Publications by authors named "Houssam Farres"

32 Publications

Utilization of ECMO in vascular surgery: A presentation of two cases.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 Aug 29;85:106141. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Surgery, Division of Vascular Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: Veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) is a form of temporary mechanical circulatory support commonly used during cardiothoracic interventions. Malperfusion during complex vascular procedures remains a significant risk that may potentially lead to multiple complications. Here, we report two cases highlighting the efficacy of VA-ECMO in both planned and emergent vascular interventions.

Presentation Of Case: In our first case, VA-ECMO was used to support an 82-year-old male during a high-risk thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Our second case details an emergent pulmonary embolectomy in which VA-ECMO was used as a bridge to cardiopulmonary bypass. In both cases, the procedures were well-tolerated, and the patients were discharged 17 days postoperatively.

Discussion: VA-ECMO has been increasingly used as a form of post-operative circulatory support following cardiothoracic and vascular interventions. However, only few instances of perioperative VA-ECMO use have been reported in the field of vascular surgery.

Conclusion: The presented cases highlight that the perioperative use of VA-ECMO may be a viable modality for required perfusion during complex planned or emergent vascular procedures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijscr.2021.106141DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8329508PMC
August 2021

Proximal fixation of endovascular aortic device may not be associated with renal function decline after abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

J Vasc Surg 2021 Jun 26. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Fla.

Objective: Significant debate exists among providers who perform endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) regarding the renal function change between suprarenal (SuF) and infrarenal (InF) fixation devices. The purpose of this study is to review our institution's experience using these devices in terms of renal function.

Methods: This is a retrospective review of all elective EVARs performed within a three-site health system (Florida, Minnesota, and Arizona) during the period of 2000 to 2018. The primary outcome was renal function decline on long-term follow-up depending on the anatomical fixation of the device (SuF vs InF). Secondary outcomes were length of hospitalization (LOH) and progression to hemodialysis. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to test for associations affecting LOH.

Results: There were 1130 elective EVARs included in our review. Of those, 670 (59.3%) had SuF and 460 (40.7%) InF. Long-term follow-up was 4.8 ± 3.7 years, and the rate of change in creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were not statistically significant among groups (SuF vs InF). LOH was higher in those individuals with a SuF device (3.4 ± 2.2 vs 2.3 ± 1.0 days; P < .001). Ten patients with chronic kidney disease progressed to hemodialysis at 6.7 ± 3.8 years from EVAR. On Kaplan-Meier analysis, patients with chronic kidney disease with SuF were more likely to progress to hemodialysis (P = .039). On multivariable regression, female sex (Coef, 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.17-0.41; P = .02), SuF (Coef, 9.5; 95% CI, 0.11-1.11; P < .0001), and intraoperative blood loss of greater than 150 mL (Coef, 15.4; 95% CI, 0.11-1.76; P < .0001) were predictors of prolonged LOH.

Conclusion: Our three-site, single-institution data indicate that, although the starting eGFR was statistically lower in those individuals undergoing elective EVAR with InF, device fixation type did not affect the creatinine and eGFR on long-term follow-up. However, caution should be exercised at the time of abdominal aortic aneurysm repair in those individuals who already presented with renal dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2021.05.050DOI Listing
June 2021

Impact of Elective Case Postponement Secondary to COVID-19 on General Surgery Residents' Experience: Operative Cases Logged at Three Academic Teaching Hospitals.

J Surg Educ 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Division of Trauma, Critical Care, and General Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. Electronic address:

Objective: This study aims to characterize changes in the total operative cases logged by general surgery residents across three residency programs.

Design: Retrospective cohort study. De-identified case logs, divided by institution and post graduate year (PGY) level, were obtained from the general surgery training programs at three academic hospitals. Total cases logged were calculated over the pandemic period (start: beginning of residency, end: May 31st, 2020) and the control period (start: beginning of residency, end: May 31st, 2019).

Setting: Three academic tertiary hospitals (Mayo Clinic - Arizona, Mayo Clinic - Florida, and Mayo Clinic - Rochester) PARTICIPANTS: All general surgery residents at these three hospitals, including 25 residents at Mayo Clinic - Arizona in both the pandemic and control period, 16 and 15 residents at Mayo Clinic - Florida in the control and pandemic period, respectively, and 81 and 77 residents at Mayo Clinic - Rochester in the control and pandemic period, respectively.

Results: Only PGY 4 general surgery residents at Mayo Clinic - Rochester had a decrease in operative cases logged in the pandemic period (759 cases on average compared to 1010 cases, p = 0.005), with no other changes in operative cases logged noted.

Conclusions: While elective cases were postponed secondary to the COVID-19 pandemic for around 1 month in the spring of 2020, the decrease in elective cases did not greatly impact overall resident operative cases logged for residents in three general surgery residency programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsurg.2021.04.021DOI Listing
May 2021

Endarterectomy for Iliac Occlusive Disease during Kidney Transplantation: A Multicenter Experience.

Int J Angiol 2021 Jun 30;30(2):91-97. Epub 2020 Aug 30.

Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida.

