Publications by authors named "Hossein Ajdarkosh"

48 Publications

Long Non-Coding RNAs Expression in Breast Cancer: CBR3-AS1 LncRNA as a Sensitive Biomarker.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2021 09 1;22(9):2897-2902. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) are eminent genes in the human genome that interfere with the regulation of many complexities of organisms and control many of the various biological processes. As a result, it is considered that they may play an important role in different cancers. With regard to the high prevalence of breast cancer and the role of lncRNA, the present study aimed at investigating the expression of various lncRNAs.

Method: Fresh tissues were obtained from operating rooms of Shariati, Khatamolanbia, and Milad Hospitals (Tehran, Iran) by a surgeon. A total of 45 tumor samples and 45 non-tumor samples (from the margin of tumor) were obtained from the same patients. Relative expression evaluation method was used in Real time PCR. Estrogenn receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER2 expression were analyzed using IHC analyses of each cell block.

Results: Participants included 44 female and 1 male with the mean age ± SD of 50 ± 12.0 years (range: 23-74). A majority of participants (41/45) were Ductal carcinoma type. Our results showed significant expressions for CBR3-AS1 (P-value=0.0139), RAB6C-AS1 (P-value=0.0023), and ZEB2-AS1 (P-value=0.0289) in comparison with the healthy cells. ROC curve analysis for CBR3-AS1 LncRNA revaled sensitivity more than 70%.

Conclusion: Although CBR3-AS1, RAB6C-AS1, and ZEB2-AS1 lncRNAs were found to have high expressions in the breast cancer cells, only CBR3-AS1 lncRNA has a high chance to be a breast cancer biomarker.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.31557/APJCP.2021.22.9.2897DOI Listing
September 2021

The pathogenic, therapeutic and diagnostic role of exosomal microRNA in the autoimmune diseases.

J Neuroimmunol 2021 Sep 24;358:577640. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Virology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Exosomes are a nano-vesicle surrounded by a bilipid layer that can release from almost all cells and could be detected in tissues and biological liquids. These vesicles contain lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids (including DNA, mRNA, and miRNA) inside and on the exosomes' surface constitute their content. Exosomes can transfer their cargo into the recipient cell, which can modify recipient cells' biological activities. Recently it has been deciphering that the miRNA pattern of exosomes reveals the cellular pathophysiological situation and modifies various biological processes. Increasing data regarding exosomes highlights that the exosomes and their cargo, especially miRNAs, are implicated in the pathophysiology of various disorders, such as autoimmune disease. The current evidence on the deciphering of mechanisms in which exosomal miRNAs contributed to autoimmunity was indicated that exosomal miRNA might hold information that can reprogram the function of many of the immune cells involved in autoimmune diseases' pathogenesis. In the present study, we summarized the pathogenic role of exosomal miRNAs in several autoimmune diseases, including myasthenia gravis (MG), psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), type 1 diabetes (T1D), multiple sclerosis (MS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Sjogren's Syndrome (SS), systemic sclerosis (SSc), vitiligo, and autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD). Moreover, in this work, we present evidence of the potential role of exosomal miRNAs as therapeutic and diagnostic agents in autoimmune diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroim.2021.577640DOI Listing
September 2021

Evaluating tissue levels of the eight trace elements and heavy metals among esophagus and gastric cancer patients: A comparison between cancerous and non-cancerous tissues.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2021 May 4;68:126761. Epub 2021 May 4.

Noncommunicable Diseases Research Center, Neyshabur University of Medical Sciences, Neyshabur, Iran; School of Public Health, Neyshabur University of Medical Sciences, Neyshabur, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Considering the affecting role of environmental factors including trace elements and heavy metals on the upper gastrointestinal (GI) cancers, there is paucity of empirical research in tissue evaluations.

Objectives: The present study aimed to measure the tissue content of some trace elements and heavy metals such as zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), tin (Sn), copper (Cu), aluminum (Al), lead (Pb), and iron (Fe) in esophagus and gastric cancerous tissues compared to the adjacent healthy tissues.

Methods: In a cross-sectional study, the aforementioned trace elements and heavy metals were evaluated among patients with esophagus and gastric cancers. During endoscopy, multiple samples were taken from cancerous lesions and the adjacent healthy tissues. The classic flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) method was employed as the study framework.

Results: Fifty patients with the mean age of 53.92 ± 8.73 were enrolled in the current study. Thirteen patients suffered from esophageal cancer and thirty-seven patients were afflicted with gastric cancer. The results revealed significant differences in the median concentrations of Zn, Cr, Sn and, Cu (P < 0.05) between the two groups. Although there were no significant changes in the tissue content in the esophageal samples, in the median concentrations of Zn, Cr and, Sn (P < 0.05) in gastric tissues, significant differences were observed. Further, the results indicated that gender enacted an affecting role in the level of some trace elements and heavy metals.

