Publications by authors named "Hua Fan"

284 Publications

Life extension factor klotho regulates behavioral responses to stress via modulation of GluN2B function in the nucleus accumbens.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2022 Apr 21. Epub 2022 Apr 21.

Biological Psychiatry Laboratory, Jiangxi Mental Hospital & Affiliated Mental Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, China.

Klotho is a life extension factor that has the ability to regulate the function of GluN2B-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), whose dysfunction in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) underlies critical aspects of the pathophysiology of major depression. Here, we study the functional relevance of klotho in the pathogenesis of depression. A chronic social defeat stress paradigm, in which mice are categorized as either susceptible or unsusceptible based on their performance in a social interaction test, was used in this study. We found that the expression of klotho was largely decreased in the NAc of susceptible mice compared to control or unsusceptible mice. Genetic knockdown of klotho in the NAc induced behavioral alterations relevant to depression in naive mice, while overexpression of klotho produced an antidepressive effect in normal mice and ameliorated the behavioral responses to stress in susceptible mice. Molecularly, knockdown of klotho in the NAc resulted in selective decreases in total and synaptic GluN2B expression that were identical to those in susceptible mice. Elevation of klotho in the NAc reversed the reductions in GluN2B expressions and altered synaptic transmission and spine density in the NAc of susceptible mice. Furthermore, blockade of GluN2B with a specific antagonist abolished the beneficial effects of klotho elevation in susceptible mice. Collectively, we demonstrated that klotho in the NAc modulates behavioral responses to stress by regulating the function of GluN2B-containing NMDARs. These results reveal a novel role for klotho in the pathogenesis of depression, providing new insights into the molecular basis of major depression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41386-022-01323-3DOI Listing
April 2022

Enhanced Ferroelectric and Piezoelectric Properties in Graphene-Electroded Pb(Zr,Ti)O Thin Films.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2022 Apr 5;14(15):17987-17994. Epub 2022 Apr 5.

Institute for Quantum Science and Engineering and Department of Physics, Southern University of Science and Technology of China, Shenzhen 518055, China.

While using ferroelectric polarization to tune the functional properties of 2D materials has been extensively studied recently, the effects of 2D materials on the ferroelectricity and piezoelectricity of ferroelectrics are much less explored. In this work, we report markedly enhanced ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of graphene/Pb(ZrTi)O/SrRuO (GR/PZT/SRO) capacitors. Compared with conventional metal-electroded ferroelectric capacitors, the GR/PZT/SRO capacitors exhibit more abrupt polarization switching, larger switchable polarization, lower leakage current, and smaller coercive voltage. Moreover, with graphene electrodes, the ferroelectric properties of PZT capacitors are much more stable against aging. The enhanced ferroelectric behaviors in GR/PZT/SRO capacitors can be attributed to an improved interface with fewer defects and inhibited growth of defective interfacial layer resulting from the graphene protection. Because of the atomic thickness and extraordinary mechanical flexibility of graphene, the piezoelectric response in PZT with graphene electrode is about four times larger than the one with an Au electrode. Our findings on the enhanced ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of PZT with 2D electrodes advance the understanding of the 2D/PZT interface and provide solutions for developing high-performance ferroelectrics devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.2c02277DOI Listing
April 2022

Transcriptomic and Metabolomic Analyses Reveal the Differential Regulatory Mechanisms of Compound Material on the Responses of to Saline and Alkaline Stresses.

Front Plant Sci 2022 23;13:820540. Epub 2022 Feb 23.

Agricultural College, Shihezi University, Shihezi, China.

Oilseed rape not only has the function of improve saline and alkaline soils, but also alleviate the local feed shortage. However, medium- and high-degree soil salinization and alkalinization always inhibit the growth of oilseed rape. Studies have shown that compound material can improve the tolerance to saline and alkaline stress of crops, but the difference in the regulation mechanism of compound material on oilseed rape in saline and alkaline soils is not clear. This study explored the difference through determining the leaf ion contents, physiological indexes, transcriptomics, and metabolomics of oilseed rape in salinized soil (NaCl 8 g kg) and alkalinized soil (NaCO 8 g kg) at full flowering stage, respectively after the application of compound material. The results showed that in salinized and alkalinized soil, the compound material upregulated the genes related to the regulation of potassium ion transport, and changed the amino acid metabolic pathway, which reduced the contents of Na, malondialdehyde (MDA), and relative conductivity (REC) in leaves, and increased the contents of K and Mg and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT). However, there were differences in the regulation mechanism of compound material in salinized and alkalinized soil. In salinized soil, the compound material improved the tolerance of oilseed rape to saline stress by upregulating transcription factors mannose-1-phosphate guanylyltransferase () and Glutamine--fructose-6-phosphate transaminase () and downregulating phosphomannomutase () to change nucleotide metabolism pathway and lipid metabolism pathway. In alkalized soil, the compound material improved the tolerance of oilseed rape to alkaline stress by upregulating transcription factors Phenylalanine ammonia lyase () to change the biosynthesis pathway of other secondary metabolites. Therefore, the compound material can improve the tolerance of oilseed rape to saline and alkaline stress by regulating the genetic adaptability and apparent plasticity, but the mechanisms were different. This study provides a practical method for the ecological environment restoration and the development of animal husbandry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.820540DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8905141PMC
February 2022

Targeting purinergic receptors to attenuate inflammation of dry eye.

Purinergic Signal 2022 Feb 26. Epub 2022 Feb 26.