Little is known about the surgical challenges and outcomes of kidney transplantation (KT) in the face of severe iliac occlusive disease (IOD). We aim to examine our institution's experience and outcomes compared with all KT patients. Retrospective review of our multi-institutional transplant database identified patients with IOD requiring vascular surgery involvement for iliac artery endarterectomy at time of KT from 2000 to 2018. Clinical data, imaging studies, and surgical outcomes of 22 consecutive patients were reviewed. Our primary end-point was allograft survival. Secondary end-points included mortality and perioperative complications. A total of 6,757 KT were performed at our three sites (Florida, Arizona, and Minnesota); there were 22 (0.32%) patients receiving a KT with concomitant IOD requiring iliac artery endarterectomy. Mean patient age was 61.45 ± 7 years. There were 13 (59.1%) male patients. The most common etiology of renal failure was diabetic nephropathy in 10 patients (45.5%) followed by a combination of hypertensive/diabetic nephropathy in five patients (22.7%), and hypertensive nephrosclerosis in three patients (13.6%). The majority (  = 16, 72.7%) of patients received renal allografts from deceased donors and six (27.3%) were recipients from living donors. Mean time from dialysis to transplantation was 2.9 ± 2.9 years. Mean follow-up was 3.5 ± 2.5 years. Mean length of hospital stay was 6.3 ± 4.3 days (range: 3-18 days). Graft loss within 90 days occurred in two (9.1%) patients, one due to renal vein thrombosis and another due to acute tubular necrosis. Overall allograft survival was 90.1% at 1-year and 86.4% at 3-year follow-up. Overall mortality occurred in 6 (27.3%) patients. Perioperative complications (Clavien-Dindo Grade 2-4) occurred in 13 (59.1%) patients, including 10 (45.5%) with acute blood loss anemia requiring transfusion, 2 (9.1%) reoperations for hematoma evacuation, 1 (4.5%) ischemic colitis requiring total abdominal colectomy, and 1 (4.5%) renal vein thrombosis requiring nephrectomy. IOD patients selected for KT are not common and although challenging, they have similar outcomes to our standard KT patients. The 1- and 3-year allograft survivals were 90.1 and 86.4% versus 96.0 and 90.3% in the general KT patient population. With these excellent outcomes, we recommend expanding the criteria for KT to include patients with IOD with prior vascular surgery consultation to prevent progression of IOD or prevention of wait list removal in select patients who are otherwise good candidates for KT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1714752DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8159600PMC
June 2021

Renal artery revascularization using the inferior mesenteric artery as an inflow source with a long-term follow-up.

J Vasc Surg Cases Innov Tech 2021 Jun 2;7(2):223-225. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, Mayo Clinic Florida, Jacksonville, Fla.

This case describes a 72-year-old woman with a history of chronic kidney disease stage III presented with bilateral renal artery stenosis with a progressively atrophied right kidney. At the time of surgery, the atrophied kidney was nonfunctional. Therefore, the patient underwent unilateral renal artery revascularization via the inferior mesenteric artery as an inflow. A 7-year follow-up revealed improvement in the kidney function and stabilization of blood pressure, which was controlled with less number of antihypertensive medications. In brief, open surgical correction of the renal artery stenosis using the inferior mesenteric artery as an inflow source can retrieve renal function in selected hypertensive patients with ischemic nephropathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvscit.2021.02.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8095123PMC
June 2021

Women have similar mortality but higher morbidity than men after elective endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

J Vasc Surg 2021 08 4;74(2):451-458.e1. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Fla.

Objective: Sex disparities regarding outcomes for women after open and endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair have been well-documented. The purpose of this study was to review whether these disparities were also present at our institution for elective endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) and whether specific factors predispose female patients to negative outcomes.

Methods: All elective EVARs were identified from our three sites (Florida, Minnesota, and Arizona) from 2000 to 2018. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality and three-year mortality. Secondary outcomes included complications requiring return to the operating room, length of hospitalization (LOH), intensive care unit (ICU) days, and location of discharge after hospitalization. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess for the risk of complications.

Results: There were 1986 EVARs; 1754 (88.3%) were performed in male and 232 (11.7%) in female patients. Female patients were older (79 years [interquartile range (IQR), 72-83 years] vs 76 years [IQR, 70-81 years]; P < .001), had a lower body mass index (median, 26.1 kg/m [IQR, 22.1-31.0 kg/m] vs 28.3 kg/m [IQR, 25.3-31.6 kg/m]; P < .001 and hematocrit (median, 37.6% [IQR, 33.4%-40.6%] vs 39.4% [IQR, 35.6%-42.6%]; P < .001) and had higher glomerular filtration rate (median, 84.4 mL/min per 1.73m [IQR, 62.3-103 mL/min/1.73 m] vs 51.1 mL/min/1.73 m [IQR, 41.8-60.8 mL/min/1.73 m]; P < .001. Female patients were also more likely to be active smokers (15.3% vs 13.1%; P < .001) and have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (24.7% vs 15.3%; P = .001). They were less likely to have coronary artery disease (31.6% vs 45.6%; P < .001). Aneurysms in women were slightly smaller in size (median, 54 mm [IQR, 50.0-58.0 mm] vs 55 mm [IQR, 51.0-60.0 mm]; P = .004). In-hospital mortality and mortality at the 3-year follow-up was not significant between female and male patients (0.86% vs 0.17%; P = .11 and 38.4% vs 36.2%; P = .57). However, female patients returned to the operating room with a greater frequency than male patients (3.9% vs 1.4%; P = .011). LOH (mean, 3.4 ± 3.8 days vs 2.5 ± 2.4 days; P < .001) and ICU days (mean, 0.3 ± 2.0 days vs 0.1 ± 0.5 days; P < .001) were longer for female patients. After hospitalization, female patients were discharged to rehabilitation facilities in greater proportion (12.7% vs 3.1%; P < .001) than their male counterparts. On multivariable analysis, female sex was associated with a return to the operating room (odds ratio, 6.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-3.5; P = .02), longer LOH (Coef 4.0; 95% CI, 1.0-2.5; P = .00007), more ICU days (Coef 2.8; 95% CI, 1.1-3.0; P = .005), and a greater likelihood of posthospitalization rehabilitation facility placement (odds ratio, 5.8; 95% CI, 1.5-2.4; P = .0001).

Conclusions: Our three-site, single-institution data support sex disparities to the detriment of female patients regarding return to the operating room after EVAR, LOH, ICU days, and discharge to rehabilitation facility. However, we found no differences for in-hospital or 3-year mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2020.12.095DOI Listing
August 2021

Upper extremity reconstruction following open surgical repair of giant arteriovenous fistula aneurysm: clinical case and systematic review of the literature.

Acta Biomed 2020 11 12;91(4):e2020093. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Division of Plastic Surgery and Robert D. and Patricia E. Kern Center for the Science of Health Care Delivery, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida.

Background: Nearly 30% of arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) located in the upper extremity for hemodialysis access result in short- and long-term adverse effects, such as rupture, necessitating emergent surgical management and extensive soft-tissue reconstruction. With this systematic review, we aimed to compile all reported open surgical techniques used for complicated AVF repair in the upper extremity, the respective soft-tissue reconstructive outcomes, and vascular patency rates at final follow-up.

