Publications by authors named "Hu Cheng"

505 Publications

[Application of transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation in perioperative period].

Zhen Ci Yan Jiu 2021 Sep;46(9):800-3

Department of Anesthesiology, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210029, China.

Transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) has the characteristics of simple operation, non-invasive, and high patient acceptability, and is widely used in clinical practice. This article summarized the effects of TEAS on analgesia, gastrointestinal tract regulation, circulation regulation, postoperative cognitive function improvement, immune function regulation, anti-inflammatory and anti-stress during the perioperative period. At the same time, this article analyzed the problems of the application of TEAS in the perioperative period, and aimed to promote its clinical application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13702/j.1000-0607.200977DOI Listing
September 2021

Ophiopogonin B inhibits migration and invasion in non-small cell lung cancer cells through enhancing the interaction between Axin and β-catenin.

J Cancer 2021 28;12(20):6274-6284. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

School of Medicine &Holistic Integrative Medicine, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, 210023, P.R. China.

Ophiopogonin B (OP-B), a kind of saponin compound that exists in is frequently adopted for the treatment of lung disease as traditional Chinese medicine. The present work aimed to explore the anti-tumor activity of OP-B on non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) and its possible mechanism. We found that OP-B-treated cells suppressed the viability and proliferation of cells depending on its concentration, as assayed by MTT and Alamar Blue (IC were 14.22 ± 1.94, 12.14 ± 2.01, and 16.11 ± 1.83 μM in A549, NCI-H1299, and NCI-H460 cells, respectively). Then, the suppressive effect of OP-B on the invasion and migration of NSCLC was observed through wound healing and Transwell assays, and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers was detected by immunofluorescence and western blotting. In addition, a dose-dependent reduction of β-catenin both within cytoplasm and nucleus was observed, and the downstream proteins cyclin D1 and c-Myc of Wnt/β-catenin pathway were also reduced. We further constructed β-catenin-overexpression cell models to reveal the underlying mechanism. The results showed that 10 μM of OP-B notably reduced β-catenin protein levels, as well as cell migration and invasion. In spite of the increasement of β-catenin, activation of Wnt pathway and EMT progression, knockdown of Axin leaded to de-function of OP-B on cell metastasis. Taken together, OP-B reduced NSCLC migration and invasion by strengthening the Axin/β-catenin interaction and reducing β-catenin protein translocation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.60066DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8425213PMC
August 2021

Direct imaging of interlayer-coupled symmetric and antisymmetric plasmon modes in graphene/hBN/graphene heterostructures.

Nanoscale 2021 Sep 17;13(35):14628-14635. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Key Laboratory of Artificial Structures and Quantum Control (Ministry of Education), Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, School of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, China.

Much of the richness and variety of physics today are based on coupling phenomena where multiple interacting systems hybridize into new ones with completely distinct attributes. Recent development in building van der Waals (vdWs) heterostructures from different 2D materials provides exciting possibilities in realizing novel coupling phenomena in a designable manner. Here, with a graphene/hBN/graphene heterostructure, we report near-field infrared nano-imaging of plasmon-plasmon coupling in two vertically separated graphene layers. Emergent symmetric and anti-symmetric coupling modes are directly observed simultaneously. Coupling and decoupling processes are systematically investigated with experiment, simulation and theory. The reported interlayer plasmon-plasmon coupling could serve as an extra degree of freedom to control light propagation at the deep sub-wavelength scale with low loss and provide exciting opportunities for optical chip integration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1nr03210kDOI Listing
September 2021

Factors influencing lower respiratory tract infection in older patients after general anesthesia.

J Int Med Res 2021 Sep;49(9):3000605211043245

Department of Anesthesiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, China.

Objective: Pulmonary complication is common in older patients after surgery. We analyzed risk factors of lower respiratory tract infection after general anesthesia among older patients.

Methods: In this retrospective investigation, we included older patients who underwent surgery with general anesthesia. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine risk factors of lower respiratory tract infection.

Results: A total 418 postoperative patients with general anesthesia were included; the incidence of lower respiratory tract infection was 9.33%. Ten cases were caused by gram-positive bacteria, 26 cases by gram-negative bacteria, and 2 cases by fungus. We found significant differences in age, smoking, diabetes, oral/nasal tracheal intubation, and surgery duration. Logistic regression analysis indicated that age ≥70 years (odds ratio [OR] 2.028, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.115-3.646), smoking (OR 2.314, 95% CI 1.073-4.229), diabetes (OR 2.185, 95% CI 1.166-4.435), nasotracheal intubation (OR 3.528, 95% CI 1.104-5.074), and duration of surgery ≥180 minutes (OR 1.334, 95% CI 1.015-1.923) were independent risk factors of lower respiratory tract infections.