Eye Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Inflammation is one of the potential factors to cause the damage of ocular surface in dry eye disease (DED). Increasing evidence indicated that purinergic A, A, A, P2X4, P2X7, P2Y, P2Y, and P2Y receptors play an important role in the regulation of inflammation in DED: A adenosine receptor (A) is a systemic pro-inflammatory factor; A is involved in the activation of the MAPK/NF-kB pathway; A combined with inhibition of adenylate cyclase and regulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway leads to regulation of transcription; P2X4 promotes receptor-associated activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammatory vesicles; P2X7 promotes inflammasome activation and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18; P2Y receptors affect the phospholipase C(PLC)/IP3/Ca signaling pathway and mucin secretion. These suggested that purinergic receptors would be promising targets to control the inflammation of DED in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11302-022-09851-9DOI Listing
February 2022

Potential mechanisms of macular degeneration protection by fatty fish consumption.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2022 Apr 22;63:102186. Epub 2022 Feb 22.

Eye Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a progressive retinal disease that is a leading cause of visual impairment and severe vision loss. The number of people affected by AMD is increasing and constitutes a huge worldwide health problem. The beneficial effects of fish consumption on AMD have been revealed over the past decades, and in this review, we summarizes the beneficial effects of fatty fish on AMD and its mechanism of action. Fatty fish affects the development of AMD by inhibiting neovascularization, interacting with retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, displacing Omega-6, and inducing cellular responses. It is recommended that people at high risk or with moderate or more severe AMD should consider eating more fatty fish in addition to maintaining a healthy lifestyle of weight control and smoking cessation and the need to promote new models of personalized AMD prevention and treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2022.102186DOI Listing
April 2022

Association of Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index with Survival Outcomes in Patients with Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Meta-Analysis.

Nutr Cancer 2022 Feb 18:1-7. Epub 2022 Feb 18.

Department of Oncology and Hematology, People's Hospital of Leshan, Leshan City, China.

Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) is a valuable simplified tool in prediction of nutrition-related complications. The objective of this meta-analysis was to investigate the association of GNRI with survival outcomes in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed and Embase databases from their inception to September 30, 2020. Observational studies that investigated the association of GNRI with survival outcomes in patients with ESCC were selected. The pooled adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the lowest vs. the highest GNRI level was used to summarize the association. Eight retrospective studies involving 1460 ESCC patients were identified and included. For the lowest vs. the highest GNRI category, the pooled HR was 1.92 (95% CI 1.59-2.31) for overall survival and 1.77 (95% CI 1.19-2.62) for cancer-specific survival, respectively. Lower GNRI is significantly associated with reduced overall survival and cancer-specific survival among ESCC patients. Determination of nutritional status using GNRI has potential to improve survival stratification in patients with ESCC.Supplemental data for this article is available online at https://doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2022.2028865 .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2022.2028865DOI Listing
February 2022

Circular RNA AXL increases neuron injury and inflammation through targeting microRNA-328 mediated BACE1 in Alzheimer's disease.

Neurosci Lett 2022 04 12;776:136531. Epub 2022 Feb 12.

Department of Pharmacy, Henan Provincial People's Hospital, Zhengzhou, Henan, China; Department of Pharmacy, People's Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, China; Department of Pharmacy, People's Hospital of Henan University, School of Clinical Medicine, Henan University, Zhengzhou, Henan, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Our previous study observed that circular RNA AXL (circ-AXL, access number circ_0002945) was closely correlated with disease risk and severity of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) by microarray and RT-qPCR validation. Then this current study aimed to further investigate the effect of circ-AXL on regulating neuron injury and inflammation in cellular AD models and its underlying molecular mechanism.

Methods: SK-N-SH and SK-SY5Y cell lines were treated by amyloid β to construct cellular AD models. Then control or circ-AXL overexpression, control or circ-AXL knock-down, microRNA-328 (miR-328) knock-down with or without circ-AXL knock-down, as well as BACE1 overexpression with or without miR-328 overexpression plasmids were transfected into cellular AD models. Furthermore, neuron injury and inflammation were detected.

Results: Circ-AXL overexpression increased apoptosis rate and declined neurite outgrowth, as well as elevated inflammatory cytokines in cellular AD models; but circ-AXL knockdown exhibited opposite effects. Additionally, circ-AXL negatively regulated miR-328 but positively modulated BACE1; besides, miR-328 negatively regulated BACE1; further luciferase reporter gene assay presented that circ-AXL directly bound miR-328, and miR-328 directly bound BACE1. Furthermore, miR-328 overexpression decreased apoptosis rate, elevated neurite outgrowth, and declined inflammatory cytokines in cellular AD models; but miR-328 knockdown presented opposite effects. Notably, miR-328 knockdown attenuated the effect of circ-AXL knockdown on cellular AD models. Moreover, BACE1 overexpression aggravated neuron injury and inflammation, as well as attenuated the effect of miR-328 overexpression on these functions in cellular AD models.

Conclusion: Circ-AXL may serve as a potential treatment target via miR-328 mediated BACE1 in AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2022.136531DOI Listing
April 2022

Polarization-dependent Bloch oscillations in optical waveguides.

Opt Lett 2022 Feb;47(3):617-620

Optical systems provide a new and practical platform for studying Bloch oscillations. This study investigates the fundamental-mode propagation of polarization-dependent Bloch oscillations. By using the three-dimensional properties of femtosecond laser direct writing, we fabricate a polymer-based gradient waveguide array and determine the Bloch oscillations under different polarization inputs by using the birefringence gradient and the equivalent refractive index, thus exhibiting a polarization-dependent Bloch period. Our results provide a new, to the best of our knowledge, paradigm for two-dimensional optical Bloch modes and highlight the influence of optical polarization in the same system, which provides a possibility to observe richer physics related to Bloch oscillations in one structure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.448090DOI Listing
February 2022

Etanercept Reduces Neuron Injury and Neuroinflammation via Inactivating c-Jun N-terminal Kinase and Nuclear Factor-κB Pathways in Alzheimer's Disease: An In Vitro and In Vivo Investigation.