Methods: Using Ovid Medline/PubMed databases, we conducted a review of the English-language literature on AVF aneurysm surgical management in the upper extremity, filtered for relevance to open surgical technique and outcomes in vascular patency after aneurysmal repair at long-term follow-up (≥6 months postoperatively). We include a detailed case of surgical removal of a giant AVF aneurysm and subsequent flap elevation and reconstruction of the upper extremity.

Results: Of 150 articles found in the initial search, 19 (from 2010-2017) met inclusion criteria. From the reviewed studies, 675 patients underwent open surgical repair of AVF aneurysm in the upper extremity. Surgical approaches included partial-to-full aneurysm excision, interposition graft, tubularized extracellular matrix, sutured and stapled aneurysmorrhaphy, and stent graft. Rates of vascular patency at repair site ranged from 47% to 100%, with a pooled average of 78% at 6 months or longer postoperatively.

Conclusions: For plastic and hand surgeons, aneurysmal ligation and excision is feasible even in severe cases and is associated with overall good vascular and soft-tissue reconstructive outcomes in the upper extremity.

Level Of Evidence: III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23750/abm.v91i4.8472DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7927515PMC
November 2020

Clinical description & molecular modeling of novel MAX pathogenic variant causing pheochromocytoma in family, supports paternal parent-of-origin effect.

Cancer Genet 2021 04 19;252-253:107-110. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Atwal Clinic: Genomic & Personalized Medicine, Palm Beach, FL 33480, USA. Electronic address:

The titular member of the MAX network of proteins, MYC-associated factor X (MAX), serves an important regulatory function in transcription of E-box genes associated with cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Wild type MAX dimerizes with both MYC and MAD, both of which are members of the MAX network, and can promote or repress cell functions as needed. However, pathogenic variants in MAX are known to upset this balance, leading to uncontrolled oncogenic activity and disease phenotypes such as paragangliomas and pheochromocytomas. We report a 58-year-old male and his 32-year-old daughter, both of which have a history of pheochromocytoma and the unique nonsense MAX variant c.271C>T (p.Q91X). These individuals were diagnosed with pheochromocytomas in their early twenties that were later removed through corrective surgery. The father now presents with recurrent symptoms of hypertension, hyperhidrosis, and headaches, which accompany new pheochromocytomas of his remaining adrenal gland. Pathogenicity of this MAX variant is proven through molecular modeling. The case of this father-daughter pair supports both heritability of pheochromocytoma and the paternal parent-of-origin effect for MAX pathogenic variants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cancergen.2021.01.004DOI Listing
April 2021

Results of surgical resection of carotid body tumors: A twenty-year experience.

Rare Tumors 2020 22;12:2036361320982813. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Division of Vascular Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USA.

This study examines whether surgical resection of carotid body tumors (CBTs) is acceptable in light of potential significant neurologic complications. This IRB-approved retrospective study analyzed data from 24 patients undergoing surgical treatment for CBTs between April 1998 and April 2017 at Mayo Clinic (Florida campus only). For patients who underwent multiple CBT resections, only data from the first surgery was used in this analysis. CBT resection occurred in 24 patients with the following demographics: fourteen patients (58.3%) were female, median age was 56.5 years, median BMI was 29. A prior history of neoplasm was found in ten patients (41.7%). A known family history of paraganglioma was present in five patients (20.8%). Two patients were positive for succinate dehydrogenase mutation (8.3%). Multiple paragangliomas were present in seven patients (29.2%). There was nerve sacrifice in three patients (12.5%) during resection. Carotid artery reconstruction and patch angioplasty occurred in one patient (4.2%). Complete resection occurred in 24 patients (100.0%). Postoperatively, one patient (4.2%) suffered stroke. No mortalities occurred within or beyond 30 days of surgery. Persistent cranial nerve injury occurred in two patients (8.3%) with vocal cord paralysis. There was no recurrence of CBT through last follow-up. Five patients (20.8%) were diagnosed with other neoplasms after resection, including basal cell carcinoma, contralateral carotid body tumor, glomus vagale, and glomus jugulare. There was 100% survival at 1 year in patients followed for that time ( = 17). Surgical treatment remains the first-line curative treatment to relieve symptoms and ensure non-recurrence. While acceptable, neurologic complications are significant and therefore detailed preoperative informed consent is mandatory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2036361320982813DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7758655PMC
December 2020

Higher Risk for Reintervention in Patients after Stenting for Radiation-Induced Internal Carotid Artery Stenosis: A Single-Center Analysis and Systematic Review.

Ann Vasc Surg 2021 May 26;73:1-14. Epub 2020 Dec 26.

Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL.

Background: This study aimed to review short- and long-term outcomes of all carotid artery stenting (CAS) in patients with radiation-induced (RI) internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis compared with patients with atherosclerotic stenosis (AS).

Methods: We performed a single-center, multisite case-control study of transfemoral carotid artery intervention in patients stented for RI or AS. Cases of stented RI carotid arteries were identified using a CAS database covering January 2000 to December 2019. These patients were randomly matched 2:1 with stented patients because of AS by age, sex, and year of CAS. A conditional logistic regression model was performed to estimate the odds of reintervention in the RI group. Finally, a systematic review was performed to assess the outcomes of RI stenosis treated with CAS.

Results: There were 120 CAS in 113 patients because of RI ICA stenosis. Eighty-nine patients (78.8%) were male, and 68 patients (60.2%) were symptomatic. The reasons for radiation included most commonly treatment for diverse malignancies of the head and neck in 109 patients (96.5%). The mean radiation dose was 58.9 ± 15.6 Gy, and the time from radiation to CAS was 175.3 ± 140.4 months. Symptoms included 31 transient ischemic attacks (TIAs), 21 strokes (7 acute and 14 subacute), and 17 amaurosis fugax. The mean National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale in acute strokes was 8.7 ± 11.2. In asymptomatic patients, the indication for CAS was high-grade stenosis determined by duplex ultrasound. All CAS were successfully completed. Reinterventions were more frequent in the RI ICA stenosis cohort compared with the AS cohort (10.1% vs. 1.4%). Reinterventions occurred in 14 vessels, and causes for reintervention were restenosis in 12 followed by TIA/stroke in two vessels. On conditional regression modeling, patients with RI ICA stenosis were at a higher risk for reintervention (odds ratio = 7.1, 95% confidence interval = 2.1-32.8; P = 0.004). The mean follow-up was 33.7 ± 36.9 months, and the mortality across groups was no different (P = 0.12).

