Publications by authors named "Hossein Mahmoudvand"

66 Publications

Fe3O4piroctone olamine magnetic nanoparticles: Synthesize and therapeutic potential in cutaneous leishmaniasis.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Apr 8;139:111566. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: In recent years, magnetic nanoparticles (NMP) as novel materials have been widely used for biomedical, diagnostic and therapeutic purposes like microbial infection therapy. The purpose of this study is to synthesize PO coated iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4@PO NPs) and their anti-leishmanial effects in vitro and in vivo against cutaneous leishmaniasis.

Methods: Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized by the coprecipitation of Fe2 + and Fe3 + ions and used as a nanocarrier for the production of Fe3O4@PO NPs. The in vitro antileishmanial effects of PO-coated Fe3O4 NPs and Fe3O4 NPs (10-200 µg/mL) was determined against the intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania major (MRHO/IR/75/ER) and, then, examined on cutaneous leishmaniasis induced in male BALB/c mice by L. major. The rate of infectivity, production of nitric oxide (NO), and cytotoxic activates of Fe3O4 NPs and Fe3O4@PO NPs on J774-A1 macrophage cells were determined.

Results: The size scattering of the Fe3O4 NPs and Fe3O4@PO NPs were in the range among 1-40 and 5-55 nm, respectively. The obtained IC values were 62.3 ± 2.15 μg/mL, 31.3 ± 2.26 μg/mL, and 52.6 ± 2.15 μg/mL for the Fe3O4 NPs and Fe3O4@PO NPs, and MA, respectively. The results revealed that the mean number of parasites and the mean diameter of the lesions was considerably (p < 0.05) decreased in the infected mice treated with Fe3O4 NPs and Fe3O4@PO NPs. The Fe3O4 NPs and Fe3O4@PO NPs significantly (p < 0.05) prompted the production of NO as a dose-dependent manner. The promastigotes pre-incubated in Fe3O4 NPs and Fe3O4@PO NPs at the concentration of 5 µg/mL had the ability to infect only 41.7% and 28.3% of the macrophages cells. The selectivity index of greater than 10 for Fe3O4 NPs and Fe3O4@PO NPs showed its safety to the J774-A1 macrophage cells and specificity to the parasite.

Conclusion: The results of this survey indicated the high potency of Fe3O4@PO NPs to inhibit the growth of amastigote forms of L. major as well as recovery and improvement CL induced by L. major in BALB/c mice without significant cytotoxicity. The results also indicated that, although the possible anti-leishmanial mechanisms of Fe3O4@PO NPs have not been clearly understood, however, the triggering of NO may be considered as one of the possible anti-leishmanial mechanisms of these nanoparticles. However, additional studies, in particular in clinical contexts, are mandatory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111566DOI Listing
April 2021

Therapeutic Potential of Green Synthesized Copper Nanoparticles Alone or Combined with Meglumine Antimoniate (Glucantime) in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Mar 31;11(4). Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad 68149-93165, Iran.

Background: In recent years, the focus on nanotechnological methods in medicine, especially in the treatment of microbial infections, has increased rapidly.

Aim: The present study aims to evaluate in vitro and in vivo antileishmanial effects of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) green synthesized by fruit extract alone and combined with meglumine antimoniate (MA).

Methods: CuNPs were green synthesized by methanolic extract. The in vitro antileishmanial activity of CuNPs (10-200 µg/mL) or MA alone (10-200 µg/mL), and various concentrations of MA (10-200 μg/mL) along with 20 μg/mL of CuNPs, was assessed against the (MRHO/IR/75/ER) amastigote forms and, then tested on cutaneous leishmaniasis induced in male BALB/c mice by Moreover, infectivity rate, nitric oxide (NO) production, and cytotoxic effects of CuNPs on J774-A1 cells were evaluated.

Results: Scanning electron microscopy showed that the particle size of CuNPs was 17 to 41 nm. The results demonstrated that CuNPs, especially combined with MA, significantly ( < 0.001) inhibited the growth rate of amastigotes and triggered the production of NO ( < 0.05) in a dose-dependent manner. CuNPs also had no significant cytotoxicity in J774 cells. The mean number of parasites was significantly ( < 0.05) reduced in the infected mice treated with CuNPs, especially combined with MA in a dose-dependent response. The mean diameter of the lesions decreased by 43 and 58 mm after the treatment with concentrations of 100 and 200 mg/mL of CuNPs, respectively.

Conclusion: The findings of the present study demonstrated the high potency and synergistic effect of CuNPs alone and combined with MA in inhibiting the growth of amastigote forms of as well as recovery and improving cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) induced by in BALB/c mice. Additionally, supplementary studies, especially in clinical settings, are required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11040891DOI Listing
March 2021

Chitosan-Based Nanomaterials as Valuable Sources of Anti-Leishmanial Agents: A Systematic Review.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Mar 10;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Nutritional Health Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad 6813833946, Iran.

Background: The current chemotherapy agents against various forms of leishmaniasis have some problems and side effects, including high toxicity, high cost, and the emergence of resistant strains. Here, we aimed to review the preclinical studies (in vitro and in vivo) on the anti-leishmanial activity of chitosan and chitosan-based particles against spp.

Methods: This study was conducted based on the 06-PRISMA guidelines and registered in the CAMARADES-NC3Rs Preclinical Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Facility (SyRF) database. Various English databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, EBSCO, ScienceDirect, and Scopus were used to find the publications related to the anti-leishmanial effects of chitosan and its derivatives and other pharmaceutical formulations, without a date limitation, to find all the published articles. The keywords included "chitosan", "chitosan nanoparticles", "anti-leishmanial", "", "leishmaniasis", "cutaneous leishmaniasis", "visceral leishmaniasis", "in vitro", and "in vivo". The language for data collection were limited to English.

Results: Of 2669 papers, 25 papers, including 7 in vitro (28.0%), 7 in vivo (28.0%), and 11 in vitro/in vivo (44.0%) studies conducted up to 2020 met the inclusion criteria for discussion in this systematic review. The most common species of used in these studies were (12, 48.0%), (7, 28.0%), and (4, 16.80%). In vivo, the most used animals were BALB/c mice (11, 61.1%) followed by hamsters (6, 33.3%) and Wistar rats (1, 5.5%), respectively. In vitro, the most used form was amastigote (8, 44.4%), followed by promastigote (4, 22.2%), and both forms promastigote/amastigote (6, 33.3%).

