Publications by authors named "Hossein Malek-Afzali"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Investigation of the effectiveness of psychiatric interventions on the mental health of pregnant women in Kashan City - Iran: A clinical trial study.

Asian J Psychiatr 2019 Dec 1;46:79-86. Epub 2019 Oct 1.

Department of Pediatrics, Institute of Family Health, Maternal, Fetal and Neonatal Health Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran, Iran.

Aim: Pregnancy is one of the most sensitive periods in a person's life; therefore maternal mental illness during pregnancy increases the risk for adverse developmental outcomes in children (Jha et al., 2018). The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of psychiatric interventions in the mental health of pregnant women in Kashan, Iran.

Methods: The purpose of this clinical trial was to evaluate an integrated model of mental health during pregnancy over the period of 2015-2018 in Kashan. Subjects consisted in 202 pregnant women (101 in the intervention group and 101 in the control group) who were referred to Kashan Health Centers in the 6th to 10th weeks of pregnancy. The General Health Questionnaire-28, Golombok Rust Inventory of Marital State, an interview on psychiatric symptoms, and a review of the history of the mental health of the mother and first-degree relatives were utilized for data collection. In the intervention group, psychiatric measures and predictive drug treatments were presented.

Results: Overall, from among 102 pregnant mothers, 39 women (37.14%) were identified as at-risk and high-risk. The highest number of mothers identified as at-risk and high-risk were in the first trimester of pregnancy and in the 6th to 10th weeks of care (64%). With the start of psychiatric interventions in the intervention group, the subscale of physical complaints and anxiety showed a significant decrease compared to the control group (P < 0.01). Mental health improvement was achieved in 95% of expectant mothers through Level I predictive measures, and only 5% of participants required the specialist level of intervention.

Conclusion: By identifying psychiatric disorders in pregnant mothers during the first level of pregnancy care services and taking suitable measures, an integrated model for mental health services in primary health care for pregnant women can help managers, policymakers, and decision-makers to improve health and reduce the costs in the health system in order to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2019.09.036DOI Listing
December 2019

A Proposed Strategy for Research Misconduct Policy: A Review on Misconduct Management in Health Research System.

Int J Prev Med 2016 13;7:92. Epub 2016 Jul 13.

Deputy of Research and Technology, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran; NCD Research Centre, Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Today, with the rapid growth of scientific production, research misconduct has become a worldwide problem. This article is intended to introduce the successful experience on the management of research paper misconducts in the field of health research.

Methods: Our aim was to design and develop the strategy for research misconduct policy. Focusing on the national regulatory system, we developed a hierarchical model for paper misconduct policy in all the medical sciences universities and their affiliated research units.

Results: Through our regulatory policy for paper misconduct management, specific protocol was followed in the field of health research publications through which the capabilities of covering the four main elements of prevention, investigation, punishment, and correction have come together.

Conclusions: Considering the proposed strategy, regarding the strengths and weaknesses, utilization of evaluation tool can be one of the best strategies to achieving the prospective of health research papers by 2025.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2008-7802.186227DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4966197PMC
August 2016

Surveying the Knowledge and Practices of Health Professionals in China, India, Iran, and Mexico on Treating Tuberculosis.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2016 05 22;94(5):959-970. Epub 2016 Feb 22.

Research evidence continues to reveal findings important for health professionals' clinical practices, yet it is not consistently disseminated to those who can use it. The resulting deficits in knowledge and service provision may be especially pronounced in low- and middle-income countries that have greater resource constraints. Tuberculosis treatment is an important area for assessing professionals' knowledge and practices because of the effectiveness of existing treatments and recognized gaps in professionals' knowledge about treatment. This study surveyed 384 health professionals in China, India, Iran, and Mexico on their knowledge and practices related to tuberculosis treatment. Few respondents correctly answered all five knowledge questions (12%) or self-reported performing all five recommended clinical practices "often or very often" (3%). Factors associated with higher knowledge scores included clinical specialization and working with researchers. Factors associated with better practices included training in the care of tuberculosis patients, being based in a hospital, trusting systematic reviews of randomized controlled double-blind trials, and reading summaries of articles, reports, and reviews. This study highlights several strategies that may prove effective in improving health professionals' knowledge and practices related to tuberculosis treatment. Facilitating interactions with researchers and training in acquiring systematic reviews may be especially helpful.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.15-0538DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4856627PMC
May 2016

A Qualitative Study of Community-based Health Programs in Iran: An Experience of Participation in I.R. Iran.