Conclusions: In our single-center, multisite cohort study, patients who underwent CAS for RI ICA stenosis experienced a higher rate of restenosis and a higher number of reinterventions compared with CAS for AS. Although CAS is safe and effective for this RI ICA stenosis cohort, further data are needed to reduce the risk of restenosis, and close patient surveillance is warranted. In our systematic review, CAS was considered an excellent alternative option for the treatment of patients with RI ICA stenosis. However, careful patient selection is warranted because of the increased risk of restenosis on long-term follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2020.11.027DOI Listing
May 2021

Telemedicine in vascular surgery during the coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic: A multisite healthcare system experience.

J Vasc Surg 2021 07 16;74(1):1-4. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Center for Connected Care, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Fla; Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Fla.

Objective: To assess the introduction of telemedicine as an alternative to the traditional face-to-face encounters with vascular surgery patients in the era of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.

Methods: A retrospective review of prospectively collected data on face-to-face and telemedicine interactions was conducted at a multisite health care system from January to August 2020 in vascular surgery patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. The end point is direct patient satisfaction comparison between face-to-face and telemedicine encounters/interactions prior and during the pandemic.

Results: There were 6262 patient encounters from January 1, 2020, to August 6, 2020. Of the total encounters, 790 (12.6%) were via telemedicine, which were initiated on March 11, 2020, after the World Health Organization's declaration of the COVID-19 pandemic. These telemedicine encounters were readily adopted and embraced by both the providers and patients and remain popular as an option to patients for all types of visits. Of these patients, 78.7% rated their overall health care experience during face-to-face encounters as very good and 80.6% of patients rated their health care experience during telemedicine encounters as very good (P = .78).

Conclusions: Although the COVID-19 pandemic has produced unprecedented consequences to the practice of medicine and specifically of vascular surgery, our multisite health care system has been able to swiftly adapt and adopt telemedicine technologies for the care of our complex patients. Most important, the high quality of patient-reported satisfaction and health care experience has remained unchanged.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2020.12.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7738278PMC
July 2021

A complicated course for an infected endovascular stent graft.

J Vasc Surg Cases Innov Tech 2020 Dec 2;6(4):690-693. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Fla.

The management of an infected endovascular aortic stent graft can be complex and morbid. Therefore, caution should be exercised before an endovascular approach is considered in patients presenting with a saccular aneurysm who are younger than 65 years and without risk factors for this may indicate a mycotic aneurysm. An open approach with consideration of aneurysm excision should be entertained to prevent an endovascular implantation in the setting of an infected aorta. We report a case of endovascular aortic stent graft infection that led to complex surgical management and prolonged postoperative care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvscit.2020.08.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7691535PMC
December 2020

Prevalence of Intracranial Aneurysms in Patients with Infrarenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: A Multicenter Experience.

Int J Angiol 2020 Dec 27;29(4):229-236. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida.

Prior studies suggest high prevalence of intracranial aneurysms (IA) in patients with infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). We reviewed our multicenter experience in clinical detection/treatment of IAs in AAA patients and estimated the risk of IA in patients with AAA relative to patients without AAA. We reviewed cases of vascular surgery infrarenal AAA repairs at three Mayo Clinic sites from January 1998 to December 2018. Concurrent controls were randomly matched in a 1:1 ratio by age, sex, smoking history, and head imaging characteristics. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios. We reviewed 2,300 infrarenal AAA repairs. Mean size of AAA at repair was 56.9 ± 11.4 mm; mean age at repair, 75.8 ± 8.0 years. 87.5% of the cases (  = 2014) were men. Head imaging was available in 421 patients. Thirty-seven patients were found to have 45 IAs for a prevalence of 8.8%. Mean size of IA was 4.6 ± 3.5 mm; mean age at IA detection, 72.0 ± 10.8 years. Thirty (81%) out of 37 patients were men. Six patients underwent treatment for IA: four for ruptured IAs and two for unruptured IAs. All were diagnosed before AAA repair. Treatment included five clippings and one coil-assisted stenting. Time from IA diagnosis to AAA repair was 16.4 ± 11.0 years. Two of these patients presented with ruptured AAA, one with successful repair and a second one that resulted in death. Odds of IA were higher for patients with AAA versus those without AAA (8.8% [37/421] vs. 3.1% [13/421]; OR 3.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.62-6.27,  < 0.001). Co-prevalence of IA among patients with AAA was 8.8% and is more than three times the rate seen in patients without AAA. All IAs were diagnosed prior to AAA repair. Surveillance for AAA after IA treatment could have prevented two AAA ruptures and one death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1713139DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7690990PMC
December 2020

A multi-institutional review of endovenous thermal ablation of the saphenous vein finds male sex and use of anticoagulation are predictors of long-term failure.

Phlebology 2021 May 11;36(4):283-289. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USA.

Background: To review long-term outcomes and saphenous vein (SV) occlusion rate after endovenous ablation (EVA) for symptomatic varicose veins.

Methods: A review of our EVA database (1998-2018) with at least 3-years of clinical and sonographic follow-up. The primary end point was SV closure rate.

Results: 542 limbs were evaluated. 358 limbs had radiofrequency and 323 limbs had laser ablations; 542 great saphenous veins (GSV), 106 small saphenous veins (SSV) and 33 anterior accessory saphenous veins (AASV) were treated. Follow-up was 5.6 ± 2.3 years; 508 (74.6%) veins were occluded, 53 (7.8%) partially occluded and 120 (17.6%) were patent. On multivariable Cox regression analysis, male sex (HR 1.6, 95% CI [0.46-018], p = 0.012) and use anticoagulation (HR 2.0, 95% CI [0.69-0.34], p = 0.044) were predictors of long-term failure. On Kaplan-Meier curve, we had an 86.3% occlusion rate.

