Publications by authors named "Hua Gao"

428 Publications

Polycarbonate Masters for Soft Lithography.

Micromachines (Basel) 2021 Nov 13;12(11). Epub 2021 Nov 13.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607, USA.

Fabrication of microfluidic devices by soft lithography is by far the most popular approach due to its simplicity and low cost. The approach relies on casting of elastomers, such as polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), on masters fabricated from photoresists on silicon substrates. These masters, however, can be expensive, complicated to fabricate, and fragile. Here we describe an optimized replica molding approach to preserve the original masters by heat molding of polycarbonate (PC) sheets on PDMS molds. The process is faster and simpler than previously reported methods and does not result in a loss of resolution or aspect ratio for the features. The generated PC masters were used to successfully replicate a wide range of microfluidic devices, including rectangular channels with aspect ratios from 0.025 to 7.3, large area spiral channels, and micropost arrays with 5 µm spacing. Moreover, fabrication of rounded features, such as semi-spherical microwells, was possible and easy. Quantitative analysis of the replicated features showed variability of <2%. The approach is low cost, does not require cleanroom setting or hazardous chemicals, and is rapid and simple. The fabricated masters are rigid and survive numerous replication cycles. Moreover, damaged or missing masters can be easily replaced by reproduction from previously cast PDMS replicas. All of these advantages make the PC masters highly desirable for long-term preservation of soft lithography masters for microfluidic devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/mi12111392DOI Listing
November 2021

Machine Learning for In Silico ADMET Prediction.

Authors:
Lei Jia Hua Gao

Methods Mol Biol 2022 ;2390:447-460

Kronos Bio, Cambridge, MA, USA.

ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity) describes a drug molecule's pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics properties. ADMET profile of a bioactive compound can impact its efficacy and safety. Moreover, efficacy and safety are considered some of the major causes of clinical attrition in the development of new chemical entities. In past decades, various machine learning or quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) methods have been successfully integrated in the modeling of ADMET. Recent advances have been made in the collection of data and the development of various in silico methods to assess and predict ADMET of bioactive compounds in the early stages of drug discovery and development process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-1787-8_20DOI Listing
January 2022

Drivers of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) lineage replacement in China.

Genome Med 2021 10 28;13(1):171. Epub 2021 Oct 28.

UCL Genetics Institute, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, UK.

Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major nosocomial pathogen subdivided into lineages termed sequence types (STs). Since the 1950s, successive waves of STs have appeared and replaced previously dominant lineages. One such event has been occurring in China since 2013, with community-associated (CA-MRSA) strains including ST59 largely replacing the previously dominant healthcare-associated (HA-MRSA) ST239. We previously showed that ST59 isolates tend to have a competitive advantage in growth experiments against ST239. However, the underlying genomic and phenotypic drivers of this replacement event are unclear.

Methods: Here, we investigated the replacement of ST239 using whole-genome sequencing data from 204 ST239 and ST59 isolates collected in Chinese hospitals between 1994 and 2016. We reconstructed the evolutionary history of each ST and considered two non-mutually exclusive hypotheses for ST59 replacing ST239: antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profile and/or ability to colonise and persist in the environment through biofilm formation. We also investigated the differences in cytolytic activity, linked to higher virulence, between STs. We performed an association study using the presence and absence of accessory virulence genes.

Results: ST59 isolates carried fewer AMR genes than ST239 and showed no evidence of evolving towards higher AMR. Biofilm production was marginally higher in ST59 overall, though this effect was not consistent across sub-lineages so is unlikely to be a sole driver of replacement. Consistent with previous observations of higher virulence in CA-MRSA STs, we observed that ST59 isolates exhibit significantly higher cytolytic activity than ST239 isolates, despite carrying on average fewer putative virulence genes. Our association study identified the chemotaxis inhibitory protein (chp) as a strong candidate for involvement in the increased virulence potential of ST59. We experimentally validated the role of chp in increasing the virulence potential of ST59 by creating Δchp knockout mutants, confirming that ST59 can carry chp without a measurable impact on fitness.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that the ongoing replacement of ST239 by ST59 in China is not associated to higher AMR carriage or biofilm production. However, the increase in ST59 prevalence is concerning since it is linked to a higher potential for virulence, aided by the carriage of the chp gene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13073-021-00992-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8555231PMC
October 2021

Limitations of the transmitted photonic spin Hall effect through layered structure.

Sci Rep 2021 Oct 26;11(1):21083. Epub 2021 Oct 26.

School of Science, China University of Geosciences, Beijing, 100083, China.

In this paper, we show theoretically that the spin-dependent transverse shift of the transmitted photonic spin Hall effect (SHE) through layered structure cannot exceed half of the incident beam waist. Exact conditions for obtaining the upper limit of the transmitted SHE are clarified in detail. In addition, different from the popular view in many investigations, we find that there is no positive correlation between the spin-dependent transverse displacement and the ratio between the Fresnel transmission coefficients (t, t). In contrast, the optimal transmission ratio is determined by the incident angle and the beam waist. Moreover, two conventional transmission structures are selected and studied in detail. The characteristics of the transverse displacements obtained are in very good agreement with our theoretical conclusions. These findings provide a deeper insight into the photonic spin Hall phenomena and offer a guide for future related research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-00681-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8548548PMC
October 2021

Oxidative stress-mediated particulate matter affects the risk of relapse in schizophrenia patients: Air purification intervention-based panel study.