Conclusions: Older patients undergoing general anesthesia after tracheal intubation have a high risk of lower respiratory tract infections. Clinical interventions should be provided to prevent pulmonary infections in patients with relevant risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03000605211043245DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8447098PMC
September 2021

Enhancing LGMD's Looming Selectivity for UAV With Spatial-Temporal Distributed Presynaptic Connections.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 Sep 8;PP. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Collision detection is one of the most challenging tasks for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). This is especially true for small or micro-UAVs due to their limited computational power. In nature, flying insects with compact and simple visual systems demonstrate their remarkable ability to navigate and avoid collision in complex environments. A good example of this is provided by locusts. They can avoid collisions in a dense swarm through the activity of a motion-based visual neuron called the Lobula giant movement detector (LGMD). The defining feature of the LGMD neuron is its preference for looming. As a flying insect's visual neuron, LGMD is considered to be an ideal basis for building UAV's collision detecting system. However, existing LGMD models cannot distinguish looming clearly from other visual cues, such as complex background movements caused by UAV agile flights. To address this issue, we proposed a new model implementing distributed spatial-temporal synaptic interactions, which is inspired by recent findings in locusts' synaptic morphology. We first introduced the locally distributed excitation to enhance the excitation caused by visual motion with preferred velocities. Then, radially extending temporal latency for inhibition is incorporated to compete with the distributed excitation and selectively suppress the nonpreferred visual motions. This spatial-temporal competition between excitation and inhibition in our model is, therefore, tuned to preferred image angular velocity representing looming rather than background movements with these distributed synaptic interactions. Systematic experiments have been conducted to verify the performance of the proposed model for UAV agile flights. The results have demonstrated that this new model enhances the looming selectivity in complex flying scenes considerably and has the potential to be implemented on embedded collision detection systems for small or micro-UAVs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNNLS.2021.3106946DOI Listing
September 2021

Skeletal muscle-targeted delivery of Fgf6 protects mice from diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance.

JCI Insight 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Shanghai Diabetes Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai, China.

Obesity, a major healthcare issue, is characterized by metabolic abnormalities in multiple tissues, including the skeletal muscle. Although dysregulation of skeletal muscle metabolism can strongly influence the homeostasis of systemic energy, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We found promoter hypermethylation and decreased gene expression of fibroblast growth factor 6 (FGF6) in the skeletal muscle of individuals with obesity using high-throughput sequencing. Reduced binding of the cyclic AMP responsive element binding protein-1 (CREB1) to the hypermethylated cyclic AMP (cAMP) response element, which is a regulatory element upstream of the transcription initiation site, partially contributed to the downregulation of FGF6 in patients with obesity. Overexpression of Fgf6 in mice skeletal muscle stimulated protein synthesis, activating the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, and prevented the increase in weight and the development of insulin resistance in high-fat diet-fed mice. Thus, our findings highlight the role played by Fgf6 in regulating skeletal muscle hypertrophy and whole-body metabolism, indicating its potential in strategies aimed at preventing and treating metabolic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.149969DOI Listing
September 2021

Microneedle-mediated vascular endothelial growth factor delivery promotes angiogenesis and functional recovery after stroke.

J Control Release 2021 Sep 2;338:610-622. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Department of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China. Electronic address:

Ischemic stroke is still the major cause of disability worldwide. Although vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is able to promote both angiogenesis and functional recovery, its use is limited by needle-induced injury, nonhomogenous VEGF distribution, and limited VEGF retention in the brain after intracranial or intravenous injection. Here, we first present a gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) microneedle (MN)-based platform for the sustained and controlled local delivery of an adeno-associated virus (AAV) expressing human VEGF (AAV-VEGF) that achieves homogenous distribution and high transfection efficiency in ischemic brains. An ischemic stroke model was established in adult rats, and MNs loaded with AAV-VEGF were epicortically inserted into both the ischemic core and penumbra of these rats one day after the onset of ischemia. One week later, the inflammatory response and microneedle biocompatibility were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunofluorescence. Eight weeks later, angiogenesis and neural stem cell proliferation and migration were assessed. GelMA MN implantation did not elicit an obvious inflammatory response and had good biocompatibility in the brain. AAV-green fluorescent protein (GFP)-loaded MNs could achieve successful transfection and homogeneous distribution in the brain cortex three weeks postoperatively. MNs loaded with AAV-VEGF increased VEGF expression and enhanced functional angiogenesis and neurogenesis. In summary, MNs might emerge as a promising platform for delivering various therapeutics to treat ischemic stroke and repair other neurologically diseased tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2021.08.057DOI Listing
September 2021

Exploring microstructure with diffusion-weighted imaging: From acquisition to modeling.