Neuroscience 2022 02 22;484:140-150. Epub 2021 Dec 22.

Department of Pharmacy, Henan Provincial People's Hospital, Zhengzhou, Henan, China; Department of Pharmacy, People's Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, China; Department of Pharmacy, People's Hospital of Henan University, School of Clinical Medicine, Henan University, Zhengzhou, Henan, China. Electronic address:

Inflammation contributes to amyloid beta (Aβ) aggregation and neuron loss in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Meanwhile, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) inhibitors present strong effect on suppressing inflammation. Thus, this study aimed to investigated the effect and molecular mechanism of etanercept (ETN) (a commonly used TNF-α inhibitor) on neuron injury and neuroinflammation in AD. AD cellular model was constructed by co-culture of primary embryonic neuron cells and microglial cells, followed by Aβ treatment. Subsequently, ETN was used to treat AD cellular model. Besides, APPswe/PS1M146V/tauP301L transgenic (AD) mice were respectively treated with saline or ETN by intravenous injection once per 3 days for 10 times. In vitro data revealed that cell viability and neurite outgrowth were increased, but apoptosis and levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (including TNF-α, interleukin-1β, Interleukin-6 and C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2)) were decreased by ETN treatment in AD cellular model. In vivo experiments found that ETN treatment improved spatial, long-term memory (reflected by Morrison water maze) and working memory (reflected by Y maze) in AD mice. Besides, ETN treatment reduced neuron injury (reflected by Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE) and terminal-deoxynucleoitidyl transferase mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays) and levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (including TNF-α, interleukin-1β, Interleukin-6 and CCL2) in AD mice. Moreover, ETN repressed the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathways in AD both in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, ETN exerts neuroprotective function via inactivating JNK and NF-κB pathways in AD, indicating the potential of ETN for improving AD management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2021.11.001DOI Listing
February 2022

Fabrication of three-dimensional hierarchical porous 2D/0D/2D g-CN modified MXene-derived [email protected]: Synergy effect of photocatalysis and HO oxidation in NO removal.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2022 Apr 29;612:434-444. Epub 2021 Dec 29.

Key Laboratory of Western China's Environmental Systems (Ministry of Education) and Gansu Engineering Research Center of Fine Particles Pollution Control Technology and Equipment, College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, PR China. Electronic address:

A novel three-dimensional multi-level porous g-CN modified MXene-derived [email protected] aerogel (g-CN/[email protected] aerogel) was synthesized for NO removal. Through SEM analysis, 2D g-CN and 2D TiC nanosheets were constructed into an interconnected macroscopic framework with continuous macropores via ice template. OD TiO nanoparticles uniformly covered 2D C nanosheets with irregular mesopores and macropores in in-situ oxidation of TiC nanosheets by calcination via TEM analysis. g-CN/[email protected] aerogel for photocatalytic activation of hydrogen peroxide (HO) had an excellent efficiency of 90.7% for NO removal at parts per million level. This efficiency was 4.9 times and 7.8 times that of g-CN/[email protected] aerogel and HO individually, due to the synergy between photocatalysis and HO oxidation. Meantime, g-CN/[email protected] aerogel exhibited an enhanced performance compared with g-CN nanosheet (55.7%) and [email protected] aerogel (38.5%). It was attributed to the large specific surface area (93.82 m/g) with hierarchical mesoporous and macroporous structure and the 2D/OD/2D heterojunction of g-CN/[email protected] aerogel, further enhancing electron-hole separation. The mechanism was hypothesized that g-CN/[email protected] aerogel activated HO to generate hydroxyl radicals (·OH) and superoxide radicals (·O) for oxidation of NO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.12.120DOI Listing
April 2022

Nonvolatile Ferroelectric-Domain-Wall Memory Embedded in a Complex Topological Domain Structure.

Adv Mater 2022 Mar 31;34(10):e2107711. Epub 2022 Jan 31.

Laboratory of Solid-State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093, China.

The discovery and precise manipulation of atomic-size conductive ferroelectric domain walls offers new opportunities for a wide range of prospective electronic devices, and the emerging field of walltronics. Herein, a highly stable and fatigue-resistant nonvolatile memory device is demonstrated, which is based on deterministic creation and erasure of conductive domain walls that are geometrically confined in a topological domain structure. By introducing a pair of delicately designed coaxial electrodes onto the epitaxial BiFeO  film, a center-type quadrant topological domain with conductive charged domain walls can be easily created. More importantly, reversible switching of the quadrant domain between the convergent state with highly conductive confined walls and the divergent state with insulating confined walls can be realized, resulting in an apparent resistance change with a large on/off ratio of >10  and a technically preferred readout current (up to 40 nA). Owing to restrictions from the clamped quadrant ferroelastic domain, the device exhibits excellent restoration repeatability over 10  cycles and a long retention of over 12 days (>10  s). These results provide a new pathway toward high-performance ferroelectric-domain-wall memory, which may spur extensive interest in exploring the immense potential in the emerging field of walltronics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202107711DOI Listing
March 2022

Salesperson Self-Regulated Learning and Online Customers' Patronage: An Ambidexterity Perspective.

Authors:
Bing Han Hua Fan

Front Psychol 2021 1;12:795899. Epub 2021 Dec 1.

School of Business and Management, Shanghai International Studies University, Shanghai, China.