Conclusion: The tissue contents of some elements were altered in gastric and esophageal cancers; this difference may reflect the underlying mechanism of cellular changing during the tumorigenesis or direct exposure of these elements. It seems that under the shade of other coexisting risk factors, larger cohort studies are suggested to be conducted to investigate other probable aspects in this area of interest.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2021.126761DOI Listing
May 2021

A possible pathogenic role of Syndecan-1 in the pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Aug 17;97:107684. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Virology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

A cell-surface heparan proteoglycan called Syndecan-1 (SDC-1) has multiple roles in healthy and pathogenic conditions, including respiratory viral infection. In this study, we explore the dynamic alternation in the levels of SDC-1 in cases with COVID-19. A total of 120 cases definitely diagnosed with COVID-19 were admitted to the Firoozgar Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from December 1, 2020, to January 29, 2021, and included in our study. Also, 58 healthy subjects (HS) were chosen as the control group. Patients were classified into two groups: 1) ICU patients and (63 cases) 2) non-ICU patients (57 cases). The dynamic changes of serum SCD-1, CRP, IL-6, IL-10, IL-18, and Vit D levels a well as the disease activity were investigated in three-time points (T1-T3). Our results indicated that the COVID-19 patients had significantly increased SCD-1, CRP, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-18 levels than in HS, while the Vit D levels in COVID-19 patients were significantly lower than HS. Further analysis demonstrated that the SCD-1, CRP, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-18 levels in ICU patients were significantly higher than in non-ICU patients. Tracking dynamic changes in the above markers indicated that on the day of admission, the SCD-1, CRP, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-18 levels were gradually increased on day 5 (T2) and then gradually decreased on day 10 (T3). ROC curve analysis suggests that markers mentioned above, SDC-1, IL-6, and IL-18 are valuable indicators in evaluating the activity of COVID-19. All in all, it seems that the serum SDC-1 levels alone or combined with other markers might be a good candidate for disease activity monitoring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2021.107684DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8052477PMC
August 2021

Liver Function Tests Profile in COVID-19 Patients at the Admission Time: A Systematic Review of Literature and Conducted Researches.

Adv Biomed Res 2020 23;9:74. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Since the start of coronavirus epidemic in Wuhan, China, in early December 2019, many literatures addressed its epidemiology, virology, and clinical presentation. In this review, we systematically reviewed the published literature in the field of liver function tests profile in COVID-19 patients at the admission time.

Materials And Methods: systematic literature search were performed in EMBASE, PubMed, Science Direct, and Scopus using "severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2)", "SARS," "SARS-CoV," "coronavirus," "novel coronavirus," "liver," "hepatitis," "Liver function" keywords. The search was limited to range from 2019 to May 19, 2020.

Results: From a total 7298 articles, 145 were screened and 18 were eligible for further analysis. The highest rate of liver associated comorbidities was reported 11%. The aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were the most frequent assessed enzymes. Increase in AST level was seen in 10%-53% of patients while The ALT increase was seen in 5%-28% of COVID-19 patients at the admission time. The prothrombin time was increase in 7%-12% of patients and the D-dimer was reports increase in 14%-36% of COVID-19 patients at the admission time. Furthermore, albumin decrease was seen in 6%-98% of COVID-19 patients at the admission time.

Conclusion: In conclusion, by using the results of study, it could be suggested that the liver function tests assessment is critical assessment in COVID-19 patients at the admission time. This liver function test could be used as potential prognostic factor in COVID-19 severity in future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/abr.abr_73_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8059456PMC
December 2020

Relationship between dietary macronutrient composition and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in lean and non-lean populations: a cross-sectional study.

Public Health Nutr 2021 Apr 26:1-13. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases Research Center (GILDRC), Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran1593748711, Iran.

Objective: The current study aimed to customize dietary changes for lean patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

Design: The current study was done with a population-based cross-sectional design. The FFQ was used to analyse dietary macronutrient intake and ultrasonography results for NAFLD diagnosis. The study subjects were divided into the lean and non-lean groups based on their BMI (< 25 and ≥ 25). Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between dietary macronutrients and NAFLD. Substitution analyses were also performed.

Setting: Amol and its suburban areas in Iran.

Participants: Adults in the age range of 18 to < 65 with full relevant data.

Results: Among the total study subjects (2308), 46·7 % had fatty liver. The substitution of polysaccharides for animal protein and SFA in the lean group resulted in a significant NAFLD reduction, whereas the substitution of SFA for all types of macronutrients, except for n-6 and mono-disaccharides, led to a significant increase in NAFLD (P < 0·05). In non-lean participants, the substitution of MUFA for mono-disaccharides resulted in a significant reduction of NAFLD (P < 0·05). In this group, the substitution of SFA and mono-disaccharides for MUFA, and n-6 for all macronutrients, except vegetable protein and SFA, were significantly related to an increase in NAFLD (P < 0·05).