Conclusion: Our experience revealed a 5-year closure rate of 86.3%. Ablations have satisfactory occlusion rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0268355520972923DOI Listing
May 2021

Hybrid Open-Endovascular Repair in a Patient With Giant Contained Aortic Aneurysm Rupture.

Vasc Endovascular Surg 2020 Nov 7;54(8):725-728. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, Mayo Clinic Florida, Jacksonville, FL, USA.

Contained rupture of an aortic aneurysm is a high-mortality condition that requires immediate repair. Open repair has been the gold standard; however, endovascular and hybrid open-endovascular repair techniques have also emerged as less invasive solutions to this vascular emergency. Here. we present a patient with a giant 14.0 cm contained rupture of a Thoracic aortic aneurysm and 7.4 cm juxtarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm who was successfully treated with hybrid open-endovascular repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1538574420937557DOI Listing
November 2020

Female Sex is a Marker for Higher Morbidity and Mortality after Elective Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair: A National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Analysis.

Ann Vasc Surg 2020 Nov 26;69:1-8. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Health Sciences Research, Robert D. and Patricia E. Kern Center for Science of Health Care Delivery Surgical Outcomes Program, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

Background: The adverse gender disparities for women after open abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair have been well documented. The purpose of this study is to review whether these disparities extend to elective endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR).

Methods: Nonruptured, elective AAA was identified from the American College of Surgeons' National Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) Targeted Participant Use File for EVAR from 2012 to 2017. The primary outcome was mortality. Secondary outcomes included lower extremity ischemia requiring intervention (LEIRI) and prolonged operative time (>120 min). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess the risk of mortality, LEIRI, and prolonged operative time among women compared with men.

Results: There were 14,019 EVAR procedures captured. A total of 3,367 were included for analysis after limiting to nonruptured, elective cases for diagnosis of AAA with a Current Procedural Terminology procedure code for EVAR. Of those, 2,764 (82.1%) were performed in men and 603 (17.9%) in women. Female patients were older (median [interquartile range (IQR)] 77 years [70-82] versus 74 years [68-80], P < 0.001), more likely to smoke (35.5% versus 29.6%, P = 0.005), and less likely to have diabetes (12.4% versus 17.8%, P = 0.001). Women had slightly smaller AAA size (median [IQR] 5.4 cm [5.0-5.9] versus 5.5 cm [5.1-6.0], P < 0.001) and were more likely to have prior abdominal operations (35.3% versus 23.1%, P < 0.001). The operative time was longer among women (median 114 min. [85-150] versus 105 min. [82-140], P < 0.001). Postoperatively, mortality was higher in female patients (1.8% versus 0.9%, P = 0.036), LEIRI occurred in higher proportion among female patients (2.7% versus 1.2%, P = 0.009), and their hospital stay was also longer (median 2 days [1-3] versus 1 day [1-2] days, P < 0.001). On multivariable logistic regression analysis, hematocrit level <30 vol% versus ≥30 vol% (odds ratio (OR) 5.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.1-14.5, P < 0.001) was associated with increased mortality. Although not statistically significant, there was also evidence that the odds of mortality were also greater among women (OR 2.0, 95% CI 0.98-4.2, P = 0.06). LEIRI was more likely among women (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.9, P = 0.015) and patients with a smoking history (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.0-3.2, P = 0.044). Finally, odds of prolonged operative time were higher among women (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2-1.7, P < 0.001) and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.0-1.5, P = 0.033) or partial/total dependent functional status (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.3-3.7, P = 0.003).

Conclusions: Although EVAR has improved overall surgical AAA outcomes, the NSQIP data in elective EVAR demonstrate continued sex disparities in morbidity and mortality after AAA surgical repair to the detriment of female patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2020.06.031DOI Listing
November 2020

Higher Long-Term Mortality with Carotid Artery Stenting in Asymptomatic Male Compared with Female Patients in the Southeastern Vascular Study Group.

Ann Vasc Surg 2020 Jul 3;66:390-399. Epub 2020 Feb 3.

Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL.

Background: To review the sex differences among symptomatic and asymptomatic patients treated with carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and carotid artery stenting (CAS) in the Southeastern Vascular Study Group (SEVSG), a regional quality group of the Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI).

Methods: All cases reported by the SEVSG members of symptomatic and asymptomatic patients were included in this retrospective review of CEA and CAS. Primary end point was 3-year survival difference between male and female patients. Secondary end points included in-hospital myocardial infarction (MI), transient ischemic attack (TIA)/stroke, and mortality differences between symptomatic and asymptomatic male and female patients. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to assess 3-year survival differences.

Results: There were 8,303 CEA and 1,876 CAS procedures performed in 29 centers from January 2011 to December 2018. From those, 4,650 (56.0%) and 938 (50.1%) were asymptomatic CEA and CAS, respectively. There were 2,760 (59.4%) male patients in the asymptomatic CEA and 597 (63.9%) in the asymptomatic CAS groups. After CEA, the rates of in-hospital MI (P = 0.034), TIA/stroke (P < 0.001), and death (P < 0.001) were significantly higher in symptomatic patients. MIs were more frequent in females with asymptomatic disease (P = 0.041). After CAS, the rate of TIA/stroke was higher in symptomatic patients (P = 0.030). There were no differences according to sex in the CAS group. On follow-up, asymptomatic male patients treated with CAS had a higher 3-year all-cause mortality compared with their female counterparts (7.0% vs. 1.8%; P = 0.015). On multivariable Cox regression analysis, male sex (HR = 2.63 [95% CI = 1.058-6.536]; P = 0.038) and lower hemoglobin levels (HR = 0.72 [95% CI = 0.597-0.857]; P < 0.001) were predictors of death in asymptomatic male patients treated with CAS.

Conclusions: In our SEVSG region, postoperative MIs, TIA/stroke, and deaths were higher in symptomatic CEA patients. MIs were more frequent in asymptomatic CEA females. Postoperative TIA/stroke was more frequent in symptomatic CAS patients. After CAS, asymptomatic male patients had higher 3-year all-cause mortality than female patients. On multivariable Cox regression analysis, male sex and lower hemoglobin levels were predictors of death in these asymptomatic male patients treated with CAS. Long-term mortality risk in asymptomatic males should be considered before offering CAS. Further national VQI analysis of our asymptomatic and symptomatic male and female patients treated with CEA and CAS would be warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2020.01.090DOI Listing
July 2020

Vasovagal-Mediated Emergency From a Left Internal Carotid Aneurysm.

