Publications by authors named "Hossein Poustchi"

248 Publications

Mutational signatures in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma from eight countries with varying incidence.

Nat Genet 2021 Oct 18. Epub 2021 Oct 18.

Digestive Oncology Research Center, Digestive Diseases Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Shariati Hospital, Tehran, Iran.

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) shows remarkable variation in incidence that is not fully explained by known lifestyle and environmental risk factors. It has been speculated that an unknown exogenous exposure(s) could be responsible. Here we combine the fields of mutational signature analysis with cancer epidemiology to study 552 ESCC genomes from eight countries with varying incidence rates. Mutational profiles were similar across all countries studied. Associations between specific mutational signatures and ESCC risk factors were identified for tobacco, alcohol, opium and germline variants, with modest impacts on mutation burden. We find no evidence of a mutational signature indicative of an exogenous exposure capable of explaining differences in ESCC incidence. Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like (APOBEC)-associated mutational signatures single-base substitution (SBS)2 and SBS13 were present in 88% and 91% of cases, respectively, and accounted for 25% of the mutation burden on average, indicating that APOBEC activation is a crucial step in ESCC tumor development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-021-00928-6DOI Listing
October 2021

Nationwide Prevalence of Diabetes and Prediabetes and Associated Risk Factors Among Iranian Adults: Analysis of Data from PERSIAN Cohort Study.

Diabetes Ther 2021 Nov 30;12(11):2921-2938. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Digestive Oncology Research Center, Digestive Diseases Research Institute, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, N. Karegar Ave, 14117-13014, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Over the past decades prevalence of diabetes has increased in Iran and other countries. This study aimed to update the prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes in Iran and to determine associated sociodemographic risk factors, as well as diabetes awareness and control.

Methods: This is a nationally representative cross-sectional survey that included 163,770 Iranian adults aged 35-70 years, from different ethnic backgrounds, between 2014 and 2020. Diabetes was diagnosed at fasting blood sugar of ≥ 6.99 mmol/L (126 mg/dL), or receiving blood glucose-lowering treatment. Multivariable logistic regression was applied to detect determinants associated with prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes, as well as predictors of diabetes awareness and glycemic control.

Results: Sex- and age-standardized prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes was 15.0% (95% CI 12.6-17.3) and 25.4% (18.6-32.1), respectively. Among patients with diabetes, 79.6% (76.2-82.9) were aware of their diabetes. Glycemic control was achieved in 41.2% (37.5-44.8) of patients who received treatment. Older age, obesity, high waist to hip ratio (WHR), and specific ethnic background were associated with a significant risk of diabetes and prediabetes. Higher awareness of diabetes was observed in older patients, married individuals, those with high WHR, and individuals with high wealth score. Moreover, glycemic control was significantly better in women, obese individuals, those with high physical activity, educational attainment, and specific ethnic background.

Conclusions: The prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes is increasing at an alarming rate in Iranian adults. High proportion of uncontrolled patients require particular initiatives to be integrated in the health care system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13300-021-01152-5DOI Listing
November 2021

Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Iranian population: A population-based study in northwestern of Iran.

J Public Health Res 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ardabil University of Medical Science, Ardabil.

Background: Overweight and obesity and its problems are the most important health and nutrition issues of adolescents in developed and developing countries. This study aimed to determine prevalence of overweight and obesity among studied population.

Design And Methods: This Persian Cohort Study is a population-based study of 10,000 men and women, aged 35-70 years in northwest of Iran. Anthropometric parameters such as height, weight, waist circumference and hip circumference were measured by interviewers. Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were used to assess the overweight and obesity.

Results: The mean age of all participants was 49.1±8.7 and 56.1% of them were female.  The mean height of participants was 162.5±9.4 kg in range 126-196 and the mean weight of them was 78.5±13.1 cm in range 40-164. According to BMI, 42.7% of all participants had overweight and 45% had obesity. According to the WHR, 71.8% of male and 97.9% of female had high WHR (abdominal obesity).

Conclusions: Results showed that the rate of overweight and obesity in studied people was more than country rate. So programing for raising their Quality of Life (QoL) and life style and also change their poor nutritional habits is essential in area healthy people.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/jphr.2021.2475DOI Listing
September 2021

Building a Cancer Biobank in a Low-Resource Setting in Northern Iran: the Golestan Cancer Biobank.

Arch Iran Med 2021 07 1;24(7):526-533. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Golestan Research Center of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran.

Background: We aim to present the development and the initial results of the Golestan Cancer Biobank (GoCB), in a low resource setting in northern Iran.

Methods: The GoCB protocol and its standard operation procedures (SOP) were developed according to internationally accepted standards and protocols with some modifications considering the limited resources in our setting. The main biological samples collected by the GoCB include blood sample, urine sample, fresh endoscopy tissue sample, fresh surgical tissue sample and formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue sample. The GoCB collects patients' demographic data, tumor characteristics as well as data on risk factors. We developed a specific GoCB software for management of patient data and biological sample information. The GoCB dataset is annually linked with the Golestan cancer registry dataset to add complementary data (e.g., survival data).

Results: The GoCB started collection of data and biological samples in December 2016. By November 2020, a total number of 1217 cancer patients participated in the GoCB. The majority of the GoCB participants (n = 942, 77%) were those with gastrointestinal and breast cancers. Data on risk factors were successfully collected in 684 (56.2%) of the participants. Overall, 3563 samples were collected from the GoCB participants and 730 samples were used in 7 national and international research projects.

Conclusion: We considered specific strategies to overcome major limitations, especially budget shortage, in the development and maintenance of a cancer-specific biological repositories in our setting. The GoCB may be considered as a model for the development of biobank in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/aim.2021.75DOI Listing
July 2021

Dietary acid load and mortality from all causes, CVD and cancer: results from the Golestan Cohort Study.