Conclusion: According to the literature, different types of drugs based on chitosan and their derivatives demonstrated considerable in vitro and in vivo anti-leishmanial activity against various spp. Based on the findings of this review study, chitosan and its derivatives could be considered as an alternative and complementary source of valuable components against leishmaniasis with a high safety index. Nevertheless, more investigations are required to elaborate on this result, mainly in clinical settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11030689DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8000302PMC
March 2021

Morphological characterization of isolated from an Iraqi patient.

J Parasit Dis 2021 Mar 12;45(1):128-130. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Hepatitis Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Science, Khorramabad, Iran.

Infection with is rare in Iraq since it has been recorded only twice by Ministry of Health. In the current study, the morphology of the parasite is evaluated to explain the basic structure of the parasite parasitizing a human body in Iraq, including the adult worm and the egg stage which is considered the diagnostic stage for the detection of the intestinal parasite in the stool sample. The assessment of the adult worm showed that it was white in color and had a pseudo-segmented shape, lacked the digestive system or alimentary canal, and was 133 mm in length. The anterior end bore the cylindrical-shaped proboscis armed with 13 rows of hooks, each with 7-8 hooks and measured 0.42 × 0.21 mm. The egg was oval-shaped, covered with three envelops, contained hooks, and was 0.083 to 0.116 mm in length. The current study was performed on a single specimen that was revealed to be female during the examination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12639-020-01287-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7921275PMC
March 2021

Chemical Composition, Apoptotic Activity, and Antiparasitic Effects of Essential Oil against Protoscoleces.

Molecules 2021 Feb 8;26(4). Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad 6813833946, Iran.

Background: Today, the present protoscolicidals used to minimize the serious risks during hydatid cyst surgery are not completely safe and have various adverse side effects. The present study aimed to evaluate the chemical composition and apoptotic activity of essential oil (FMEO) as well as its in vitro and ex vivo protoscolicidal effects against hydatid cyst protoscoleces.

Methods: Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis was performed to determine the chemical composition of FMEO. Protoscoleces of hydatid cysts were collected from liver fertile hydatid cysts of infected sheep and were then treated with various concentrations of the essential oil (75, 150, and 300 µL/mL) for 5-60 min in vitro and ex vivo. Then, by using the eosin exclusion test, the viability of the protoscoleces was studied. The caspase-3-like activity of the FMEO-treated protoscoleces was also evaluated through the colorimetric protease assay Sigma Kit based on the manufacturer's instructions.

Results: According to GC/MS, the main constituents of the essential oil were terpinolene (77.72%), n-nonanal (4.47%), and linalool (4.35%), respectively. In vitro, the maximum protoscolicidal activity of FMEO was observed at the concentrations of 150 and 300 µL/mL, such that 100% of the protoscoleces were killed after 30 and 20 min of exposure, respectively. Based on the obtained findings, the results demonstrate that FMEO required a longer time to kill protoscoleces ex vivo; after 12 min of exposure to FMEO, only 13.4% of the protoscoleces remained alive. After 48 h of the treatment of protoscoleces, FMEO, in a dose-dependent manner and at doses of 75, 150, and 300 µL/mL, induced the activation of the caspase enzyme by 24.3, 35.3, and 48.3%, respectively.

Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate the potent protoscolicidal effects of FMEO in vitro and ex vivo; however, further studies are required to assess the safety and the efficiency of FMEO as a promising scolicidal agent in a preclinical model and clinical setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26040888DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7914769PMC
February 2021

Essential Oil; Anti-Parasitic Effects and Induction of the Innate Immune System in Mice with Infection.

Molecules 2021 Feb 4;26(4). Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad 68149-93165, Iran.

Background: () is a wild aromatic plant used for traditional herbal medicine that can be demonstrated in insecticidal, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activity of its essential oils (MCEO).

Aim: The present study aimed to evaluate the prophylactic effects of essential oil (MCEO) against chronic toxoplasmosis induced by the Tehran strain of in mice.

Methods: Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis was performed to determine the chemical composition of MCEO. Mice were then orally administrated with MCEO at the doses of 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg/day and also atovaquone 100 mg/kg for 21 days. On the 15th day, the mice were infected with the intraperitoneal inoculation of 20-25 tissue cysts from the Tehran strain of . The mean numbers of brain tissue cysts and the mRNA levels of IL-12 and IFN-γ in mice of each tested group were measured.

Results: By GC/MS, the major constituents were α-pinene (24.7%), 1,8-cineole (19.6%), and linalool (12.6%), respectively. The results demonstrated that the mean number of tissue cysts in experimental groups Ex1 ( < 0.05), Ex2 ( < 0.001) and Ex3 ( < 0.001) was meaningfully reduced in a dose-dependent manner compared with the control group (C2). The mean diameter of tissue cyst was significantly reduced in mice of the experimental groups Ex2 ( < 0.01) and Ex3 ( < 0.001). The results demonstrated that although the mRNA levels of IFN-γ and IL-12 were elevated in all mice of experimental groups, a significant increase ( < 0.001) was observed in tested groups of Ex2 and Ex3 when compared with control groups.

Conclusion: The findings of the present study demonstrated the potent prophylactic effects of MCEO especially in the doses 200 and 300 mg/kg in mice infected with . Although the exceptional anti- effects of MCEO and other possessions, such as improved innate immunity and low toxicity are positive topics, there is, however, a need for more proof from investigations in this field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26040819DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7915315PMC
February 2021

Copper nanoparticles: Biosynthesis, characterization, and protoscolicidal effects alone and combined with albendazole against hydatid cyst protoscoleces.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Apr 12;136:111257. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Surgery remains the preferred treatment option for hydatid cyst (cystic echinococcosis); however, recent studies have demonstrated that the current protoscolicidal agents used during surgery are associated with some adverse side effects such as biliary fibrosis, hepatic necrosis, and cirrhosis. The present study aims to evaluate the in vitro and ex vivo anti-parasitic effects of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) alone and combined with albendazole on hydatid cyst protoscoleces.