Although the roles of exploratory and exploitative learning as alternative sales skills have been documented, there is not yet a clear consensus, and empirical evidence in the online sales context is lacking. In addition, existing studies have tended to examine the two activities in parallel, without looking into the dyadic situation of balanced or imbalanced exploratory-exploitative learning. Grounded in the WeChat business context, this study explores how online sales agents' balanced and imbalanced ambidextrous learning influence customers' e-loyalty and, in turn, their patronage intention and behavior. Polynomial regression and response surface analysis are performed on 226 dyads, and the results support the hypothesized balance effect. Further, asymmetrical imbalance effects are identified, with customers exhibiting higher e-loyalty and better patronage outcomes when online sales agents adopt more exploitative learning than exploratory learning. This study helps improve understanding of the efficiency of personal selling in a virtual context.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.795899DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8671139PMC
December 2021

Soft Polymer-Organolead Halide Perovskite Films for Highly Stretchable and Durable Photodetectors with Pt-Au Nanochain-Based Electrodes.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Dec 1;13(49):58956-58965. Epub 2021 Dec 1.

Department of Chemistry, Waterloo Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada.

The rigid and brittle nature of methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI) polycrystalline films limits their application in stretchable devices due to rapid deterioration in performance on cycling. By incorporation of polymer chains in the MAPbI films, a strategy to alter the mechanical modulus and the viscoelastic nature of the films has been developed. Combining this with flexible nanochain electrodes, highly stretchable and stable perovskite devices have been fabricated. The resultant polymer-MAPbI photodetector exhibits ultralow dark currents (∼10 A) and high light switching ratios (∼10) and maintains 75% of performance after 30 days. The viscoelastic nature and lower modulus of the polymer improve the energy dissipation in the polymer-MAPbI devices; as a result, they maintain 52% of the device performance after 10000 stretching cycles at 50% strain. The difference in the mechanical behavior is clearly observed in the failure mode of the two films. While rapid catastrophic cracking is observed in MAPbI films, the intensity and size of such crack formation are highly limited in polymer-MAPbI films, which prevent their failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c18939DOI Listing
December 2021

Proteomic profiling identifies signatures associated with progression of precancerous gastric lesions and risk of early gastric cancer.

EBioMedicine 2021 Dec 22;74:103714. Epub 2021 Nov 22.

State Key Laboratory of Proteomics, Beijing Proteome Research Center, National Center for Protein Sciences (Beijing), Beijing Institute of Lifeomics, Beijing 102206, China. Electronic address:

Background: Molecular features underlining the multistage progression of gastric lesions and development of early gastric cancer (GC) are poorly understood, restricting the ability to GC prevention and management.

Methods: We portrayed proteomic landscape and explored proteomic signatures associated with progression of gastric lesions and risk of early GC. Tissue proteomic profiling was conducted for a total of 324 subjects. A case-control study was performed in the discovery stage (n=169) based on populations from Linqu, a known high-risk area for GC in China. We then conducted two-stage validation, including a cohort study from Linqu (n = 56), with prospective follow-up for progression of gastric lesions (280-473 days), and an independent case-control study from Beijing (n = 99).

Findings: There was a clear distinction in proteomic features for precancerous gastric lesions and GC. We derived four molecular subtypes of gastric lesions and identified subtype-S4 with the highest progression risk. We found 104 positively-associated and 113 inversely-associated proteins for early GC, with APOA1BP, PGC, HPX and DDT associated with the risk of gastric lesion progression. Integrating these proteomic signatures, the ability to predict progression of gastric lesions was significantly strengthened (areas-under-the-curve=0.88 (95%CI: 0.78-0.99) vs. 0.56 (0.36-0.76), Delong's P = 0.002). Immunohistochemistry assays and examination at mRNA level validated the findings for four proteins.

Interpretation: We defined proteomic signatures for progression of gastric lesions and risk of early GC, which may have translational significance for identifying particularly high-risk population and detecting GC at an early stage, improving potential for targeted GC prevention.

Funding: The funders are listed in the Acknowledgement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2021.103714DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8617343PMC
December 2021

Dopant-Free Hole Transporting Material Based on Nonconjugated Adamantane for High-Performance Perovskite Solar Cells.

Front Chem 2021 25;9:746365. Epub 2021 Oct 25.

Shaanxi Institute of Flexible Electronics (SIFE), Northwestern Polytechnical University (NPU), Xi'an, China.

A new dopant-free hole transporting material (HTM) 4',4‴,4‴'',4‴''''-(adamantane-1,3,5,7-tetrayl)tetrakis(N,N-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-amine) (Ad-Ph-OMeTAD) (named FDY for short), which consists of a nonconjugated 3D bulky caged adamantane (Ad) as the core, triphenyl amines as side arms, and phenyl units as a linking bridge, is synthesized and applied in an inverted planar perovskite solar cell (PSC). As a result, the champion device with FDY as HTM yields an impressive power of conversion efficiency (PCE) of 18.69%, with J = 22.42 mA cm, V = 1.05 V, and FF = 79.31% under standard AM 1.5G illumination, which is ca. 20% higher than that of the device based on PEDOT:PSS (only 15.41%). Notably, the stability of PSC based on FDY is much better than that of devices based on PEDOT:PSS, and the corresponding devices retain over 90% of their initial PCEs after storing for 60 days in a nitrogen glove box without any encapsulation. Even when stored in an open air condition with 50-60% relative humidity for 188 h, the retained PCE is still over 81% of its initial one. All these results demonstrate that the new design strategy by combing the bulky and nonconjugated (aliphatic) adamantane unit as the core and triphenyl amines as side arms can efficiently develop highly efficient HTMs for PSCs, which is different from the traditional way based on conjugated backbones, and it may open a new way for scientists to design small-molecule HTMs for PSCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2021.746365DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8573366PMC
October 2021

Clinical Observation of Levothyroxine Sodium Combined with Selenium in the Treatment of Patients with Chronic Lymphocytic Thyroiditis and Hypothyroidism and the Effects on Thyroid Function, Mood, and Inflammatory Factors.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 27;2021:5471281. Epub 2021 Oct 27.