Br J Nutr 2021 Aug 16:1-7. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Department of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Technology, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Given the limited studies and controversial results on association between dietary acid load and mortality from CVD and cancers, we aimed to investigate this association in a large population cohort study in Middle East, with a wide range of dietary acid load. The study was conducted on the platform of the Golestan Cohort Study (GCS), which enrolled 50 045 participants in 2004-2008. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated FFQ. Dietary potential renal acid load (PRAL) score was calculated from nutrient intake. Death and its causes were identified and confirmed by two or three physicians. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratio (HR) and 95 % CI for total and cause-specific mortalities. Then, the associations were modelled using restricted cubic splines. PRAL range was -57·36 to +53·81 mEq/d for men and -76·70 to +49·08 for women. During 555 142 person-years of follow-up, we documented 6830 deaths, including 3070 cardiovascular deaths, 1502 cancer deaths and 2258 deaths from other causes. For overall deaths, in final model after adjustment for confounders, participants in the first and fifth quintiles of PRAL had a higher risk of mortality compared with the second quintile of PRAL (HR: 1·08; 95 % CI1·01, 1·16 and HR: 1·07; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·15, respectively); Pfor trend < 0·05). Participants in the first and fifth quintiles of PRAL had a 12 % higher risk of CVD mortality compared with the Q2 of PRAL (HR: 1·12; 95 % CI 1·01-1·25 and HR: 1·12; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·26, respectively; Pfor trend < 0·05). We found that all-cause and CVD mortality rates were higher in the lowest and highest PRAL values, in an approximately U-shaped relation (P-values for the overall association and the non-linear association of energy-adjusted PRAL with total mortality were < 0·001 and < 0·001, and with CVD mortality were 0·008 and 0·003, respectively). Our results highlight unfavourable associations of high acidity and alkalinity of diet with the increased total and CVD mortality risk. It may be important to consider a balanced acid-base diet as a protective strategy to prevent pre-mature death, especially from CVD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114521003135DOI Listing
August 2021

Prevalence of impaired renal function and determinants in the southwest of Iran.

BMC Nephrol 2021 Aug 10;22(1):276. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Liver and Pancreatobiliary Diseases Research Center, Digestive Diseases Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR, Iran.

Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a growing global health problem with faster progression in developing countries such as Iran. Here we aimed to evaluate the prevalence and determinants of CKD stage III+.

Methods: This research is part of the Khuzestan Comprehensive Health Study (KCHS), a large observational population-based cross-sectional study in which 30,041 participants aged 20 to 65 were enrolled. CKD was determined with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) less than 60 ml/min/1.73m, based on two equations of Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) and Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI). The multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the CKD stage III+ determinants.

Results: Prevalence of CKD stage III+ is estimated to be 7.1, 5.5, and 5.4% based on MDRD, CKD-EPI, and combination of both equations, respectively. More than 89% of CKD subjects aged higher than 40 years. In regression analysis, age more than 40 years had the strongest association with CKD stage III+ probability (OR: 8.23, 95% CI: 6.91-9.18). Higher wealth score, hypertension, High-Density Lipoprotein levels less than 40 mg/dl, and higher waist to hip ratio were all associated with CKD stage III+ while Arab ethnicity showed a protective effect (OR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.57-0.78).

Conclusion: Our findings provide detailed information on the CKD stage III+ and its determinants in the southwest region of Iran. Due to strong association between age and CKD stage III+, within a few decades we might expect a huge rise in the CKD prevalence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12882-021-02484-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8353841PMC
August 2021

Circulating levels of FAM19A5 are inversely associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

BMC Endocr Disord 2021 Aug 3;21(1):153. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran.

Background: Family with sequence similarity 19 (chemokine (C-C motif)-like) member A5 (FAM19A5) is a newly identified adipokine. There is a limited number of studies linking FAM19A5 to metabolic disorders. In the current study, we aimed to explore if FAM19A5 is associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We also sought to determine the possibility of FAM19A5 association with subclinical atherosclerosis in NAFLD patients.

Methods: A total of 69 subjects including 37 NAFLD and 32 control subjects were included in this cross-sectional study. Plasma concentration of FAM19A5 was measured with the ELISA method. Carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) was assessed by the ultrasonography.

Results: Plasma concentration of FAM19A5 in patients with NAFLD was significantly lower in NAFLD patients than controls. Moreover, we observed significant negative correlations between plasma level of FAM19A5 and body mass index (BMI), visceral fat, alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), liver stiffness (LS), and cIMT. Following stepwise multiple linear regression analysis, ALT and cIMT were the only determinants of FAM19A5 level.

Conclusions: This is the first report to describe association of circulating FAM19A5 levels with NAFLD. Our findings provide further evidence showing relation of FAM19A5 with the risk of atherosclerosis. However, more studies are necessary to unravel the contribution of lower FAM19A5 levels to the NAFLD pathogenesis and the higher risk of atherosclerosis in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12902-021-00820-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8335939PMC
August 2021

Associations between Biomarkers of Exposure and Lung Cancer Risk among Exclusive Cigarette Smokers in the Golestan Cohort Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 07 9;18(14). Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Center for Tobacco Products, Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD 20993, USA.