Methods: CuNPs was green synthesized using C. spinosa extract. Various concentrations of CuNPs (250, 500, and 750 mg/mL) alone and combined with albendazole (ALZ, 200 mg/mL) were exposed to protoscoleces collected from the liver fertile hydatid cysts of infected sheep for 5-60 min in vitro and ex vivo. Next, the eosin exclusion test was applied to determine the viability of protoscoleces. Caspase-3 like activity of CuNPs-treated protoscoleces was then evaluated using the colorimetric protease assay Sigma Kit based on the manufacturer's instructions.

Results: Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results showed that the particle size of CuNPs was 17 and 41 nm with the maximum peak at the wavelength of 414 nm. The maximum protoscolicidal activity of CuNPs was observed at the concentration of 750 mg/mL in vitro, so that 73.3 % of protoscoleces were killed after 60 min of exposure. Meanwhile, the mortality of protoscoleces was 100 % after 10 min of exposure to 750 mg/mL of CuNPs along with ALZ (200 mg/mL). Nevertheless, the findings proved that CuNPs even in combination with ALZ required a longer time to kill protoscoleces ex vivo. After 48 h of treating protoscoleces, CuNPs in a dose-dependent manner and at doses of 250, 500, and 750 mg/mL induced the caspase enzyme activation by 20.5 %, 32.3 %, and 36.1 %, respectively.

Conclusion: The findings of the present investigation showed potent protoscolicidal effects of CuNPs, especially combined with albendazole, which entirely eliminated the parasite after 10-20 min of exposure. The results also showed that although the possible protoscolicidal mechanisms of CuNPs are not clearly understood, the inducing apoptosis through caspases is one of the main protoscolicidal mechanisms of CuNPs. However, supplementary studies, especially in animal models and clinical settings, are needed to approve these results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111257DOI Listing
April 2021

High Potency of Organic and Inorganic Nanoparticles to Treat Cystic Echinococcosis: An Evidence-Based Review.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2020 Dec 17;10(12). Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad 6813833946, Iran.

Since there is no potential, effective vaccine available, treatment is the only controlling option against hydatid cyst or cystic echinococcosis (CE). This study was designed to systematically review the in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo effects of nanoparticles against hydatid cyst. The study was carried out based on the 06- PRISMA guideline and registered in the CAMARADES-NC3Rs Preclinical Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Facility (SyRF) database. The search was performed in five English databases, including Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and Google Scholar without time limitation for publications around the world about the protoscolicdal effects of all the organic and inorganic nanoparticles without date limitation in order to identify all the published articles (in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo). The searched words and terms were: "nanoparticles", "hydatid cyst", "protoscoleces", "cystic echinococcosis", "metal nanoparticles", "organic nanoparticles", "inorganic nanoparticles, "in vitro", ex vivo", "in vivo". Out of 925 papers, 29 papers including 15 in vitro (51.7%), 6 in vivo (20.7%), ex vivo 2 (6.9%), and 6 in vitro/in vivo (20.7%) up to 2020 met the inclusion criteria for discussion in this systematic review. The results demonstrated the most widely used nanoparticles in the studies were metal nanoparticles such as selenium, silver, gold, zinc, copper, iron nanoparticles ( 8, 28.6%), and metal oxide nanoparticles such as zinc oxide, titanium dioxide, cerium oxide, zirconium dioxide, and silicon dioxide ( 8, 28.6%), followed by polymeric nanoparticles such as chitosan and chitosan-based nanoparticles ( 7, 25.0%). The results of this review showed the high efficacy of a wide range of organic and inorganic NPs against CE, indicating that nanoparticles could be considered as an alternative and complementary resource for CE treatment. The results demonstrated that the most widely used nanoparticles for hydatid cyst treatment were metal nanoparticles and metal oxide nanoparticles, followed by polymeric nanoparticles. We found that the most compatible drugs with nanoparticles were albendazole, followed by praziquantel and flubendazole, indicating a deeper understanding about the synergistic effects of nanoparticles and the present anti-parasitic drugs for treating hydatid cysts. The important point about using these nanoparticles is their toxicity; therefore, cytotoxicity as well as acute and chronic toxicities of these nanoparticles should be considered in particular. As a limitation, in the present study, although most of the studies have been performed in vitro, more studies are needed to confirm the effect of these nanoparticles as well as their exact mechanisms in the hydatid cyst treatment, especially in animal models and clinical settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano10122538DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7766156PMC
December 2020

In vitro and ex vivo antiparasitic effect of Rheum ribes L. extract against the hydatid cyst protoscoleces.

Infect Disord Drug Targets 2020 Nov 15. Epub 2020 Nov 15.

Department of Surgery, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad. Iran.

Background: Cystic echinococcosis is a zoonotic infection in humans and herbivorous animals with worldwide distribution which caused by larva stage of Echinococcus granulosus. Rhubarb (Rheum ribes L.) as an herbal medicines has various therapeutics properties such as the antioxidant, anticancer, and antimicrobial ones. With respect to the potential of the biological activities of this plant in traditional and modern medicine, we aim to examine its protoscolicidal effects against E. granulosus protoscolecess in vitro and ex vivo.

Methods: Collected protoscoleces from liver hydatid cysts of infected sheep were exposed to the different concentrations of the extract (225, 450, 900 mg/mL) for 5-60 min in vitro and ex vivo. Then using the eosin exclusion assay the viability of protoscoleces was studied.

Results: R. ribes extract had a potent protoscolicidal activity in vitro so that at the 450 and 900 mg/ml killed 56.3 and 100% of protoscoleces after 10 min exposure. Ex vivo assay, the extract needed more time to kill the protoscoleces than the in vitro; so that at the concentration of 900 mg/mL, all protoscoleces were killed after 15 minutes.

Conclusion: The obtained results exhibited the potent protoscolicidal effects of R. ribes extract particularly at the concentration of 900 mg/ml which completely killed the parasite after <15 min exposure. However, more and supplementary studies are required to verify these findings through assessing in animal models and clinical subjects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871526520666201116094851DOI Listing
November 2020

Effect of chitosan on infection: A systematic review.

Parasite Epidemiol Control 2020 Nov 21;11:e00189. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Hepatitis Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

Background: The preferred treatment for management of toxoplasmosis is the combined use of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine. However, there are a wide number of adverse side effects with these medications. Recent research has focused on the use of chitosan for the treatment of infections. This review was performed to obtain a better understanding of the and effects of chitosan on strains.