Department of Endocrinology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Anhui Gerietric Institute, Hefei, Anhui 230022, China.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of levothyroxine sodium combined with selenium treatment and single levothyroxine sodium treatment on patients with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and hypothyroidism and to analyze the effects of different treatment regimens on patients' thyroid function, mood, and inflammatory factors, with the aim of providing a reference for clinical treatment. The subjects of the current study were 138 chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) patients with hypothyroidism admitted to our hospital from May 2016 to September 2019 and were randomly divided into a control group taking levothyroxine sodium (LT4) treatment and a combined group of LT4 combined with selenium treatment, with 69 cases each. Patients in both groups were evaluated for efficacy after 3 months of treatment, and their thyroid function was observed by total triiodothyronine (TT3), total thyroxine (TT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), and thyroid globulin antibody (TGAb), and their mood changes were observed by Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) scores. The levels of inflammatory factors such as interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) were measured, and the occurrence of adverse drug reactions during the treatment period was observed and recorded in all patients. The results showed that the total effective rate of the combined group was significantly higher than that of the control group. The levels of TT3, TT4, TSH, TgAb, and TPOAb, SAS and SDS scores, and levels of inflammatory factors such as IL-2, IL-10, and TNF- were significantly improved in both groups after treatment. Compared with the control group, TGAb, TPOAb, IL-2, TNF- levels, and SAS and SDS scores decreased more and IL-10 levels increased more in the combined group, while the differences of other indexes were not statistically significant. This suggests that LT4 has certain efficacy in treating CLT with hypothyroidism, and the combined selenium treatment can improve the therapeutic effect of LT4 and can play a greater role in improving patients' mood and immune and inflammatory responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5471281DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8566043PMC
October 2021

Halomonas salipaludis sp. nov., isolated from a saline-alkali wetland soil.

Arch Microbiol 2021 Dec 3;203(10):6033-6039. Epub 2021 Nov 3.

Beijing Environmental Engineering Technology Co., Ltd., Beijing, 101102, People's Republic of China.

Strain WRN001, a Gram-staining-negative, strictly aerobic, non-motile bacterium was isolated from the natural saline-alkali wetland soil of Binhai new district, Tianjin, China (38°46' N, 117°13' E). Cells of strain WRN001 were 0.3-0.5 µm in width and 1.5-2.5 µm in length, and the growth occurred optimally at 33-37 °C, pH 7.5-8.0, and in the presence of 8-10% (w/v) NaCl. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolate could be affiliated to the genus Halomonas, and the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of strain WRN001 to its closest relative Halomonas qiaohouensis DSM 26770 was 97.5%. The size of the genome as presented here was 5,475,884 bp with a G + C content of 63.8 mol %. The major respiratory quinone of strainWRN001 was Q-9, and the dominant fatty acids were summed feature 8, summed feature 3, C, C, C 3-OH, C, and C cyclo. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phophatidylcholine (PC), two phospholipids (PL), aminolipid (AL), and three unidentified lipids (L). These data combined with the low digital DDH values between strain WRN001 and the close relative, Halomonas alkalitolerans CGMCC 1.9129 (42.2%) and based on comparisons with currently available genomes, the highest average nucleotide identity (ANIm) value was 91.4% to Halomonas alkalitolerans CGMCC 1.9129 (GenBank accession No. GCA_001971685.1). Therefore, we propose a novel species in the genus Halomonas to accommodate this novel isolate: Halomonas salipaludis sp. nov. (type strain WRN001 = KCTC 52853 = ACCC 19974).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00203-021-02560-8DOI Listing
December 2021

Effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma injections for the treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Oct;100(41):e27526

Department of Orthopedics, China-Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China.

Background: The effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on patients with acute Achilles tendon rupture is still controversial. The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the efficacy of PRP injections treating acute Achilles tendon rupture.

Methods: A comprehensive electronic literature search was performed in the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases to identify relevant studies that were published prior to April 29, 2021. Randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of PRP injections in treating patients with acute Achilles tendon rupture were included. Statistical analyses were conducted using RevMan software.

Results: Five randomized controlled trials were included in this systematic review. The results of the meta-analysis showed that PRP has positive effects on ankle dorsiflexion angle, dorsal extension strength of the ankle, and calf circumference compared with that in controls. However, the current evidence failed to show that PRP effectively improves ankle plantar flexion angle, plantar flexion strength of the ankle, and pain.

Conclusions: PRP injections for the treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture significantly improved ankle dorsiflexion angle, dorsal extension strength of the ankle, and calf circumference compared with that in controls. Additional studies with larger sample sizes, more rigorous designs and standardized protocols are needed to draw more reliable and accurate conclusions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000027526DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8519239PMC
October 2021

Dynamic State and Active Structure of Ni-Co Catalyst in Carbon Nanofiber Growth Revealed by Transmission Electron Microscopy.

ACS Nano 2021 Nov 3. Epub 2021 Nov 3.

College of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Wulong River North Street 2, 350108 Fuzhou, People's Republic of China.