Conclusions: Lower lean NAFLD is correlated with increasing polysaccharides in exchange for SFA and animal protein intake, whereas lower non-lean NAFLD is correlated with increasing MUFA in exchange for mono-disaccharides and reducing n-6 and SFA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980021001762DOI Listing
April 2021

The Ability of the Framingham Steatosis Index (FSI) to Predict Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD): A Cohort Study.

Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol 2021 Mar 9;45(6):101567. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: The utilization of indexes for the diagnosis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) can be valuable. This study was conducted to determine the ability of the Framingham steatosis index (FSI) to distinguish between people with NAFLD and those without and to predict people at risk of NAFLD to establish the need for lifestyle modifications in such individuals.

Methods: Our study was conducted in two phases from 2009-2010 (phase I) to 2016-2017 (phase II). A total of 4670 people in northern Iran were included. NAFLD was diagnosed by ultrasound. The FSI was calculated based on age, sex, hypertension, diabetes mellitus status, liver enzyme levels and triglyceride levels. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was conducted to determine the discriminatory and predictive abilities of the FSI. To remove the confounding effects of potential mediators, logistic regression was performed in which NAFLD was considered the outcome and the FSI as the predictor.

Results: The odds ratios of the FSI when the outcome was the prevalence of NAFLD in phase I and when the outcome was new cases of NAFLD from 2009-2010 to 2016-2017 were 4.909 (4.243-5.681) and 2.453 (2.024-2.972), respectively (P<0.001). The areas under the curve (AUCs) for the discriminatory and predictive abilities of the FSI were 0.8421 (95% CI: 0.8314-0.8527) and 0.7093 (95% CI: 0.6863-0.7322), respectively.

Conclusion: The FSI has a strong ability to diagnose NAFLD while it has an acceptable ability to predict the occurrence of new cases of NAFLD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinre.2020.10.011DOI Listing
March 2021

Empagliflozin Improves Liver Steatosis and Fibrosis in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

Diabetes Ther 2021 Mar 14;12(3):843-861. Epub 2021 Feb 14.

Endocrine Research Center, Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS), Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: To evaluate the efficacy of empagliflozin compared to pioglitazone in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM).

Methods: In this prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we assigned 106 patients with NAFLD and T2DM to receive empagliflozin 10 mg (n = 35), pioglitazone 30 mg (n = 34), or placebo (n = 37) for 24 weeks. Liver fat content and liver stiffness were measured using fibroscans. Body composition assessment was performed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans. The primary end point was change from baseline in liver steatosis, using the controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) score.

Results: A borderline significant decrease in CAP score was observed with empagliflozin compared to placebo, mean difference: - 29.6 dB/m (- 39.5 to - 19.6) versus - 16.4 dB/m (- 25.0 to - 7.8), respectively; p = 0.05. Using multivariate analysis, we observed a significant reduction in the placebo-corrected change in liver stiffness measurement (LSM) with empagliflozin compared to pioglitazone: - 0.77 kPa (- 1.45, - 0.09), p  = 0.02, versus 0.01 kPa (95% CI - 0.70, 0.71, p  = 0.98), p for comparison = 0.03. Changes in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), HOMA2-IR, fibrosis-4 index (FIB4 index), NAFLD fibrosis score, aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI), android/gynecoid ratio (A/G ratio), and skeletal muscle index (SMI) were comparable between the two treatment groups, while significant reductions of the body weight and visceral fat area were observed only in the empagliflozin group (p  < 0.001 and p  = 0.01, respectively) and both were increased in the placebo and pioglitazone groups. There were no serious adverse events in either group.

Conclusion: Treatment for 24 weeks with empagliflozin, in contrast to pioglitazone, was associated with improvement of liver steatosis and fibrosis in patients with NAFLD and T2DM. In addition, body weight and abdominal fat area were decreased in the empagliflozin group.

Trial Registration: Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT), IRCT20190122042450N3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13300-021-01011-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7882235PMC
March 2021

Evolutionary study of COVID-19, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) as an emerging coronavirus: Phylogenetic analysis and literature review.