Biomarkers of tobacco exposure are known to be associated with disease risk but previous studies are limited in number and restricted to certain regions. We conducted a nested case-control study examining baseline levels and subsequent lung cancer incidence among current male exclusive cigarette smokers in the Golestan Cohort Study in Iran. We calculated geometric mean biomarker concentrations for 28 matched cases and 52 controls for the correlation of biomarker levels among controls and for adjusted odds' ratios (ORs) for lung cancer incidence by biomarker concentration, accounting for demographic characteristics, smoking quantity and duration, and opium use. Lung cancer cases had higher average levels of most biomarkers including total nicotine equivalents (TNE-2), 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), and 3-hydroxyfluorene (3-FLU). Many biomarkers correlated highly with one another including TNE-2 with NNAL and N-Acetyl-S-(2-cyanoethyl)-L-cysteine (2CYEMA), and N-Acetyl-S-(4-hydroxy-2-buten-1-yl)-L-cysteine (t4HBEMA) with N-Acetyl-S-(3-hydroxypropyl-1-methyl)-L-cysteine (3HMPMA) and N-Acetyl-S-(4-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-L-cysteine (4HMBEMA). Lung cancer risk increased with concentration for several biomarkers, including TNE-2 (OR = 2.22, 95% CI = 1.03, 4.78) and NNN (OR = 2.44, 95% CI = 1.13, 5.27), and estimates were significant after further adjustment for demographic and smoking characteristics for 2CYEMA (OR = 2.17, 95% CI = 1.03, 4.55), N-Acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)-L-cysteine (2CAEMA) (OR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.01, 4.55), and N-Acetyl-S-(2-hydroxypropyl)-L-cysteine (2HPMA) (OR = 2.85, 95% CI = 1.04, 7.81). Estimates were not significant with adjustment for opium use. Concentrations of many biomarkers were higher at the baseline for participants who subsequently developed lung cancer than among the matched controls. Odds of lung cancer were higher for several biomarkers including with adjustment for smoking exposure for some but not with adjustment for opium use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18147349DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8306295PMC
July 2021

Dietary intake of fatty acids and risk of pancreatic cancer: Golestan cohort study.

Nutr J 2021 07 16;20(1):69. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Digestive Oncology Research Center, Digestive Disease Research Institute, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: As pancreatic cancer (PC) is a malignancy with poor prognosis, finding strategies for its prevention became a notable priority. Among all the factors influencing the risk of PC, dietary items especially fats are considered as the most modifiable risk factors.This study is designed to assess the associations of dietary intake of fatty acids with the risk of PC incidence.

Methods: A total of 50,045 adults between 40 and 75 years old participated in this cohort study in 2004-2008 and were followed up to the present. Intakes of fatty acids was evaluated by validated food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate hazard ratio (HR) with 95 % confidence interval of differing levels of dietary intakes of fatty acids for incidence of PC.

Results: At the end of follow-up period, 76 cases of PC were identified and 46,904 participants without history of cancer, acute kidney disorders, fibrosis and cirrhosis were included in the study. Dietary total saturated fatty acids (SFAS) was associated with PC risk (HR = 1.05 (1.01-1.09), P=0.01), whereas dietary total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAS) was inversely associated with the risk of PC (HR = 0.92 (0.86-0.99), P=0.04). Dietary total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAS) did show a protective but not significant association with the risk of PC (HR = 0.91(0.84-1.00), P=0.05).

Conclusions: The amount of total fat intake is not a risk factor for PC in our study and focusing on the intake of specific fatty acids becomes more striking. Unsaturated fatty acids including PUFAS and especially MUFAS are considered as protective dietary factors in PC prevention. In contrast, total SFAS is positively associated with the increased risk of PC. However, very long chain and odd-chain saturated fatty acids intake may be protective against PC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12937-021-00723-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8285839PMC
July 2021

Metabolic syndrome and lifestyle-associated factors in the ethnically diverse population of Khuzestan, Iran: a cross-sectional study.

J Diabetes Metab Disord 2021 Jun 17;20(1):747-756. Epub 2021 May 17.

Liver and Pancreatobiliary Diseases Research Center, Digestive Diseases Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of risk factors, mainly central obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia, leading to life-threatening cardiovascular diseases. The prevalence of MetS can vary based on different ethnicities and many cultural and lifestyle factors.

Aims: We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of MetS and possible correlations with lifestyle-associated factors among different ethnicities in Khuzestan, Iran.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Khuzestan province of Iran, among 30,504 participants aged 20-65 years, between October 2016 and November 2019. Data was collected through questionnaires along with anthropometric and biological measurements. The National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III definition was used to estimate MetS prevalence.

Results: Overall, 31.9% (95% CI 31.4-32.4) had MetS (34.2% [95% CI 33.3-35.1] among males; 30.7% [95% CI 30.0-31.3] among females [p < 0.001]). Central obesity, elevated fasting blood sugar levels, and dyslipidemia were the most common abnormalities among those with MetS. The risk of MetS was estimated to increase by age, male gender, residing in urban regions, lower educational levels, lower physical activity levels, lower sleep time, and a positive family history of diabetes mellitus (p < 0.001). Individuals of the Arab and Bakhtiary ethnicities had the highest and lowest risk of MetS, respectively.

Conclusion: MetS prevalence varied among different ethnicities. Aging and some lifestyle-associated factors such as physical activity and sleep time were related to the risk of MetS. Raising awareness about risk factors of MetS would be of great value in setting new health policies to manage the rising trend of MetS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40200-021-00811-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8212209PMC
June 2021

Oral Health Status in the Pars Cohort Study.

Arch Iran Med 2021 04 1;24(4):273-279. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Non-Communicable Disease Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: Poor oral health is common in the world, especially in low-income and developing countries. We evaluated oral health status and its association with sociodemographic and economic variables in one of the largest cohort studies in Iran.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted using data from the Pars Cohort Study which is conducted in a rural area in southern Iran. A total of 9264 individuals were enrolled in the initial registry. Data on sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were collected. Oral assessment was completed by trained physicians. Generalized negative binomial regression modeling was applied.

Results: Overall, data from 9264 participants entered the final analysis. The participants' mean age was 52.6 ± 9.7 years. In total, 8975 participants (96.8%) had at least one tooth loss and 1790 participants (19.3%) were edentulous. Female gender (incidence rate ratio [IRR]: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.08) (IRR: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.16), opium consumption (IRR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.22) (IRR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.16 1.30), lower socioeconomic status (SES) (IRR: 1.07, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.10) (IRR: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.15) and being illiterate (IRR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.20, 1.26) (IRR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.32, 1.41) were associated with higher decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) and more tooth loss.