Environ Pollut 2022 Jan 9;292(Pt B):118348. Epub 2021 Oct 9.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, 230032, China; Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Major Autoimmune Diseases, Hefei, Anhui, 230032, China. Electronic address:

Particulate matter (PM) exposure increased the risk of hospital admission and was related to symptoms of schizophrenia (SCZ). However, there are limited studies on the relationship between PM exposure and SCZ relapse risk, and the underlying biological mechanisms remain unclear. We designed an air purification intervention study under a 16-day real air purifier scenario and another 16-day sham air purifier scenario, with a 2-day washout period. Twenty-four chronic stable male patients were recruited. The oxidative stress biomarkers were measured including serum catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), malondialdehyde (MDA), and nitric oxide (NO). The relapse risk was evaluated by the early signs scale (ESS). Linear mixed effect models were fitted to establish the associations between PM exposure and ESS and oxidative stress. Mediation model was performed to explore the mediation effect of oxidative stress on the PM-ESS association. Higher concentrations of PM/PM exposure were associated with an elevated risk of relapse of SCZ. For each 10 μg/m in PM concentration, the scores of ESS and subscales of incipient psychosis (ESS-IP), depression/withdrawal (ESS-N), anxiety/agitation (ESS-A), and excitability/disinhibition (ESS-D) were increased by 4.112 (95% CI: 3.174, 5.050), 1.516 (95%CI: 1.178, 1.853), 1.143 (95%CI: 0.598, 1.689), 1.176 (95%CI: 0.727, 1.625) and 0.238 (95%CI: 0.013, 0.464), while logCAT, SOD and T-AOC were reduced by 0.039 U/ml (95% CI: 0.017, 0.060), 1.258 U/ml (95% CI: 0.541, 1.975), and 0.076 mmol/l (95% CI: 0.026, 0.126). In addition, pathways of "PM→T-AOC→ESS-A″ and "PM→T-AOC→ESS-D″ were found, with significant T-AOC mediated effects 15.70% (P = 0.02) and 52.99% (P = 0.04). Our findings suggest that PM may increase the risk of anxiety, depression, excitability, and incipient psychosis behaviors in SCZ patients, while reducing the function of the antioxidant system. The decrease of T-AOC may medicate the PM-ESS association in SCZ.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.118348DOI Listing
January 2022

Does the gut microbiome partially mediate the impact of air pollutants exposure on liver function? Evidence based on schizophrenia patients.

Environ Pollut 2021 Dec 11;291:118135. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China; Inflammation and Immune Mediated Diseases Laboratory of Anhui Province, China. Electronic address:

Air pollution may alter the composition of gut microbiome and subsequent liver-related metabolic disorders. Schizophrenia was often accompanied by liver dysfunction. But it was still unclear whether air pollutants affected liver function in patients with schizophrenia through gut microbiome. We aimed to clarify the impacts of long-term air pollutants on the gut microbiome and liver function in schizophrenia and to evaluate the intermediary effect of microbiome. Schizophrenia patients were recruited then serum biochemical indicators were tested. Air pollutant exposure in the previous year was retrospectively estimated by inverse distance weighting. The associations among air pollutants, gut microbiome, and liver function indicators in schizophrenia were estimated. Then the mediating effect of gut microbiome was further explored. The results showed that nitrogen dioxide (NO), carbonic oxide (CO), ozone (O), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM), and fine particulate matter (PM) explained 2.68%-10.77% of the variation in gut microbiome composition (order level) in schizophrenia (all P < 0.05). Network correlation analysis indicated that air pollutants and liver function indicators were mainly related to Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria in schizophrenia. Long-term NO exposure significantly increased the levels of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) in schizophrenia. Coriobacteriales mediated 13.98% and 49.56% (all P < 0.05) of the associations of long-term NO with GGT and GPT, respectively. To conclude, long-term NO exposure is positively associated with liver dysfunction in schizophrenia, in which gut microbiome plays an intermediary role. The two pathways, "NO-Coriobacteriales-GGT" and "NO-Coriobacteriales-GPT", would provide scientific evidence for the intervention of schizophrenia with liver dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.118135DOI Listing
December 2021

Evolution of in Clinical Bacteremia Patients.

Infect Drug Resist 2021 31;14:3553-3562. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Introduction: Colonization of the respiratory tract by has been established as an independent risk factor for bacteremia. However, within-host evolution of in bacteremia has not been extensively investigated.

Methods: We performed whole-genome sequencing to discover the evolutionary characteristics that accompany the transition from respiratory tract carriage to bloodstream infection in three patients with bacteremia.

Results: Within-host genetic diversity was identified. A total of 21 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) were detected. Genic and intergenic evolution occurred particularly in secretion system, DNA recombination, and cell motility genes. Intergenic SNVs occurred more frequently compared to synonymous and non-synonymous SNVs, which indicated potential transcription or translation regulation. Non-synonymous mutations mostly occurred during the transition from respiratory tract carriage to bloodstream infection. Isolates of clonal complex 208 (CC208) had lower substitution rate with approximately 10 nucleotide substitutions per site year, compared with non-CC208 isolates (approximately 10). We found evidence for the occurrence of recombination in one patient. A total of 259 genes were found to be gained or lost during the within-host evolution, and 231 genes were only detected in one patient. Gene function annotation results suggested that most genes (71/259) were related to replication, recombination, and repair. Universal bloodstream specific genes were not found in all three patients, and only one putative membrane protein related gene was lost in two patients.

Conclusion: Our results indicated that within-host evolution of bacteremia was driven by mutations, gene content changes, and limited effect of recombination. Gene content diversity between different patients was identified, which suggested interplay of both host and pathogen factors in within-host genetic diversity. Secretion system-related genes showed higher frequency of genomic variations during the within-host evolution. Our findings enhanced our understanding of within-host evolution of bacteremia and provided a framework for discovering novel genomic changes and pathogenicity genes important for bacteremia, which will be validated in future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S320645DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8418358PMC
August 2021

Femtosecond laser semi-assisted Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty: 2-year outcomes of endothelial cell loss and graft survival.

Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2021 Aug 31. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Ophthalmology, Eye Hospital of Shandong First Medical University, State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Shandong Eye Institute, Shandong First Medical University & Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, 372 Jingsi Road, Jinan, 250021, China.

Purpose: To assess 2-year endothelial cell loss and graft survival after femtosecond laser semi-assisted Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty (FLS-DSEK).

Methods: In this prospective and noncomparative study carried out at Eye Hospital of Shandong First Medical University, 85 eyes (84 patients) with endothelial dysfunction receiving FLS-DSEK (n=62, 75.9%) or FLS-DSEK combined with phacoemulsification cataract surgery and intraocular lens implantation (n=23, 27.1%) from 2013 through 2016 were included. The graft endothelial cell loss, endothelial graft thickness, visual acuity, and complications after surgery were evaluated.

Results: Thin endothelial grafts were all successfully prepared, with no occurrence of perforation. The rate of endothelial cell loss was 17.4%, 18.8%, 19.9%, and 26.7%, and the central graft thickness was 113±54 μm, 102±40 μm, 101±28 μm, and 96±23 μm at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively. The median best-corrected visual acuity was 0.4 logMAR (range, 0-2 logMAR) at 24 months, demonstrating a significant difference from that before surgery (2 logMAR; range, 0.2-3 logMAR) (T=187.5, P<.001). Partial graft dislocation was the most common postoperative complication, with an occurrence rate of 14% (n=12), and it was associated with an abnormal iris-lens diaphragm (r=.35, P<.001). The other complications included a high intraocular pressure (n=5, 6%), endothelial graft rejection (n=4, 5%), and pupillary block (n=1, 1%). Endothelial graft decompensation occurred in the two eyes, and 98% (n=83) of the grafts survived at 24 months.

Conclusions: Data of the study suggest that the treatment using FLS-DSEK seems to be promising and might be considered a feasible choice in patients with endothelial dysfunction.

Trial Registration: 1. Date of registration: 2021-02-18 2.

Trial Registration Number: ChiCTR2100044091 3. Registration site: https://www.chictr.org.cn/.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00417-021-05383-xDOI Listing
August 2021

0.75 Gbit/s high-speed classical key distribution with mode-shift keying chaos synchronization of Fabry-Perot lasers.

Light Sci Appl 2021 Aug 30;10(1):172. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

School of Information Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, China.

High-speed physical key distribution is diligently pursued for secure communication. In this paper, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a scheme of high-speed key distribution using mode-shift keying chaos synchronization between two multi-longitudinal-mode Fabry-Perot lasers commonly driven by a super-luminescent diode. Legitimate users dynamically select one of the longitudinal modes according to private control codes to achieve mode-shift keying chaos synchronization. The two remote chaotic light waveforms are quantized to generate two raw random bit streams, and then those bits corresponding to chaos synchronization are sifted as shared keys by comparing the control codes. In this method, the transition time, i.e., the chaos synchronization recovery time is determined by the rising time of the control codes rather than the laser transition response time, so the key distribution rate is improved greatly. Our experiment achieved a 0.75-Gbit/s key distribution rate with a bit error rate of 3.8 × 10 over 160-km fiber transmission with dispersion compensation. The entropy rate of the laser chaos is evaluated as 16 Gbit/s, which determines the ultimate final key rate together with the key generation ratio. It is therefore believed that the method pays a way for Gbit/s physical key distribution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41377-021-00610-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8403675PMC
August 2021

A New Accurate, Simple and Less Radiation Exposure Device for Distal Locking of Femoral Intramedullary Nails.

Int J Gen Med 2021 4;14:4145-4153. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Department of Orthopaedics, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100050, People's Republic of China.

Background: Due to the metal elasticity of intramedullary nails (IMs) and irregularities of the long bone marrow cavity and other reasons, one of the greatest challenges for surgeons is to position the distal locking screw. Therefore, a novel laser guiding navigation device was designed for the distal locking of femoral IMs. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the novel device and freehand technique for distal locking of IMs in the femoral model.

Methods: The laser guiding navigation device (laser group) and freehand technique (freehand group) were used in the distal locking of the IMs in the femoral model. All operations were performed by surgeons of the same level. The differences between the two groups were compared in terms of operative time, radiation exposure time, first success rate, deviation angle between ideal trajectory and actual trajectory, and learning curve.

Results: The distal locking of the IMs in the femoral model was performed 40 times in each group. The results showed that the laser group was better than the freehand group in terms of operative time (345±165 VS 212±105 seconds, ), radiation exposure time (164±57 VS 41±15 seconds, ) and first successrate ( =21.36, <0.001). Compared with the freehand group, the actual trajectory of the laser group was closer to the ideal trajectory in coronal and horizontal planes. Furthermore, the learning curve time of the laser group was shorter.

Conclusion: Compared with traditional freehand technique, the novel laser guiding navigation device can shorten the operative time and reduce radiation exposure invitro. In addition, it is easy to master with more accuracy and a higher first success rate in vitro.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S321005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8349542PMC
August 2021

Effect of Pramipexole on Inflammatory Response in Central Nervous System of Parkinson's Disease Rat Model.

Arch Med Res 2021 Jul 1. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Neurology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University. Electronic address:

Background: Pramipexole is the dopamine receptor agonist commonly used for treatment of PD, the effect of which on immunity played an important role in pathological process is also deserved to be further studied.