Vet Med Sci 2021 03 18;7(2):559-571. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Since emerging coronaviruses have always become a human health concern globally especially severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus and a novel coronavirus was introduced in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 (called SARS-CoV-2), many researchers focused on its epidemics, virological and clinical features. SARS-CoV-2 is classified as Betacoronaviruses genus and Sarbecovirus subgenus (lineage B). The virus shows a great similarity with SARS-CoV and bat SARS-like coronaviruses. In this study, we evaluate SARS-CoV-2 virus phylogeny and evolution by using current virus and related sequences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/vms3.394DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7753621PMC
March 2021

Signal transduction pathway mutations in gastrointestinal (GI) cancers: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Sci Rep 2020 10 30;10(1):18713. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The present study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of the signaling pathways mutation rate in the Gastrointestinal (GI) tract cancers in a systematic review and meta-analysis study. The study was performed based on the PRISMA criteria. Random models by confidence interval (CI: 95%) were used to calculate the pooled estimate of prevalence via Metaprop command. The pooled prevalence indices of signal transduction pathway mutations in gastric cancer, liver cancer, colorectal cancer, and pancreatic cancer were 5% (95% CI: 3-8%), 12% (95% CI: 8-18%), 17% (95% CI: 14-20%), and 20% (95% CI: 5-41%), respectively. Also, the mutation rates for Wnt pathway and MAPK pathway were calculated to be 23% (95% CI, 14-33%) and 20% (95% CI, 17-24%), respectively. Moreover, the most popular genes were APC (in Wnt pathway), KRAS (in MAPK pathway) and PIK3CA (in PI3K pathway) in the colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, and gastric cancer while they were beta-catenin and CTNNB1 in liver cancer. The most altered pathway was Wnt pathway followed by the MAPK pathway. In addition, pancreatic cancer was found to be higher under the pressure of mutation compared with others based on pooled prevalence analysis. Finally, APC mutations in colorectal cancer, KRAS in gastric cancer, and pancreatic cancer were mostly associated gene alterations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-73770-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7599243PMC
October 2020

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is not independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease event: A cohort study.

World J Hepatol 2020 Jun;12(6):323-331

Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1449614535, Iran.

Background: There are no consistent results between previous studies for an independent association between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) events.

Aim: To determine if there is an independent association between NAFLD and CVD events.

Methods: In the present study, valid outcome data of 4808 subjects were available for phase 2 of our cohort study. These subjects had been followed up for seven years from phase 1, beginning in 2009-2010 to phase 2 during 2016-2017. Simple and multiple Cox proportional models were used to determine the association between NAFLD in the primary phase of the cohort and subsequent fatal and non-fatal CVD events during follow-up.

Results: The incidence of non-fatal CVD events in males with NAFLD was significantly higher ( = 0.004) than in males without NAFLD. A positive association was demonstrated between NAFLD and non-fatal CVD events in males (Hazard ratio = 1.606; 95%CI: 1.166-2.212; = 0.004) by the simple Cox proportional hazard model, but no independent association was detected between these in the multiple Cox models.

Conclusion: No independent association was detected between NAFLD and CVD. It is likely that diabetes mellitus and age may be the principle mediators in this regard.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4254/wjh.v12.i6.323DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7364326PMC
June 2020

Resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) to HCV direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) at baseline of treatment in thalassemia patients: a referral center study.

Arch Virol 2020 Oct 8;165(10):2193-2203. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Patients with thalassemia major are at high risk of hepatitis C through blood transfusion from donors infected by hepatitis C virus (HCV). The use of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy against such HCV infections has increased in different populations. However, resistant viral variants can affect treatment outcomes, and therefore improved surveillance strategies are needed. Accordingly, we aimed to evaluate resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) to HCV DAAs at the baseline of treatment in thalassemia patients in a referral center. Out of 89 thalassemia patients who suffered from HCV infection and were referred to our center between 2016 and 2017, 43 underwent further analysis of the HCV nonstructural proteins NS5A and NS5B using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sequencing methods. Unique primers were designed using bioinformatics software for separate detection of HCV subtypes 1a, 3a, and 1b. Detection of RASs was performed based on previously published literature. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS version 19. The participants, 60.4% (26/43) of whom were male, had a mean age ± standard deviation (SD) of 33.0 ± 5.0 years. HCV subtype 1a was found in 27 cases, 3a in 13, and 1b in three. In HCV subtype 1a there were 163 mutations in NS5A and 212 mutations in NS5B. The frequency of RASs was 20.9% (8 RASs in 9 patients), including M28V and H58P in subtype 1a, L28M, R30Q, C316N, and C316S in subtype 1b, and S24F in subtype 3a. Statistically, the subtype 1b and a higher mutation rate in NS5A were associated with RASs (p-value < 0.05). The emergence of natural RASs to HCV DAAs serves as a warning of the risk of drug resistance in response to the broad usage of antivirals. However, relapses in these DAA-treated HCV-infected thalassemia patients are rarely reported. Our findings indicate that the prevalence of RASs prevalence at baseline was 20.9% in these patients, and this calls for extrapolation to a larger population study, as highlighted in other studies, with larger sample sizes, high-throughput methods, and follow-up in order to fully evaluate treatment outcomes in RASs-detected individuals. Optimized therapeutic strategies, particularly in complex, difficult-to-cure patients, can effectively prevent DAA treatment failure as a result of selection for RASs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-020-04728-xDOI Listing
October 2020

10-year risk of cardiovascular disease and body mass index in association with the obesity paradox.