Int J Prev Med 2014 Jun;5(6):679-86

Department of Social Welfare, Social Determinants of Health Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Community-based health programs (CBHPs) with participatory approaches has been recognized as an important tool in health promotion. The goal of this study was to understand the nature of participation practice in CBHP and to use the data to advocate for more participation-friendly policies in the community, academy and funding organizations.

Methods: In this qualitative study, 13 CBHPs, which were active for last 5 years have been assessed using semi-structural in-depth interviews with programs principal and managers and focus group discussions with volunteers and service users. Data analysis was based on the deductive-inductive content analysis considering the participatory approaches in these programs.

Results: The results show that, the main category of participation was divided to community participation and intersectional collaboration. The community participation level was very different from "main," "advisory" or "supporting" level. The process of recruitment of volunteers by the governmental organization was centralized and in non-governmental organizations was quite different. According to respondents opinion, financial and spiritual incentives especially tangible rewards, e.g., learning skills or capacity building were useful for engaging and maintaining volunteers' participation. For intersectional collaboration, strong and dedicated partners, supportive policy environment are critical.

Conclusions: It seems that maintaining partnership in CBHP takes considerable time, financial support, knowledge development and capacity building.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4085919PMC
June 2014

Response-oriented measuring inequalities in Tehran: second round of UrbanHealth Equity Assessment and Response Tool (Urban HEART-2), concepts and framework.

Med J Islam Repub Iran 2013 Nov;27(4):236-48

Assistant Professor, Department of Psychiatry, Medical School, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Current evidence consistently confirm inequalities in health status among socioeconomic none, gender,ethnicity, geographical area and other social determinants of health (SDH), which adversely influence health ofthe population. SDH refer to a wide range of factors not limited to social component, but also involve economic, cultural,educational, political or environmental problems. Measuring inequalities, improving daily living conditions, andtackling inequitable distribution of resources are highly recommended by international SDH commissioners in recentyears to 'close the gaps within a generation'. To measure inequalities in socio-economic determinants and core healthindicators in Tehran, the second round of Urban Health Equity Assessment and Response Tool (Urban HEART-2)was conducted in November 2011, within the main framework of WHO Centre for Health Development (Kobe Centre).

Method: For 'assessment' part of the project, 65 indicators in six policy domains namely 'physical and infrastructure','human and social', 'economic', 'governance', 'health and nutrition', and also 'cultural' domain were targetedeither through a population based survey or using routine system. Survey was conducted in a multistage random sampling,disaggregated to 22 districts and 368 neighborhoods of Tehran, where data of almost 35000 households(118000 individuals) were collected. For 'response' part of the project, widespread community based development(CBD) projects were organized in all 368 neighborhoods, which are being undertaken throughout 2013.

Conclusion: Following the first round of Urban HEART project in 2008, the second round was conducted to trackchanges over time, to institutionalize inequality assessment within the local government, to build up community participationin 'assessment' and 'response' parts of the project, and to implement appropriate and evidence-based actionsto reduce health inequalities within all neighborhoods of Tehran.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4011416PMC
November 2013

Position of social determinants of health in urban man-made lakes plans.

Glob J Health Sci 2013 Sep 4;5(6):100-11. Epub 2013 Sep 4.

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences.