Aim Of Study: We observed the effect of pramipexole on behavior and central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory cytokines of Parkinson's Disease (PD) model rats.

Methods: We injected 3.0 μL lipopolysaccharide into the right substantia nigra compact (SNc) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) of sprague-dawley (SD) rats to establish PD models which were divided as treated group feeded with pramipexole for 14 d and untreated group feeded with saline. And SD rats were selected as control group feeded with saline. We conducted rotation test on PD model rats before and after treatment. We also performed euthanasia on all rats to obtain the striatum area and nearby tissues after treatment, measuring mRNA expression and concentration of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test and elisa method, respectively.

Results: It was observed that the degree of behavior improvement in treated group was greater than that in untreated group. In addition, mRNA expression and concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α in treated group were lower than those in untreated group and higher than those in control group.

Conclusions: Pramipexole improved behavior of PD model rat, and down regulated the mRNA expression and concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α in their CNS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arcmed.2021.06.007DOI Listing
July 2021

Genotype Profile of Global EYS-Associated Inherited Retinal Dystrophy and Clinical Findings in a Large Chinese Cohort.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 11;9:634220. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Beijing Ophthalmology and Visual Science Key Laboratory, Beijing Tongren Eye Center, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to probe the global profile of the EYS-associated genotype-phenotype trait in the worldwide reported IRD cases and to build a model for predicting disease progression as a reference for clinical consultation.

Methods: This retrospective study of 420 well-documented IRD cases with mutations in the gene included 39 patients from a genotype-phenotype study of inherited retinal dystrophy (IRD) conducted at the Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology and 381 cases retrieved from global reports. All patients underwent ophthalmic evaluation. Mutations were revealed using next-generation sequencing, followed by Sanger DNA sequencing and real-time quantitative PCR analysis. Multiple regression models and statistical analysis were used to assess the genotype and phenotype characteristics and traits in this large cohort.

Results: A total of 420 well-defined patients with 841 identified mutations in the gene were successfully obtained. The most common pathogenic variant was a frameshift c.4957dupA (p.S1653Kfs2) in exon 26, with an allele frequency of 12.7% (107/841), followed by c.8805C > A (p.Y2935X) in exon 43, with an allele frequency of 5.9% (50/841). Two new hot spots were identified in the Chinese cohort, c.1750G > T (p.E584X) and c.7492G > C (p.A2498P). Several EYS mutation types were identified, with CNV being relatively common. The mean age of onset was 20.54 ± 11.33 (4-46) years. Clinical examinations revealed a typical progression of RPE atrophy from the peripheral area to the macula.

Conclusion: This large global cohort of 420 IRD cases, with 262 distinct variants, identified genotype-phenotype correlations and mutation spectra with hotspots in the gene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.634220DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8226124PMC
June 2021

Overexpression of the Apple ( ) in Increases Resistance to Powdery Mildew.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 27;22(11). Epub 2021 May 27.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology in Arid Areas, College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Xianyang 712100, China.

APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSIVE FACTOR (AP2/ERF) transcription factors play important roles in plant development and stress response. Although genes have been extensively investigated in model plants such as , little is known about their role in biotic stress response in perennial fruit tree crops such as apple (). Here, we investigated the role of in powdery mildew resistance in apple. MdERF100 localized to the nucleus but showed no transcriptional activation activity. The heterologous expression of in not only enhanced powdery mildew resistance but also increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and cell death. Furthermore, -overexpressing plants exhibited differential expressions of genes involved in jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) signaling when infected with the powdery mildew pathogen. Additionally, yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays confirmed that MdERF100 physically interacts with the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein MdbHLH92. These results suggest that mediates powdery mildew resistance by regulating the JA and SA signaling pathways, and is involved in plant defense against powdery mildew. Overall, this study enhances our understanding of the role of genes in disease resistance, and provides novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of powdery mildew resistance in apple.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22115713DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8197995PMC
May 2021

Comparison of complications and visual outcomes between big-bubble deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty and penetrating keratoplasty for fungal keratitis.

Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2021 Aug 8;49(6):550-559. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Medical College of Qingdao University, Qingdao, China.

Background: To compare the postoperative complications and visual outcomes of big-bubble deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (BB-DALK) and penetrating keratoplasty (PK) for fungal keratitis (FK).

Methods: This retrospective study included 94 cases of BB-DALK for FK and 161 cases of PK for FK from a tertiary ophthalmology care centre.

Results: The most common FK pathogens were Fusarium (n = 84, 32.9%) and Aspergillus (n = 67, 26.3%). The recurrence rates after BB-DALK and PK were 3.2 and 5%, respectively (p = 0.723). The follow-up duration was 31.9 ± 15.8 months in the BB-DALK group and 33.9 ± 15.0 months in the PK group. The immune rejection rate was significantly lower in the BB-DALK group than in the PK group (1.1 vs. 18.6%, p < 0.001), as was the incidence of secondary glaucoma (p = 0.018). Endothelial cell density in the BB-DALK group tended to be stable at postoperative month 6, whereas the PK group still attenuated at a hyper-physiological rate. Postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) significantly improved in both groups (p < 0.001). No significant difference between-group was observed in BCVA, refractive cylinder, and spherical equivalent postoperatively.

Conclusion: Big-bubble DALK is a useful and safe alternative to PK for medically uncontrolled FK.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ceo.13951DOI Listing
August 2021

Endocrinological and metabolic characteristics in patients who are non-obese and have polycystic ovary syndrome and different types of a family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

J Int Med Res 2021 May;49(5):3000605211016672

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ren Ji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai JiaoTong University, Shanghai, China.