Methods: The current study was carried out according to the PRISMA guideline and registered in the CAMARADES-NC3Rs Preclinical Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Facility (SyRF) database. The search was performed in five scientific databases, including Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and Google Scholar, with date limits of 1992 to December 2019. The search was restricted to articles published in the English language. The words and terms searched were "", "Chitosan", "nanoparticles" and "anti-toxoplasmosis" with AND or OR.

Results: Of 2500 manuscripts, 9 met the eligibility criteria for review. All studies used the RH strain of , with Me49 and PRU each included in one study. Five studies (56%) were performed , one study and 3 studies included and tests.

Conclusion: Considering the low toxicity and the high inhibitory potency of chitosan against , chitosan nanoparticles show potential as an alternative treatment for .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parepi.2020.e00189DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7607504PMC
November 2020

The Experimental Role of Medicinal Plants in Treatment of Toxoplasma gondii Infection: A Systematic Review.

Acta Parasitol 2020 Nov 6. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

Background: Toxoplasma gondii is the global protozoa that could cause contamination in warm-blooded animals and is considered among the opportunistic pathogens in immunocompromised patients. Among the people at risk, toxoplasmosis infection can lead to the incidence of severe clinical manifestations, encephalitis, chorioretinitis, and even death.

Purpose: The present research is focused on the new research for the treatment of toxoplasmosis parasitic disease using medicinal herbs.

Methods: The search was performed in five English databases, including Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and Google Scholar up from 2010 to December 2019. Studies in any language were entered in the searching step if they had an English abstract. The words and terms were used as a syntax with specific tags of each database.

Results: Out of 1832 studies, 36 were eligible to be reviewed. The findings showed that 17 studies (47%) were performed in vitro, 14 studies (39%) in vivo, and 5 studies (14%) both in vivo and in vitro.

Conclusion: The studies showed that the plant extracts can be a good alternative in reducing the toxoplasmosis effects in the host and the herbal extracts can be used to produce natural product-based drugs affecting toxoplasmosis with fewer side-effects than synthetic drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11686-020-00300-4DOI Listing
November 2020

A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for detection of Toxoplasma gondii infection in women with spontaneous abortion.

Arch Microbiol 2021 Mar 12;203(2):763-769. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

The present study aimed to use the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technique in comparison with serological tests to determine the rate of T. gondii infection in women suffering from spontaneous abortion (SA). A total of 140 women suffering from their first SA were included in this study. The collected aborted fetal remains and blood samples from each patient were examined in sterilized conditions using the LAMP technique and ELISA. Of the 140 women, 80 (57.1%) tested seropositive for anti-Toxoplasma antibodies by ELISA, 72 (51.4%) women tested seropositive for the IgG antibody, 8 (5.7%) tested seropositive for the IgM antibody. Among the eight women who'd had their first SA who tested seropositive for IgM antibody by ELISA, only five cases (62.5%) reported positively to the LAMP test. The difference in the frequency distribution of the LAMP results for measuring the Toxoplasma infection in pregnant women under study was statistically significant (P < 0.001) from the results of the serological test (ELISA). Although there was a significant difference between age and positivity in the LAMP test (P = 0.017), no significant difference was observed between positivity in the LAMP test and other variables. The findings of the present investigation suggest that LAMP is a preferred method for determining Toxoplasma infection in pregnant women suffering from SA compared with other routine serological tests. Even in a field with limited facilities and equipment, this technique can be effective and efficient in accurately and specifically diagnosing Toxoplasma infections in women at high risk of SA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00203-020-02081-wDOI Listing
March 2021

Extraction, Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Property and In vitro Anticancer Activity of Silymarin from Silybum Marianum On Kb and A549 Cell Lines.

Curr Drug Discov Technol 2020 Aug 27. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Research Center of Pediatric Infectious Disaeses, Hazrat-e-Rasoul Akram Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran. Iran.

Introduction: This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant property of silymarin (SM) extracted from the seed of Silybum marianum and its anticancer activity on KB and A549 cell lines following 24, 48, and 72 h of treatment.

Methods: Ten grams of powdered S. marianum seeds were defatted using n-hexane for 6 hours and then extracted by methanol. The silymarin extracted of extraction components The extracted components of silymarin were measured by spectrophotometric assay and HPLC analysis. 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, phenol content, total flavonoid content, and total antioxidant capacity were measured to detect the antioxidant properties of SM. The anticancer activity of the SM on cell lines evaluated by MTT.

Results: In HPLC analysis, more than 50% of the peaks were related to silibin A and B. SM was reducedDPPH (the stable free radical) with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 6.56 μg/ ml in comparison with butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT), which indicated an IC50 of ~3.9 μg/ ml.The cytotoxicity effect of SM on the cell lines was studied by MTT assay. The cytotoxicity effect of the extracted silymarin on KB and A549 cell lines was observed up to 80 and 70% at 156 and 78 µg/ml, respectively. The IC50 value of the extracted SM on KB and A549 cell lines after 24 hours of treatment was seen at 555 and 511 µg/ml, respectively.

Conclusion: Due to the good antioxidant and anticancer properties of the isolated silymarin, its use as an anticancer drug is suggested.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570163817666200827111127DOI Listing
August 2020

In Vitro and Ex Vivo Evaluation of Capparis Spinosa Extract to Inactivate Protoscoleces During Hydatid cyst Surgery.

Curr Drug Discov Technol 2020 Aug 18. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Department of Surgery, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad,. Iran.

Background: Hydatidosis is one of the most dangerous zoonosis diseases in the world caused by the larval stage of the broad-worm or Echinococcus granulosus parasite. Today, cysts' rupture or content leakage during surgery and in-volvement of organs adjacent to the organ involved, and consequently secondary cysts, are the major concern for hydatid cyst surgeons. Therefore, using scolicidal substances such as hypertonic saline 20%, silver nitrate and formalin has been considered to reduce the risk of protoscoleces spread and recurrence of disease in recent years. The current work designed to assess the antiparasitic effects of Capparis spinose L. extract against hydatid cyst protoscoleces.