J Neurosci Methods 2021 Aug 25;363:109335. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Tri-institutional center for Translational Research in Neuroimaging and Data Science (TReNDS) Center, Georgia Institute of Technology, Emory University, Georgia State University, Atlanta 30303, GA, USA. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneumeth.2021.109335DOI Listing
August 2021

hsa_circ_0003222 accelerates stemness and progression of non-small cell lung cancer by sponging miR-527.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Aug 25;12(9):807. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Department of Pulmonary, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

The relationship between circular RNA (circRNA) and cancer stem cells (CSCs) is uncertain. We have investigated the combined influence of CSCs, circRNA (hsa_circ_0003222), and immune checkpoint inhibitors in NSCLC progression and therapy resistance. We constructed lung CSCs (LCSCs; PC9 and A549). The effects of hsa_circ_0003222 in vitro were determined by cell counting, colony and sphere formation, and Transwell assays. A tumor xenograft model of metastasis and orthotopic model were built for in vivo analysis. We found that hsa_circ_0003222 was highly expressed in NSCLC tissues and LCSCs. Higher levels of hsa_circ_0003222 were associated with the stage, metastasis, and survival rate of patients with NSCLC. Reduced levels of hsa_circ_0003222 decreased tumor cell proliferation, migration, invasion, stemness-like properties, and chemoresistance. The silencing of hsa_circ_0003222 was found to downregulate PHF21B expression and its downstream, β-catenin by relieving the sponging effect of miR-527. Moreover, silencing hsa_circ_0003222 alleviated NSCLC resistance to anti-programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1)-based therapy in vivo. Our data demonstrate the significant role of hsa_circ_0003222 in NSCLC cell stemness-like properties. The manipulation of circRNAs in combination with anti-PD-L1 therapy may alleviate NSCLC stemness and progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-04095-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8387484PMC
August 2021

Robustness of Bio-Inspired Visual Systems for Collision Prediction in Critical Robot Traffic.

Front Robot AI 2021 6;8:529872. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

Machine Life and Intelligence Research Centre, School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, China.

Collision prevention sets a major research and development obstacle for intelligent robots and vehicles. This paper investigates the robustness of two state-of-the-art neural network models inspired by the locust's LGMD-1 and LGMD-2 visual pathways as fast and low-energy collision alert systems in critical scenarios. Although both the neural circuits have been studied and modelled intensively, their capability and robustness against real-time critical traffic scenarios where real-physical crashes will happen have never been systematically investigated due to difficulty and high price in replicating risky traffic with many crash occurrences. To close this gap, we apply a recently published robotic platform to test the LGMDs inspired visual systems in physical implementation of critical traffic scenarios at low cost and high flexibility. The proposed visual systems are applied as the only collision sensing modality in each micro-mobile robot to conduct avoidance by abrupt braking. The simulated traffic resembles on-road sections including the intersection and highway scenes wherein the roadmaps are rendered by coloured, artificial pheromones upon a wide LCD screen acting as the ground of an arena. The robots with light sensors at bottom can recognise the lanes and signals, tightly follow paths. The emphasis herein is laid on corroborating the robustness of LGMDs neural systems model in different dynamic robot scenes to timely alert potential crashes. This study well complements previous experimentation on such bio-inspired computations for collision prediction in more critical physical scenarios, and for the first time demonstrates the robustness of LGMDs inspired visual systems in critical traffic towards a reliable collision alert system under constrained computation power. This paper also exhibits a novel, tractable, and affordable robotic approach to evaluate online visual systems in dynamic scenes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/frobt.2021.529872DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8378452PMC
August 2021

Dahuang Danshen Decoction Inhibits Pancreatic Fibrosis by Regulating Oxidative Stress and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 10;2021:6629729. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Longhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 200032, China.

Background: In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), Dahuang Danshen decoction (DD) is used to treat pancreatic fibrosis. Pancreatic fibrosis is a typical manifestation of chronic pancreatitis (CP), which affects the digestive system. The therapeutic mechanisms of DD in pancreatic fibrosis are unclear.

Aim: This study aimed to investigate the regulatory mechanisms of DD on oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress in CP.

Materials And Methods: Experimental rats were intraperitoneally injected with 500 mg/kg BW of diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) twice a week for six weeks to induce CP. At the same time, DD was administered orally at daily doses of 1.37 g/kg BW, 2.74 g/kg BW, and 5.48 g/kg BW to evaluate its treatment effects on CP. After all treatments, pancreatic tissues were harvested and subjected to H&E staining. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was also performed to show the endoplasmic reticulum structure in the pancreatic tissues. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the -SMA expression level in the pancreatic tissues. Metabolomics analysis of the serum and proteomics analysis of the pancreatic tissues were performed to reveal the changes of endogenous metabolites and proteins, respectively. Concentrations of GSH, MDA, SOD, ROS, col-1, and col-3 were determined using corresponding kits. The western blotting method was used to determine the protein levels of Keap-1, HO-1, NQO1, Nrf2, GRP, JNK, and caspase 12. The pancreatic mRNA levels of NQO1, GPX1, HO-1, GST-, GRP, JNK, and caspase 12 were also determined by quantitative PCR. The interactions between TCM components and Keap-1 were investigated by molecular docking modeling.