Objective: We aimed to investigate whether patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and a family history (FH) of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at increased risk of endocrinological and metabolic abnormalities, and whether this risk differs between first-degree and second-degree relatives, and between maternal and paternal transmission.

Methods: A total of 680 patients with PCOS were enrolled in this retrospective, single-center study. Endocrine and glycolipid metabolism parameters were compared.

Results: The free androgen index (FAI), and levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin (FINS), homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly higher, whereas sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels were significantly lower in patients with PCOS and a FH of T2DM. In patients with PCOS with a FH of T2DM in first-degree relatives, age and levels of FBG, FINS, and HOMA-IR were significantly higher than those who had a FH of T2DM in second-degree relatives. A maternal history of T2DM was associated with a higher body mass index, FAI, and TG levels, and lower SHBG levels.

Conclusions: Patients with PCOS and a FH of T2DM have more severe hyperandrogenism and metabolic disorders, especially in those with maternal transmission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03000605211016672DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8142526PMC
May 2021

Functional specificity, diversity, and redundancy of Arabidopsis JAZ family repressors in jasmonate and COI1-regulated growth, development, and defense.

New Phytol 2021 08 19;231(4):1525-1545. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Plant Gene Resources and Biotechnology for Carbon Reduction and Environmental Improvement, RNA Center, College of Life Sciences, Capital Normal University, Beijing, 100048, China.

In response to jasmonates (JAs), the JA receptor Coronatine Insensitive 1 (COI1) recruits JA-zinc-finger inflorescence meristem (ZIM)-domain (JAZ) family repressors for destruction to regulate plant growth, development, and defense. As Arabidopsis encodes 13 JAZ repressors, their functional specificity, diversity, and redundancy in JA/COI1-mediated responses remain unclear. We generated a broad range of jaz mutants based on their phylogenetic relationship to investigate their roles in JA responses. The group I JAZ6 may play an inhibitory role in resistance to Botrytis cinerea, group II (JAZ10)/III (JAZ11/12) in JA-regulated root growth inhibition and susceptibility to Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000, and group IV JAZ3/4/9 in flowering time delay and defense against insects. JAZs exhibit high redundancy in apical hook curvature. The undecuple jaz1/2/3/4/5/6/7/9/10/11/12 (jaz1-7,9-12) mutations enhance JA responses and suppress the phenotypes of coi1-1 in flowering time, rosette growth, and defense. The JA hypersensitivity of jaz1-7,9-12 in root growth, hook curvature, and leaf yellowing is blocked by coi1-1. jaz1-7,9-12 does not influence the stamen phenotypes of wild-type and coi1-1. jaz1-7,9-12 affects JA-regulated transcriptional profile and recovers a fraction of that in coi1-1. This study contributes to elucidating the specificity, diversity, and redundancy of JAZ members in JA/COI1-regulated growth, development, and defense responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.17477DOI Listing
August 2021

A semiconductor/molecular catalyst hybrid photoanode with FeOOH as an electron transfer relay.

Chem Asian J 2021 Jul 2;16(13):1745-1749. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology (DUT), 116024, Dalian, P. R. China.

A Fe O /FeOOH/poly-Ru(bda)(vpy) (bda = 2,2'-bipyridine-6,6'-dicarboxylate,vpy = 4-vinylpyridine) photoanode has been fabricated by electropolymerization of molecular Ru(bda)(vpy) catalyst on FeOOH modified Fe O , in which a thin layer of FeOOH replicates the role of tyrosine residue in PSII as an efficient electron transfer mediator. The ternary hybrid photoanode produced a 2.4 times higher photocurrent density than that of previously reported Fe O /poly-Ru(bda)(vpy) under AM 1.5 G illumination and displayed a negative shift on the onset potential by 100 mV. In addition, the Fe O /FeOOH/poly-Ru(bda)(vpy) exhibited long-term stability for at least 10 h with a Faraday efficiency of ∼96%. The high performance shown here was attributed to the improved charge separation between excited semiconductor and the catalyst caused by FeOOH mediated electron transfer on the electrode surface.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/asia.202100403DOI Listing
July 2021

Different Indicators of Adiposity and Fat Distribution and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

Obesity (Silver Spring) 2021 05;29(5):837-845

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, China.

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of adiposity and fat distribution on the odds of elevated cardiovascular risk factors among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Methods: The present cross-sectional study included 2,427 adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Body fat was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Multivariate-adjusted logistic regression was used to estimate effects of adiposity parameters on elevated hemoglobin A (HbA , ≥7.0%), hypertension (blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg), and elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (≥2.6 mmol/L).

Results: The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR) for elevated HbA was 0.82 (95% CI: 0.70-0.96) for each SD increase in leg fat mass. The multivariable-adjusted OR for hypertension was 1.15 (95% CI: 1.00-1.32) for each SD increase in android fat mass. Multivariable-adjusted ORs for elevated LDL cholesterol ranged from 1.16 (95% CI: 1.00-1.35) to 1.27 (95% CI: 1.06-1.51) for each SD increase in arm and android fat mass and percentage of total, truncal, arm, and android fat. Each SD increase in BMI, truncal-to-leg fat ratio, and android-to-gynoid fat ratio was significantly associated with increased risks of elevated HbA , hypertension, and elevated LDL cholesterol.

Conclusions: Subcutaneous fat in the lower body was associated with a more favorable glycemic profile, but not blood pressure or lipid profile, whereas central adiposity was associated with poor control of cardiovascular risk factors among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/oby.23151DOI Listing
May 2021

Pramipexole attenuates 6-OHDA-induced Parkinson's disease by mediating the Nurr1/NF-κB pathway.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Apr 23;48(4):3079-3087. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Neurology, Second Hospital Affiliated of Xinjiang Medical University, No. 38, South Lake Road, Ürümqi, 830063, Xinjiang, China.