Methods: Collected protoscoleces from liver fertile hydatid cysts of infected sheep were exposed to the different concentra-tions of the essential oil (150, 300, 600 mg/mL) for 5-60 min in vitro and ex vivo. Then by using the eosin exclusion assay the viability of protoscoleces was studied. The primary phytochemical analysis of the C. spinosa extract was done to assess the presence of tannins, alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids and glycosides.

Results: C. spinosa extract had a powerful protoscolicidal activity in vitro so that at the 300 and 600 mg/ml entirely elimi-nates the parasite after 10 and 5 minutes; whereas at lower doses demonstrated weak protoscolicidal activity. Ex vivo assay, no similar effect with in vitro was observed, so that requiring a more time to show a potent protoscolicidal activity. C. spi-nosa extract at the concentrations of 300 and 600 mg/mL after exposure time of 20 and 12 min, killed 100% of protoscole-ces within the hydatid cyst, respectively. The findings of primary phytochemical screening of the C. spinosa extract demon-strated the existance of flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, glycosides and alkaloids in this plant.

Conclusion: The obtained results in vitro and ex vivo exhibited that potent protoscolicidal effects of C. spinosa extract particu-larly at the concentrations of 600 and 300 mg/ml which entirely eliminates the parasite after 5-20 min exposure. However, more and supplementary works are required to verify these findings through assessing in animal models and clinical subjects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570163817999200819091336DOI Listing
August 2020

Nanoparticles: New agents toward treatment of leishmaniasis.

Parasite Epidemiol Control 2020 Aug 23;10:e00156. Epub 2020 May 23.

Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

Leishmaniasis is a widespread disease that causes 20,000 to 30,000 deaths annually, making it a major health problem in endemic areas. Because of low-performance medications, drug delivery poses a great challenge for better treatment of leishmaniasis. The present study's purpose was to review the application of nanoparticles as a new method in leishmaniasis treatment To identify all relevant literature, we searched Web of Sciences, Scopus, PubMed, NCBI, Scielo, and Google Scholar, and profiled studies published between 1986 and 2019. In the present study, we tried to identify different research efforts in different conditions that examined the influence of various nanoparticles on different forms of leishmaniasis. In this way, we could compare their results and obtain a reliable conclusion from the most recent studies on this subject. Our review's results indicate that incorporating nanoparticles with chemical drugs improves the quality, efficiency, and sustainability of drugs and reduces their costs. Finally, considering the use of nanoparticles in the destruction of parasites, their inhibitory effect (making drugs more effective and less harmful), and their utility in making effective vaccines to prevent and fight against parasites, further research on this issue is highly recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parepi.2020.e00156DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7298521PMC
August 2020

Antimicrobial Activities of Satureja khuzestanica Jamzad; A Review.

Infect Disord Drug Targets 2020 Jun 10. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad. Iran.

Satureja khuzestanica Jamzad. is a species native to Iran, highly important in Southwestern regions. It belongs to the Lamiaceae family and grows in different climates. A number of pharmacological properties such as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anti-thyroid, antioxidant, and diuretic heve been attributed to this plant. In recent years, a wide range of biological properties, extract, and essential oil of Satureja khuzestanica has been studied by researchers. In the present study, Scopus, SID, ISI, Google Scholar, and PubMed indices were used to extract research articles. No publication time constraint was considered, and the keyword "Satureja khuzestanica" was used to search articles. All extracted articles were examined by two expert researchers and those on the biologic and fundamental science properties of this plan entered the study. Results showed that S. khuzestanica has extensive research and medicinal applications. Considering the economic and medical importance of S. khuzestanica, it is hoped that more extensive studies can be conducted in future on the use of compounds and derivatives of this plant in order to obtain herbal medications to treat pathogens in human and animal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871526520666200611102009DOI Listing
June 2020

Prophylactic Activity of Biogenic Selenium Nanoparticles Against Chronic Infection.

Recent Pat Antiinfect Drug Discov 2020 ;15(1):75-84

Research Center for Tropical and Infectious Diseases, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Background: Studies showed that biogenic selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) have a number of pharmacological properties, such as antimicrobial ones.

Objective: The present investigation assesses the efficacy of biogenic selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) as a new patent against latent toxoplasmosis in a mice model.

Methods: Male BALB/c mice were orally treated with SeNPs at the doses of 2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg once a day for 14 days. On the 15th day, the mice were infected with the intraperitoneal inoculation of 20-25 tissue cysts from the Tehran strain of Toxoplasma gondii. The mean numbers of brain tissue cysts and the mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-12, IL-10, IFN-γ, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in mice of each tested group were measured. Moreover, serum clinical chemistry factors in treated mice were examined to determine the safety of SeNPs.

Results: The mean number of the brain tissue cysts was significantly (P<0.001) decreased in mice treated with SeNPs at doses 2.5 (n=37), 5 (n=11), and 10 mg/kg (n=3) based on a dose dependent manner compared with the control group (n=587). The mRNA levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-12, and iNO were significantly increased in mice treated with SeNPs at the doses 10 mg/kg compared with control subgroups (p<0.05). No significant variation (p>0.05) was observed in the clinical chemistry parameters among the mice in the control subgroups compared with groups treated with SeNPs.

Conclusion: The results of the present study showed a new patent in the treatment of toxoplasmosis; so that taking the biogenic selenium nanoparticles in concentrations of 2.5-10 mg/kg for 2 weeks was able to prevent severe symptoms of the toxoplasmosis in a mice model. This indicated the prophylactic effects of SeNPs with no considerable toxicity against latent toxoplasmosis. However, more studies are required to elucidate the correct anti-Toxoplasma mechanisms of SeNPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1574891X15666200604115001DOI Listing
January 2020

Efficacy and Safety of Boiss Essential Oil against Acute Toxoplasmosis in Mice.

Iran J Parasitol 2020 Jan-Mar;15(1):22-30

Bam University of Medical Sciences, Bam, Iran.

Background: Broad spectrums of pharmacological properties, including antimicrobial activity have been attributed to Boiss (Laminaceae). The in vivo efficacy and safety of essential oil (ZM-EO) were evaluated against acute toxoplasmosis caused by (Sarcocystidae) in mice.