Results: The pathohistological results demonstrated that DD could ameliorate DDC-induced CP , indicated by reduction of -SMA, col-1, col-3, TNF- and IL-6. DD increased serum levels of GSH and SOD but reduced pancreatic ROS. DD decreased cytoplasmic Keap-1 and increased Nrf2 nuclear localization. Correspondingly, DD increased the expression levels of Nrf2 downstream antioxidant genes NQO1, GPX1, HO-1, and GST-. DD also decreased ERS hallmarks caspase 12 cleavage and GRP expression. Eventually, DD inhibited PSC activation by reducing JNK phosphorylation and MMK-3/p38 expression. Molecular docking analysis showed that salvianolic acid B and emodin had a good binding affinity toward Keap-1.

Conclusions: These results demonstrated that DD could ameliorate the oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress through releasing Nrf2 from Keap-1 binding and inducing the downstream antioxidant enzymes. As a result, DD could thwart pancreatic fibrosis by inhibiting PSCs activation, which was induced by OS and ERS through JNK and MMK3/p38 pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6629729DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8371665PMC
August 2021

Discovery of metabolic biomarkers for gestational diabetes mellitus in a Chinese population.

Nutr Metab (Lond) 2021 Aug 21;18(1):79. Epub 2021 Aug 21.

The Third School of Clinical Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), one of the most common pregnancy complications, can lead to morbidity and mortality in both the mother and the infant. Metabolomics has provided new insights into the pathology of GDM and systemic analysis of GDM with metabolites is required for providing more clues for GDM diagnosis and mechanism research. This study aims to reveal metabolic differences between normal pregnant women and GDM patients in the second- and third-trimester stages and to confirm the clinical relevance of these new findings.

Methods: Metabolites were quantitated with the serum samples of 200 healthy pregnant women and 200 GDM women in the second trimester, 199 normal controls, and 199 GDM patients in the third trimester. Both function and pathway analyses were applied to explore biological roles involved in the two sets of metabolites. Then the trimester stage-specific GDM metabolite biomarkers were identified by combining machine learning approaches, and the logistic regression models were constructed to evaluate predictive efficiency. Finally, the weighted gene co-expression network analysis method was used to further capture the associations between metabolite modules with biomarkers and clinical indices.

Results: This study revealed that 57 differentially expressed metabolites (DEMs) were discovered in the second-trimester group, among which the most significant one was 3-methyl-2-oxovaleric acid. Similarly, 72 DEMs were found in the third-trimester group, and the most significant metabolites were ketoleucine and alpha-ketoisovaleric acid. These DEMs were mainly involved in the metabolism pathway of amino acids, fatty acids and bile acids. The logistic regression models for selected metabolite biomarkers achieved the area under the curve values of 0.807 and 0.81 for the second- and third-trimester groups. Furthermore, significant associations were found between DEMs/biomarkers and GDM-related indices.

Conclusions: Metabolic differences between healthy pregnant women and GDM patients were found. Associations between biomarkers and clinical indices were also investigated, which may provide insights into pathology of GDM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12986-021-00606-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8379750PMC
August 2021

Multi-omics profiling: the way towards precision medicine in metabolic diseases.

J Mol Cell Biol 2021 Aug 18. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Shanghai Diabetes Institute, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Diabetes Mellitus, Shanghai Clinical Center for Diabetes, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai 200233, China.

Metabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are alarming health burdens around the world, while therapies for these diseases are far from satisfying as their etiologies are not completely clear yet. T2DM, NAFLD, and MetS are all complex and multifactorial metabolic disorders based on the interactions between genetics and environment. Omics studies such as genetics, transcriptomics, epigenetics, proteomics, and metabolomics are all promising approaches in accurately characterizing these diseases. And the most effective treatments for individuals can be achieved via omics pathways, which is the theme of precision medicine. In this review, we summarized the multi-omics studies of T2DM, NAFLD, and MetS in recent years, provided a theoretical basis for their pathogenesis and the effective prevention and treatment, and highlighted the biomarkers and future strategies for precision medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jmcb/mjab051DOI Listing
August 2021

Constructing a Predictive Model of Depression in Chemotherapy Patients with Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma to Improve Medical Staffs' Psychiatric Care.

Biomed Res Int 2021 17;2021:9201235. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Quality Control Department, The Third Hospital of Quzhou, China.

Objectives: Depression is highly prevalent in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) patients undergoing chemotherapy. The social stress associated with malignancy induces neurovascular pathology promoting clinical levels of depressive symptomatology. The purpose of this study was to establish an effective depressive symptomatology risk prediction model to those patients.

Methods: This study included 238 NHL patients receiving chemotherapy, 80 of whom developed depressive symptomatology. Different types of variables (sociodemographic, medical, and psychosocial) were entered in the models. Three prediction models (support vector machine-recursive feature elimination model, random forest model, and nomogram prediction model based on logistic regression analysis) were compared in order to select the one with the best predictive power. The selected model was then evaluated using calibration plots, ROC curves, and -index. The clinical utility of the nomogram was assessed by the decision curve analysis (DCA).

