value, likelihood ratio, diagnostic odds ratio, diagnostic accuracy and area under the curve [AUC]) were compared between 10% KOH smear and fluorescence staining.

Results: The sensitivity (85.48% vs. 64.52%) and specificity (91.94% vs. 72.58%) of fluorescence staining were higher than those of KOH smear. The AUC of fluorescence staining (0.887) was remarkably higher than that of 10% KOH smear (0.685), demonstrating that the diagnostic efficacy of fluorescence staining is significantly higher than that of KOH smear (p = .0005). Furthermore, fluorescence staining showed higher sensitivity than that of KOH smear (84.75% vs. 62.71%) in diagnosis of erythematous type oral candidiasis, which is the most common type and the type most challenging to differentially diagnose.

Conclusion: The advantages of fluorescence staining with fluorescein-labelled chitinase in rapid diagnosis of oral candidiasis and its ease of operation suggest its potential use in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/odi.13293DOI Listing
July 2020

Association between dectin-1 gene single nucleotide polymorphisms and fungal infection: a systemic review and meta-analysis.

Biosci Rep 2019 11;39(11)

Department of Oral Medicine, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing, China.

Objectives: To investigate the association between dectin-1 gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and susceptibility to fungal infection (FI).

Methods: Databases were searched electronically and manually to identify case-control studies concerning dectin-1 SNPs and FI, which were published up to 12 November 2018. The Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale was used to determine the study quality and bias. The SNP frequencies of the B (the variant or minor allele) and A (the wild or major allele) alleles of the dectin-1 gene in both cases and controls were analyzed with regard to FI susceptibility.

Results: Eight high-quality studies were included in the review. Systemic review of the included studies demonstrated that dectin-1 SNPs rs3901533 and rs7309123 might be associated with susceptibility to invasive pulmonary aspergillosis infection; moreover, rs16910527 SNP can possibly increase the susceptibility to oropharyngeal candidiasis in HIV-positive patients. The meta-analysis identified significant associations between dectin-1 SNPs and overall FI risk in the homozygote model (pooled odds ratio (OR) 1.77, P=0.04). When classified by subtypes, significant associations were also found for deep FI in the homozygote model (pooled OR 2.46, P=0.01) and the recessive model (pooled OR 2.85, P=0.002). There appeared to be no significant association between dectin-1 SNPs and superficial FI.

Conclusion: Systemic review of the included studies suggested that dectin-1 SNPs rs3901533, rs7309123, and rs16910527 might play a role in FI susceptibility. The meta-analysis provided convincing evidence that dectin-1 SNPs might have an important role in FI susceptibility, especially for deep FI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BSR20191519DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6851518PMC
November 2019

Efficacy of acupoint massage combined with acupoint application on arterial blood gas in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2019 May;32(3 Special):1375-1380

Nursing Department, Taizhou People's Hospital, Taizhou, China.

To explore efficacy of acupoint massage combined with acupoint application on arterial blood gas and postoperative complications for patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) in general anesthesia condition were randomly enrolled from local hospital into control group and experimental group. Four acupuncture points were prepared for acupoint massage and acupoint application, including bilateral Hegu acupoint (LI4), Neiguan Point (PC6), Zusanli Point (ST36) and Tanzhong acupoint (CV17). All patients in experimental group were treated with point acupressure treatment combined with acupoint application before LC, while control group directly receive LC surgery. The peak inspiratory pressure (PIP), end-tidal CO pressure (PETCO), oxygen saturation (SpO) and pH were examined at multiple time points during LC surgery. Related postoperative complications were documented for further analysis. All data were analyzed to assess efficacy of acupoint massage combined with acupoint application on arterial blood gas. There is no difference in baseline condition between experimental group and control group. Compared with control group, PetCO and SpO in experimental group were significantly increased while PIP was decreased. PH in experimental group ranged in a more stable domain. Hypercapnia and deep venous thrombosis were mitigated in experimental group compared with control group. Moreover, multiple pneumoperitoneum-related complications were alleviated after combined treatment, including pain and frequency of nausea and vomiting. Acupoint massage combined with acupoint application ameliorated related postoperative complications, and reduced side events of LC surgery via improving carbon dioxide metabolism.
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May 2019

Generalized methods and strategies for modeling and optimizing the optics of 3D head-mounted light field displays.