Methods: (aerial parts) was obtained from the rural districts of Kerman city (Kerman Province) Southwestern Iran, in May of 2016. Male NMRI mice were orally treated with normal saline (control group) and ZM-EO at the doses of 0.2 and 0.4 mL/kg once a day for 14 d (8 mice in each group) On the 15 day, the mice were infected with 104 tachyzoites of RH strain by intraperitoneal route. The mortality rate and parasite load were determined in the infected mice. Additionally, 24 mice were applied to examine the sub-acute toxicity of ZM-EO at the above doses after treatment during 14 d.

Results: GC/MS analysis displayed that the key constituents were thymol (45.4%), carvacrol (23%) and -cymene (10.6%), respectively. Overall, 100% mortality was observed on the 8 and 9 days in treated mice with the concentrations of 0.2 and 0.4 mL/kg, respectively. The mean number of tachyzoites in the mice treated with 0.2 and 0.4 mL/kg of ZM-EO were 189×10 and 76×10 cell/mL, respectively, meaningfully (<0.05) reduced compared with the control mice. Results also demonstrated that ZM-EO had no important toxicity on mice.

Conclusion: The results demonstrated the efficacy of ZM-EO against acute toxoplasmosis. Nevertheless, supplementary surveys are mandatory to examine its precise effects, mainly immunomodulatory effect on toxoplasmosis.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7244848PMC
June 2020

Anti-Candida activity of Curcumin: A review.

Curr Drug Discov Technol 2020 May 17. Epub 2020 May 17.

Hepatitis Research Center, Lorestan University of Sciences f Medical Sciences, Khorramabad. Iran.

Curcumin is one of the important natural compounds that is extracted from turmeric. This compound and its derivatives have numerous biological properties, including antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and healing effects. Extensive research in various fields has been conducted on turmeric as it is widely used as a food additive. The significant antifungal activity is one of the major effects of curcumin. In this paper, recent studies on the effects of different forms of curcumin drug on the candidiasis were systematically examined and discussed. The data in this study were extracted from the articles and reports published in the Web of Science, Google Scholar, PubMed, and Scopus databases. After the preliminary investigation, relevant reports were selected and classified based on the incorporated formulation and purpose of the study. After a systematic discussion of the data, it was found that the use of medicinal forms based on nanoparticles can increase the absorption and target the controlled release of curcumin with a more effective role compared to other formulations. Consequently, it can be concluded that new methods of modern medicine can be employed to increase the efficacy of natural pharmaceutical compounds used in the past. In this regard, the present study analyzed the effect of curcumin against various Candida infections using the recent data. It was found that applying a combination of drug formulation or the formulation of curcumin and its derivatives can be an effective strategy to overcome the medicine resistance in fungal infections, especially candidiasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570163817666200518074629DOI Listing
May 2020

Prophylactic effects of biogenic selenium nanoparticles on acute toxoplasmosis: An in vivo study.

Ann Med Surg (Lond) 2020 Jun 29;54:85-88. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

Background: In this investigation, the in vivo efficacy and safety of biogenic selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) are assessed against acute toxoplasmosis caused by (Sarcocystidae) in the mice.

Methods: Male NMRI mice were orally treated with normal saline (control group) and SeNPs at the doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg once a day for 14 days On the 15th day, the mice were infected with 10 tachyzoites of RH strain by the intraperitoneal route. The mortality rate and parasite load were determined in the infected mice. The mRNA levels of IFN-γ, IL10, IL12, and inducible nitric oxide synthase were also examined in the infected mice by quantitative real-time PCR.

Results: The rate of mortality in the infected mice receiving SeNPs at the doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg compared with the mice in the control group was 100% on the 9 and 10 days after the administration. The mean number of tachyzoites in the infected mice receiving SeNPs was significantly lower than that in the control group. No significant difference ( > 0.05) was found in the biochemical parameters between the mice treated with SeNPs and the mice in the control group. The results revealed that mRNA levels significantly improved in the infected mice treated with SeNPs compared with those in the control group.

Conclusion: Findings of the present investigation showed the considerable efficacy of SeNPs with no important toxicity for curing acute toxoplasmosis in the mice model. However, further studies are needed to clarify the accurate anti-Toxoplasma mechanisms of SeNPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amsu.2020.04.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7212177PMC
June 2020

Antinociceptive effects of green synthesized copper nanoparticles alone or in combination with morphine.

Ann Med Surg (Lond) 2020 Mar 11;51:31-36. Epub 2020 Jan 11.

Department of Anesthesiology, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive effect of biosynthetic copper nanoparticles from aqueous extract of fruit.

Methods: In this study, green synthesis of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) was performed using extract according to the method described previously. The synthesized CuNPs were characterized using the UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transforms of infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX). The antinociceptive effect of CuNPs was evaluated by tail-flick, hot-plate, and rotarod tests following the oral administration of mice with CuNPs at the concentrations of 25, 50, and 75 mg/kg for two weeks.

Results: The obtained maximum peak at the wavelength of 414 nm demonstrated the biosynthesis of the copper nanoparticles. SEM approved the particle size of CuNPs between 17 and 41 nm. The statistical analyses of the data of hot plate and tail-flick tests showed the potent analgesic effect of biosynthetic CuNPs. In this regard, the antinociceptive effect of at the doses of 75 mg/kg and 25 mg/kg plus morphine was significantly higher in comparison with the control group receiving morphine alone (P < 0.05). No significant (p > 0.05) difference was observed after the administration of CuNPs at the doses of 25, 50, and 75 mg/kg in the sensory-motor test.

Conclusion: The present investigation demonstrated the analgesic effects of CuNPs especially in combination with morphine. These findings can provide a new strategy for producing new antinociceptive medications in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amsu.2019.12.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7000444PMC
March 2020

Prevalence and associated risk factors of intestinal helminthic infections in children from Lorestan province, Western Iran.

Parasite Epidemiol Control 2020 May 9;9:e00136. Epub 2020 Jan 9.

Hepatitis Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

Background: Intestinal helminthic infections are among the most important global socioeconomic and health problems. This study aimed to estimate the frequency of intestinal parasites in 366 children aged 2 to 15 years referred to the main pediatric health center of Lorestan Province, Iran.

