Publications by authors named "Hossein Tajik"

40 Publications

Optimization and characterization of eco-friendly antimicrobial nanocellulose sheet prepared using carbon dots of white mulberry (Morus Alba L.).

J Sci Food Agric 2020 Dec 2. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Department of Food Hygiene and Quality Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

Background: Carbon dots (C-dots) with antimicrobial activity were synthesized from the white mulberry extract in order to fabricate anti-listeria nanopaper using bacterial nanocellulose (BNC). A highly dispersed synthesized C-dots with a size smaller than 10 nm (~4.9 nm) was impregnated into BNC by an ex-situ coating method and mechanical, morphological, UV-protectant, and antibacterial activity were assessed. Randomized response surface (RSM) methodology using central composite design was applied to investigate the optimized concentration of C-dots in the BNC membrane.

Results: An optimized nanopaper with C-dots at 530 g L concentration and impregnation time of 14 hr at 30 °C with significant antimicrobial activity on Listeria monocytogenes was designed. The addition of C-dots into BNC significantly increased ultimate tensile strength and decreased strain to break of BNC. A BNC sheet with high-efficient UV-blocking property was prepared by C-dots.

Conclusion: Based on the results, the designed nanopaper has an important capability for fabrication of antimicrobial/ UV-blocking sheets for food active packaging. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.10974DOI Listing
December 2020

Preparation of on-package halochromic freshness/spoilage nanocellulose label for the visual shelf life estimation of meat.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Dec 24;164:2632-2640. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Department of Food Hygiene and Quality Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

In this work, grape anthocyanins (GA) were embedded in bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) by ex-situ method to fabricate an easy-to-use colorimetric label. The label revealed visible color responses to the pH buffers (2-11). According to the color parameter results [L*, a*, b*, and total color difference (TCD)], the label also presented appropriate color stability during the 60-day storage. During the application in minced beef, the label was bright red on the 1st day of storage at 4 °C. In accordance with the meat quality parameters [TVB-N, total mesophilic count, and sensory attributes], the label turned into purplish-red color on the 3rd and 5th days of storage (medium freshness meat) and turned into blue on the 7th day, representing the spoilage state. All the mentioned color changes could be distinguished by naked eyes. A strong Pearson's correlation coefficient was obtained between the TCD values and meat quality parameters, confirming the capability of the pH-sensing label to correctly distinguish the fresh meat from the spoiled meat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.08.177DOI Listing
December 2020

CMC and CNF-based alizarin incorporated reversible pH-responsive color indicator films.

Carbohydr Polym 2020 Oct 12;246:116614. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Food Hygiene and Quality Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

Smart color-changing indicator films were prepared using two different types of cellulose (CMC and CNF) and pH-sensitive dye, alizarin. pH-responsive color indicator films were produced by ionization and deprotonation of hydroxyl groups of alizarin phenolic compounds. The X-ray diffraction pattern of the color indicator film showed a new weak diffraction peak at 2θ = 13°, indicating the semi-crystalline character of alizarin. The indicator film showed UV-vis light screening properties and radical scavenging activity with enhanced thermal stability. The indicator film showed a distinct color change of alizarin from yellow to purple in the pH range of 2-12. In addition, the color indicator film showed stable and reversible color changes even after repeated changes in environmental pH. The pH-responsive color indicator films are likely to be used as an acid or base gas sensor due to the rapid response and reversible color change to the pH change in the packaging environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2020.116614DOI Listing
October 2020

Preparation of antimicrobial/ultraviolet protective bacterial nanocellulose film with carbon dots synthesized from lactic acid bacteria.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Jul 30;155:216-225. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Department of Food Hygiene and Quality Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran. Electronic address:

Microbial biomass, as an environmentally friendly resource, has drawn a lot of attention as green biomaterials for production of unique and functionalized carbon dots (CDs). However, the hydrophilicity and high porosity drive bacterial nanocellulose as a suitable matrix for CDs with antimicrobial, photoluminescent and ultraviolet blocking features. For the first time, antimicrobial CDs were synthesized by hydrothermal method from cell-free supernatant of Lactobacillus acidophilus and characterized. Antimicrobial performance of CDs was examined on Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) and Listeria monocytogenes (Gram-positive). Additionally, the as-prepared CDs embedded by ex-situ method into nanocellulose in order to fabricate antimicrobial/ultraviolet protective nanopaper. The photoluminescent CDs with an average size of 2.8 nm and high-hydroxylated groups were synthesized. The CDs at 500 mg mL concentration had antibacterial activity towards both bacteria. Moreover, nanopaper displayed a fluorescence appearance under ultraviolet. Nanocellulose with CDs loading capacity of 71.74 ± 4.13 mg cm represented an appropriate stretchability and flexibility in comparison to nanocellulose. The CDs incorporated nanopaper also depicted greater ultraviolet-blocking specifications and inhibitory activity on Gram-positive bacterium than Gram-negative one. CDs can be used as a novel fluorescence antimicrobial/ultraviolet protective material in the nanocellulose film in order to develop an antimicrobial and forgery-proof packaging due to their fluorescence appearance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.03.230DOI Listing
July 2020

Development of an easy-to-use colorimetric pH label with starch and carrot anthocyanins for milk shelf life assessment.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Jun 5;153:240-247. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Chemo and Biosensors Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Jember, Jl. Kalimantan 37, Jember 68121, Indonesia.