Background And Objective: A social determinants approach proposes that enhancing living conditions in areas such as income, housing, transportation, employment, education, social support, and health services is central to improving the health of urban populations. Urban development projects can be costly but have health impacts. The benefit derived from the creation of man-made lakes in developing countries is usually associated with great risks; however, the evidence for physical and non-physical health benefits of urban man-made lake is unclear. The aim of this paper is to formulate a conceptual framework of associations between urban man-made lakes and social determinants of health.

Method: This study was a qualitative study carried out using one focus group discussion and 16 individual interviews. Data were analyzed based on deductive-inductive content analysis approach.

Results: Participants' points of view were analyzed within 261 codes. Data analysis matrix was the conceptual framework of social determinants of health commission and its sub-groups, thus, two structural and mediating determinants categories as well as their sub-sets were created accordingly. In addition, some extra sub-sets including environment, air quality, weather changes, noise pollution, pathogenesis, quality of life, shortage of available resources, region popularity, ethnicity, tourism, social and physical development of children, unintentional injuries, aesthetic, and spirituality were extracted beyond the matrix factors, which were placed in each of above categories based on their thematic content.

Conclusion: This paper has illustrated that the quality and type of man-made lake provided within communities can have a significant and sustained impact on community's health and wellbeing. Therefore, in order to strengthen positive effects and reduce negative effects of any developmental projects within community, their impacts on public health should be taken into consideration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/gjhs.v5n6100DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4776859PMC
September 2013

The main advantages of community based participatory health programs: an experience from the islamic republic of iran.

Glob J Health Sci 2013 Jan 20;5(3):28-33. Epub 2013 Jan 20.

Udersecretary for Research and Technology- Ministry of Health and MEdical Education, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Community based participatory program is an approach that emphasize on community empowerment as an important tool in health promotion especially in low and middle income countries. This article presents findings from a study of assessing performed participatory community based health programs in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

Methods: This study was a qualitative study using focus group discussions. Thirteen community based programs related to health that were active for last five years were selected and assessed. Data analysis was based on deductive-inductive content analysis approach considering the predetermined structure according to study questions.

Results: In this study, strengths points of community participatory health programs based on the locality of the implementation of the programs; governmental organization and nongovernmental organizations (NGO's) were evaluated. The main strengths of these programs were the presence of the spirit of empathy and high motivation in working for community, absorbing the community assistance, community empowerment, presence of female volunteers, using local volunteers, creation of social prestige and evidence based decision making for community problem solving.

Conclusion: Capacity building of the community, NGOs and policymakers plays key role in participation mechanisms, partnership, team working and mobilizing of necessary resources in the promotion of participatory community based health programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/gjhs.v5n3p28DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4776779PMC
January 2013

Parents or School Health Trainers, which of them is Appropriate for Menstrual Health Education?

Int J Prev Med 2012 Sep;3(9):622-7

Deputy of Research and Technology, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran ; Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

Objectives: The purpose of this community-based participatory research was to compare different training sources for adolescents' menstrual health education.

Methods: From 15 middle schools in Tehran, through quota random sampling, 1823 female students were selected proportionally and allocated randomly to three groups (parent trained, schools' health trainers trained, and control). Following a two-year training program, the adolescents' menstrual health was compared.

Results: In the present study, the school health trainers trained group showed a better feeling for menarche, compared to the two other groups (P < 0.001). The need for adolescent health training was emphasized by 82% of the participants; they also believed that the appropriate age for such empowerment courses was about 12 years. In the school health trainers trained group, the offered age was significantly lower than in other groups (P < 0.001). The adolescents trained by the school health trainers had a better practice of habits related to menstrual and hygiene practices, like having a bath during menstruation and the use of sanitary pads or cotton, compared to their counterpart groups (P > 0.05).

Conclusion: It is suggested that school-based health training leads to better menstrual health promotion and healthy puberty transition, and school health trainers play a key role in this regard.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3445278PMC
September 2012

The key stakeholders' opinions regarding university counseling centers: An experience from Iran.