Methods: Microscopic analysis was performed on 366 stool samples. We applied direct smear, scotch tape, and formol-ether methods. Moreover, a questionnaire was filled in by parents or guardians of the children.

Results: The results showed that 36 children (9.8%) were infected with at least one or more intestinal parasites. The most prevalent parasites were (6.8%), (1.9%), and (0.55%), in the order of their appearance. Statistical analysis showed that several risk factors were significantly associated with the prevalence intestinal helminthic parasites, including male sex (OR = 2.9; 95% CI: 1.2-6.2; p < 0.05), residing in rural regions (OR = 4.2; 95% CI: 2.1-10.6; p < 0.001), no handwashing habit before eating (OR = 5.2; 95% CI: 2.2-12.5; p < 0.001), and consuming raw or unwashed vegetables and fruits (OR = 4.8; 95% CI: 2.3-11.2; p < 0.001).

Conclusion: The present study showed a high overall frequency of intestinal helminthic infections among the children in Lorestan province, Iran. The results of the risk factor analysis suggest that improving environmental hygiene and health education would be important for effective control of intestinal parasitic infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parepi.2020.e00136DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6976929PMC
May 2020

Biogenic selenium nanoparticles target chronic toxoplasmosis with minimal cytotoxicity in a mouse model.

J Med Microbiol 2020 Jan;69(1):104-110

Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

Nanoparticles (NPs) have numerous biological benefits due to their large surface-volume ratio and convenient entry into cells compared to other particles. Previous research has shown the antimicrobial properties of biogenic selenium NPs (SeNps) and their effects on cellular immunomodulatory cytokines that play a key role in controlling infections. This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of SeNPs against chronic toxoplasmosis in mice. Infected mice with (Tehran strain) were orally treated with SeNPs at doses of 2.5, 5 and 10 mg kg once a day for 14 days. On the fifthteenth day, the mean number of brain-tissue cysts and the mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-12, IL-10, IFN-γ and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the mice of each group were recorded. Moreover, serum clinical chemistry factors in the treated mice were examined to determine the safety of SeNPs. The mean number of tissue cysts was significantly (<0.001) decreased in mice treated with SeNPs in a dose-dependent manner compared with the control group. The mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines were significantly increased in mice treated with SeNPs at a dose of 10 mg kg compared with the control subgroup (<0.05). No significant variation (>0.05) observed in clinical chemistry parameters among the mice in the control subgroup compared with those treated with SeNPs. The findings demonstrated the therapeutic effects of SeNPs with no considerable toxicity against latent toxoplasmosis in the mouse model. Nevertheless, further studies are obligatory to reveal the exact anti-Toxoplasma mechanisms of SeNPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.001111DOI Listing
January 2020

The High Potential of Ozone Gas to Inactivate Echinococcus granulosus Protoscoleces During Hydatid Cyst Surgery.

Infect Disord Drug Targets 2020 ;20(5):708-712

Department of Medical Parasitology, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran.

Background: In medicine, ozone therapy is effectively used in a broad spectrum of diseases. Reviews have shown that ozone gas demonstrates potent antimicrobial effects against a wide range of pathogenic microorganisms, such as oral bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasite even in resistant strains. The present investigation was designed to assess the protoscolicidal effects of ozone gas on hydatid cysts protoscoleces in vitro and in vivo.

Methods: Hydatid cyst protoscoleces were acquired from sheep livers that were slaughtered at Kerman slaughterhouse, Iran. The viability of protoscoleces was assessed by the eosin exclusion examination after exposure with ozone gas for 1 to 14 min in vitro and ex vivo.

Results: In this study, in vitro assay showed that ozone gas at the concentration of 20 mg/L killed 85 and 100% of hydatid cyst protoscoleces after 4 and 6 min of treatment, respectively. However, in the ex vivo analysis, a longer time was needed to confirm a potent protoscolicidal activity such that ozone gas after an exposure time of 12 min, 100% of the protoscoleces were killed within the hydatid cyst.

Conclusion: In conclusion, the findings of the present study showed that ozone gas at low concentrations (20 mg/L) and short times (4-6 min) might be used as a novel protoscolicidal drug for use in hydatid cyst surgery. However, more clinical surveys are required to discover the precise biological activity of ozone gas in animal and human subjects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871526519666190924160925DOI Listing
January 2020

Efficacy and Safety Curcuma zadoaria L. to Inactivate the Hydatid Cyst Protoscoleces.

Curr Clin Pharmacol 2020 ;15(1):64-71

Research Center for Tropical and Infectious Diseases, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Background: The present work aimed to evaluate the chemical composition of Curcuma zadoaria essential oil and to investigate its efficacy and safety against hydatid cyst protoscoleces.

Methods: Collected protoscoleces from liver fertile hydatid cysts of infected sheep were exposed to different concentrations of the essential oil (75, 150, 300 μl/mL) for 5-30 min in vitro and ex vivo. Then, by using the eosin exclusion assay, the viability of protoscoleces was studied. In the next step, 24 male NMRI mice were examined to assess the toxicity of C. zadoaria essential oil by measuring the biochemical and hematological parameters.

Results: Based on the obtained results, the LD50 value of intraperitoneal injection of the C. zadoaria essential oil was 1.76 mL/kg of body weight and the maximum non-fatal dose was 0.96 mL/kg of body weight. C. zadoaria essential oil had a strong proto scolicidal activity in vitro so that at the 300 and 150 μl/ml entirely eliminates the parasite after 5 and 10 minutes; whereas, weak proto scolicidal activity was observed at lower doses. Ex vivo assay, no similar effect with in vitro was observed, therefore, more time is required to show a potent proto scolicidal activity. C. zadoaria essential oil at the concentrations of 300 and 150 μl/mL after an exposure time of 7 and 12 min, killed 100% of protoscoleces within the hydatid cyst, respectively. After intraperitoneal injection of the C. zadoaria essential oil for 2 weeks, no significant difference (p > 0.05) was observed in the clinical chemistry and hematologic parameters at the doses of 0.15, 0.3, 0.6 mL/kg.

Conclusion: The obtained results in vitro and ex vivo exhibited that C. zadoaria essential oil had a favorable proto scolicidal activity on hydatid cyst protoscoleces. However, more supplementary works are required to verify these findings by assessing clinical subjects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1574884714666190918155147DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7366002PMC
January 2020

Prevalence and associated risk factors of and infection among Iranian patients with colorectal cancer.