Neurohospitalist 2020 Jan 7;10(1):69-70. Epub 2019 Apr 7.

Department of Critical Care, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1941874419840879DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6900657PMC
January 2020

Patient and institutional factors associated with postoperative opioid prescribing after common vascular procedures.

J Vasc Surg 2020 04 10;71(4):1347-1356.e11. Epub 2019 Sep 10.

Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Electronic address:

Objective: Overprescription of postoperative opioid medication is a major contributor to the opioid abuse epidemic in the United States. Research into prescribing practices has suggested that patients be limited to 7 days or <200 morphine milligram equivalents (MME) after surgical procedures. Our aim was to identify patient or institutional factors associated with increased opioid prescriptions.

Methods: Opioid naive patients from an integrated health system undergoing one of nine surgical and endovascular procedures tracked within the Vascular Quality Initiative from 2015 to 2017 were identified and matched to their discharge and refill opioid prescriptions. Discharge opioid prescriptions were converted to MME. The primary outcome was discharge MME >200, and secondary outcomes were procedure-specific top-quartile opioid prescription and medication refills. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess patient and perioperative factors associated with each outcome.

Results: Among 1546 opioid naive patients, 739 (48%) received a discharge opioid prescription; median MME was 0 (interquartile range, 0-150), and 349 (23%) had >200 MME. Among those with a discharge prescription, median MME was 180 (interquartile range, 150-300). MME varied by procedure (P < .001), with highest MME after suprainguinal bypass (median, 225) and infrainguinal bypass (200) and lowest MME after carotid artery stenting, carotid endarterectomy, and percutaneous peripheral vascular intervention (all medians of 0). On multivariable analysis, factors associated with MME >200 included younger patient age (<65 vs ≥ 80 years; odds ratio [OR], 3.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9-4.6; P < .001), treating institution B vs A (OR, 3.50; 95% CI, 2.42-5.07; P < .001) and C vs A (OR, 3.90; 95% CI, 2.66-5.74; P < .001), procedure-specific top-quartile length of stay (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.01-2.08; P = .047), and prior tobacco use (OR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.07-2.37; P = .02). The same variables along with current tobacco use and lack of preoperative aspirin were associated with procedure-specific top-quartile MME at discharge. Chronic beta-blocker use was protective of top-quartile MME. Based on the observed variability, an institutional standard for opioid prescribing has been developed for standardization.

Conclusions: Opioid prescriptions at discharge vary with the invasiveness of vascular surgical procedures. Less than 25% of patients receive >200 MME. Variation by center represents a lack of standardization in prescribing practices and an opportunity for further improvement based on developed guidelines. Patient factors and procedure type can alert clinicians to patients at risk of higher than recommended MME.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2019.05.068DOI Listing
April 2020

Complex management of acute superior mesenteric venous thrombosis in the setting of metastatic ovarian cancer.

Gynecol Oncol Rep 2019 Aug 26;29:85-88. Epub 2019 Jul 26.

Department of Suergery, Division of Vascular Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Florida, USA.

•Superior mesenteric vein thrombosis (SMVT) is rare but seen in patients with hypercoagulable states.•Prevention of mortality in patients with SMVT requires immediate diagnosis and complex management.•A hierarchical approach to treatment progresses to more aggressive treatment as needed.•Supportive care, medication, and endovascular and/or surgical interventions are available management options.•In patients with underlying conditions, long-term treatment such as anticoagulation must also be initiated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gore.2019.07.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6698922PMC
August 2019

The Role of Regional versus General Anesthesia on Arteriovenous Fistula and Graft Outcomes: A Single-Institution Experience and Literature Review.

Ann Vasc Surg 2020 Jan 2;62:287-294. Epub 2019 Aug 2.

Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL.

Background: Multiple studies have demonstrated the benefits of creating arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) under regional anesthesia. This is most likely because of the avoidance of hemodynamic instability and stress response of general anesthesia, as well as the sympathectomy associated with brachial plexus blockade. As vein diameter is the major limiting factor for primary AVF creation and maturation, our aim is to investigate if the vasodilation that accompanies regional anesthesia leads to improved patency and maturation rate of autologous AVF and improved patency of arteriovenous graft (AVG) compared with those placed under general anesthesia.

Methods: This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board. A total of 238 patients who had either an AVF or an AVG placed at the Mayo Clinic, Florida, between 2012 and 2017 were analyzed. Demographics, access type, preoperative vein diameter, anesthesia type, change of plan after regional versus general anesthesia, and outcomes were assessed. All statistical tests were 2 sided, with the alpha level set at 0.05 for statistical significance.

Results: Among 238 patients, 120 (50.4%) had regional anesthesia. Differences between the 2 groups in risk factors and 30-day or long-term outcomes (failure, abandonment, or reoperation) were not statistically significant. Of the accesses placed under general anesthesia, 58.5% were abandoned compared with 45.2% of those placed under regional anesthesia. Owing to loss of patency, 25.8% of accesses placed under general anesthesia were abandoned compared with 19.2% of those placed under regional anesthesia. Two-month failure was higher in the general anesthesia group than that in the regional anesthesia group (P = 0.076). After preoperative vein mapping, 22 patients were originally intended to have an AVG placed under regional anesthesia. After brachial plexus blockade, 9 of these patients (41%) were successfully switched to AVF, while the other 13 followed the original surgical plan and received an AVG. Of these, 0 failed and 0 were abandoned because of loss of patency.

Conclusions: This study showed possible improvements in failure rates for vascular accesses placed under regional anesthesia compared with those placed under general anesthesia. In addition, we showed an impact of regional anesthesia on the surgical plan by transitioning from a planned AVG to an AVF, intraoperatively. Giving patients with originally inadequate vein diameter the chance to have the preferred hemodialysis access method by simply switching anesthesia type could reduce the number of grafts placed in favor of fistulas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2019.05.016DOI Listing
January 2020

Complex Repair of Juxtarenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm with an Anatomical Variant of the Renal Arteries.