An intelligent freshness indicator was developed by immobilizing anthocyanins of black carrot (ABC) within the starch matrix (total anthocyanins content of 10 mg/100 mL) to monitor freshness/spoilage of milk. The microstructural, spectral, swelling and solubility properties as well as color stability (as a function of time, temperature and light) of the indicator at different pHs were characterized. The incorporation of ABC did not change the swelling index and water solubility. The prepared label showed visible color changes as a function of pH and excellent color stability after one month storage at different conditions. The total color difference (TCD) value of the indicator corresponded to the pH, acidity, and microbial growth of the pasteurized milk. The Pearson correlation coefficient showed a high correlation between TCD and pH (R = -0.979), while a high and positive correlation between TCD and acidity as well as TMC (R = 0.983 and 0.968, respectively) was observed. The developed label can discriminate fresh milk form the milk entered into the initial (TCD: 7.8 after 24 h) and final (TCD: 34.8 after 48 h) steps of spoilage. The fabricated label opens a new perspective to use anthocyanins-incorporated biopolymers in the milk intelligent packaging as a simple and easy-to-use freshness indicator.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.03.014DOI Listing
June 2020

Design and preparation of antimicrobial meat wrapping nanopaper with bacterial cellulose and postbiotics of lactic acid bacteria.

Int J Food Microbiol 2020 May 11;321:108561. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Department of Food Hygiene and Quality Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

Lyophilized postbiotics of Lactobacillus plantarum was prepared and impregnated in bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) by ex-situ method to develop an antimicrobial ground meat wrapping nanopaper. The postbiotics incorporated BNC (P-BNC) films were optimized by response surface methodology and their antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes were examined. The BNC with postbiotics at 21.21% concentration and 28 min impregnation time was chosen as an optimized P-BNC film. The FTIR results confirmed the immobilization of postbiotics in BNC. The P-BNC film represented a significant reduction (~5 log cycles) in L.monocytogenes counts in ground meat at the end of the storage period (9 days at 4 °C). Meat wrapped by P-BNC film displayed a significant decrease in total mesophilic and psychrophiles count and TBA values than the controls. BNC can be considered as a proper carrier for development of antimicrobial film using postbiotics of LAB for food application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2020.108561DOI Listing
May 2020

Evaluation of dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in fish of the Caspian Sea.

MethodsX 2020 23;7:100803. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

Non-Communicable Diseases Research Center, Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences & Health Services, Sabzevar, Iran.

Dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) have toxic properties for humans. The innovation of this study was that for the first time in Iran, 12 DL-PCBs concentration in 5 fish species: , , , and , from 5 coastal areas of the Caspian Sea (125 samples), were investigated. DL-PCBs extraction was in accordance to USEPA method 1668 revision A and carry out by chromatography columns modified with silica gel. DL-PCBs concentration were measured by HRGC (Agilent 6890 Series, Agilent Technologies, USA) coupled with HRMS AutoSpec Ultima NT-HRGC/HRMS (Micromass, USA), equipped with the HP-5MS 30 m × 0.25 mm × 0.25 μm column (Agilent Technologies) and helium as carrier gas. The mean concentration of DL-PCBs in samples ranged 232 ± 16-1156 ± 14 pg/g fat, that was in accordance with the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives and European Standards. The highest concentration was in of Bandar Anzali, and lowest obtained in samples from Chalous. However, based on fish consuming and fish originating from the fishing area the health risk evaluation to estimate the potential consequences of chronic exposure to DL-PCBs for consumers is recommended and effective measure for health risk reduction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mex.2020.100803DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7000796PMC
January 2020

Chitosan-starch film containing pomegranate peel extract and Thymus kotschyanus essential oil can prolong the shelf life of beef.

Meat Sci 2020 May 25;163:108073. Epub 2020 Jan 25.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, 1177 Urmia, Iran.

The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of pomegranate peel extract (PPE) and chitosan-starch (CH-S) composite film incorporated with Thymus kotschyanus essential oil (TEO) on the shelf-life of beef during storage period of 21 days at 4 °C. The physico-mechanical parameters, the color and Fourier Transform Infrared spectra values of the films were determined. Changes in odor, color, pH, thiobarbituric value for lipid oxidation levels and Pseudomonas spp. total viable counts, lactic acid and Listeria monocytogenes were determined during the storage time. All treated films showed lower elongation, strength and transparency values compared with chitosan - starch (CH-S) group. Results showed that CH-S-PPE 1%-TEO 2% treatment had the highest inhibition effect against L. monocytogenes. The bacterial counts and lipid oxidation were successfully inhibited using PPE and TEO. CH-S-PPE 1% group containing up to 2% TEO had the best acceptable sensory characteristic. Beef samples wrapped with CH-S film containing PPE and TEO also had longer shelf life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2020.108073DOI Listing
May 2020

Antimicrobial, microscopic and spectroscopic properties of cellulose paper coated with chitosan sol-gel solution formulated by epsilon-poly-l-lysine and its application in active food packaging.