Alloy catalysts often show superior effectiveness in the growth of carbon nanotubes/nanofibers (CNTs/CNFs) as compared to monometallic catalysts. However, due to the lack of an understanding of the active state and active structure, the origin of the superior performance of alloy catalysts is unknown. In this work, we report an transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study of the CNF growth enabled by one of the most active known alloy catalysts, .., Ni-Co, providing insights into the active state and the interaction between Ni and Co in the working catalyst. We reveal that the functioning catalyst is highly dynamic, undergoing constant reshaping and periodic elongation/contraction. Atomic-scale imaging combined with electron energy-loss spectroscopy further identifies the active structure as a Ni-Co metallic alloy (face-centered cubic, FCC). Aided by the molecular dynamics simulation and density functional theory calculations, we rationalize the dynamic behavior of the catalyst and the growth mechanism of CNFs and provide insight into the origin of the superior performance of the Ni-Co alloy catalyst.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.1c06189DOI Listing
November 2021

Polymer amendment regulates cadmium migration in cadmium contaminated cotton field: Insights from genetic adaptation and phenotypic plasticity.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Feb 20;807(Pt 3):151075. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Agricultural College, Shihezi University, Shihezi, Xinjiang 832000, PR China. Electronic address:

Polymer materials have been widely used in the remediation of soil heavy metal contamination for their good performance in the absorption of metal ions. To reveal the effect of polymer amendment (PA) on the remediation of cadmium-contaminated cotton fields, the cadmium (Cd) fractions in soil, Cd concentration in cotton organs, bioconcentration factor (BCF) of Cd, translocation factor (TF) of Cd, and the antioxidant capacity and photosynthesis of functional leaves were evaluated combining with the transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses, in barrel experiments in the field at the flowering and boll-forming stage of cotton. The results showed that, cotton improved the tolerance to Cd through self-regulation in Cd-contaminated soil. The expression of oxoglutaric acid and jasmonic acid were down-regulated by the application of PA to improve the photosynthetic rate (7.71%-46.20%), chlorophyll content (17.59%-63.18%), chlorophyll fluorescence (7.66%-32.25%), and antioxidant enzyme activity (15.49%-45.50%) of functional leaves, and the down-regulation of the expression of jasmonic acid and up-regulation of the expression of stearic acid reduced the exchangeable Cd concentration in the soil, which reduced the transport of Cd from the root to the bolls (54.39%). Thereby, the balance of the genetic adaptation and phenotypic plasticity of cotton was achieved, and the cell structure of leaves was restored. This study deepens our understanding of the molecular mechanism of PA in the remediation of Cd contamination in cotton fields, and provides guidance for the remediation of heavy metal contamination in farmland soil and agricultural safety under drip irrigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.151075DOI Listing
February 2022

[Storage and ecological stoichiometry of soil carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus under diffe-rent ecological restoration patterns in the alpine desertified grassland of northwestern Sichuan, China].

Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 2020 Aug;31(8):2567-2573

Sichuan Province Natural Resources Science Academy, Chengdu 610015, China.

We analyzed carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) contents and their stoichiometric characteristics of sandy soil in four restoration patterns after 5 years restoration in the northwest Sichuan, China, including planting grass alone (PG), planting shrub alone (PS), shrub-grass intercrop (SG), and shrub-herb intercrop (SH). The untreated sand land was set as control (CK). The results showed that soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), C/N, C/P, and N/P were increased under different restoration patterns, especially under shrub-grass intercrop (SG). In 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm soil layers, the contents of SOC and TN under SG were significantly higher than that under other patterns. In 0-40 cm soil layer, the SOC storage under SG was higher than that under PG, PS, SH, and CK by 13.4%, 15.6%, 17.1% and 43.2%, respectively. The available N, available P, available K, and water content were positively correlated to SOC, TN, and TP in 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm soil layers. Soil bulk density was negatively correlated to SOC, TN and TP. The alkaline N, available P, available K, and water content were significantly correlated to C/N and C/P in 10-20 cm soil layer. The contents and stoichiometry of soil C, N and P were affected by both ecological restoration measures and soil depth. The shrub-grass intercrop pattern was most beneficial to improve sandy soil environment quality in the study area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13287/j.1001-9332.202008.007DOI Listing
August 2020

Metabolic regulation in soil microbial succession and niche differentiation by the polymer amendment under cadmium stress.

J Hazard Mater 2021 08 15;416:126094. Epub 2021 May 15.

Agricultural College, Shihezi University, Shihezi, Xinjiang 832000, PR China. Electronic address:

Cadmium (Cd) contamination seriously threatens the agricultural production, so exploring the response of soil microenvironment to amendments in Cd-contaminated soils is of importance. In this study, the mechanism of remediation of Cd-contaminated soil using the polymer amendment was studied in cotton flowering stage. The results showed that the concentration of Cd in cotton root and various Cd forms in Cd-contaminated soils were obviously high. High concentration of Cd, especially exchangeable Cd, could seriously affect the soil microenvironment. The root growth of cotton could be promoted, the carbon and nitrogen concentration and storage in soil were increased by 21.72-50.00%, while the exchangeable Cd concentration in soil were decreased by 41.43%, after applying the polymer amendment. In addition, the polymer amendment affected the soil microbial niche, increased the relative abundance of soil bacteria (Flaviaesturariibacter, Rubellimicrobium, and Cnuella), fungi (Verticillium and Tricharina), actinomycetes (Blastococcus and Nocardioides), and fungivores nematodes (Aphelenchus), and improved soil microbial metabolic functions (metabolism of nucleotides and carbohydrates). Therefore, this polymer amendment could be used to remediate severe Cd-contaminated soils, and the changes in the microbial and nematode communities help us understand the detoxification mechanism of the polymer amendment in Cd-contaminated soils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126094DOI Listing
August 2021

Deep diamond single-photon sources prepared by a femtosecond laser.

Opt Lett 2021 Sep;46(17):4386-4389

Nitrogen-vacancy color centers (NVs) in diamond have several potential applications ranging from quantum computing to data storage. However, artificial NVs are often close to the surface, which limits their spatial density and applicability. Here we demonstrate an effective and precise method for preparing deep single NVs in diamond. The method is based on a spatial-shaped femtosecond laser to overcome laser defocus in high-refractive materials, and realizes the preparation of single NVs at 95 µm. In addition, owing to the good energy distribution of the shaped laser focus, the single NVs exhibit a statistic yield of 56±11 with excellent qualities. This processing method will contribute to the integration of color centers with emerging optical elements and high-density data storage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.435799DOI Listing
September 2021

Effects and behaviors of Microcystis aeruginosa in defluorination by two Al-based coagulants, AlCl and Al.