J Res Med Sci 2011 Sep;16(9):1202-9

Deputy of Research and Technology, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran And PhD Student, Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Student counseling centers are responsible for physical, mental and social health of university students. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the key stakeholders' opinions on different aspects of the activities performed in these centers.

Methods: This qualitative study used focus group discussion. Key stakeholders including university students and key informants from nine randomly selected medical universities participated in the study. After data saturation, thematic analysis was conducted. Themes were drawn out through constant comparative method.

Results: Based on 243 extracted codes and through comparative analysis, four categories were determined, namely students' need for students counseling centers, successes and limitations of student counseling centers, student counseling services priorities, and suggestions for service promotion.

Conclusions: According to stakeholders' opinions, youth participation in needs assessment and priority setting processes in real-based situations leads to better performance of counseling services. Empowering the counselors is another point required for better outcomes. In addition, strategic planning and monitoring, along with evaluation of programs, could promote the provided services.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3430046PMC
September 2011

Socioeconomic Status and Incidence of Traffic Accidents in Metropolitan Tehran: A Population-based Study.

Int J Prev Med 2012 Mar;3(3):181-90

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Population-based estimates of traffic accidents (TAs) are not readily available for developing countries. This study examined the contribution of socioeconomic status (SES) to the risk of TA among Iranian adults.

Methods: A total of 64,200people aged ≥18years were identified from 2008 Urban Health Equity Assessment and Response Tool (Urban HEART) survey. 22,128 households were interviewed to estimate the overall annual incidence, severity and socioeconomic determinants of TAs for males and females in Iranian capital over the preceding year. Wealth index and house value index were constructed for economic measurement. Weighted estimates were computed adjusting for complex survey design. Logistic regression models were used to examine individual and SES measures as potential determinants of TAs in adults.

Results: The overall incidence of traffic accident was 17.3(95% CI 16.0, 18.7) per 1000 per year. TA rate in men and women was 22.6(95% CI 20.6, 24.8) and 11.8(95% CI 10.4, 13.2), respectively. The overall TA mortality rate was 26.6(95% CI 13.4, 39.8) per 100,000 person-years, which was almost three times higher in men than that for women (40.4 vs. 12.1 per 100,000person-years). Lower economic level was associated with increased incidence and mortality of TA. Association between SES and incidence, and severity and mortality of TA were identified.

Conclusion: TAs occur more in lower socioeconomic layers of the society. This should be taken seriously into consideration by policy makers, so that preventive programs aimed at behavioral modifications in the society are promoted to decrease the health and economic burden imposed by TAs.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3309632PMC
March 2012

Evaluation of Tuberculosis Situation in Economic Cooperation Countries in 2009; Achievement and Gaps toward Millennium Development Goals.

Int J Prev Med 2012 Feb;3(2):77-83

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Evaluating the tuberculosis (TB) status of the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) member countries relation to goal 6-c of the third millennium, which includes that TB incidence, prevalence, and death rates should be halved by 2015, compared with their level in 1990.

Methods: In 2009, we have critically reviewed the countries' Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) reports and extracted the data from the surveillance system and published and unpublished data. The main stakeholders, from both governmental and international organizations in the country have been visited and interviewed by the research team as part of the data validation process.

Results: The TB incidence is very heterogeneous among ECO countries, which differ from 21.7 in Iran to 230.7 per 100,000 in Tajikistan. TB incidence (per 100,000) is more than 100 in six countries and is from 50 to 100 in two countries and is less than 30 in two countries. Only in two countries the crude death rate (CDR) is higher than 70%. In seven countries the death rate is higher than 10 per 100,000. Two countries are among the 20 top world countries with the highest tuberculosis burden.