Conclusion: Oral health was poor in our study sample, especially among older individuals, people with lower SES, illiterate participants, smokers and opiate consumers, which shows the need for improvement in oral health care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/aim.2021.38DOI Listing
April 2021

Prevalence and determinants of diabetes and prediabetes in southwestern Iran: the Khuzestan comprehensive health study (KCHS).

BMC Endocr Disord 2021 Jun 29;21(1):135. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Liver and Pancreatobiliary Diseases Research Center, Digestive Diseases Research Institute, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, N. Kargar St, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) is postulated to have the highest increase in the prevalence of diabetes by 2030; however, studies on the epidemiology of diabetes are rather limited across the region, including in Iran.

Methods: This study was conducted between 2016 and 2018 among Iranian adults aged 20 to 65 years residing in Khuzestan province, southwestern Iran. Diabetes was defined as the fasting blood glucose (FBG) level of 126 mg/dl or higher, and/or taking antidiabetic medications, and/or self-declared diabetes. Prediabetes was defined as FBG 100 to 125 mg/dl. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine the association of multiple risk factors that attained significance on the outcome.

Results: Overall, 30,498 participants were recruited; the mean (±SD) age was 41.6 (±11.9) years. The prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes were 30.8 and 15.3%, respectively. We found a similar prevalence of diabetes in both sexes, although it was higher among illiterates, urban residents, married people, and smokers. Participants aged 50-65 and those with Body Mass Index (BMI) 30 kg/m or higher were more likely to be affected by diabetes [RR: 20.5 (18.1,23.3) and 3.2 (3.0,3.6)]. Hypertension [RR: 5.1 (4.7,5.5)], waist circumference (WC) equal or more than 90 cm [RR: 3.6 (3.3,3.9)], and family history [RR: 2.3 (2.2,2.5)] were also significantly associated with diabetes. For prediabetes, the main risk factors were age 50 to 65 years [RR: 2.6 (2.4,2.8)], BMI 30 kg/m or higher [RR: 1.9 (1.8,2.0)], hypertension and WC of 90 cm or higher [RR: 1.7 (1.6,1.8)]. The adjusted relative risks for all variables were higher in females than males, with the exception of family history for both conditions and waist circumference for prediabetes.

Conclusions: Prediabetes and diabetes are prevalent in southwestern Iran. The major determinants are older age, obesity, and the presence of hypertension. Further interventions are required to escalate diabetes prevention and diagnosis in high-risk areas across Iran.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12902-021-00790-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8243419PMC
June 2021

Targeted Deep Sequencing of Cell-Free DNA in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Using Low-Quality Serum: Concordance with Tumor Mutation.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 26;22(11). Epub 2021 May 26.

Genomic Epidemiology Branch, International Agency for Research on Cancer/World Health Organization (IARC/WHO), 69000 Lyon, France.

Circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is emerging as a potential tumor biomarker. CfDNA-based biomarkers may be applicable in tumors without an available non-invasive screening method among at-risk populations. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and residents of the Asian cancer belt are examples of those malignancies and populations. Previous epidemiological studies using cfDNA have pointed to the need for high volumes of good quality plasma (i.e., >1 mL plasma with 0 or 1 cycles of freeze-thaw) rather than archival serum, which is often the main available source of cfDNA in retrospective studies. Here, we have investigated the concordance of mutations in tumor tissue and cfDNA extracted from archival serum left-over from 42 cases and 39 matched controls (age, gender, residence) in a high-risk area of Northern Iran (Golestan). Deep sequencing of coding regions was complemented with a specialized variant caller (Needlestack). Overall, 23% to 31% of mutations were concordantly detected in tumor and serum cfDNA (based on two false discovery rate thresholds). Concordance was positively correlated with high cfDNA concentration, smoking history (-value = 0.02) and mutations with a high potential of neoantigen formation (OR; 95%CI = 1.9 (1.11-3.29)), suggesting that tumor DNA release in the bloodstream might reflect the effects of immune and inflammatory context on tumor cell turnover. We identified mutations in five controls, one of whom was subsequently diagnosed with ESCC. Overall, the results showed that cfDNA mutations can be reliably identified by deep sequencing of archival serum, with a rate of success comparable to plasma. Nonetheless, 70% non-identifiable mutations among cancer patients and 12% mutation detection in controls are the main challenges in applying cfDNA to detect tumor-related variants when blindly targeting whole coding regions of the gene in ESCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22115627DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8197963PMC
May 2021

Impact of 2017 ACC/AHA guideline on prevalence, awareness, treatment, control, and determinants of hypertension: a population-based cross-sectional study in southwest of Iran.

Popul Health Metr 2021 05 25;19(1):26. Epub 2021 May 25.

Liver and Pancreatobiliary Diseases Research Center, Digestive Diseases Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: In 2017, the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) provided a new guideline for hypertension prevention and management. We aimed to update the prevalence, awareness, control, and determinants of hypertension based on this guideline in Khuzestan province, southwest of Iran, and to estimate the number of people who are eligible for non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic intervention.

Methods: This population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Khuzestan, a large province in the southwest of Iran. Comprehensive information about the potential relating factors of hypertension was collected, blood pressure was measured, and anthropometric measurements were obtained. Moreover, the dietary pattern was evaluated in 2830 individuals, using a qualitative food frequency questionnaire.

Results: Among 30,506 participants, 30,424 individuals aged 20-65 years were eligible for the study. In comparison with the previous guideline released by the Joint National Committee (JNC8), the prevalence of hypertension in Khuzestan dramatically increased from 15.81 to 42.85% after implementation of the ACC/AHA guideline, which was more dominant in the male population and the 45-54 age group. The sex and age adjustment of the hypertension prevalence was estimated to be 39.40%. The percentage of hypertension awareness, treatment, and control were 45.85%, 35.42%, and 59.63%, which dropped to 22.72%, 26.37%, and 28.94% after implementation of new guideline, respectively.