Results: The nomogram prediction has the most efficient predictive ability when 10 predictors are included (AUC = 0.938). A nomogram prediction model was constructed based on the logistic regression analysis with the best predictive accuracy. Sex, age, medical insurance, marital status, education level, per capita monthly household income, pathological stage, SSRS, PSQI, and QLQ-C30 were included in the nomogram. The -index was 0.944, the AUC value was 0.972, and the calibration curve also showed the good predictive ability of the nomogram. The DCA curve suggested that the nomogram had a strong clinical utility.

Conclusions: We constructed a depressive symptomatology risk prediction model for NHL chemotherapy patients with good predictive power and clinical utility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/9201235DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8313321PMC
September 2021

Corrigendum: Total Flavonoids of Rhizoma Drynariae Promotes Differentiation of Osteoblasts and Growth of Bone Graft in Induced Membrane Partly by Activating Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway.

Front Pharmacol 2021 16;12:726831. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

First Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2021.675470.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.726831DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8322677PMC
July 2021

Strategies for multivariate analyses of imaging genetics study in Alzheimer's disease.

Neurosci Lett 2021 09 29;762:136147. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

School of Computer Science and Technology, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310018, China; Key Laboratory of Intelligent Image Analysis for Sensory and Cognitive Health, Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of China, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310018, China.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an incurable neurodegenerative disease primarily affecting the elderly population. Early diagnosis of AD is critical for the management of this disease. Imaging genetics examines the influence of genetic variants (i.e., single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)) on brain structure and function and many novel approaches of imaging genetics are proposed for studying AD. We review and synthesize the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) genetic associations with quantitative disease endophenotypes including structural and functional neuroimaging, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), positron emission tomography (PET), and fluid biomarker assays. In this review, we survey recent publications using neuroimaging and genetic data of AD, with a focus on methods capturing multivariate effects accommodating the large number variables from both imaging data and genetic data. We review methods focused on bridging the imaging and genetic data by establishing genotype-phenotype association, including sparse canonical correlation analysis, parallel independent component analysis, sparse reduced rank regression, sparse partial least squares, genome-wide association study, and so on. The broad availability and wide scope of ADNI genetic and phenotypic data has advanced our understanding of the genetic basis of AD and has nominated novel targets for future pharmaceutical therapy and biomarker development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2021.136147DOI Listing
September 2021

Stressful life events and poor sleep quality: a cross-sectional survey in the Chinese governmental employees.

Sleep Med 2021 Sep 29;85:123-130. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Social Medicine and Health Management, Xiangya School of Public Health, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Evidence has shown that stressful life events are associated with sleep quality, yet studies on employees are scarce. In the present study, we explored the association between stressful life events and sleep quality in Chinese governmental employees. The cross-sectional data on 10,994 Chinese governmental employees aged 20-60 years were derived from a cohort study on chronic diseases of governmental employees in Hunan Province, China. Logistic regression models were used to calculate the adjusted odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval (CI). Of the participants, 3517 (32.0%) reported poor sleep quality in the past month. Participants who experienced more than two life events in the past year were associated with 3 times (OR: 3.681, 95%CI:3.287-4.123) greater likelihood of poor sleep quality. Negative life events, but not positive life events, were significantly associated with poor sleep quality. Regarding the types of events, economic-related life events were associated with poor sleep quality only in employees aged 20-35 years. Regarding the specific life events, work stress, job dissatisfaction, pregnancy or wife pregnancy,quality in Chinese governmental employees. discord with spouse's parents, separation from spouse due to work, bad relationship between spouse, unsatisfied sex life, misunderstood, blamed, false accusation or argument, and lifestyle changes were significantly associated with poor sleep quality. When stratified by sex, age and occupational position, the association of specific events and sleep quality were different. The present study showed that cumulative life events, negative life events and several specific events were significantly associated with poor sleep quality on Chinese governmental employees.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2021.06.030DOI Listing
September 2021

Dendrite-Free Li Metal Anodes and the Formation of Plating Textures with a High Transference Number Modified Separator.

Small 2021 Sep 26;17(36):e2101881. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Ji'nan, Shandong, 250061, P. R. China.

The application of Li metal anodes is currently hindered by the uncontrolled growth of Li dendrites. Herein, the effects of a modified separator with a high Li transference number (t ) on the structure and electrochemical performance of Li metal anodes are reported. Stable and dendrite-free plating/stripping cycles are achieved under current densities up to 5 mA cm and areal capacities up to 20 mAh cm . The uniformly grown Li grains under the high t environment also exhibit well-defined textures (preferred orientations). At a low plating capacity, epitaxial growth takes place on the {100} textures already existing in the rolled Li foils and the uniform Li flux strengthens this preferred orientation. Increasing the plating capacity to 20 mAh cm , the later-grown textures change to {110} due to the reduced space charges and alleviated transport limits of Li under the high t environment, which favor the exposure of the close-packed {110} planes. Compression-induced <111> fiber textures are also resolved and the content increases with the plating capacity. Identification of the textures is meaningful for the exploration of advanced epitaxial substrates beyond Cu foils for high-energy-density Li metal batteries. LiS pouch cells are finally evaluated for the potential application of the modified separator.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202101881DOI Listing
September 2021

Single-molecule FRET and conformational analysis of beta-arrestin-1 through genetic code expansion and a Se-click reaction.