Chemosphere 2022 Jan 12;286(Pt 3):131865. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

School of Resources Environment and Chemical Engineering, Nanchang University, 999, Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang, 330031, China.

The complexity of natural water made it difficult to remove fluoride. Based on the environmental problems found in the investigation, the fluoride removal research in the water containing algal cells was carried out. In this study, AlCl and [AlOAl(OH)(HO)] (Al) were used to remove fluoride. Additionally, the role of aluminum speciation in fluoride removal and the effect of Microcystis aeruginosa on the fluoride removal by different aluminum species coagulants were elucidated. The results showed that AlCl mainly removed fluoride by physical interactions, surface adsorption and enmeshment. When algal cells were added to the system, the fluoride removal rate increased from 22.75 % to 72.99 % at a dosage of 40.0 mg/L. This was because algal cells greatly increased the distribution of Al(OH) in the flocs. In particular, the specific surface area of the flocs containing algal cells reached 160.77 m/g, which allowed more fluoride to be adsorbed. However, excessive Al led to serious damage to algal cells and release of intracellular organic matter (IOM), worsening the effect of defluoridation. F and Al formed AlF and AlF via complexation in water. These compounds were not conducive to defluoridation. Al removed fluorine mainly through ion exchange, substitution and hydrogen bonding. Algal cells had an inhibitory effect on defluorination, which was observed in the process of coagulation by different Al dosages. Al achieved agglomeration of algal cells and generated small and dense flocs through charge neutralization and electrostatic patch mechanism. Once Al combined with algal cells and algae organic matter (AOM), the reaction between Al and fluoride would be weakened. Al not only maintained the defluoridation performance, but also did not damage the integrity of algal cells, even at high dosages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131865DOI Listing
January 2022

[Effects of betulinic acid on apoptosis of human gastric cancer MGC-803 cells].

Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi 2021 Jul;37(4):419-422

College of Life Science and Agriculture and Forestry, Qiqihar University, Qiqihaer 161000.

The effects of betulinic acid (BA) on apoptosis of human gastric cancer MGC-803 cells was investigated by using human gastric cancer MGC-803 cells as experimental materials, and the basis for its clinical application was provided. The human gastric cancer MGC-803 cells were divided into 4 groups,each group was set with 3 replicates.The control group was MGC-803 cells without being added betulinic acid; the other 3 groups of experimental groups were treated with betulinic acid at final concentrations of 10, 20 and 30 μg /ml respectively. Cells were treated with betulinic acid of different concentrations for 48 h. Laser confocal microscope was used to observe morphological changes of MGC-803. The activities of Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 were detected by an assay kit. Flow cytometry was applied to determine mitochondrial membrane potential. The mRNA and protein levels of and were also detected by qRT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Compared with the control group, the activities of Caspase-3 and caspase-9 were increased(<0.01), while the mitochondrial membrane potential was decreased significantly(<0.01). The mRNA and protein expressions of Caspase-3, caspase-9 and Cyt c were up-regulated significantly(<0.01). In the final concentration range of 10 ~ 30 μg/ml, betulinic acid can induce apoptosis of human gastric cancer MGC-803 cells by regulating the expression of Caspase-3, Caspase-9 and Cyt c.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12047/j.cjap.6078.2021.039DOI Listing
July 2021

Single-cell transcriptomics reveals heterogeneous progression and EGFR activation in pancreatic adenosquamous carcinoma.

Int J Biol Sci 2021 22;17(10):2590-2605. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital affiliated to Capital Medical University, Beijing 100020, China.

Pancreatic adenosquamous carcinoma (PASC) - a rare pathological pancreatic cancer (PC) type - has a poor prognosis due to high malignancy. To examine the heterogeneity of PASC, we performed single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) profiling with sample tissues from a healthy donor pancreas, an intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm, and a patient with PASC. Of 9,887 individual cells, ten cell subpopulations were identified, including myeloid, immune, ductal, fibroblast, acinar, stellate, endothelial, and cancer cells. Cancer cells were divided into five clusters. Notably, cluster 1 exhibited stem-like phenotypes expressing UBE2C, ASPM, and TOP2A. We found that S100A2 is a potential biomarker for cancer cells. LGALS1, NPM1, RACK1, and PERP were upregulated from ductal to cancer cells. Furthermore, the copy number variations in ductal and cancer cells were greater than in the reference cells. The expression of EREG, FCGR2A, CCL4L2, and CTSC increased in myeloid cells from the normal pancreas to PASC. The gene sets expressed by cancer-associated fibroblasts were enriched in the immunosuppressive pathways. We demonstrate that EGFR-associated ligand-receptor pairs are activated in ductal-stromal cell communications. Hence, this study revealed the heterogeneous variations of ductal and stromal cells, defined cancer-associated signaling pathways, and deciphered intercellular interactions following PASC progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.58886DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8315026PMC
March 2022

A competitive PCR-based method to detect a single copy of T-DNA insertion in transformants.

Physiol Plant 2021 Nov 2;173(3):1179-1188. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Key Laboratory of Resource Biology and Biotechnology in Western China (Ministry of Education), College of Life Science, Northwest University, Xi'an, China.