Conclusions: In the ACC/AHA guideline, a higher number of individuals with the pre-hypertension condition were shifted into the hypertension category and the level of awareness, treatment, and control were dramatically decreased, which highlight a great need to expand the public health infrastructure for further managing the substantial increased burden on healthcare system. However, further studies with population over 65 years are required to estimate the eligibility for antihypertensive treatment in this province after implementation of new guideline.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12963-021-00260-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8147370PMC
May 2021

An intervention to increase hepatitis C virus diagnosis and treatment uptake among people in custody in Iran.

Int J Drug Policy 2021 Sep 12;95:103269. Epub 2021 May 12.

Digestive Oncology Research Center, Digestive Diseases Research Institute, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Iran is among countries with high opioid agonist therapy (OAT) coverage in prisons, which provides an infrastructure to increase feasibility of HCV programs. We aimed to evaluate the impact of an intervention to improve HCV screening, diagnosis, and treatment, including alongside the provision of OAT, in an Iranian prison.

Methods: During July-December 2018, in the Gorgan prison, all incarcerated adults (>18 years) received HCV antibody rapid testing and, if positive, provided a venepuncture sample for HCV RNA testing. Participants with positive RNA received direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy [(Sofosbuvir/Daclatasvir) for 24 or 12 weeks, respectively, for those with and without cirrhosis]. Response to treatment was measured by the sustained virological response at 12 weeks post-treatment (SVR12).

Results: Among 2015 incarcerated people with a median age of 35 years (IQR:29-41), the majority were male (97%), had not finished high school (68%), and had a history of drug use (71%), of whom 15% had ever injected drugs. A third of participants were receiving OAT, including 54% of those who had ever injected. HCV antibody prevalence was 6.7%, and RNA was detected in 4.6% of all participants; this prevalence was 32.6% and 24.7% among those with a history of injection, respectively. Treatment uptake was 82% (75/92) and was similar among people on OAT and those with a history of injection (81%). The majority completed treatment in prison and were available for SVR12 assessment (71%, 53/75). Achieved SVR12 was 100% (53/53) based on the available case analysis; those who did not have available SVR12 were released either prior to treatment initiation or completion (n = 39).

Conclusion: The availability of OAT infrastructure should be considered as an opportunity for enhancing HCV care in prisons. Where resources are limited, the prison harm reduction network could be used to design targeted HCV programs among people who are at higher risk of infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2021.103269DOI Listing
September 2021

Single-pill sofosbuvir and daclatasvir for treating hepatis C in patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 Aug 17;75(8):e14304. Epub 2021 May 17.

Liver and Pancreatobiliary Diseases Research Center, Digestive Diseases Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The current recommendation for treating hepatitis C virus (HCV) in HIV patients includes the combination of sofosbuvir (SOF) and daclatasvir (DCV). DCV should be used at different doses to compensate for interactions with antiretroviral therapy (ART). Up to three pills a day might be required which will significantly add to the pill burden of these patients. In this study, we have used a single-tablet approach to treating HCV-HIV coinfection.

Methods: Patients coinfected with HIV and HCV were prospectively enrolled from 10 centers throughout the country. Patients received a single once-daily fixed dose combination (FDC) pill containing 400 mg SOF and 30, 60 or 90 mg DCV depending on the type of ART they were receiving for 12 or 24 weeks. (ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT03369327).

Results: Two hundred thirty-three patients were enrolled from 10 centers. Twenty-three patients were lost to follow-up and two patients died from causes unrelated to treatment. Two hundred eight patients completed the treatment course of which 201 achieved SVR (96.6%).

Conclusion: Single-tablet combination of DCV and SOF is an effective and safe treatment for patients coinfected with HIV and HCV. The combination works well in patients on ART in which dose adjustment is required. Patients with cirrhosis, previous treatment failure and various genotypes respond identically. The expenses of genotyping can be saved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijcp.14304DOI Listing
August 2021

Heterogeneity of Associations between Total and Types of Fish Intake and the Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes: Federated Meta-Analysis of 28 Prospective Studies Including 956,122 Participants.

Nutrients 2021 Apr 7;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Postgraduate Program in Epidemiology Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre 90040-060, Brazil.

The association between fish consumption and new-onset type 2 diabetes is inconsistent and differs according to geographical location. We examined the association between the total and types of fish consumption and type 2 diabetes using individual participant data from 28 prospective cohort studies from the Americas (6), Europe (15), the Western Pacific (6), and the Eastern Mediterranean (1) comprising 956,122 participants and 48,084 cases of incident type 2 diabetes. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for associations of total fish, shellfish, fatty, lean, fried, freshwater, and saltwater fish intake and type 2 diabetes were derived for each study, adjusting for a consistent set of confounders and combined across studies using random-effects meta-analysis. We stratified all analyses by sex due to observed interaction ( = 0.002) on the association between fish and type 2 diabetes. In women, for each 100 g/week higher intake the IRRs (95% CIs) of type 2 diabetes were 1.02 (1.01-1.03, = 61%) for total fish, 1.04 (1.01-1.07, = 46%) for fatty fish, and 1.02 (1.00-1.04, = 33%) for lean fish. In men, all associations were null. In women, we observed variation by geographical location: IRRs for total fish were 1.03 (1.02-1.04, = 0%) in the Americas and null in other regions. In conclusion, we found evidence of a neutral association between total fish intake and type 2 diabetes in men, but there was a modest positive association among women with heterogeneity across studies, which was partly explained by geographical location and types of fish intake. Future research should investigate the role of cooking methods, accompanying foods and environmental pollutants, but meanwhile, existing dietary regional, national, or international guidelines should continue to guide fish consumption within overall healthy dietary patterns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13041223DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8068031PMC
April 2021

Production of SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies and Emergence of the Clinical Symptoms of COVID-19.

Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2021 Apr 17;20(2):244-248. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Gastroenterology and Hepatology Diseases Research Center, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a worldwide public health problem that has attracted much attention due to its clinical findings. Measurement of IgG and IgM antibodies is of great importance for researchers and it will help to develop a new diagnostic and therapeutic method in clinical care. In this cross-sectional study, we aim to measure the IgG and IgM antibody levels in 401 suspected COVID-19 volunteers. We also measure the time duration for the appearance of IgG and IgM antibodies from the onset of symptoms to sampling time. Of 401 participants enrolled in the study, 255 (63.59%) were healthy, 79 (19.70%) were a carrier, 59 (14.71%) were cured and 8 (1.99%) were borderline. Of 142 subjects diagnosed with COVID-19, 41 (28.87%) presented with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, 83 (58.45%) had no GI symptoms, and 18 (12.68%) were asymptomatic. According to our findings, the measurement of IgG and IgM antibodies will provide the tool for the diagnosis of COVID-19 and significantly boost research into novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.
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April 2021

Cancer in Iran 2008 to 2025: Recent incidence trends and short-term predictions of the future burden.

Int J Cancer 2021 08 21;149(3):594-605. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Golestan Research Center of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran.

Policymakers require estimates of the future number of cancer patients in order to allocate finite resources to cancer prevention, treatment and palliative care. We examine recent cancer incidence trends in Iran and present predicted incidence rates and new cases for the entire country for the year 2025. We developed a method for approximating population-based incidence from the pathology-based data series available nationally for the years 2008 to 2013, and augmented this with data from the Iranian National Population-based Cancer Registry (INPCR) for the years 2014 to 2016. We fitted time-linear age-period models to the recent incidence trends to quantify the future cancer incidence burden to the year 2025, delineating the contribution of changes due to risk and those due to demographic change. The number of new cancer cases is predicted to increase in Iran from 112 000 recorded cases in 2016 to an estimated 160 000 in 2025, a 42.6% increase, of which 13.9% and 28.7% were attributed to changes in risk and population structure, respectively. In terms of specific cancers, the greatest increases in cases are predicted for thyroid (113.8%), prostate (66.7%), female breast (63.0%) and colorectal cancer (54.1%). Breast, colorectal and stomach cancers were the most common cancers in Iran in 2016 and are predicted to remain the leading cancers nationally in 2025. The increasing trends in incidence of most common cancers in Iran reinforce the need for the tailored design and implementation of effective national cancer control programs across the country.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33574DOI Listing
August 2021

Hepatic Steatosis and Fibrosis in Type 2 Diabetes: A Risk-Based Approach to Targeted Screening.

Arch Iran Med 2021 03 1;24(3):177-186. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Endocrine Research Center, Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is common in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We aimed to explore predictive factors of NAFLD in T2DM and identify high risk subgroups.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study including 100 individuals with T2DM and 100 without diabetes matched for age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). Hepatic steatosis grades (calculated by controlled attenuation parameters-CAP score-3), and liver fibrosis stages (F0-F4) were determined using transient elastography.

Results: The frequency of NAFLD was comparable between the two study groups. However, CAP scores were significantly higher in individuals with diabetes (294.90 ± 53.12 vs. 269.78 ± 45.05 dB/m; < 0.001). Fifty percent of individuals with diabetes had severe steatosis (S3), while this figure was 31.6% in those without diabetes ( < 0.05). Significant fibrosis (F2-F4) was more frequent in individuals with T2DM (13% vs. 4.1%, = 0.02). Individuals with T2DM and advanced fibrosis had significantly higher BMI, waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and CAP score compared to those without fibrosis ( < 0.05). In the regression analysis, a model including BMI, WHR, AST and female gender explained 50% of the variation in CAP score in patients with diabetes (all < 0.05, adjusted R : 0.508). CAP scores were also the major determinant of liver fibrosis in this group (OR: 1.04; CI: 1.017-1.063; = 0.001).

Conclusion: Individuals with diabetes are more likely to have severe fibrosis. Obesity (especially central obesity), the female gender, elevated liver enzymes, and higher degree of insulin resistance are associated with more advanced liver disease in individuals with T2DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/aim.2021.28DOI Listing
March 2021

The Iranian Study of Opium and Cancer (IROPICAN): Rationale, Design, and Initial Findings.

Arch Iran Med 2021 03 1;24(3):167-176. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Biology, School of Computer, Mathematical, and Natural Sciences, Morgan State University, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) recently classified opium use as a Group 1 carcinogen. However, much remains to be studied on the relation between opium and cancer. We designed the Iranian Opium and Cancer (IROPICAN) study to further investigate the association of opium use and cancers of the head and neck, bladder, lung, and colon and rectum. In this paper, we describe the rationale, design, and some initial results of the IROPICAN Study.

Methods: The IROPICAN is a multi-center case-control study conducted in 10 provinces of Iran. The cases were all histologically confirmed and the controls were selected from hospital visitors who were free of cancer, were not family members or friends of the cancer patients, and were visiting the hospital for reasons other than their own ailment. The questionnaires included detailed questions on opium use (including age at initiation, duration, frequency, typical amount, and route), and potential confounders, such as tobacco use (e.g., cigarettes, and water-pipe), and dietary factors. Biological samples, including blood and saliva, were also collected.

Results: The validation and pilot phases showed reasonably good validity, with sensitivities of 70% and 69% for the cases and controls, respectively, in reporting opium use. The results also showed excellent reliability, with intra-class correlation coefficients of 0.96 for ever opium use and 0.88 (95% CI: 0.80, 0.92) for regular opium use. In the main phase, we recruited 3299 cancer cases (99% response rate) and 3477 hospital visitor controls (89% response rate). The proportion of ever-use of opium was 40% among cases and 18% among controls.