Opt Express 2019 Sep;27(18):25154-25171

An integral-imaging based light field head-mounted display, which typically renders a 3D scene by reconstructing the directional light rays apparently emitted by the scene via an array optics, is potentially capable of rendering correct or nearly correct focus cues and therefore solving the well-known vergence-accommodation conflict problem plaguing conventional stereoscopic displays. Its true 3D image formation nature, however, imposes significant complications and the well-established optical design process for conventional head-mounted displays becomes inadequate to address the design challenges. To our best knowledge, there are no existing methods or framework that have been previously proposed or demonstrated to address the challenges of modeling and optimizing an optical system for this type of display systems. In this paper, we present novel and generalizable methodology and framework for designing and optimizing the optical performance of integral-imaging based light field head-mounted displays, including methods of system configurations, user-defined metrics for characterizing the performance of such systems, and optimization strategies unique in light field displays. A design example is further given based on the proposed design methodology for the purpose of validating the proposed design method and framework.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.27.025154DOI Listing
September 2019

Long-term freedom from aneurysm-related mortality remains favorable after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair in a 15-year multicenter registry.

J Vasc Surg 2020 03 5;71(3):790-798. Epub 2019 Sep 5.

Department of Vascular Surgery, Permanente Medical Group, South San Francisco, Calif. Electronic address:

Objective: Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has become the preferred approach to abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) because of lower early morbidity and mortality than open repair. However, the ability of EVAR to prevent long-term aneurysm-related mortality (ARM) has been questioned in light of recent trial data. We have updated our long-term EVAR experience in a large multicenter registry to further examine this issue.

Methods: Between 2000 and 2010, 1736 patients with AAA underwent EVAR in a large integrated regional healthcare system. We extended follow-up in this previously reported cohort through 2015 and identified predictors associated with ARM and need for major reintervention. The primary outcome was ARM. Secondary outcomes were all-cause mortality, delayed aneurysm rupture, major adverse event, major reintervention, sac growth of more than 5 mm, and type I or III endoleak. End points were analyzed for the whole cohort and compared for patients who underwent EVAR during the earlier (2000-2005) and latter (2006-2010) halves of the enrollment period to assess for changes in outcomes over time of repair.

Results: The overall follow-up rate was 96.3%, and median follow-up was 5.5 years (interquartile range, 2.8-7.7 years). During the study period, 958 patients died, of whom 63 experienced ARM (6.6%). Overall crude rate of freedom from ARM was 96.4%. Delayed aneurysm rupture was seen in 1.3% (n = 23), with a median time to event of 4.1 years (interquartile range, 1.7-7.2 years). Major adverse events occurred in 12.4% of patients, and major reintervention was performed in 10.3%. Overall freedom from major adverse event or major reintervention was seen in 84.0%. Significant predictors of ARM included female sex, age 80 to 89 years, urgent EVAR, and any major reintervention. The unadjusted cumulative probability of all-cause survival was significantly higher in the late group than the early group at 5 years (66.8% vs 59.8%; P = .01, log-rank test); however, freedom from ARM at 5 years was not significantly different (96.5% and 97.1%, respectively; P = .67, log-rank test).

Conclusions: Our results demonstrate favorable long-term freedom from major adverse event or major reintervention after EVAR and extremely low rates of ARM and delayed rupture. Our findings support EVAR as a safe, long-term solution for managing patients with AAA and provide insight into clinical parameters that can be used to stratify patients' post-EVAR surveillance and need for reintervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2019.05.043DOI Listing
March 2020

Bioinspired, Injectable, Quaternized Hydroxyethyl Cellulose Composite Hydrogel Coordinated by Mesocellular Silica Foam for Rapid, Noncompressible Hemostasis and Wound Healing.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2019 Sep 10;11(38):34595-34608. Epub 2019 Sep 10.

Shanghai Wego Biological Technology Co., Ltd , Shanghai 200237 , P. R. China.

Massive bleeding control and anti-infection are the major challenges for urgent trauma with deep and noncompressible hemorrhage in both clinic and battlefield. Inspired by the coordinated primarily blood clot formation and secondly coagulation cascade activation in natural hemostasis process, an injectable, quaternized hydroxyethyl cellulose/mesocellular silica foam (MCF) hydrogel sponge (QHM) for both hemorrhage control and antibacterial activities were prepared via one-pot radical graft copolymerization. The as-prepared QHMs exhibited instant water-triggered expansion and superabsorbent capacity and thereby effectively facilitated blood components concentration. Moreover, the QHM1 with appropriate amount of MCF (9.82 w/w %) could further activate the coagulation factors. Synergistically, the QHM1 could reduce the plasma clotting time to 59 ± 4% in vitro and showed less blood loss than commercially available hemostatics in vivo noncompressible hemorrhage models of lethal rabbit-liver defect. Furthermore, the QHM with a quaternary ammonium groups density of 2.732 mmol/g exhibited remarkable antibacterial activities and excellent cytocompatibility. With the efficient hemostasis efficacy and excellent antibacterial behavior, QHM dramatically facilitated the wound healing in a full-thickness skin defect model in vivo. Thus, this QHM represents a promising hemostatic in more widespread clinical application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.9b08799DOI Listing
September 2019