Conclusion: THERE ARE SOME SIGNS AND SIGNALS INDICATING THE BAD CONDITION OF AN ECO MEMBER INCLUDING: incidence of more than 50 per 100000, CDR of less than 70%, death rate more than 10 per 100,000, and rating two member countries among 20 top countries with the highest burden in the world. Iran and Turkey could achieve MDGs by 2015, but if other countries do not prepare urgent intervention programs, they will not be able to fulfill the goals.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3278883PMC
February 2012

Observing principles of medical ethics during family planning services at Tehran urban healthcare centers in 2007.

Iran J Reprod Med 2011 ;9(2):77-82

Endocrinology and Metabolism Research center, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Family planning has been defined in the framework of mothers and children plan as one of Primary Healthcare (PHC) details. Besides quantity, the quality of services, particularly in terms of ethics, such as observing individuals' privacy, is of great importance in offering family planning services.

Objective: A preliminary study to gather information about the degree of medical ethics offered during family planning services at Tehran urban healthcare centers.

Materials And Methods: A questionnaire was designed for study. In the first question regarding informed consent, 47 clients who were advised about various contraception methods were asked whether advantages and disadvantages of the contraceptive methods have been discussed by the service provider. Then a certain rank was measured for either client or method in 2007. Finally, average value of advantage and disadvantage for each method was measured. In questions about autonomy, justice and beneficence, yes/no answers have been expected and measured accordingly.

Results: Health care providers have stressed more on the advantages of pills and disadvantages of tubectomy and have paid less attention to advantages of injection ampoules and disadvantages of pills in first time clients. While they have stressed more on the advantages and disadvantages of tubectomy and less attention to advantages of condom and disadvantages of vasectomy in second time clients. Clients divulged their 100% satisfaction in terms of observing turns and free charges services. Observance degree of autonomy was 64.7% and 77.3% for first time and second- time clients respectively.

Conclusion: Applying the consultant's personal viewpoint for selecting a method will breach an informed consent for first and second time clients. System has good consideration to justice and no malfeasance.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4216439PMC
January 2015

Bridging the gaps between research, policy and practice in low- and middle-income countries: a survey of health care providers.

CMAJ 2010 Jun 3;182(9):E362-72. Epub 2010 May 3.

Centre for Health Economics and Policy Analysis, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont.

Background: Gaps continue to exist between research-based evidence and clinical practice. We surveyed health care providers in 10 low- and middle-income countries about their use of research-based evidence and examined factors that may facilitate or impede such use.

Methods: We surveyed 1499 health care providers practising in one of four areas relevant to the Millennium Development Goals (prevention of malaria, care of women seeking contraception, care of children with diarrhea and care of patients with tuberculosis) in each of China, Ghana, India, Iran, Kazakhstan, Laos, Mexico, Pakistan, Senegal and Tanzania.

Results: The proportion of respondents who reported that research was likely to change their clinical practice if performed and published in their own country (84.6% and 86.0% respectively) was higher than the proportion who reported the same about research and publications from their region (66.4% and 63.1%) or from high-income countries (55.8% and 55.5%). Respondents who were most likely to report that the use of research-based evidence led to changes in their practice included those who reported using clinical practice guidelines in paper format (odds ratio [OR] 1.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-2.28), using scientific journals from their own country in paper format (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.26-2.28), viewing the quality of research performed in their country as above average or excellent (OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.16-3.22); trusting systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials (OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.08-2.35); and having easy access to the Internet (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.19-3.02).

Interpretation: Locally conducted or published research has played an important role in changing the professional practice of health care providers surveyed in low- and middle-income countries. Increased investments in local research, or at least in locally adapted publications of research-based evidence from other settings, are therefore needed. Although access to the Internet was viewed as a significant factor in whether research-based evidence led to concrete changes in practice, few respondents reported having easy access to the Internet. Therefore, efforts to improve Internet access in clinical settings need to be accelerated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.081165DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2882467PMC
June 2010

Developing a questionnaire for conducting cross-national studies--'Self-reported health and needs among elderly Iranians and Swedes'.

Scand J Caring Sci 2010 Jun 7;24(2):372-9. Epub 2010 Mar 7.