Chem Sci 2021 Jul 31;12(26):9114-9123. Epub 2021 May 31.

Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences Chaoyang District Beijing 100101 China.

Single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (smFRET) is a powerful tool for investigating the dynamic properties of biomacromolecules. However, the success of protein smFRET relies on the precise and efficient labeling of two or more fluorophores on the protein of interest (POI), which has remained highly challenging, particularly for large membrane protein complexes. Here, we demonstrate the site-selective incorporation of a novel unnatural amino acid (2-amino-3-(4-hydroselenophenyl) propanoic acid, SeF) through genetic expansion followed by a Se-click reaction to conjugate the Bodipy593 fluorophore on calmodulin (CaM) and β-arrestin-1 (βarr1). Using this strategy, we monitored the subtle but functionally important conformational change of βarr1 upon activation by the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) through smFRET for the first time. Our new method has broad applications for the site-specific labeling and smFRET measurement of membrane protein complexes, and the elucidation of their dynamic properties such as transducer protein selection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1sc02653dDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8261736PMC
July 2021

A Time-Delay Feedback Neural Network for Discriminating Small, Fast-Moving Targets in Complex Dynamic Environments.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 Jul 15;PP. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Discriminating small moving objects within complex visual environments is a significant challenge for autonomous micro-robots that are generally limited in computational power. By exploiting their highly evolved visual systems, flying insects can effectively detect mates and track prey during rapid pursuits, even though the small targets equate to only a few pixels in their visual field. The high degree of sensitivity to small target movement is supported by a class of specialized neurons called small target motion detectors (STMDs). Existing STMD-based computational models normally comprise four sequentially arranged neural layers interconnected via feedforward loops to extract information on small target motion from raw visual inputs. However, feedback, another important regulatory circuit for motion perception, has not been investigated in the STMD pathway and its functional roles for small target motion detection are not clear. In this article, we propose an STMD-based neural network with feedback connection (feedback STMD), where the network output is temporally delayed, then fed back to the lower layers to mediate neural responses. We compare the properties of the model with and without the time-delay feedback loop and find that it shows a preference for high-velocity objects. Extensive experiments suggest that the feedback STMD achieves superior detection performance for fast-moving small targets, while significantly suppressing background false positive movements which display lower velocities. The proposed feedback model provides an effective solution in robotic visual systems for detecting fast-moving small targets that are always salient and potentially threatening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNNLS.2021.3094205DOI Listing
July 2021

The Role of White Matter in the Neural Control of Swallowing: A Systematic Review.

Front Hum Neurosci 2021 28;15:628424. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

I-EaT Swallowing Research Laboratory, Speech Language and Hearing Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, United States.

Swallowing disorders (dysphagia) can negatively impact quality of life and health. For clinicians and researchers seeking to improve outcomes for patients with dysphagia, understanding the neural control of swallowing is critical. The role of gray matter in swallowing control has been extensively documented, but knowledge is limited regarding the contributions of white matter. Our aim was to identify, evaluate, and summarize the populations, methods, and results of published articles describing the role of white matter in neural control of swallowing. We completed a systematic review with a multi-engine search following PRISMA-P 2015 standards. Two authors screened articles and completed blind full-text review and quality assessments using an adapted U.S. National Institute of Health's Quality Assessment. The senior author resolved any disagreements. Qualitative synthesis of evidence was completed. The search yielded 105 non-duplicate articles, twenty-two of which met inclusion criteria. Twenty were rated as Good (5/22; 23%) or Fair (15/22; 68%) quality. Stroke was the most represented diagnosis ( = 20; 91%). All studies were observational, and half were retrospective cohort design. The majority of studies (13/22; 59%) quantified white matter damage with lesion-based methods, whereas 7/22 (32%) described intrinsic characteristics of white matter using methods like fractional anisotropy. Fifteen studies (68%) used instrumental methods for swallowing evaluations. White matter areas commonly implicated in swallowing control included the pyramidal tract, internal capsule, corona radiata, superior longitudinal fasciculus, external capsule, and corpus callosum. Additional noteworthy themes included: severity of white matter damage is related to dysphagia severity; bilateral white matter lesions appear particularly disruptive to swallowing; and white matter adaptation can facilitate dysphagia recovery. Gaps in the literature included limited sample size and populations, lack of in-depth evaluations, and issues with research design. Although traditionally understudied, there is sufficient evidence to conclude that white matter is critical in the neural control of swallowing. The reviewed studies indicated that white matter damage can be directly tied to swallowing deficits, and several white matter structures were implicated across studies. Further well-designed interdisciplinary research is needed to understand white matter's role in neural control of normal swallowing and in dysphagia recovery and rehabilitation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2021.628424DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8273764PMC
June 2021

Mutations of contribute to the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and related metabolic disorders.

Diabetes 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Shanghai Diabetes Institute, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Diabetes Mellitus, Shanghai Clinical Centre for Diabetes, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai, China.