Gene function studies benefit from the availability of mutants. In plants, Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation is widely used to create mutants. These mutants, also called transformants, contain one or several transfer-DNA (T-DNA) copies in the host genome. Quantifying the copy number of T-DNA in transformants is beneficial to assess the number of mutated genes. Here, we developed a competitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method to detect a single copy of a T-DNA insertion in transformants. The competitor line BHK -1 that contains a single copy of competitor BHK (BHK, Basta, Hygromycin, Kanamycin-resistant genes) was crossed with test transformants and the genomic DNA of F plants was subjected to competitive PCR. By analyzing the gray ratio between two PCR products, we were able to determine whether or not the test transformants contained a single copy of T-DNA insertion. We also generated the control lines BHK and BHK , which contain the target (BHK ) and competitor (BHK ) in a ratio of 1:1 and 2:1, respectively. The ratios of their PCR products are useful references for quantitative analysis. Overall, this method is reliable and simple in experimental manipulations and can be used as a substitute for Southern-blot analysis to identify a single copy of T-DNA insertion in transformants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ppl.13513DOI Listing
November 2021

Solitary vaginal paraganglioma with mature sacrococcygeal teratoma: a rare case report.

BMC Endocr Disord 2021 Jul 7;21(1):145. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Urology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, 100730, Beijing, China.

Background: Vaginal paraganglioma are rare, atypical, solitary tumors which originate from the female genital tract. Sacrococcygeal teratoma are also rare neoplasms which derive from one (or more) primordial germ cell layers. Here we report a unique case of vaginal paraganglioma with sacrococcygeal teratoma.

Case Presentation: A 44-year-old female experienced paroxysmal hypertension, palpitations and dizziness for almost six years. Enhanced CT and MRI highlighted two abnormal soft tissue lesions located in the left vaginal wall and coccyx anteriorly, and Iodine-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine (I-MIBG) demonstrated abnormal radioactive uptake in perineum area. Endocrine tests showed elevated plasma normetanephrine (NMN) and 24 h urine norepinephrine. There was a well-circumscribed soft tissue lesion of approximately 3.5 cm in the left lateral vaginal wall which could be palpated during bimanual examination, together with a 1.5 cm tumor in the posterior wall of the rectum. We completely resected the two lesions in stages with the support of a senior gynecologist and general surgeons. Postoperative histopathological examinations suggested the vaginal paraganglioma and mature sacrococcygeal teratoma. Targeted sanger sequencing for the 36 mostly common paraganglioma-related genes, with a depth of 1000x, revealed no mutations. Post-operatively, plasma NMN and 24 h urine norepinephrine returned to the normal range and her symptoms completely disappeared.

Conclusions: We reported an extremely rare case and the successful treatment of functional vaginal paraganglioma coexisting with adult sacrococcygeal teratoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12902-021-00806-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8262043PMC
July 2021

Reconstructing spleno-mesenterico-portal cofluence by bifurcated allogeneic vein in local advanced pancreatic cancer-a feasible method to avoid left-sided portal hypertension.

Cancer Med 2021 08 30;10(16):5448-5455. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of hepatobiliary surgery, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Left-sided portal hypertension is usually found in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) with spleno-mesenterico-portal (S-M-P) confluence resection. This study is to explore the outcomes of S-M-P confluence reconstruction after resection by using bifurcated allogeneic vein.

Methods: Clinicopathologic data of patients who underwent extensive PD with S-M-P confluence resection for carcinoma of pancreatic head/uncinate process in our hospital between December 2011 and August 2018 were retrospectively reviewed and clinical outcomes of vein reconstruction after resection were analyzed.

Results: Of the 37 patients enrolled, S-M-P reconstruction by bifurcated allogeneic vein was performed in 24 cases (group 1) and simply splenic vein ligation in 13 cases (group 2). Items including pathological results, blood loss, and complications were comparable between the two groups, operation time was longer in group 1 (573.8 vs. 479.2 min, p = 0.018). Significantly decreased platelet count (205.9 vs. 133.1 × 10 /L, p = 0.001) and increased splenic volume (270.9 vs. 452.2 ml, p < 0.001) were observed in group 2 at 6 months after operation. The mean splenic hypertrophy ratio was 1.06 in group 1 and 1.63 in group 2, respectively (p < 0.001). There were four patients with varices were found in group 2, none in group 1.

Conclusions: Without increased complications, reconstructing S-M-P confluence by bifurcated allogeneic vein after resection may help to avoid left-sided portal hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.4093DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8366088PMC
August 2021

Ultrathin 2D Fe-Nanosheets Stabilized by 2D Mesoporous Silica: Synthesis and Application in Ammonia Synthesis.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 15;13(25):30187-30197. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Heterogeneous Reactions, Max Planck Institute for Chemical Energy Conversion, 45470 Mülheim an der Ruhr, Germany.

Developing high-performance Fe-based ammonia catalysts through simple and cost-efficient methods has received an increased level of attention. Herein, we report for the first time, the synthesis of two-dimensional (2D) FeOOH nanoflakes encapsulated by mesoporous SiO (mSiO) via a simple solution-based method for ammonia synthesis. Due to the sticking of the mSiO coating layers and the limited spaces in between, the Fe after reduction retains the 2D morphology, showing high resistance against the sintering in the harsh Haber-Bosch process. Compared to supported Fe particles dispersed on mSiO spheres, the coated catalyst shows a significantly improved catalytic activity by 50% at 425 °C. Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) reveals the existence of a higher density of reactive sites for N activation in the 2D Fe catalyst, which is possibly coupled to a larger density of surface defect sites (kinks, steps, point defects) that are generally considered as active centers in ammonia synthesis. Besides the structural impact of the coating on the 2D Fe, the electronic one is elucidated by partially substituting Si with Al in the coating, confirmed by Si and Al magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR). An increased apparent activation energy () of the Al-containing catalyst evidences an influence on the nature of the active site. The herein-developed stable 2D Fe nanostructures can serve as an example of a 2D material applied in catalysis, offering the chance of a rational catalyst design based on a stepwise introduction of various promoters, in the coating and on the metal, maintaining the spatial control of the active centers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c06771DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8397249PMC
June 2021
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