College of Nursing, Seattle University, Seattle, WA, USA.

Purpose: This paper describes the process of developing and validating a questionnaire to investigate self-reported health and care needs of elders in Iran and Sweden.

Background: Both developing and developed countries face dilemmas under the current condition of increasing mental and physical health morbidity globally. In order to fully assess and understand the extent of these dilemmas and the global and local factors that alleviate or worsen them, a comparison of the self-reported health and care needs in a developed and a developing country is required. To these ends, two research teams within a joint international project worked together to construct a questionnaire to measure self-reported health in elders in Sweden and Iran.

Methods: The questionnaire was developed according to a multiphase process, during which the researchers tested the validity and reliability of the questionnaire using various methods and modified it based on the test results. First, the concepts to be used were agreed upon and a literature review was conducted. Thereafter, face and content validity was measured in Iran, looking at the initial items that were developed. The questionnaire was then translated and back-translated. Finally, both teams conducted a test of content validity using target groups in Iran and Sweden, respectively.

Results: Validity was established by testing face and content validity with the use of expert groups. Reliability was also determined according to two different dimensions, stability and internal consistency. Both methods gave satisfactory results, indicating that the instrument was reliable.

Conclusion: The questionnaire was thereby developed and titled, 'Self-reported health and health-care needs'. The results confirm validity and reliability of the final version of the questionnaire.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6712.2009.00706.xDOI Listing
June 2010

Strengthening medical ethics by strategic planning in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

Dev World Bioeth 2006 May;6(2):106-10

Director and Chief Scientific Officer, Endocrinology & Metabolism Research Center, Floor 5, Shariati Hospital, North Kargar Avenue, Tehran 14114, Iran.

To bring attention to medical ethics and to enhance the quality of health care in Iran, the Ministry of Health and Medical Education has introduced a strategic plan for medical ethics at a national level. This plan was developed through the organization and running of workshops in which experts addressed important areas related to medical ethics. They analysed strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats, and outlined a vision, a mission and specific goals and essential activities surrounding medical ethics. The current strategic plan has six main goals that will be reviewed in this paper. Some major activities that were carried out in recent years, and some future plans, will be also reviewed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-8847.2006.00145.xDOI Listing
May 2006

Prevalence of obsessive-compulsive disorder in Iran.

BMC Psychiatry 2004 Feb 14;4. Epub 2004 Feb 14.

Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Roozbeh Hospital, South Kargar St, 13185/1741, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Estimates of the annual prevalence for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) were consistent across the international sites range, 1.9%-2.5%. The nine population surveys, which used Diagnostic Interview Schedule, estimated a six-month prevalence of OCD ranging from 0.7% to 2.1%. This study performed in order to determine the prevalence of OCD in a population-based study among Iranian adults aged 18 and older and to study the association of them with factors such as sex, marital status, education, type of occupation and residential area.

Methods: A cross-sectional nationwide epidemiological study of the Iranian population aged 18 and older was designed to estimate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and their association with the above mentioned factors. 25180 individuals were selected and interviewed through a randomized systematic and cluster sampling method from all Iranian households. Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS) and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) criteria were used in diagnosis of OCD. 250 clinical psychologists interviewed the selected subjects face to face at their homes.

Results: The prevalence of OCD in Iran is 1.8% (0.7% and 2.8% in males and females; respectively). 50.3% of the survey sample were men, 49.9% women, 29.1% single, 67.45% married, 0.4% separated or divorced, 2.5% widow/widower and 4% undetermined. All of the above-mentioned factors were examined in the univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Although the data did not fit the models well, but in univariate models, sex, the category "single" of marital status, age, the categories "business" and "housewife" and residential areas showed significant effect adjusting for the factors, but the models didn't fit the data properly.

Conclusion: The study suggests that the prevalence of OCD is not rare in the community of Iran and is within the range of other countries. Similar to prior studies in other communities, OCD is more common in females than males.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-244X-4-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC362878PMC
February 2004