Carbohydr Res 2020 Mar 17;489:107912. Epub 2020 Jan 17.

Department of Food Hygiene and Quality Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, West Azarbaijan, Iran.

Cellulose paper-chitosan (CC) double-layer films containing epsilon-poly-l-lysine (ε-PL) (0.5 and 1% w/v) were developed. FTIR analysis showed a strong association between the ε-PL and CC film. Antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes was investigated both in vitro and in the chicken breast meat. The CC films without ε-PL showed no antimicrobial activity, while the addition of ε-PL induced significant (p < 0.05) effects. During the 28 days of storage at 4 C, no significant difference was found on the anti-listeria activity of films. When storage temperature was raised from 4 to 22 C, the antimicrobial activity was reduced. Films containing 1% ε-PL exhibited 1.5 log CFU/g reduction in L. monocytogenes population during 12 days storage of meat at 4 C, while no significant reduction was found in CC films with 0.5% ε-PL (p > 0.05). This study revealed an antimicrobial activity for CC films impregnated with ε-PL, to control foodborne pathogens in meat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carres.2020.107912DOI Listing
March 2020

Efficacy of lyophilized cell-free supernatant of (Ls-BU2) on and shelf life of ground beef.

Vet Res Forum 2019 15;10(3):193-198. Epub 2019 Sep 15.

Department of Food Hygiene and Quality Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

In the present study, the effect of different concentrations of cell-free supernatant (CFS; 10.00 and 35.00 mg g) of (Ls-BU2) on chemical, microbial and sensorial specifications of ground beef stored under the refrigerated condition was investigated. The antibacterial activity of CFS on was also assessed. According to agar-disk diffusion method, CFS of Ls-BU2 revealed a promising antibacterial activity against in culture media compared to CFS of a well-known probiotic ( LA-5). In meat, CFS of Ls-BU2 showed a minimal effective concentration (MEC) of 35.00 mg g on , while CFS of represented a MEC of 45.00 mg g. The CFS of Ls-BU2 at 35.00 mg g concentration retained psychrophilic counts of meat at a lower value than maximum accepted level (7 log CFU g). In a similar trend, CFS of Ls-BU2 at 35.00 mg g concentration was also displayed high sensorial scores compared to other CFS-treated samples. In conclusion, we demonstrated that CFS of Ls-BU2 and to some extent CFS of could act as a safe food additive for the control of bacterial pathogens and to extend the shelf life of ground beef.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30466/vrf.2019.101419.2417DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6828169PMC
September 2019

Comparing dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in most consumed fish species of the Caspian Sea.

Environ Res 2020 01 1;180:108878. Epub 2019 Nov 1.

Non-Communicable Diseases Research Center, Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences & Health Services, Sabzevar, Iran. Electronic address:

Among polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) are of the most concern for human health. In this study, the levels of 12 DL-PCBs congeners were measured in 125 fish samples of the Caspian Sea, Iran. Five fish species (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Vimba vimba, Cyprinus carpio, Rutilus frisii kutum and Chelon saliens) were collected from 5 coastal cities of the Caspian Sea (25 samples per each city). Duncan's multi-scope test was used to compare the mean of DL-PCBs in different fish species and different cities. Probabilistic risk of exposure to DL-PCBs and sensitivity analysis were assessed using Monte Carlo simulation approach. The average (standard deviation) of DL-PCBs in fish samples ranged from 232 (16) to 1156 (14) pg/g lipids. The total maximum concentration was detected in Cyprinus carpio from Bandar Anzali, the minimum in Vimba vimba from Chalos. In all samples, non-carcinogenic risk of exposure to DL-PCBs was in safe level (Hazard Quotient < 1). In contrast, the lifetime cancer risk estimated for Bandar Anzali, Bandar Torkaman, and Rasht exceeded the threshold value of 1 × 10 suggested by United States Environmental Protection Agency. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the concentration of DL-PCBs and exposure frequency were the most effective parameters in increasing carcinogenic risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2019.108878DOI Listing
January 2020

Effect of L. extract on chemical, microbial, sensory and shelf life of rainbow trout fillet.

Food Sci Biotechnol 2019 Oct 4;28(5):1499-1506. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Department of Food Hygiene and Quality Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

The present study aimed at extending shelf life of rainbow trout fillet. Fish and seafoods are the most valuable nutrients, however, high levels of moisture, free amino acids, unsaturated fatty acids, and the content of nutrients make them to be categorized as spoilable and unstable foods. The objective of this research was to study of the shelf life of rainbow trout fillets using L. extract. Chemical and microbial analyses were performed on treatments. The usage of hydro-ethanol extract of L. significantly decreased microbial growth in fish fillet and there were significant differences among concentrations of the extract (≤ 0.05). The presence of extract of L. resulted in an inhibitory effect on the formation of TVB-N and FFA in comparison with the control group at all analytical times. In conclusion, the shelf life of fish fillets was increased noticeably using extract at 4 ± 1 °C.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10068-019-00575-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6811673PMC
October 2019

Antibacterial Interactions of Colloid Nanosilver with Eugenol and Food Ingredients.