ARYA Atheroscler 2020 Jan;16(1):16-23

Assistant Professor, Department of Cardiology, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Some recent studies reported an inverse association between obesity and risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), heart failure related mortality rate, outcomes of myocardial infarction (MI), and the consequences of cardiovascular events interventions; this inverse association was named the obesity paradox. The present study was conducted with the aim to determine whether the obesity paradox will be detectable when the 10-year risk of CVD is estimated using CVD risk assessment tools.

Methods: The related data of 2910 subjects aged 40-74 years obtained in our cohort study that was carried out among 6140 subjects in Amol, in northern Iran, was included in this study. CVD risk assessment tools were used to estimate the 10-year risk of CVD. Obesity was evaluated using 4 indices, including waist circumference (WC), waist to height ratio (WHtR), waist to hip ratio (WHR), and body mass index (BMI). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was utilized to evaluate the discriminatory power of obesity indices for 10-year risk of CVD.

Results: Categorizing the participants to with and without obesity according to BMI showed that a significantly higher proportion of men with obesity had a 10-year risk of CVD ≥ 7.5% and ≥ 10% according to American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) and the Framingham approaches, respectively. A higher proportion of women without obesity had a 10-year risk of CVD ≥ 7.5% than women with obesity based on the ACC/AHA equation (28.54% vs. 24.15%; P = 0.0707). BMI had a non-significant AUC (< 0.5) according to the the ACC/AHA equation.

Conclusion: BMI showed a weak and non-significant inverse association with 10-year risk of CVD estimated using pooled cohort equations of ACC/AHA in women. However, this result cannot directly provide enough evidence for the obesity paradox.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22122/arya.v16i1.1581DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7244790PMC
January 2020

SARS-CoV-2 Molecular and Phylogenetic analysis in COVID-19 patients: A preliminary report from Iran.

Infect Genet Evol 2020 10 30;84:104387. Epub 2020 May 30.

Department of Virology, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: The aim of the current study was to investigate and track the SARS-CoV-2 in Iranian Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients using molecular and phylogenetic methods.

Methods: We enrolled seven confirmed cases of COVID-19 patients for the phylogenetic assessment of the SARS-CoV-2 in Iran. The nsp-2, nsp-12, and S genes were amplified using one-step RT-PCR and sequenced using Sanger sequencing method. Popular bioinformatics software were used for sequences alignment and analysis as well as phylogenetic construction.

Results: The mean age of the patients in the present study was 60.42 ± 9.94 years and 57.1% (4/7) were male. The results indicated high similarity between Iranian and Chinese strains. We could not find any particular polymorphisms in the assessed regions of the three genes. Phylogenetic trees by neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood method of nsp-2, nsp-12, and S genes showed that there are not any differences between Iranian isolates and those of other countries.

Conclusion: As a preliminary phylogenetic study in Iranian SARS-CoV-2 isolates, we found that these isolates are closely related to the Chinese and reference sequences. Also, no sensible differences were observed between Iranian isolates and those of other countries. Further investigations are recommended using more comprehensive methods and larger sample sizes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2020.104387DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7832360PMC
October 2020

COVID-19 in the endoscopy ward: A potential risk for gastroenterologists.

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2020 10 23;41(10):1242-1243. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/ice.2020.160DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7200836PMC
October 2020

Defense Mechanisms in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Their Relationship with Symptom Severity and Quality of Life.

Middle East J Dig Dis 2019 Jul 4;11(3):158-165. Epub 2019 Jun 4.

Psychiatrist, Mental Health Research Center, Psychiatric Department, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

BACKGROUND Despite the fact that there is theoretical evidence about the association between unconscious defense mechanisms and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), experimental evidence in this regard is limited. The aim of the present study was to compare the defense mechanisms used by the patients with IBS and a control group, and to investigate the relationship between these mechanisms with the severity of the disease and patients' quality of life. METHODS Fourty-five patients with IBS (mean age of 37.1 years; 14 males) and 45 controls (mean age of 38.0 years; 13 males) were evaluated. IBS diagnosis was determined based on Rome III criteria and the predominant pattern of the disease was determined based on the patient's history (13 diarrheapredominant, 16 constipation-predominant, and 16 alternating IBS). Defense Style Questionnaire-40, IBS Severity Scale, and IBS-Quality of Life questionnaire were used. RESULTS The mean scores of projection, acting-out, somatization, autistic fantasy, passive-aggression, and reaction formation in the IBS group were significantly higher than the control group and the mean scores of humor and anticipation mechanisms were higher in the control group. There was no significant correlation between the score of defense mechanisms and the severity of IBS and the patients' quality of life. CONCLUSION The severity of immature defenses in the IBS group was significantly higher, whereas the severity of mature defenses was higher in the control group. These defenses were not correlated with the severity of IBS. Considering the limited sample size, these relationships need to be more investigated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15171/mejdd.2019.143DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6819962PMC
July 2019

The Comparison of the Plasma Levels of the Lead Element in Patients with Gastrointestinal Cancers and Healthy Individuals.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2019 09 1;20(9):2639-2644. Epub 2019 Sep 1.

Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases Research Center (GILDRC), Firoozgar Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Email:

Back ground and Aim: Heavy metals are considered as risk factors in the development of some types of cancers. In this context, the lead (Pb) along with its biological impacts on the human body has raised significant concerns in public health. The aim of this study was to compare the plasma levels of the lead element in patients with gastrointestinal (GI) cancer and healthy subjects to examine whether this element has a role in the susceptibility of cancer. Methods: In a case-control study conducted between March 2016 to February 2017, the plasma levels of the lead were assessed. One-hundred patients with upper and lower GI cancers, as well as one-hundered healthy subjects who were age- and sex-matched participated in our study. A classic flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) method was employed for the determination of the lead element in plasma levels of all subjects. Results: The mean age of patients was 53.8±10.6 years old. The patient group consisted of 51 male and 49 female patients. The results showed that the concentrations of Pb were lower than the defined toxic levels. The comparison of the mean levels of Pb between the case and control groups revealed that there was no statistically significant difference even when the gender, age, and history of smoking were included in the statistical analysis. Our findings showed that the concentration of Pb is significantly associated with the type of cancer (p<0.003) and the location of the tumor (whether upper or lower tract was affected) (p<0.003). Conclusion: Lead may contributes to the pathology and progression of GI cancers but we can not conclude that it involved in the causation or susceptibility of healthy individuals to develop GI cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.31557/APJCP.2019.20.9.2639DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6976846PMC
September 2019

Fatty liver index (FLI) and prediction of new cases of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A population-based study of northern Iran.

Clin Nutr 2020 02 18;39(2):468-474. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is considered a major public health concern. The prediction of individuals who can acquire this disease would be valuable. The fatty liver index (FLI) is a non-invasive approach that has shown a good capability for discriminating individuals with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) from those without it. Thus, this study evaluated the ability of the FLI to predict new cases of NAFLD following a 7-year follow up.

Materials And Methods: This study was based on the results of follow-up on individuals who did not have NAFLD in 2009-2010, but acquired the disease by 2016-2017. A total of 2241 people who did not have NAFLD in 2009-2010 were evaluated 7 years later by ultrasound so as to diagnose new cases of NAFLD. The FLI was calculated based on data from phase 1 (performed in 2009-2010) of the cohort study. ROC analyses were performed to estimate the predictive ability of the FLI in the diagnosis of new cases of NAFLD. Logistic regression analysis was performed, in which the FLI was considered the predictor and new cases of NAFLD was the outcome.

Results: The related AUCs for the FLI in men and women were 0.712 (95% CI = 0.675-0.749) and 0.721 (95% CI = 0.683-0.759), respectively. Based on the current findings, the FLI showed a significant association with NAFLD in multiple logistic regression analyses in both men and women (OR (95% CI) = 1.038 (1.029-1.047), p-value <0.001 in men and OR (95% CI) = 1.032 (1.023-1.041), p-value <0.001 in women in multiple logistic analyses).

Conclusion: In this study, the FLI was shown to have an acceptable capability of predicting the occurrence of new cases of NAFLD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2019.02.024DOI Listing
February 2020

The Molecular Detection of Human Bocavirus (HBoV) in Colorectal Tissue with Malignant and Non-Malignant Lesions

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2018 Nov 29;19(11):3295-3299. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Institute of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Iran University of medical sciences, Tehran, Iran. Email:

Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) as a worldwide human health concern is identified being a multifactorial subject that infection with specific viral particles such as oncogenic viruses is research interest. Human bocavirus (HBoV) as a recent isolated virus has been investigated in many respiratory and enteric diseases but rare studies evaluates it in tissue specimens especially in cancerous sections. The aim of this study was to detect the presence of HBoV genome and its genotyping in CRC patient’s tissue and compare the result with matched healthy control group tissue. Method: in this retrospective case-control study, CRC cases were sporadic and non-familial cancerous while control subjects had healthy or non-malignant lesions in colon tissue. A conventional-PCR performed by specific primers for HBoV VP1 gene. After sequencing of positive PCR products, raw data used for trimming and alignment by bioinformatics software CLC Main Workbench 5 and MEGA5. SPSS v.22 used for statistical calculations. Result: a total of 157 subjects were participated that 66 were diagnosed as CRC cases and 91 were non-CRC colon tissue as control group that matched by the cases. The mean age (y) ± standard deviation of each case and control groups were 59.35±14.48 and 57.21±14.66, respectively. PCR results showed there were 1.3% (2/157) HBoV positive (of each groups one was positive). Sequencing analysis showed all were HBoV-1 genotype. Conclusion: our study showed there are low rate of HBoV genome in Iranian CRC and non-CRC colon tissue. Furthermore, the predominant genotype in our studied subsets were HBoV-1 according to phylogenetic analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.31557/APJCP.2018.19.11.3295DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6318405PMC
November 2018