Serum Uric Acid Level and Outcome of Patients With Ischemic Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Neurologist 2019 Jul;24(4):121-131

Department of Neurology, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital.

Background: The issue of whether serum uric acid (SUA) is associated with the outcome of acute ischemic stroke is controversial. This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between the SUA level and outcome of patients with ischemic stroke by performing a meta-analysis.

Materials And Methods: Studies were included by a systematic search of several databases through December 01, 2018, followed by reviewing reference lists of obtained articles. Studies that included odds ratios (ORs) for ischemic stroke outcome per unit SUA level with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were eligible for the meta-analysis. A random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled risk estimate. Publication bias was detected by Begg's test.

Results: Fifteen studies with a total of 12,739 cases of stroke were included. Overall, higher SUA levels were associated with a significantly better outcome of ischemic stroke (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.07-1.18; P<0.00001). For patients receiving thrombolytic therapy, a subgroup meta-analysis showed a positive association between SUA level and patient outcome (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.14-1.40; P<0.00001). In addition, the pooled estimate of patients with a modified Rankin Scale score ≤2 at 90 days also showed a positive association (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.01-1.133; P<0.00001). Furthermore, we found that the average SUA level in patients with a good outcome was higher than in those with a poor outcome (mean difference, 0.24 µmol/L; 95% CI, 0.16-0.32; P<0.00001).

Conclusions: This meta-analysis suggested that there was a significant positive association between SUA level and the outcome of ischemic stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NRL.0000000000000234DOI Listing
July 2019

Effects of Streptococcus salivarius K12 with nystatin on oral candidiasis-RCT.

Oral Dis 2019 Sep 26;25(6):1573-1580. Epub 2019 Jul 26.

Department of Oral Medicine, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing, China.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Streptococcus salivarius K12 as an adjuvant in treating oral candidiasis.

Methods: A total of 56 patients were participated in the randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial. The S. salivarius K12 or placebo lozenges plus nystatin tablets were given for up to 4 weeks at 1-week interval and then followed up for 1 week thereafter. We collected and analyzed the mycological and clinical data, treatment course, and safety data.

Results: At the end of the treatment, significant differences were found in the mycological cure rates between K12 group and control group (90.48% and 55.56%, respectively, p = 0.008). Survival analysis demonstrated no statistical difference in overall cure rates comprehensively considering mycological cure, clinical improvement, and recurrence (p = 0.078), while statistical difference was found in mycological cure (p = 0.013) between the two groups. The median treatment courses of K12 group and control group were 3 weeks and 4 weeks, respectively. No severe events were reported during the study.

Conclusion: Streptococcus salivarius K12 exhibited potential efficacy and safety as an adjuvant in treating oral candidiasis by enhancing mycological cure and shortening the treatment course of conventional antifungal therapy in this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Further large-scale clinical studies are desired to accumulate more evidence for its clinical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/odi.13142DOI Listing
September 2019

Characterization of oral candidiasis and the Candida species profile in patients with oral mucosal diseases.

Microb Pathog 2019 Sep 5;134:103575. Epub 2019 Jun 5.

Department of Oral Medicine, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, 22 South Zhongguancun Ave, Beijing, 100081, China. Electronic address:

Background: The oral mucosa is likely to be compromised by acquired systemic disease. There are no data available on the prevalence of oral candidiasis and the species distribution among patients with oral mucosal diseases. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct a study assessing the characterization of oral candidiasis and the species profiles in such patients.

Methods: Over a period of four consecutive years, patients with oral mucosal diseases were screened for oral candidiasis by a combination of clinical presentation and laboratory findings (smear test and Candida cultures). In addition, Candida species were isolated and identified for further analysis.