J Food Prot 2019 Oct;82(10):1783-1792

Department of Food Hygiene and Quality Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia 5756151818, Iran (ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6004-6874 [M.M.]).

This study was conducted to investigate antibacterial properties of the colloidal silver nanoparticles (SNPs) and eugenol, alone and in combination, on and Typhimurium and their interactions with food constituents (fat, protein, and carbohydrate). We examined antibacterial activities of SNPs and eugenol in Luria-Bertani (LB) broth and 1.5 and 3% fat ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) milk. MICs of eugenol and SNPs (particle size of 31.3 nm) were also investigated in the presence of sunflower oil, meat extract, and starch at concentrations of 2, 5, and 10% to examine the interactions between food constituents and antimicrobial agents. MICs and MBCs of eugenol and SNPs for both bacteria were at 2,500 and 25 μg/mL, respectively. Combinations of the two substances had additive and synergistic effects on Typhimurium and respectively. Both compounds had bactericidal activity. In food matrices, results indicated that eugenol only in sunflower oil at 5 and 10% concentrations had significant antibacterial activity. A similar result was achieved for SNPs with 10% meat extract. In LB broth, eugenol at 2,500 and 5,000 μg/mL achieved 6-log reductions in the microbial population of both bacteria after 3 h, while SNPs achieved the same effect after 9 h. In UHT milk with 1.5% fat, eugenol at 5,000 μg/mL and SNPs at 25 μg/mL achieved 6-log reductions in bacterial populations after 24 h. Thus, the antimicrobial activity of both eugenol and SNPs depended on the medium in which the experiment was conducted, and the combination of both antimicrobial agents increased the antimicrobial effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-19-174DOI Listing
October 2019

Effect of combined application of essential oil and extract in zein edible coating on vacuum packaged rainbow trout fillet quality.

Vet Res Forum 2019 15;10(2):109-117. Epub 2019 Jun 15.

MSc Student, Department of Food Hygiene and Quality Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

In the present study, the antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of essential oil (EO) and extract of on the shelf life of rainbow trout during storage at refrigerator temperature based on three indicators of microbial, chemical and sensory quality parameters were evaluated. For this purpose, fish samples were stored in zein coatings containing 1.00% EO and 2.00% extract and in combination treatment containing 1.00% of each of them in refrigerator for 12 days. All of treatments were analyzed for microbiological count (Enterobacteriaceae, psychrophilic bacteria, mesophilic bacteria and pseudomonas bacteria) and chemical including pH, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total volatile base nitrogen, peroxide value (POV) and free fatty acids (FFAs) and sensory (odor, color and texture) characteristics. Results showed that the highest levels of three factors including TBARS, POV and FFAs were related to the control sample and the least amount of these parameters was observed in EO and extract combination treatments. This effect of combined treatment was also observed in the reduction of total volatile basic nitrogen and pH parameters. Total bacterial counts during storage in fish treated with the extract and EO were remained below the acceptable level and microbial spoilage was significantly decreased compared to control. According to the sensory evaluation, treatments containing EO and extract showed improvement in this index compared to control treatment during storage. Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that the EO and extract of as active ingredients in zein coating successfully improve the quality and shelf life of the fish in the refrigerator.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30466/vrf.2019.75360.2008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6626649PMC
June 2019

A novel pH-sensing indicator based on bacterial cellulose nanofibers and black carrot anthocyanins for monitoring fish freshness.

Carbohydr Polym 2019 Oct 27;222:115030. Epub 2019 Jun 27.

Department of Food Hygiene and Quality Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, 1177, Urmia, Iran.

A novel intelligent pH-sensing indicator based on bacterial nanocellulose (BC) and black carrot anthocyanins (CA) was developed and characterized to monitor the freshness/spoilage of rainbow trout and common carp fillet during the storage at 4 °C. The indicator displayed wide color differences from red to gray over the 2-11 pH range, which was clearly discerned by the naked eye. The fabricated pH-sensing indicator showed distinguishable color changes during fresh (deep carmine color), best to eat (charm pink color), and spoiled (jelly bean blue and khaki colors) stages of both fish fillets. Moreover, a strong and positive correlation was obtained between the total color differences values of the indicator and bacterial count (R = 0.952 and 0.991) and total volatile basic nitrogen (R = 0.815 and 0.92) in rainbow trout and common carp samples. The results of this work demonstrated a significant correspondence of fish shelf life and color changes of a nanocellulose-based pH-sensing indicator.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2019.115030DOI Listing
October 2019

Cellulose/chitosan pH-responsive indicator incorporated with carrot anthocyanins for intelligent food packaging.

Int J Biol Macromol 2019 Sep 21;136:920-926. Epub 2019 Jun 21.