Neuroinflammation is the key factor associated with the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). Pramipexole (PPX) has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. This study explored the effects of PPX on PD and its related mechanisms. A PD rat model was established using 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Thirty rats were divided into the following three groups: control, PD, and PD + PPX. The rats in the PD and PD + PPX groups were first administered 6-OHDA and then respectively treated with saline and PPX. Afterward, rotational behavior tests were performed to evaluate the efficiency of PPX. The level of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) was measured using immunohistochemical staining. Subsequently, real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and western blot were used to determine the expression of α-synuclein (α-syn), nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 2 (Nurr1), and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). PPX improved the motor behavior of PD rats caused by 6-OHDA. The number of TH-positive neurons in the PD group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P < 0.05), while PPX could rescue 6-OHDA-induced TH loss. RT-qPCR and western blot showed that Nurr1 expression was significantly downregulated in the PD group compared to that of the control group (P < 0.05), while after PPX treatment, its expression was significantly upregulated (P < 0.05). For α-syn and NF-κB, 6-OHDA significantly upregulated their expressions (P < 0.05), whereas PPX reversed them. PPX improved the motor behavior of PD through mediating the inflammatory response and regulating the Nurr1/NF-κB signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-021-06343-8DOI Listing
April 2021

Postoperative corneal biomechanics and influencing factors during femtosecond-assisted laser in situ keratomileusis (FS-LASIK) and laser-assisted subepithelial keratomileusis (LASEK) for high myopia.

Lasers Med Sci 2021 Oct 23;36(8):1709-1717. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Eye Hospital of Shandong First Medical University, 372 Jingsi Road, Jinan, 250021, China.

The purpose of this study is to compare the postoperative corneal biomechanics and assess the influence factors after femtosecond-assisted laser in situ keratomileusis (FS-LASIK) and laser-assisted subepithelial keratomileusis (LASEK) for high myopia. In this retrospective study, patients who completed 1-year follow-up were included. The corneal biomechanical parameters, including deformation amplitude ratio 2.0 mm (DA ratio 2.0 mm), integrated inverse radius (IntInv Rad), stiffness parameter at first applanation (SP-A1), and Ambrosio relational thickness through the horizontal meridian (ARTh), were measured with Corvis STII. We also investigated the relationship between these biomechanics and preoperative or intraoperative variables. Thirty eyes had FS-LASIK and 30 eyes had LASEK. The changes in DA ratio 2.0 mm, IntInv Rad, and SP-A1 after surgery were significantly smaller in the LASEK group than in the FS-LASIK group, while the change in the ARTh was not significantly different between groups. No significant differences were detected in the mean values of postoperative DA ratio 2.0 mm, IntInv Rad, and SP-A1 between LASEK and FS-LASIK, while significant difference was detected in the mean value of postoperative ARTh. There was a significant correlation between the resident stromal bed thickness and the postoperative DA ratio 2.0 mm, IntInv Rad, or SP-A1. The postoperative ARTh has shown significant correlation with postoperative central corneal thickness and the amount of myopic correction. The effect of LASEK on corneal biomechanics was smaller than FS-LASIK when the same central corneal thickness was consumed. LASEK may be performed with a lower risk of postoperative corneal ectasia than FS-LASIK.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10103-021-03320-2DOI Listing
October 2021

NF‑κB is negatively associated with Nurr1 to reduce the inflammatory response in Parkinson's disease.

Mol Med Rep 2021 06 31;23(6). Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Neurology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830063, P.R. China.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most disabling diseases of the central nervous system, seriously affecting health and quality of life for the elderly. The present study aimed to explore the effects of nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 2 (Nurr1) and nuclear factor‑κB (NF‑κB) on the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). Pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells were pretreated with the NF‑κB inhibitor quinazoline (QNZ) or transfected with small interfering (si)RNA‑NF‑κB, followed by the addition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). After culturing for 24 h, Cell Counting Kit‑8 (CCK‑8) was utilized to measure cell viability. Next, the expression levels of interleukin (IL)‑1β, IL‑6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α were determined using the relevant Enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay kits. Expression levels of p65, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), α‑Synuclein (A‑SYN) and Nurr1 were examined by immunofluorescence and western blotting. CCK‑8 results showed that the cell viability was significantly reduced in the LPS group than in the control group (P<0.05), whereas QNZ and si‑NF‑κB demonstrated significantly enhanced viability induced by LPS (P<0.05). After LPS induction, the levels of IL‑1β, IL‑6 and TNF‑α were significantly elevated when compared with those in the control group (P<0.05), whereas QNZ and NF‑κB interference partially restored their levels. Additionally, after LPS induction, the expression of p65 and A‑SYN was higher, while the expression of TH and Nurr1 was lower. However, QNZ and NF‑κB treatment significantly reversed the expression levels induced by LPS (P<0.05). Finally, it was observed that NF‑κB may be negatively associated with Nurr1. In conclusion, inhibition of NF‑κB may reduce the production of inflammatory factors by upregulating Nurr1 and TH and downregulating A‑SYN, thus relieving the inflammatory response in PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2021.12035DOI Listing
June 2021

Teprotumumab: The Dawn of Therapies in Moderate-to-Severe Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy.

Horm Metab Res 2021 Apr 14;53(4):211-218. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, China.

Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) is a potentially sight-threatening ocular disease. About 3-5% of patients with TAO have severe disease with intense pain, inflammation, and sight-threatening corneal ulceration or compressive optic neuropathy. The current treatments of TAO are often suboptimal, mainly because the existing therapies do not target the pathogenesis of the disease. TAO mechanism is unclear. Ocular fibrocytes express relatively high levels of the functional TSH receptor (TSHR), and many indirect evidences support its participation. Over expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-IR) in fibroblasts, leading to inappropriate expression of inflammatory factors, production of hyaluronic acid and cell activation in orbital fibroblasts are also possible mechanisms. IGF-1R and TSHR form a physical and functional signaling complex. Inhibition of IGF-IR activity leads to the attenuation of signaling initiated at either receptor. Teprotumumab (TMB) is a human immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibody, binding to IGF-IR. Recently two TMB clinical trials had been implemented in TAO patients, indicating dramatic reductions in disease activity and severity, which approved its use for the treatment of TAO in the US. This review summarizes the treatments of TAO, focusing on the pathogenesis of IGF-1R in TAO and its application prospects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1386-4512DOI Listing
April 2021

Natural products as pharmacological modulators of mitochondrial dysfunctions for the treatments of Alzheimer's disease: A comprehensive review.

Eur J Med Chem 2021 Jun 27;218:113401. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Shenyang, China. Electronic address:

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by neuronal loss and cognitive impairment that harshly affect the elderly individuals. Currently, the available anti-AD pharmacological approaches are purely symptomatic to alleviate AD symptoms, and the curative effects of novel anti-AD drugs focused on Aβ target are disappointing. Hence, there is a tremendous need to adjust AD therapeutic targets and discover novel anti-AD agents. In AD, mitochondrial dysfunction gradually triggers neuronal death from different aspects and worsens the occurrence and progress of AD. Consequently, it has been proposed that the intervention of impaired mitochondria represents an attractive breakthrough point for AD treatments. Due to chemical diversity, poly-pharmacological activities, few adverse effects and multiple targeting, natural products (NPs) have been identified as a valuable treasure for drug discovery and development. Multiple lines of studies have scientifically proven that NPs display ameliorative benefits in AD treatment in relation to mitochondrial dysfunction. This review surveys the complicated implications for mitochondrial dysregulation and AD, and then summarizes the potentials of NPs and their underlying molecular mechanisms against AD via reducing or improving mitochondrial dysfunction. It is expected that this work may open the window to speed up the development of innovative anti-AD drugs originated from NPs and improve upcoming AD therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2021.113401DOI Listing
June 2021

Kilometers Long Graphene-Coated Optical Fibers for Fast Thermal Sensing.

Research (Wash D C) 2021 18;2021:5612850. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Key Laboratory of Optical Fiber Sensing and Communications (Education Ministry of China), University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 611731, China.

The combination of optical fiber with graphene has greatly expanded the application regimes of fiber optics, from dynamic optical control and ultrafast pulse generation to high precision sensing. However, limited by fabrication, previous graphene-fiber samples are typically limited in the micrometer to centimeter scale, which cannot take the inherent advantage of optical fibers-long-distance optical transmission. Here, we demonstrate kilometers long graphene-coated optical fiber (GCF) based on industrial graphene nanosheets and coating technique. The GCF shows unusually high thermal diffusivity of 24.99 mm s in the axial direction, measured by a thermal imager directly. This enables rapid thermooptical response both in optical fiber Bragg grating sensors at one point (18-fold faster than conventional fiber) and in long-distance distributed fiber sensing systems based on backward Rayleigh scattering in optical fiber (15-fold faster than conventional fiber). This work realizes the industrial-level graphene-fiber production and provides a novel platform for two-dimensional material-based optical fiber sensing applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34133/2021/5612850DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8000361PMC
March 2021

Comparative Study of Volatile Compounds and Expression of Related Genes in Fruit from Two Apple Cultivars during Different Developmental Stages.

Molecules 2021 Mar 12;26(6). Epub 2021 Mar 12.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology in Arid Areas, College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China.

Aromatic volatile compounds are important contributors to fruit quality that vary among different cultivars. Herein, headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine changes in volatile compounds and related gene expression patterns in "Ruixue" and "Fuji" apples ( Borkh.) during fruit development and maturation. Volatile compounds detected in the fruit of both cultivars exhibited similar trends across different developmental stages. In the early stages of "Ruixue" fruit development (60 days after full bloom), there were fewer volatile compounds, mainly aldehydes (87.0%). During fruit maturation (180 days after full bloom), the types and amounts of volatile compounds increased, mainly including esters (37.6%), and alkenes (23.2%). The total volatile concentration, the types of major volatile compounds, and their relative content in both cultivars varied across different stages. Gene expression analysis indicated that the upregulation of , , and was associated with increased aroma compound content, especially esters, during fruit development in both cultivars. Changes in the expression of , , , , and may lead to differences in volatile compounds between apple cultivars.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26061553DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7998671PMC
March 2021

Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the B-box transcription factor gene family in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

BMC Genomics 2021 Mar 29;22(1):221. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology in Arid Areas, College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, 712100, Shaanxi, China.

Background: B-box (BBX) zinc-finger transcription factors play important roles in plant growth, development, and stress response. Although these proteins have been studied in model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana or Oryza sativa, little is known about the evolutionary history or expression patterns of BBX proteins in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

Results: We identified a total of 25 VviBBX genes in the grapevine genome and named them according to the homology with Arabidopsis. These proteins were classified into five groups on the basis of their phylogenetic relationships, number of B-box domains, and presence or absence of a CCT domain or VP motif. BBX proteins within the same group showed similar exon-intron structures and were unevenly distributed in grapevine chromosomes. Synteny analyses suggested that only segmental duplication events contributed to the expansion of the VviBBX gene family in grapevine. The observed syntenic relationships between some BBX genes from grapevine and Arabidopsis suggest that they evolved from a common ancestor. Transcriptional analyses showed that the grapevine BBX genes were regulated distinctly in response to powdery mildew infection and various phytohormones. Moreover, the expression levels of a subset of BBX genes in ovules were much higher in seedless grapevine cultivars compared with seeded cultivars during ovule development, implying a potential role in seed abortion. Additionally, VviBBX8, VquBBX15a and VquBBX29b were all located in the nucleus and had transcriptional activity except for VquBBX29b.