The effectiveness of sofosbuvir and daclatasvir in the treatment of hepatitis C in thalassaemia major patients and their effect on haematological factors.

Indian J Med Microbiol 2018 Apr-Jun;36(2):224-229

Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran; Gastroenterology and Hepatology Disease Research Center, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran.

Context: Patients with thalassaemia are at risk of infections such as hepatitis C virus (HCV) due to their repeated blood transfusions; meanwhile, the treatment of thalassaemia patients who had developed HCV infection is a controversial issue.

Aims: Although the effectiveness of direct-acting antivirals on HCV infection has been confirmed, their side-effects as well as effects on haematological factors due to the resultant need for blood transfusion remain to be further understood.

Materials And Methods: In this study, 61 patients with major beta thalassaemia and HCV infection, and who had a history of interferon treatment failure were examined. The patients underwent a 24-week treatment with sofosbuvir (SOF) and daclatasvir (DAC). Sustained virological response 12 was used to assess response to treatment. At the end of the study, the need for blood transfusion and serum ferritin was evaluated.

Results: About 98.4% of the patients responded to the treatment, and only one patient with genotype 1b did not respond positively. No significant complications necessitating treatment cessation were observed, and all the patients tolerated the treatment well. The level of liver enzymes showed a significant reduction 12 weeks after the treatment. The need for blood transfusions in patients before treatment was averagely 1.595 ± 0.65 bag per month, in which 1.593 ± 0.64 bags were received after treatment (P = 0.9). This regimen did not affect the amount of anaemia in patients and did not differentiate the need for blood transfusions. The rate of haemoglobin before treatment was 9.5 ± 1.42 g/dl, which reached 9.6 ± 1.6 g/dl after treatment (P = 0.54). Ferritin levels decreased significantly (from 1948.08 ± 1539.54 to 1315.73 ± 1207.67 ng/ml) (P = 0.001) in the patients after the treatment.

Conclusion: Combination of SOF and DAC is an effective and tolerable treatment regimen without affect on the amount of anaemia in patients and did not differentiate the need for blood transfusions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_18_90DOI Listing
December 2018

Trace Element and Heavy Metal Levels in Colorectal Cancer: Comparison Between Cancerous and Non-cancerous Tissues.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2018 May 9;183(1):1-8. Epub 2017 Aug 9.

Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease Research Center (GILDRC), Firoozgar Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Cases of colorectal cancer (CRC) have increased dramatically in Middle Eastern and other Asian countries. Many studies indicate an important role of environmental factors, including trace elements as an etiology of cancer. This study aims to assess the concentration of eight trace elements in cancerous and adjacent non-cancerous tissues in case of CRC. In a cross-sectional study, conducted between March 2015 and February 2016, zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), tin (Sn), copper (Cu), aluminum (Al), lead (Pb), and iron (Fe) levels were evaluated among patients suffering from CRC. All the patients underwent a full colonoscopy. Multiple samples were taken from cancerous lesions and adjacent healthy tissues that kept a minimum distance of 10 cm from the lesions. These specimens were kept at -80 °C. The classic flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) method was applied in this study. The mean age of the study population was 55.6 ± 12.8. The median of Zn, Cr, Cu, Al, and Pb in cancerous tissues was significantly higher than that of healthy tissues (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, the median of Mn, Sn, and Fe was significantly lower than that of non-cancerous tissues (P < 0.05). Between colon and rectal specimens, we did not find a difference between Cr and Al levels and Zn, Sn, and Cu levels in cancerous and healthy tissues, respectively. We revealed that gender and history of smoking may influence the level of some trace elements. We revealed that the levels of eight elements were significantly different for cancerous and healthy tissues. This may play a role in developing CRC. These findings reflect the importance of environmental pollution in this setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-017-1099-7DOI Listing
May 2018

The Prevalence of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Diabetes Mellitus in an Iranian Population.