Chemo and Biosensors Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Jember, Jl. Kalimantan 37, Jember, 68121, Indonesia.

In this study, the possible use of anthocyanins of black carrot (ABC) as a chemo-responsive dye to fabricate a colorimetric pH indicator in a cellulose-chitosan matrix was investigated in order to the monitoring of spoilage in pasteurized milk. Cellulose paper was impregnated with a chitosan solution prepared by a sol-gel method containing ABC (total anthocyanins content of 10 mg/100 mL) and characterized. The swelling and water solubility increased by incorporation of ABC into the chitosan-cellulose film. The colorimetric pH indicator showed an obvious color variation from pink to khaki at different pH values (pH 2-11). Stability tests revealed that the indicator had acceptable color stability during one-month storage at 20 °C. The results also confirmed the immobilization of ABC into the matrix of the polymeric indicator with no significant effect on the chemical and super-molecular structure of the samples. In food trial, fresh pasteurized milk was entirely discerned through a perceptible color change from blue to violet rose color after 48 h storage at 20 °C, which was comfortably observable by the naked eye. The results proved that the fabricated indicator could be used as food grade biomaterials to monitor freshness/spoilage of milk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.06.148DOI Listing
September 2019

Intelligent pH-sensitive indicator based on starch-cellulose and alizarin dye to track freshness of rainbow trout fillet.

Int J Biol Macromol 2019 Jul 27;132:157-165. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Department of Food Hygiene and Quality Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

A novel pH-sensitive indicator was prepared by incorporation of alizarin in a starch-cellulose paper to monitor the freshness of rainbow trout fillet. Water solubility of the fabricated indicator reduced by incorporation of alizarin, while the percentage of swelling didn't change. FTIR certified that alizarin was properly incorporated which was revealed by the formation of intermolecular hydrogen bonding in the cellulose-starch matrix. SEM and ultraviolet-visible spectrum results also demonstrated that alizarin had good compatibility with the components of the indicator. The alizarin-starch-cellulose indicator (ASC) had greater color efficiency from yellow to purple at pH 2-11 and greater color stability after two months of storage at 4 °C. It can be concluded that the color changes of ASC, from orange to reddish brown, were entirely corresponded with TVB-N contents of fish, which presents a satisfactory capability of developed indicator to identify the initiation of spoilage in the refrigerated fish fillet.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.03.173DOI Listing
July 2019

Effects of cell-free supernatant of LA5 and 431 against planktonic form and biofilm of .

Vet Res Forum 2018 15;9(4):301-306. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Food Hygiene and Quality Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

This study was carried out to investigate the stability, antibacterial properties and biofilm removal potential of cell-free supernatant (CFS) of LA5 and 431 against ATCC 25923. Antibacterial activity of both strains was measured according to the agar spot method. The CFS was prepared by centrifugation of bacterial suspension at 4000 for 10 min and the antimicrobial activity was measured using agar-well diffusion. The stability of CFSs during storage at 4.00 ± 2.00 C and 25.00 ± 2.00 C for a period of 4 weeks was measured based on the method of broth micro-dilution assay. Moreover, biofilm removal potential of CFS on 2-days-old biofilm of developed on polystyrene and glass surfaces was also determined. The efficacy of CFS on bacterial biofilm established on the glass surface was also observed using fluorescence microscope. Results showed that inhibition zones of (50.26 mm) were greater than (37.06 mm). The minimum inhibitory concentration of both CFSs remained stable (40 mg mL) during the storage for 28 days at 4.00 and 25.00 C and storage temperature did not affect the antibacterial effectiveness of CFS. The addition of both CFSs significantly removed biofilm developed on both tested surfaces in a concentration-dependent manner. Biofilm removal property of CFS was generally better than CFS which was confirmed by fluorescence microscope. The application of CFS of probiotic strains (i.e. ) as antibacterial and biofilm removal compounds could be very suitable to control the growth of food-borne pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30466/vrf.2018.33086DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6346487PMC
December 2018

Preservative effects of sumac hydro-alcoholic extract and chitosan coating enriched along with Boiss essential oil on the quality of beef during storage.

Vet Res Forum 2018 15;9(2):153-161. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

Department of Food Hygiene and Quality Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

Beef is susceptible to rapid spoilage due to its high amount of protein (18.00%) and moisture (72.00%). Food industries have recently found methods to extend beef shelf-life. The influence of beef dipping in hydro-alcoholic extract of sumac (SE) and chitosan (CH) coating incorporated with essential oil (ZEO) on microbial, chemical and sensory quality of beef was evaluated during refrigerated storage. Total viable counts (TVC), lactic acid bacteria, spp., and yeasts-molds, total volatile nitrogen (TVN), thiobarbituric acid reactive substance values (TBARS) and peroxide value (PV) were founded to be significantly lower in all treatment groups compare to control groups during storage time. The highest level of antimicrobial effects induced by chitosan, SE 4.00% and ZEO. We found that in TVC (3.69 log CFU g reduction compared with control group (sterile distilled water), (3.61 log CFU g reduction) and lactic acid bacteria (2.67 log CFU g reduction), respectively. Sumac gave a pleasant effect on sensory attributes and chitosan coating enriched with ZEO significantly improved sensory scores except for flavor factor. The results revealed the bio preservative properties of chitosan, hydro-alcoholic extract of sumac and Boiss essential oil during refrigeration in normal packaging of beef
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30466/VRF.2018.30831DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6047576PMC
June 2018

Combined Activity of Colloid Nanosilver and Essential Oil-Mechanism of Action and Biofilm Removal Activity.