Conclusions: The results of this study establish the genome-wide analysis of the grapevine BBX family and provide a framework for understanding the biological roles of BBX genes in grapevine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-021-07479-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8008696PMC
March 2021

Control of seed size by jasmonate.

Sci China Life Sci 2021 Aug 25;64(8):1215-1226. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Tsinghua-Peking Center for Life Sciences, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China.

Seed size, an important agronomic trait determining crop yield, is regulated by multiple plant hormones. Jasmonate (JA) is a key phytohormone required for various plant defenses and diverse developmental processes. Here, we defined an essential role for JA in control of seed size. Through comprehensive analysis of genetic mutants in JA pathway, we showed that seed size was repressed by positive components in JA pathway including COI1, MYC2 (and its homologues), MED25 and JAR1, but promoted by JA signaling repressor JAZ proteins such as JAZ6. We further demonstrated that exogenous application of JA suppressed seed size in a COI1-dependent manner. Our results reveal that JA signaling represses seed size and negatively regulates integument cell proliferation. Elucidation of jasmonate action in seed size control would advance our understanding of inner mechanism of seed size regulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11427-020-1899-8DOI Listing
August 2021

Identification of a Novel Hybrid Plasmid Encoding KPC-2 and Virulence Factors in Klebsiella pneumoniae Sequence Type 11.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2021 05 18;65(6). Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing, China

Recent emergence of carbapenem-resistant (CRKP) coharboring and pLVPK-like virulence plasmids represented a novel clinical challenge. In the present study, we characterized a and virulence hybrid plasmid, designated pCRHV-C2244, from a clinical ST11-K64 CRKP strain. pCRHV-C2244 was non-self-transmissible due to incomplete conjugative elements but mobilizable together with a conjugative helper. Enhanced virulence and stable maintenance without significant fitness loss in its original host were confirmed and .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.02435-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8315960PMC
May 2021

Long-term cover crops improved soil phosphorus availability in a rain-fed apple orchard.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 24;275:130093. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Apple, College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, 712100, Shaanxi, China. Electronic address:

The objective of this present study was to understand the distribution patterns of various forms of soil phosphorus (P) and the biotic and abiotic factors affecting the soil P fractions under long-term cover crops. Here, we investigated the characteristics of soil P forms, community structure of P-solubilizing bacteria (using 16S rRNA) and the related enzyme activity under clean tillage (CT), 14 years of white clover (WC, Trifolium repens L.) and orchard grass (OG, Dactylis glomerata L.) cover crops in a rain-fed apple orchard on the Weibei Loess Plateau, China. Relative to CT treatment, long-term cover crops enhanced the bioavailability of soil P by increasing the contents of total phosphorus (TP), microbial phosphorus (MBP), organic phosphorus (Po) and certain forms of inorganic phosphorus (e.g. Al-P, Ca-P, Ca-P and Fe-P) in the surface soil, in addition, WC treatment also increase the available P (AP) contents in the topsoil. A redundant analysis (RDA) showed that soil organic matter (SOM), NH-N and pH were the key environmental factors affecting the morphological changes of soil P. In addition, the effects of long-term cover crops on soil P forms were mainly concentrated in the topsoil, and the WC treatment had a greater impact on soil P composition than the OG treatment. Interestingly, long-term cover crops effectively increased the abundances of P-solubilizing bacteria, such as Streptomyces, Sphingomonas, Nocardioides and Haliangium, and enhanced the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Overall, long-term cover crops were an effective strategy to activate soil P as they improve the soil environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130093DOI Listing
July 2021

Association of neonatal blood levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor with development of autism spectrum disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

World J Pediatr 2021 Apr 1;17(2):164-170. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of General Surgery, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, No.56 Nanlishi St, Beijing, 100045, China.

Background: Our goal was to evaluate the association between neonatal blood brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) level and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis later in life.

Methods: MEDLINE and Web of Science databases were searched from inception until September 16, 2020. Reference lists of all relevant articles also were reviewed. Mean blood BDNF concentrations, standard deviations, sample sizes, and other data needed for calculation of effect sizes were extracted by two independent investigators. The quality of the included studies was appraised using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for case-control studies. Data were pooled using the random-effects model.

Results: Five case-control studies involving 1341 cases and 3395 controls were included in the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis of all included studies showed no significant difference in blood BDNF levels between neonates diagnosed with ASD later in life and healthy controls [standardized mean difference (SMD) = 0.261; 95% confidence interval (CI) - 0.052 to 0.573; P = 0.102], with high level of heterogeneity (Q = 64.346; I = 93.784; P < 0.001). A subgroup analysis by assay type showed decreased blood BDNF levels in ASDs compared to controls (SMD = - 0.070; 95% CI - 0.114 to - 0.026; P = 0.002), with high level of homogeneity (Q = 0.894; I = 0.000; P = 0.827). No evidence of publication bias was observed.

Conclusions: Neonates diagnosed with ASD later in life have decreased blood levels of BDNF measured by double-antibody immunoassay. More studies are warranted to facilitate a more robust conclusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12519-021-00415-2DOI Listing
April 2021
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