Ann Vasc Surg 2019 Jul 22;58:377.e5-377.e8. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Division of Vascular Surgery, Mayo Clinic Florida, Jacksonville, FL.

Hybrid repair involves both open and endovascular interventions. This technique has been increasingly used in treating complex aortic aneurysms as an alternative to conventional open repairs, mainly because of the avoidance of aortic cross-clamping and the associated increased ischemia time to the viscera. We report a hybrid repair of a juxtarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm complicated by a nonstandard right renal artery originating just proximal to the aortic bifurcation in the setting of a nonfunctional left kidney.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2018.12.076DOI Listing
July 2019

What to expect with major vascular reconstruction during Whipple procedures: a single institution experience and literature review.

J Gastrointest Oncol 2019 Feb;10(1):95-102

Division of Vascular Surgery, Mayo Clinic Florida, Jacksonville, FL, USA.

Background: Major vascular reconstruction during a pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD), also known as a Whipple procedure, leads to controversial postoperative outcomes compared to conventional Whipple. Discussion with the patient regarding postoperative expectations is a crucial component of holistic surgical healthcare. The aim of this study was to report our 8-year experience of Whipple procedures involving vascular reconstruction and to review relevant literature to further evaluate expectant outcomes, therefore leading to more accurate discussion.

Methods: A retrospective review of patients undergoing Whipple procedures from January 2010, through December 2017 was performed. Patch, graft, and primary anastomosis during Whipple procedures were considered major vascular reconstruction. Literature on the current understanding of the outcomes associated with vascular reconstruction during Whipple procedures was reviewed.

Results: Twenty-nine from a total of 405 patients that met inclusion criteria had a Whipple procedure that involved major vascular reconstruction. Twelve patients were male and 17 were female (mean age, 65.2 years). Median hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) stay [range] of patients with vascular reconstruction was 12 [5-92] days and 3 [0-59] days, respectively. Thirty-day survival and 1-year survival of patients with vascular reconstruction was 93.1% and 55.2%, respectively, compared to non-vascular reconstruction patients 96.0% and 83.5%, respectively (P=0.35, P<0.001). Ninety-day readmission for vascular reconstruction patients was 31.0% compared to 14.6% in non-vascular reconstruction patients (P=0.03). The 1-year survival of those who had patch reconstruction, graft reconstruction, and primary anastomosis was 50.0%, 62.5%, 53.8%, respectively.

Conclusions: Compared to conventional Whipple procedures, those requiring major vascular reconstruction are associated with decreased survival. When vascular reconstruction is a valid option patients should be well aware of the associated outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jgo.2018.10.03DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6351303PMC
February 2019

Durability of Carotid Endarterectomy with Bovine Pericardial Patch.

Ann Vasc Surg 2018 Jul 24;50:218-224. Epub 2018 Feb 24.

Division of Vascular Surgery, Mayo Clinic Florida, Jacksonville, FL.

Background: Multiple studies have shown that patch angioplasty after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) reduces the risk of stroke and restenosis when compared with primary closure. Biological, synthetic, or vein patches have been traditionally used in CEA. This article reports the early and long-term outcomes of bovine pericardium (BP) for patch angioplasty in CEA.

Methods: A retrospective, consecutive analysis of 874 patients who underwent CEA during the past 17 years at Mayo Clinic, Florida, was performed. BP patch (BPP) was used in 680 patients. Other CEA techniques were used in 194 patients (standard without patch, 78; standard with Dacron, 74; standard with vein patch, 16; and other techniques: bypasses, 26). We defined group 1 as those who underwent BPP angioplasty and group 2 as those who underwent all other techniques. Early and late clinical outcomes and patch-related complications (restenosis, infection, and hematoma) were recorded and analyzed.

Results: Median follow-up for the entire series was 39.6 months. There were no statistically significant differences in 30-day mortality and morbidity between the 2 groups, except that BP group has less 30-day stroke (0.1%, 1 of 680) versus other techniques (1.5%, 3 of 194, P = 0.03). Thirty-day postoperative mortality rate was 0.1% (1 of 680) in BPP group and 1.0% (2 of 194) in other technique group (P = 0.13). No statistically significant difference was noted in 30-day postoperative major complications (transient ischemic attack [TIA], wound infection, hematoma requiring surgical evacuation, and nerve injury) between the 2 groups. Ten-year freedom from stroke/TIA were 97.8% in the BP group compared with 98.5% in the other group (P = 0.86). Ten-year freedom from restenosis was also similar between groups (89.0% BP vs. 90.4% others, P = 0.69). Ten-year survival rate was 38.4% in BP group and 45.0% in other technique group, and this was statistically significant on univariate analysis only.

Conclusions: CEA with BP angioplasty has excellent early and late outcomes with minor morbidity and mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2017.11.062DOI Listing
July 2018

Idiopathic internal mammary artery aneurysm in the setting of aberrant right subclavian artery.

J Vasc Surg Cases Innov Tech 2017 Dec 18;3(4):251-253. Epub 2017 Dec 18.

Division of Vascular Surgery, Mayo Clinic Florida, Jacksonville, Fla.

Aneurysms of the internal mammary artery are extremely rare. Immediate treatment is necessary because of the high risk of rupture that can be life-threatening. Here we describe a case of idiopathic internal mammary artery aneurysm in a 54-year-old woman in the setting of aberrant right subclavian artery. The aneurysm was successfully treated with coil embolization without complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvscit.2017.10.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5765172PMC
December 2017

Long-term results of aortouniiliac stent grafts for the endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

Ann Vasc Surg 2014 Jul 8;28(5):1258-65. Epub 2014 Feb 8.

Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL.

Background: Long-term follow-up of patients with aortouniiliac (AUI) grafts is lacking in the current literature. The purpose of this study was to review the outcomes of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) using commercially available AUI devices with femorofemoral bypass in patients whose aortoiliac anatomy was unfavorable for bifurcated repair.

Methods: A retrospective review of 35 patients from September 2000 to February 2012, who underwent EVAR with commercially manufactured AUI devices, was performed. These comprised 35 of 372 (9.4%) patients who underwent EVAR during that period. Patient records were reviewed to determine morbidity, mortality, and survival after AUI repair. Patients were followed at 1-, 3-, 6-, and 12-month intervals with computed tomography (CT) scans during each visit. Median follow-up was 40 months (range: 2-135 months).