Adv Pharm Bull 2017 Dec 31;7(4):621-628. Epub 2017 Dec 31.

Department of Food Hygiene and Quality Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, 1177, Urmia, West Azarbaijan, Iran.

The aim of this study was to investigate antimicrobial and biofilm removal potential of Zataria multiflora essential oil (ZEO) and silver nanoparticle (SNP) alone and in combination on Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella Typhimurium and evaluate the mechanism of action. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and optimal inhibitory combination (OIC) of ZEO and SNP were determined according to fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) method. Biofilm removal potential and leakage pattern of 260-nm absorbing material from the bacterial cell during exposure to the compounds were also investigated. MICs of SNP for both bacteria were the same as 25 μg/ mL. The MICs and MBCs values of ZEO were 2500 and 1250 μg/mL, respectively. The most effective OIC value for SNP and ZEO against Salm. Typhimurium and Staph. aureus were 12.5, 625 and 0.78, 1250 μg/ mL, respectively. ZEO and SNP at MIC and OIC concentrations represented a strong removal ability (>70%) on biofilm. Moreover, ZEO at MIC and OIC concentrations did a 6-log reduction of primary inoculated bacteria during 15 min contact time. The effect of ZEO on the loss of 260-nm material from the cell was faster than SNP during 15 and 60 min. Combination of ZEO and SNP had significant sanitizing activity on examined bacteria which may be suitable for disinfecting the surfaces.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15171/apb.2017.074DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5788217PMC
December 2017

Characterization of cellulosic paper coated with chitosan-zinc oxide nanocomposite containing nisin and its application in packaging of UF cheese.

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Apr 23;109:1311-1318. Epub 2017 Nov 23.

Chemo and Biosensors Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Jember, Jl. Kalimantan 37, Jember, 68121, Indonesia.

A new antimicrobial bilayer film was developed using chitosan, cellulose, and nisin. Chitosan solution containing nisin (500 and 1000μg/mL) was prepared by sol-gel method and then the solution was coated on cellulose paper by dip coating method. A chitosan-cellulose film without antimicrobial had no inhibitory effect on Listeria monocytogenes, whereas, the incorporation of nisin made a significant increase (P<0.05) in antimicrobial characteristics of the films. Moreover, no significant differences were shown on antimicrobial activity of developed films during the storage at 4°C for one month. However, the addition of nisin showed a significant increase in the swelling index and solubility of bilayer film. Scanning electron microscope images revealed a uniform coating of chitosan solution on cellulose paper. The FTIR analysis also confırmed successful introducing and binding of the nisin in double layer film. Films with 1000μg/mL of nisin completely inactivated the initial (∼5log CFU/g) counts of L. monocytogenes on the surface of Ultra-filter white cheese after storage at 4°C for 14 days. We concluded that nanocomposite film of chitosan-cellulose containing nisin has novel antibacterial activity and can be used for packaging in cheese.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.11.145DOI Listing
April 2018

Determination of naturally occurring estrogenic hormones in cow's and river buffalo's meat by HPLC-FLD method.

J Food Drug Anal 2016 07 11;24(3):457-463. Epub 2016 Apr 11.

Department of Food Hygiene and Quality Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Islamic Republic of Iran.

This study was performed to measure and compare the levels of steroid hormones [estrone (E), 17β-estradiol (E), and estriol (E)] and their conjugated metabolites in cow's and river buffalo's meat in two distinct follicular and luteal phases. Moreover, the possible effect of a heating process on steroid hormone concentration was also investigated. The collected meat (biceps femoris muscle) samples were subjected to liquid extraction, enzymatical deconjugation, and C18 solid-phase extraction. Estrogens were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography equipped with a fluorescence detector. In the follicular phase the levels of steroid hormones (E and E) in either tested species were higher than the luteal phase. Moreover, in the present study, E concentration (free and deconjugated value, 16.2 ± 1.1 ng/L) was found to be the highest phenolic estrogen in beef, while the dominant estrogen in muscle of river buffalo was E (free and deconjucated value, 23.3 ± 1.3 ng/L). The study revealed that animal species influenced the concentration of hormones (E and E) in the samples. The heating process did not significantly change (p > 0.05) the levels of estrogens. The further findings of the present study showed that E (deconjugated form) was only detected in the buffalo's meat (15.8 ± 1.9 ng/L). These data suggest that although meat is one of the valuable nutrient sources for humans, there are, however, increasing concerns about the safety of meat due to the excessive presence of steroid hormones.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfda.2016.02.014DOI Listing
July 2016

Inhibitory effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil, alone and in combination with monolaurin, on Listeria monocytogenes.