J Parasit Dis 2019 Sep 19;43(3):402-405. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

4Department of Internal Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

From among intestinal parasites, coccidian intestinal parasites such as (previously known as ), and are well-known as opportunist parasites, particularly in patients with cancer. This study assessed the prevalence of and in patients with cancer in Lorestan Province, Southwest of Iran. This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 87 patients with colorectal cancers, referred to the general hospitals of Lorestan from October 2017 to August 2018. A fresh stool specimen was collected from each subject in a sterile labeled container. The collected stool samples were concentrated through sucrose flotation method and then prepared for Ziehl-Neelsen staining for microscopic examination. Demographic and possible risk factors such as age, sex, education, residence, and unwashed vegetable/fruit consumption were collected by an applied questionnaire. Out of the 87 patients with colorectal cancer, eight (9.2%) were found positive for and infections, with five (5.74%) and three (3.44%) patients positive for and infections, respectively. Results also showed that sex and unwashed vegetable/fruit consumption were significantly associated with the prevalence of these parasites ( < 0.01). The findings revealed the considerable prevalence of and in patients with colorectal cancers. It is therefore essential for gastrointestinal specialists to pay special attention to the prevalence of coccidian parasites in patients with colorectal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12639-019-01104-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6667722PMC
September 2019

Efficacy and safety of Curcuma longa essential oil to inactivate hydatid cyst protoscoleces.

BMC Complement Altern Med 2019 Jul 26;19(1):187. Epub 2019 Jul 26.

NanoBioElectrochemistry Research Center, Bam University of Medical Sciences, Bam, Iran.

Background: One of the most important ways to cure hydatid cysts is surgery. Today, available chemical drugs have shown severe complications during hydatid cyst surgery. Here we investigated theefficacy and safety of Curcuma longa (C. longa) essential oil (CLEO) against hydatid cysts protoscoleces.

Methods: Here, the collected protoscoleces from fertile hydatid cysts were exposed to different concentrations of the CLEO (50-200 μl/mL) for 5-30 min in vitro and ex vivo. In addition, male NIH mice (48 mice) were applied to examine the safety of CLEO.

Results: All protoscoleces were completely killed in 5th min of treatment to the doses of 200 μl /mL of CLEO. On the other hand, in the 10th min of treatment, CLEO entirely killed 100% of protoscoleces at the dose of 100 μL/mL. Other doses of CLEO, but, revealed a postponed activity. Although CLEO at the doses of 50, and 100 μL/mL exhibited no similar effect in the ex vivo analysis; but, at the dose of 200 μL/mL and an exposure time of 5 min, approximately 100% of protoscoleces were destroyed into the cyst. We found that after intra-peritoneal injection of the CLEO for 14 days, although blood and biochemical parameters were changed; but there was no significant difference in comparison with the control group (p > 0.05).

Conclusion: This research demonstrated that C. longa revealed the promising scolicidal effects against protoscoleces in vitro and in vivo, of course, after additional tests; it might be considered as an herbal scolicidal drug in order to decrease the threat of discharge of protoscoleces through hydatid cyst surgery. Nevertheless, supplementary studies will be desired to prove the current findings by examination the essential oil in a clinical setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-019-2527-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6660933PMC
July 2019

The Prevalence of Endoparasites in Stray Cats in Western Iran.

Iran J Public Health 2019 Apr;48(4):779-781

Department of Social Medicine, Medical School, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6500544PMC
April 2019

Rare Complication of Botox Injection: A Case Report.

World J Plast Surg 2019 Jan;8(1):116-119

Department of Surgery, Iran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran.

Botulinum toxin (BTX) is also well-known as Botox is produced by a gram-positive anaerobic bacterium called Generally, clinical manifestations of BTX can be observed after consumption of contaminated food, from colonization of the infant gastrointestinal tract, as well as following the infection of the wound to this bacterium. There are seven types of this neurotoxin labeled as A, B, C (C1, C2), D, E, and F. Human botulinum is caused by types A, B, E and rarely F. The most common clinical symptoms of BTX in cosmetic goals are cervical dystonia, severe primary axillary hyperhidrosis, strabismus, neurogenic detrusor over-activity, chronic migraine, upper limb spasticity and blepharospasm. Botox has a wide range of therapeutic uses and occasionally patients receiving this treatment may experience botulism symptom including local and even distant and autonomic symptoms. Despite the efficacies of Botox in treatment of myriad neurologic and cosmetic conditions, it may carry some risk of sever adverse effects which may be the result of local or systemic spreading of the drug. Our patient was a 22 years old man who received Botox for axillary hyperhidrosis after two weeks, when most of generalized complications of botulinum toxin appeared. This case was introduced for being aware of dangerous complication of Botox. Pyridostigmine could relieve symptoms of the patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.29252/wjps.8.1.116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6409137PMC
January 2019

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Pediculosis in Primary School Children in South West of Iran.

Iran J Public Health 2018 Dec;47(12):1923-1929

Dept. of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Background: Pediculosis or louse infestation is a public health problem in many developing countries where the WHO's primary health-care program is inefficient and haphazard. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of infestation and its related risk factors in the primary school children in Andimeshk, Dezful and Shoosh counties; Khuzestan Province, Iran.

Methods: Overall, 28410 students in the age range of 7-11 years old in primary schools of North of Khuzestan Province, southern Iran were examined individually and privately under the flash light for all life cycle stages of lice or their nits in 2016. A questionnaire was filled for each school child before hair examination; then examination was carried out to detect head lice as well as eggs/nits.

Results: Overall, 2995 students (10.5%) were infested with pediculosis. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of pediculosis among the boys and girls students. The prevalence of infestation was also significantly (<0.05) higher in students of living in nomad tribes (23.8%) in comparison of rural (12.4%) and urban areas (6.5%).

Conclusion: Several risk factors significantly (<0.05) related to pediculosis included gender of female, nomad habitat, parents education, father's occupation, having health staff, history of infestation and number of combing per day. Increasing awareness and training of teachers and relatives, as well as for improving standards of personal health, can significantly reduce the prevalence of pediculosis.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6379608PMC
December 2018