Conclusion: The IROPICAN study will serve as a major resource in studies addressing the effect of opium on risk of cancers of the head and neck, bladder, lung, and colon and rectum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/aim.2021.27DOI Listing
March 2021

Environmental and economics-related factors of smoking among Iranian adults aged 35-70: a PERSIAN cohort-based cross-sectional study.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Sep 16;28(33):45365-45374. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Digestive Oncology Research Center, Digestive Diseases Research Institute, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences School of Commerce, Tehran, Iran.

The prevalence of smoking in developing countries is known as a significant public health problem, and it is correlated with different demographic and socio-economic factors. This study aimed to determine the environmental and economical related factors of smoking among Iranian adults aged 35 to 70 years. The study sample consisted of 20,152 of Ardabil population aged 35-70 years which was enrolled in the PERSIAN cohort study. Smoking status during the last year was defined as dependent variable and demographic and socio-economic factors considered as independent variables. To identify the main socio-economic factors affecting the smoking prevalence in Ardabil, multivariable logistic regression was used. The prevalence of smoking was 16.1 (95%, CI 15.5-16.4) in this study, where the prevalence of smoking was for men and women 33.4% and 1.4%, respectively. The prevalence of smoking had significant association with old age (2.05, 95% CI, 1.66 to 2.53), male gender (45.15, 95% CI, 37.14 to 54.89), being married (2.60, 95% CI, 1.51 to 4.46), having cardiovascular disease (1.54, 95% CI, 1.32 to 1.79), and negative association with illiteracy (0.50, 95% CI, 0.40 to 0.64), being obese (0.83, 95% CI, 0.73 to 0.94), and lower socio-economic status (0.74, 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.84). The study showed that the prevalence of smoking in Ardabil is higher than many other countries, and different factors, especially socio-economic status, have an association with the prevalence. There are deep needs to policies and regulations such as increasing the taxation on a cigarette to reduce the negative effect of smoking in Iran.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13941-3DOI Listing
September 2021

Effects of supplementation with main coffee components including caffeine and/or chlorogenic acid on hepatic, metabolic, and inflammatory indices in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial.

Nutr J 2021 04 10;20(1):35. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Clinical Nutrition & Dietetics, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is much more frequent and more severe, including cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with type 2 diabetes. Coffee is a complex beverage with hundreds of compounds whereas caffeine and chlorogenic acid are the most abundant bioactive compounds. The published epidemiological data demonstrating beneficial associations between all categories of coffee exposure and ranges of liver outcomes are rapidly growing; however, the main contributors and cause-effect relationships have not yet been elucidated. To address existing knowledge gaps, we sought to determine the efficacy and safety of 6 months chlorogenic acid and/or caffeine supplementation in patients with type 2 diabetes affected by NAFLD.

Methods: This trial was carried out at two Diabetes Centers to assess the effects of supplementation with daily doses of 200 mg chlorogenic acid, 200 mg caffeine, 200 mg chlorogenic acid plus 200 mg caffeine or placebo (starch) in patients with type 2 diabetes and NAFLD. The primary endpoint was reduction of hepatic fat and stiffness measured by FibroScan, and changes in serum hepatic enzymes and cytokeratin - 18 (CK-18) levels. Secondary endpoints were improvements in metabolic (including fasting glucose, homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), hemoglobin A1c (HBA1C), C-peptide, insulin and lipid profiles) and inflammatory (including nuclear factor k-B (NF-KB), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), high sensitive- C reactive protein(hs-CRP)) parameters from baseline to the end of treatment.

Results: Neither chlorogenic acid nor caffeine was superior to placebo in attenuation of the hepatic fat and stiffness and other hepatic outcomes in patients with diabetes and NAFLD. Except for the lower level of total cholesterol in caffeine group (p = 0.04), and higher level of insulin in chlorogenic acid plus caffeine group (p = 0.01) compared with placebo, there were no significant differences among the treatment groups.

Conclusion: These findings do not recommend caffeine and/or chlorogenic acid to treat NAFLD in type 2 diabetes patients.

Trial Registration: IRCT201707024010N21 . Registered 14 September 2017.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12937-021-00694-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8037901PMC
April 2021

Visceral Adipose Tissue and Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

Dig Dis Sci 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Endocrine Research Center, Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Iran University of Medical Sciences, No. 10, Firoozeh St., South Vali-asr Ave., Vali-Asr Sq., Tehran, Iran.

Aim: To explore the association of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) area and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study comprising 100 patients with T2DM and 100 non-T2DM individuals, matched for age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). Transient elastography was used to assess hepatic steatosis and liver stiffness measurements (LSM). Controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) was used to quantify hepatic steatosis. To distinguish grades of hepatic steatosis, cutoff values were as follows: S1 ≥ 302, S2 ≥ 331, and S3 ≥ 337 dB/m. Moreover, VAT area was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in accordance with validated protocols.

Results: CAP score was significantly higher in participants with T2DM (294.61 ± 3.82 vs. 269.86 ± 3.86 dB/ m; P < 0.001). Furthermore, 42% of participants with T2DM had hepatic steatosis (S > S1: 302 dB/m), while this figure was 26% in non-T2DM group (P < 0.003). The mean liver stiffness measurement was also significantly higher in patients with T2DM (5.53 vs. 4.79 kPa; P < 0.001). VAT area was greater in patients with T2DM compared to non-T2DM individuals: 163.79 ± 47.98 cm versus 147.49 ± 39.09 cm, P = 0.009. However, total and truncal fat mass were not different between the two groups. Age, BMI, waist circumference, ALT, CAP, and LSM were significantly associated with VAT area. BMI and VAT area were the important determinants of steatosis in both groups of participants with and without T2DM. Moreover, the VAT area was associated with the severity of hepatic steatosis and liver stiffness, independent of anthropometric measures of obesity.