Vet Res Forum 2016 15;7(1):7-11. Epub 2016 Mar 15.

Graduated of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

Listeria monocytogenes is one of the major causes of infections in developing countries. In this study, chemical composition and anti-listerial effect of the essential oil of Zataria multiflora Boiss. alone and in combination with monolaurin were evaluated at different pH values (5, 6, and 7) and temperatures (5 ˚C and 30 ˚C). Chemical composition of Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil was evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the essential oil and monolaurin were determined using microbroth dilution method and the interactions of essential oil and monolaurin were determined by the evaluation of fractional inhibitory concentrations (FIC) index. Carvacrol (63.20%) and thymol (15.10%) were found as the main components of the essential oil. The MIC values of the oil and monolaurin at pH 7 and 30 ˚C were measured as 312.50 µg mL(-1) and 125.00 µg mL(-1), respectively. Combination of monolaurin and Z. multiflora essential oil were found to act synergistically (FIC index < 0.5) against L. monocytogenes under different pH and temperature conditions. Decrease in the pH and temperature values have increased the anti-listerial activity of monolaurin and the essential oil. The lowest MIC value of monolaurin and essential oil was observed at pH 5 and 5 ˚C. According to our results, the oil alone or in combination with monolaurin at low pH and temperature conditions showed a promising inhibitory effect on L. monocytogenes.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4867031PMC
May 2016

The effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil on chemical characteristics of Lyoner- type sausage during refrigerated storage.

Vet Res Forum 2015 15;6(1):31-9. Epub 2015 Mar 15.

Department of Food Hygiene and Quality Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

The effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil (CZEO) at two concentrations (0.02% and 0.04% v/w) on chemical composition, pH, water activity (aw), lipid oxidation, color stability and sensory characteristics of Lyoner-type sausage stored at 4 ˚C for 40 days was investigated. The moisture content of the control sample was higher (p < 0.05) than CZEO incorporated samples, while fat, ash and protein content were not affected by adding essential oil. At days 0 and 40, Lightness (L*) and whiteness index (WI) were significantly decreased and total color difference (ΔE) significantly increased (p < 0.05) by adding CZEO. With the exception of first day of storage, redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) were significantly increased and decreased, respectively during the rest of storage (p < 0.05). The pH values were not differing between the control samples and samples containing CZEO (p > 0.05). The water activity content fell in Lyoners with added CZEO during the storage. Incorporation of CZEO retard lipid oxidation process at the end of storage (p < 0.05). Samples containing highest amount of CZEO had higher sensory score compared to control sample. Our results pointed out that CZEO could be used as natural additive for increasing the chemical stability of Lyoner-type sausages.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4405683PMC
May 2015

Physicochemical and antioxidative characteristics of Iranian pomegranate (Punica granatum L. cv. Rabbab-e-Neyriz) juice and comparison of its antioxidative activity with Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil.

Vet Res Forum 2014 ;5(4):313-8

Department of Food Hygiene and Quality Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

Pomegranate juice (PJ) and its products are directly used in foods due to their pleasant taste and palatability as well as preservative effects. In spite of useful effects of essential oils such as zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil (ZEO) on prolonging shelf-life of foods, their application is restricted due to their vigorous taste and aroma. In the present study, physicochemical characteristics, chemical compositions and antioxidative activities of two Iranian native plants, PJ (Rabbab-e-Neyriz cultivar) and ZEO were investigated. 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and reducing power tests were used for measuring antioxidant activity. The level of total phenolic of them were also determined. Total soluble solids content, pH value, titratable acidity content and total anthocyanins content of PJ were also measured. Chemical compositions of ZEO were determined using gas-chromatography, mass-spectrometry (GC-MS). The results of antioxidative tests indicated that the ZEO was significantly more potent (p < 0.05) than PJ. Also the phenolic content in ZEO (262.52 mg per g) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than PJ (154.90 mg per 100g). Chemical compositions analysis of ZEO indicated that its major components were carvacrol (59.17%), linalool (23.67%), trans-caryophyllene (3.07%) and carvacrol methyl ether (2.44%). In the present study, physicochemical and antioxidative characteristics of Rabbab-e-Neyriz PJ were determined for first time. It was aslo found that ZEO in comparison with PJ had higher antioxidative activity and total phenolic content.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4299998PMC
January 2015

Effect of carboxymethyl cellulose edible coating containing Zataria multiflora essential oil and grape seed extract on chemical attributes of rainbow trout meat.