Neuregulin 4 (Nrg4), an adipose tissue-enriched endocrine factor, participates in adipocyte-to-hepatocyte communication, eliciting beneficial metabolic effects in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Here, we evaluate the physiological roles of Nrg4 in humans and unravel the role of variants in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and related metabolic disorders. We identified two rare missense mutations-p. R44H and p.E47Q- in the NRG4 EGFL domain by whole exome sequencing in 224 severely obese subjects and exome genotyping in 2,388 subjects from Shanghai Obesity Study. The over-expression animal models showed wild-type (WT) Nrg4 could attenuate high-fat diet-induced hepatic lipogenesis and improve energy metabolism. Nrg4 E47Q enhanced the protective effect, whereas Nrg4 R44H lost this function. Unlike Nrg4 R44H, Nrg4 E47Q activated the phosphorylation of ErbB4 and negatively regulated the lipogenesis via the ErbB4-STAT5-SREBP1C pathway. The surface plasmon resonance experiments revealed a higher affinity of E47Q Nrg4 than WT to bind ErbB4, while R44H showed no binding. In conclusion, the study suggests that genetic variations in could produce mutant proteins with aberrant functions, and impaired or enhanced Nrg4 function could either be a risk factor or protective factor for NAFLD and associated metabolic disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db21-0064DOI Listing
July 2021

Phototunable Lignin Plastics to Enable Recyclability.

ChemSusChem 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Synthetic and Systems Biology Innovation Hub, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA.

The accumulation of non-degradable petrochemical plastics imposes a significant threat to the environment and ecosystems. We addressed this challenge by designing a new type of phototunable plastics based on the unique lignin chemistry to enable readily end-life recycling. The advanced material design leveraged the efficient photocatalytic lignin depolymerization by ZnO nanoparticles to build lignin-polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-ZnO blends. We first demonstrated the highly effective phototunable lignin depolymerization in the complex polymer blend matrix and explored the molecular mechanisms. The technical barriers of mechanical property and recycling processing were then addressed by a new blend design with lignin core grafted with PMMA polymer. The new process has resulted in a new type of PMMA-g-lignin blend, which significantly improved the mechanical properties, making it comparable to PMMA alone. More importantly, the mechanical properties of the UV-treated blend decreased drastically in the new design, whereas the properties did not reduce in the non-grafted blends upon UV exposure. The results highlighted that the new blend design based on graftization maximized the impact of lignin depolymerization on blend structure and recyclability. Based on the results, we developed a process integrating UV and alkaline treatments to recycle PMMA for plastics and fractionated lignin for bioconversion or other applications in the new phototunable plastics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cssc.202101040DOI Listing
July 2021

Inflammation-Responsive Drug-Loaded Hydrogels with Sequential Hemostasis, Antibacterial, and Anti-Inflammatory Behavior for Chronically Infected Diabetic Wound Treatment.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jul 9;13(28):33584-33599. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, Sichuan, China.

Stimuli-responsive hydrogels possess unique advantages in drug delivery due to their variable performance and status based on the external environment. In the present study, a dual-responsive (pH and reactive oxygen species (ROS)) hydrogel was prepared to realize drug release properties under inflammatory stimulation. By grafting 3-carboxy-phenylboronic acid to the gelatin molecular backbone and cross-linking with poly(vinyl alcohol), we successfully synthesized the inflammation-responsive drug-loaded hydrogels after encapsulation with vancomycin-conjugated silver nanoclusters (VAN-AgNCs) and pH-sensitive micelles loaded with nimesulide (NIM). This novel design not only retained the dynamic functions of hydrogels, such as injectability, self-healing, and remodeling, but also realized sequential and on-demand drug delivery at diabetic-infected wound sites. In this work, we found that the hydrogel exhibited excellent biocompatibility and hemostasis properties owing to the enhanced cell-adhesive property of the gelatin component. The significant antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effect of the hydrogel was demonstrated in an experiment. Moreover, in the experiment, the hydrogel was found to play a role in promoting infected wound healing through sequential hemostasis and antibacterial and anti-inflammatory processes. Collectively, this inflammation-responsive hydrogel design containing VAN-AgNCs and NIM-loaded micelles has great potential in the application of chronically infected diabetic wound treatment, as well as in other inflammatory diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c09889DOI Listing
July 2021

Exponential passivity of discrete-time switched neural networks with transmission delays via an event-triggered sliding mode control.

Neural Netw 2021 Jun 15;143:271-282. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Basic, Qinghai University, Xining 810016, China.

This paper investigates the exponential passivity of discrete-time switched neural networks (DSNNs) with transmission delays via an event-triggered sliding mode control (SMC). Firstly, a novel discrete-time switched SMC scheme is constructed on the basis of sliding mode control method and event-triggered mechanism. Next, a state observer with transmission delays is designed to estimate the system state. Moreover, some new weighted summation inequalities are further proposed to effectively evaluate the exponential passivity criteria for the closed-loop system. Finally, the effectiveness of theoretical results is showed through a simulative analysis on a multi-area power system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neunet.2021.06.014DOI Listing
June 2021

Molecular engineering enabling reversible transformation between helical and planar conformations by cyclization of alkynes.