Results: In total, 9769 (6.09%) of the 160,357 patients screened were diagnosed with oral candidiasis on the basis of both clinical manifestations and laboratory testing. The ratio of females to males was 1:0.61, and females had higher overall infection rates than males in all age subgroups. Patients with HIV infection, anaemia-related stomatitis, Sjögren's syndrome/xerostomia, pemphigoid, and radiation-induced stomatitis were highly susceptible to oral candidiasis. Of the 11,161 isolated Candida strains, C. albicans remained the most common species (75.37%), followed by C. tropicalis (6.06%), C. krusei (2.79%), and C. glabrata (2.02%). Surprisingly, both the proportion and the number of C. glabrata isolates increased dramatically over the 4 consecutive years.

Conclusions: In this large-scale population-based study, the features of oral candidiasis prevalence and the species profile among patients with oral mucosal diseases were summarized. The information gleaned will enhance the understanding of and improve management strategies for oral candidiasis and the underlying systemic and oral conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2019.103575DOI Listing
September 2019

Design and demonstration of a vari-focal optical see-through head-mounted display using freeform Alvarez lenses.

Opt Express 2019 May;27(11):15627-15637

Alvarez lenses offer accurate and high-speed, dynamic tuning of optical power through a lateral shifting of two lens elements, making them an appealing solution to eliminate the inherent decoupling of accommodation and convergence seen in conventional stereoscopic displays. In this paper, we present a design of a compact eyepiece coupled with two lateral-shifting freeform Alvarez lenses to enable a compact, high-resolution, optical see-through head-mounted display (HMD). The proposed design is able to tune its focal depth from 0 to 3 diopters, rendering near-accurate focus cues with high image quality and a large undistorted see-through field of view (FOV). Our design utilizes an 1920x1080 color resolution organic light-emitting diode (OLED) microdisplay to achieve a >30 degree virtual diagonal FOV, with an angular resolution of <0.85 arcminutes and an average optical performance of > 0.4 contrast over the full field. We also experimentally demonstrate a fully functional benchtop prototype using mostly off-the-shelf optics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.27.015627DOI Listing
May 2019

The Effect of Winter Temperature on Patients with Ischemic Stroke.

Med Sci Monit 2019 May 23;25:3839-3845. Epub 2019 May 23.

Department of Neurology, National Key Clinical Department and Key Discipline of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND The incidence of ischemic stroke increases in winter. This study aimed to explore the effect of winter temperatures on the risk factors, etiology, coagulation, and degree of neurological impairment in patients with ischemic stroke using temperature and rainfall data from the Guangzhou Meteorological Bureau during the winter months of December, January, and February. MATERIAL AND METHODS We divided 112 patients with ischemic stroke into low-temperature and non-low-temperature groups. The low-temperature group experienced an average daily winter temperature of <13°C for five consecutive days within the 14 days before hospital admission and an average temperature of <13°C on admission. The non-low-temperature group experienced an average daily temperature of >13°C in the 14 days before hospital admission and an average daily temperature of >13°C on admission. Neurological deficits were scored and monitored using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) for disability in stroke. Blood pressure and coagulation indices of prothrombin time (PT) and thromboplastin time (TT) were recorded. RESULTS Compared with the non-low-temperature group, the low-temperature group showed a significantly increased proportion of patients with hypertension and large artery atherosclerotic stroke, more prolonged PT, and higher NIHSS scores. However, TT was reduced in the low-temperature group (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS When the average winter temperature was <13°C, the risk factors, etiology, coagulation factors, and degree of neurological impairment of patients with ischemic stroke were significantly different from patients with ischemic stroke during warmer temperature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.916472DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6556065PMC
May 2019

Effects of ray position sampling on the visual responses of 3D light field displays.

Opt Express 2019 Apr;27(7):9343-9360

A 3D light field display typically reconstructs a 3D scene by sampling either the projections of the 3D scene at different depths or the directions of the light rays apparently emitted by the 3D scene and viewed from different eye positions. These light field display methods are potentially capable of rendering correct or nearly correct focus cues and therefore addressing the well-known vergence-accommodation conflict problem plaguing the conventional stereoscopic displays. However, very limited efforts have been made to investigate the effects of light ray sampling on the quality of the rendered focus cues and thus the visual responses of a viewer in light field displays. In this paper, by accounting for both the specifications of a light field display system and the ocular factors of the human visual system, we systematically model and analyze the ray position sampling issue in the reconstruction of the light field and characterize its effect on the quality of the rendered retinal image and on the accommodative response in viewing a 3D light field display. Using a recently developed 3D light field display prototype, we further experimentally validated the effects of ray position sampling on the resolution and accommodative response of a light field display, of which the result matches with theoretical characterization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.27.009343DOI Listing
April 2019