Vet Res Forum 2014 ;5(2):89-93

Graduate Student of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

Meat products, especially fish meat, are very susceptible to lipid oxidation and microbial spoilage. In this study, first, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of Zataria multiflora essential oil (ZEO) components was done and then two concentrations of ZEO, (1% and 2%) and two concentrations of grape seed extract (GSE), (0.5% and 1%) were used in carboxymethyl cellulose coating alone and in combination, and their antioxidant effects on rainbow trout meat were evaluated in a 20-day period using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) test. Their effects on total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) and pH were evaluated as well. The main components of ZEO are thymol and carvacrol. These components significantly decreased production of thiobarbituric acid (TBA), TVBN and pH level of fish meat. The initial pH, TVBN and TBA content was 6.62, 12.67 mg N per 100 g and 0.19 mg kg(-1), respectively. In most treatments significant (p < 0.05) effects on aforementioned factors was seen during storage at 4 ˚C. The results indicated that use of ZEO and GSE as a natural antioxidant agents was effective in reducing undesirable chemical reactions in storage of fish meat.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4279636PMC
January 2015

A novel dispersive micro solid phase extraction using zein nanoparticles as the sorbent combined with headspace solid phase micro-extraction to determine chlorophenols in water and honey samples by GC-ECD.

Talanta 2014 Oct 12;128:493-9. Epub 2014 Jun 12.

Department of Environmental Geology, Faculty of Science, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

This study presents a new technique, dispersive micro solid phase extraction (DMSPE) combined with headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) for extraction and determination of chlorophenols (CPs) in water and honey samples using a Gas Chromatography-Electron Capture Detector (GC-ECD). Zein nanoparticles were made by liquid-liquid dispersion and applied for the first time as the sorbent phase in DMSPE. In the proposed DMSPE-HS-SPME method, 1% w/v of ethanolic zein solution was added to an aqueous sample and then a dose of the in-situ generated zein nanoparticles was applied to a pre-concentration of target analytes. Thermal desorption of analytes was performed after the isolating sorbent phase, and then HS-SPME was applied for enrichment prior to introducing to gas chromatography. All the important parameters influencing efficiency of the extraction process such effects of salt, pH, sorbent concentration, temperature, sorbent solution volume in DMSPE procedure, extraction temperature, extraction time, desorption temperature and time in the HS-SPME procedure were investigated and optimized. Results showed that under optimum extraction conditions, detection limits (signal to noise ratio=3) were in the range of 0.08-0.6 ng mL(-1) and evaluations for relative standard deviations (RSDs %) were between 6.62% and 8.36%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2014.06.002DOI Listing
October 2014

Validation of drop plate technique for bacterial enumeration by parametric and nonparametric tests.

Vet Res Forum 2013 ;4(3):179-83

Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.

Drop plate technique has a priority and preference compared with the spread plate procedure, because of less time, quantity of media, effort requirement, little incubator space, and less labor intensive. The objective of this research was to compare the accuracy and fidelity of drop plate method vs. spread plate method by parametric and nonparametric statistical tests. For bacterial enumeration by drop and spread plate methods, successive dilutions of second subculture of Lactobacillus casei and Salmonella Typhimurium were transferred to selective agar. The correlation of agreement between both methods was evaluated by using statistical proofs. Results showed that mean value (parametric unpaired t-test) comparison at 95 percent confidence level did not reject null hypothesis, which it meant that the equality of the mean data could not be ruled out. Nonparametric method was used because of approximately Gaussian pattern of data distribution. For this purpose, Mann-Whitney test (equivalent nonparametric t-test) was used. It meant that the equality of medians obtained from two methods were similar. Spearman's rho correlation coefficient (r) via both methods due to data distribution patterns for enumeration of S. Typhimurium and L. casei were 0.62 and 0.87, respectively; which represented moderately strong and strong relationship between two methods, respectively. Besides, there was a significant and strong positive correlation (p < 0.001) between spread and drop plate procedures. Because of aforementioned reasons, the spread plate method can be replaced by drop plate method.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4312378PMC
February 2015

Relationship between liver lipid and liver dry matter in slaughtered ruminants.

Vet Res Forum 2012 ;3(4):275-9

Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Lipids in liver wet and dry matter, liver moist and dry matter and their relationships were investigated based on species, sex and age in cows, buffaloes, sheep and goats. Mean percentage of lipids in liver wet and dry matter and liver dry matter in cows were 3.60%, 1.10%, 29.70%, and for buffaloes were 5.30%, 1.55%, 29.20%, sheep 3.00%, 0.83%, 27.90%, and goats 2.910%, 1.55% and 28.40%, respectively. The highest and lowest percentage of lipids in liver wet and dry matter was observed in buffaloes and sheep, and for the liver dry matter was recorded in cows and sheep, respectively. Analyses showed significant differences in liver parameters among ruminants (p < 0.01). Gender, except for goats, did not affect the animals' liver parameters. In overall 15.00% of buffaloes and 3.50% of cows showed over 10.00% lipids in liver, while none of small ruminants appeared to have over 6.00% lipids in liver. There was no correlation between liver lipid and liver dry matter. In conclusion mean percentage of lipid in liver dry matter in small ruminants was less than large ruminants. Liver dry matter was high in cows and low in sheep. Mean differences in liver parameters was significant, while the age and sex of the animals were not. Liver lipidosis in buffaloes seems greater than in cows, and in small ruminants it was negligible. No correlation was expected between liver parameters. Finally, on the basis of liver dry matter, the liver in ruminants ranked from cows to buffaloes, goats and sheep.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4313048PMC
February 2015