Chem Sci 2020 Dec 8;12(7):2419-2426. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Sichuan University 29 Wangjiang Road Chengdu 610064 People's Republic of China

Molecular engineering enabling reversible transformation between helical and planar conformations is described herein. Starting from easily available 2-(pyridin-2-yl)anilines and alkynes, a one-pot strategy is set up for the synthesis of aza[4]helicenes two successive rhodium-catalyzed C-H activation/cyclizations. Helical pyrrolophenanthridiziniums can be transformed into planar conformations through the cleavage of acidic pyrrole N-H, leading to turn-off fluorescence. NMR spectra, single crystal X-ray diffraction and DFT calculations demonstrate that the formation of an intramolecular C-H⋯N hydrogen bond is beneficial to stabilize the pyrrole nitrogen anion of the planar molecule and provide increased planarity. The reversible conformation transformations can be finely adjusted by the electron-donating and -withdrawing groups on the π-fused pyrrole skeleton in the physiological pH range, thus affording an opportunity for pH-controlled intracellular selective fluorescence imaging. Pyrrolophenanthridiziniums show turn-on fluorescence in lysosomes owing to the acidic environment of lysosomes and turn-off fluorescence out of lysosomes, indicating the occurrence of the deprotonation reaction outside lysosomes and the corresponding transformation from helical to planar conformations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0sc05844kDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8179297PMC
December 2020

The psychological impact on patients with memory disorders and their caregivers during COVID-19.

Aging Clin Exp Res 2021 Aug 23;33(8):2317-2325. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Geriatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, No.1 Youyi Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing, 400016, China.

Background: COVID-19 is erupting globally. Mass quarantine had been implemented all around China which could influence the psychological status of patients with memory disorders and their caregivers.

Aim: To investigate the psychological impact of mass quarantine on patients with memory disorders and their caregivers in China.

Methods: We completed a cross-sectional study in 787 patients and their caregivers registered from 2010 to 2019 in Memory Clinic, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, by telephone interviews. The performance in neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPSs), sleep, nutrition, chronic diseases of patients, and the burden of care, anxiety and depression of caregivers was assessed by six assessment scales (MNA-SF, PSQI, NPI, RSS, PHQ-9 and GAD-7).

Results: Only 68 (8.6%) patients worried about the outbreak of COVID-19. The prevalence of NPSs among all subjects was nearly 60.0%. Approximately 50.0% of the caregivers reported distress. More than 70.0% of patients remained stable in NPSs. However, anxiety, depression, aberrant motor disorder and delusion were exacerbated (22.9%, 18.6%, 17.1% and 16.8%, respectively). Appetite and eating disorder led alleviation rate by 25.8% while disappearing rate of agitation led by 5.8%. 7.5% of caregivers manifested depressive symptoms while 4.9% expressed anxiety symptoms, and 40.8% showed care burden. The coefficients of RSS and PHQ-9, RSS and GAD-7, RSS and NPI-D, PHQ-9 and GAD-7 were 0.7, 0.5, 0.5 and 0.6, respectively (p < 0.01).

Conclusion: Changes in NPSs during COVID-19 were observed in some patients with memory disorders and their caregivers, and adherence to medication contributed to the stabilization of NPSs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40520-021-01911-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8219516PMC
August 2021

NUCKS Promotes the Proliferation, Migration and Invasion of Lung Cancer Cells Through Pi3k/Akt Signalling Pathway.

Clin Invest Med 2021 06 15;44(2):E55-61. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Tonglu First People's Hospital, Hangzhou City, China.

Purpose: Nuclear ubiquitous casein and cyclin-dependent kinases substrate (NUCKS) overexpression has been reported in various types of cancers. The purpose of this study is to clarify the role of NUCKS, underlying the involvement of non-small-cell lung cancer, in the progression of lung cancer.

Methods: The small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) of NUCKS was transfected into a lung cancer cell line (NCI-H460, A549, NCI-H1299 and NCI-H1975). Functional experiments (MTT assay, Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining assay, colony formation assay, wound healing assay and Transwell assay) were performed to measure the effects of NUCKS on lung cancer cell viability, migration, invasion and apoptosis.

Results: NUCKS was found to be up-regulated in lung cancer cells. Knockdown of NUCKS significantly altered lung cancer cell apoptosis, proliferation colony formation, invasion and migration. Moreover, knockdown of NUCKS attenuated the activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway in lung cancer cells.

Conclusion: NUCKS was overexpressed in lung cancer cells and played an important role in lung cancer by increasing cell growth through the PI3K/AKT signalling pathway. This in vitro study suggested NUCKS should be evaluated in a clinical setting as a novel biomarker and potential therapeutic target for lung cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.25011/cim.v44i2.36246DOI Listing
June 2021
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