Conclusion: VAT area is a major determinant of the severity of hepatic steatosis and liver stiffness in patient with T2DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10620-021-06953-zDOI Listing
March 2021

Obesity and incident gastrointestinal cancers: overall body size or central obesity measures, which factor matters?

Eur J Cancer Prev 2021 May;30(3):267-274

Digestive Oncology Research Center, Digestive Diseases Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

BMI does not reflect the location or amount of body fat. We aimed to investigate the role of general and central obesity measures in the prediction of incident gastrointestinal cancers. In this analysis of the Golestan Cohort Study, we included 47 586 cancer-free individuals followed for 12.3 years (IQR: 10.5-13.2). We investigated the association of obesity measures including BMI, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) at enrollment and the incidence of esophageal, gastric, colorectal and pancreatic cancers. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the association between covariates and gastrointestinal cancer risk. We observed no significant associations between obesity measures and incidence of the above-mentioned gastrointestinal cancers in men. In women, BMI, waist circumference and WHR were associated with significant reductions in the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC): hazard ratio (HR): 0.67 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.56-0.81], HR: 0.71 (95% CI: 0.60-0.84) and HR: 0.80 (95% CI: 0.68- 0.94), respectively. In addition, WHR was associated with significantly increased risks for colorectal cancer (HR: 1.39, 95% CI: 1.08-1.78) and gastric cancer (HR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.01-1.51) in women. In this study, statistically significant associations between obesity measures and incident esophageal, gastric and colorectal cancers were seen in women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000657DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8015184PMC
May 2021

Red Meat Consumption and Risk of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in a Population With Low Meat Consumption: The Golestan Cohort Study.

Am J Gastroenterol 2021 08;116(8):1667-1675

Digestive Oncology Research Center, Digestive Diseases Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), as the most common liver disease in the world, can range from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis. We evaluated the association between meat consumption and risk of NAFLD in the Golestan Cohort Study (GCS).

Methods: The GCS enrolled 50,045 participants, aged 40-75 years in Iran. Dietary information was collected using a 116-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire at baseline (2004-2008). A random sample of 1,612 cohort members participated in a liver-focused study in 2011. NAFLD was ascertained through ultrasound. Total red meat consumption and total white meat consumption were categorized into quartiles based on the GCS population, with the first quartile as the referent group. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

Results: The median intake of total red meat was 17 and total white meat was 53 g/d. During follow-up, 505 individuals (37.7%) were diagnosed with NAFLD, and 124 of them (9.2%) had elevated alanine transaminase. High total red meat consumption (ORQ4 vs Q1 = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.06-2.38, P trend = 0.03) and organ meat consumption (ORQ4 vs Q1 = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.19-2.44, P trend = 0.003) were associated with NAFLD. Total white meat, chicken, or fish consumption did not show significant associations with NAFLD.

Discussion: In this population with low consumption of red meat, individuals in the highest group of red meat intake were at increased odds of NAFLD. Furthermore, this is the first study to show an association between organ meat consumption and NAFLD (see Visual Abstract, http://links.lww.com/AJG/B944).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14309/ajg.0000000000001229DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8460710PMC
August 2021

Oral Health and Risk of Upper Gastrointestinal Cancers in a Large Prospective Study from a High-risk Region: Golestan Cohort Study.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2021 Jul 17;14(7):709-718. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, NCI, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland.

Tooth loss and periodontal disease have been associated with several cancers, and poor oral health may be an important risk factor for upper gastrointestinal (UGI, i.e., esophageal and gastric) cancers. We assessed the relationship between oral health and UGI cancers using a large prospective study of over 50,000 adults living in Golestan Province, Iran, a high-incidence area for these cancers. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for the association between three different measures of oral health [frequency of tooth brushing; number of missing teeth; and the sum of decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT)] and UGI cancers. During a median follow-up duration of 13 years, there were 794 incident UGI cancers (396 esophageal and 398 gastric cancers). Daily tooth brushing was associated with a decreased risk of developing both esophageal (HR = 0.670; 95% CI: 0.486-0.924) and gastric (HR = 0.741; 95% CI: 0.544-1.01) cancers (combined UGI cancer HR = 0.697; 95% CI: 0.558-0.871) compared with never brushing. Tooth loss in excess of the loess smoothed, age- and sex-specific median number of teeth lost was significantly associated with esophageal (HR = 1.64; 95% CI: 1.08-2.47) and gastric cancers (HR = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.05-2.38). There were some adverse associations between DMFT and UGI cancers but most were not statistically significant. These results suggest increased risk of developing UGI cancers among individuals with poor oral health, and those who do not perform regular oral hygiene. PREVENTION RELEVANCE: Poor oral health is associated with the risk of upper gastrointestinal cancers, and oral hygiene practices may help prevent these cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-20-0577DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8295188PMC
July 2021

Correction: Effectiveness of Polypill for Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease (PolyPars): Protocol of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

Arch Iran Med 2021 02 1;24(2):166. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Digestive Disease Research Center, Digestive Disease Research Institute, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Teheran, Iran.

This corrects the article "Effectiveness of polypill for prevention of cardiovascular disease (PolyPars): protocol of a randomized controlled trial" published on 2020: Volume 23, Issue 08, Pages 548-556. Correction to: Arch Iran Med. 2020;23(8):548-556. doi: 10.34172/aim.2020.58. In the original version of this article, the recruitment period was wrongly reported to last from December 2014 to December 2015 in abstract and methods sections of the article. This is corrected into "from December 2015 to December 2016" in the PDF and HTML versions of the article. Also the "PolyIran" is changed to "PolyPars" in the last paragraph of the discussion section in the PDF and HTML versions of the article.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/aim.2021.26DOI Listing
February 2021
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