Results: Median age at surgery was 76 years (range: 60-93). The median preoperative aneurysm diameter was 57 mm (range: 45-71) and the median postoperative diameter was 53 mm (range: 29-80). Two type II endoleaks occurred on 1-month CT, whereas 10 endoleaks (type I [3], II [6], and III [1]) occurred during follow-up after 1 month. Migration of the stent graft occurred in 9% (n=3). Secondary procedures were required in 26% (n=9), whereas tertiary procedures were required in 3% (n=1). One patient required treatment for thrombosis of the iliac extension and 2 required treatment for thrombosis of the femorofemoral component. Mortality over the follow-up period was 34% (n=12) with no deaths occurring within 30 days.

Conclusions: High-risk patients who present with aortoiliac anatomy unsuitable for bifurcated stent graft placement should be offered AUI graft placement as a potential alternative to open repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2013.12.026DOI Listing
July 2014

Aortoduodenal fistula after endograft repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm secondary to a retained guidewire.

J Vasc Surg 2012 Nov 6;56(5):1413-5. Epub 2012 Sep 6.

Division of Vascular Surgery, University of Tennessee, Memphis, Tenn 38120, USA.

Aortoduodenal fistula is a well-known complication of abdominal aortic aneurysm repair and has been described after endovascular repair. A unique complication of duodenal perforation by intentionally placed embolic material in the aneurysm sac is described. Intentional off-label use of material to promote aneurysm sac thrombosis should be avoided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2012.05.069DOI Listing
November 2012

Validation of a flexible endoscopy simulator.

Am J Surg 2005 Apr;189(4):497-500

Minimally Invasive Surgery Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Background: Virtual reality (VR) simulation is a rapidly proliferating adjunct of surgical training. Numerous devices have evolved as educational tools in a variety of fields. Whether these tools can be used for validation of physicians' skills has yet to be determined. The objective of this study was to determine whether the GI Mentor (Simbionix, Lod, Israel) flexible endoscopy simulator construct could distinguish experienced endoscopists from beginners.

Methods: Seventy-five surgical attendings, fellows, and residents were recruited for participation in the study. Two cohorts were used and these groups were selected from 2 separate scientific sessions. Participants completed a standardized questionnaire documenting their endoscopic training and experience. Physicians subsequently were designated as experienced or beginner after their endoscopic training and experience were evaluated. All participants completed 1 of 2 colonoscopic simulations. The GI Mentor objectively evaluated performance on the basis of programmed data points, including the time to reach the cecum, the percentage of mucosa visualized, the completed polypectomy rate, the percentage of time spent in clear view through the lumen, the percentage of time that the patient was in pain, and overall efficiency.

Results: In both simulations, experienced endoscopists were more efficient than beginners (.32%/s vs. .26%/s, P=.02; and .53%/s vs. .37%/s, P=.03) and achieved a greater polypectomy rate (78% vs. 43%, P=.03; and 87% vs. 48%, P=.01). Furthermore, experienced endoscopists visualized more of the colonic surface (86% vs. 82%, P=.02) and spent a greater proportion of the time in clear view of the lumen (55% vs. 47%, P=.05) than beginners completing the first simulation. In the second simulation, experienced participants reached the cecum more rapidly than beginners (175 vs. 262 s, P=.01).

Conclusions: The G1 Mentor VR colonoscopy construct appears valid. Significant performance differences were shown between the experienced and beginner cohorts. The beginner participants in this study were all physicians with some degree of endoscopic experience. Therefore, the G1 Mentor distinguished endoscopists of varying experience and exposure. Further validation studies are needed to evaluate the breadth of programs inherent to this simulator and to determine whether it may be used in the future for qualification and certification purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjsurg.2005.01.008DOI Listing
April 2005

A novel endolaparoscopic intragastric partitioning for treatment of morbid obesity.

Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 2004 Oct;14(5):243-6

Department of General Surgery, Minimally Invasive Surgery Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA.

Morbid obesity is a burgeoning health crisis. Significant morbidity is associated with the current gastric bypass, and, therefore, alternative surgical modalities are desired. A novel minimally invasive surgical technique, endoluminal gastric partitioning, is presented. Ten mongrel dogs underwent endolaparoscopic placement of intragastric mesh. Each circular prosthesis (Surgisis or prolene mesh) was 8 cm in diameter with a 1.5 cm central aperture. The mesh was passed transorally into the gastric lumen and secured with a laparoscopic, intragastric suturing resulting in a 30 to 50 mL proximal gastric reservoir. The operation was successfully completed in all 10 animals. Nine of 10 animals were healthy at the scheduled sacrifice date. In 2 dogs, the intragastric mesh was 100% adherent to the gastric mucosa after 7 days. Four of the final 5 dogs demonstrated some degree of mucosal adherence after 1 week. Endoluminal placement of intragastric mesh appears feasible and safe. Long-term studies are necessary to demonstrate the efficacy and long-term weight loss of this, or alternate intraluminal gastric partitioning techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00129689-200410000-00001DOI Listing
October 2004

Management of splenic abscess in a critically ill patient.

Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 2004 Apr;14(2):49-52

Department of General Surgery, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

Because of the increased number of immunocompromised patients within the general population, the incidence of splenic abscesses has increased over the last decade. This cohort of immune-deficient patients with splenic abscesses engenders a distinct evolution in the pathogenesis and microbiology of the disease process. Moreover, the morbidity and mortality rates for splenic abscesses are increased in this unique population. Clinically, these patients do not have a characteristic presentation. Diagnostically, computed tomography of the abdomen is the test of choice. Antibiotics and splenectomy remain the standard of care in most clinical settings. However, percutaneous drainage is reported with solitary and unilocular abscesses and in poor operative candidates. An unusual case of a patient with a splenic abscess awaiting heart transplantation is presented. This patient was successfully treated with percutaneous drainage and antibiotics. The literature regarding the presentation, diagnosis, pathogenesis, and treatment of splenic abscesses is reviewed as well.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00129689-200404000-00001DOI Listing
April 2004
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