Middle East J Dig Dis 2017 Apr;9(2):86-93

Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease Research Center, Firoozgar Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

BACKGROUND Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are important causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of DM in the context of NAFLD. METHODS In this cross-sectional study, we studied 5052 participants, aged 18 years and older, of a baseline population-based cohort in northern Iran (N=6143). The prevalence of DM was estimated in individuals with and without NAFLD. The association between NAFLD and T2DM was evaluated using logistic regression with the adjustment of confounding effects of age, sex, body mass index, lipid profiles, and fasting insulin. RESULTS In men, the prevalence (95% confidence interval) of T2DM was 5.34% (4.35%-6.34%) and 15.06% (13.12%-17.00%) in individuals without and with NAFLD, respectively (p <0.001). In women without NAFLD, the prevalence was 8.27% (6.83%-9.71%) while in the presence of NAFLD, the prevalence was 27.21% (24.59%-29.83%), (p <0.001). In univariate analysis, the chance of having T2DM was 3.700 (3.130-4.380) times more in patients with NAFLD compared with subjects without NAFLD (p<0.001). This chance was reduced (Odds Ratio=1.976, 95% CI: 1.593-2.451, p <0.001) after removing the effects of other variables. CONCLUSION The prevalence of T2DM is increased in the context of NAFLD. This condition may be considered as an independent predictor of T2DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15171/mejdd.2017.56DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5471107PMC
April 2017

Comparison of cardiovascular risk assessment tools and their guidelines in evaluation of 10-year CVD risk and preventive recommendations: A population based study.

Int J Cardiol 2017 Feb 10;228:52-57. Epub 2016 Nov 10.

Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease Research Center, Firoozgar Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Identification of individuals at risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) results in better clinical outcomes and may help policy makers in conscious decision making for community based and national intervention strategies. The main aim of this study was to compare various CVD risk assessment tools and their related guidelines in estimation of 10-year CVD risk and subsequent therapeutic recommendations, respectively.

Methods: Data of 3086 subjects aged 40-74years from a cohort study of northern Iran were utilized in this cross-sectional study. The risks were calculated based on American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) tool, two versions of Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) equations (for low and high risk European countries) and Framingham approach. We also detected participants who ought to be recommended for treatment based on the specific guidelines related to each of the risk assessment tools.

Results: Mean cardiovascular risks were 12.96%, 8.84%, 1.90% and 3.45% in men and 5.87%, 2.13%, 0.8% and 1.13% in women based on ACC/AHA, Framingham, SCORE equation for low-risk European countries and high-risk European countries, respectively. Based on ACC/AHA, Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII) and European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines related to SCORE equations for low and high risk European countries 58.2%, 27.1%, 21.1% and 28.6% of men and 39.7%, 33.0%, 29.5% and 30.7% of women were recommended to statin therapy, respectively.

Conclusions: In conclusion, more individuals were recommended for treatment by ACC/AHA guideline than the other guidelines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2016.11.048DOI Listing
February 2017

Body Roundness Index and Waist-to-Height Ratio are Strongly Associated With Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Population-Based Study.

Hepat Mon 2016 Sep 14;16(9):e39575. Epub 2016 Aug 14.

Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease Research Center (GILDRC), Tehran Firoozgar Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran.

Background: A strong association between obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been reported.

Objectives: This study was conducted to evaluate if new obesity indices, including a body shape index (ABSI) and body roundness index (BRI), have stronger associations with NAFLD than waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR).

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we utilized the data of 4,872 participants aged 18 - 74 years from a cohort study conducted among 6,143 subjects in northern Iran. Logistic regression analysis was performed on NAFLD as the outcome and obesity measures (based on Z-score values) as potential predictors. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were conducted, in which NAFLD was considered as a reference variable and obesity measures as classification variables. The discriminatory ability of the obesity measures was reported based on area-under-the-curves, and the related cut-off points of BRI and WHtR were determined using the Youden index (YI).

Results: Based on our results, BRI (OR = 5.484 for men and OR = 3.482 for women) and WHtR (OR = 5.309 for men and OR = 3.854 for women) showed a higher association with NAFLD than ABSI (OR = 1.363 for men and OR = 1.003 for women) and WHR (OR = 3.123 for men and OR = 1.628 for women). The optimal cut-off points for BRI were 4.00 (sensitivity = 82.7%, specificity = 70.8%) for men and 5.00 (sensitivity = 83.3%, specificity = 71.7%) for women. The optimal cut-off points for WHtR were 0.533 (sensitivity = 82.7%, specificity = 70.8%) for men and 0.580 (sensitivity = 83.3%, specificity = 71.7%) for women.

Conclusions: While BRI and WHtR have equally strong associations with NAFLD, ABSI and WHR have weaker associations with NAFLD than BRI and WHtR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/hepatmon.39575DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5091031PMC
September 2016

Association between Pattern of Gastritis and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Patients with Infection.

Middle East J Dig Dis 2016 Jul;8(3):206-211

GastroIntestinal and Liver Disease Research Centre (GILDRC), Firoozgar Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

BACKGROUND Reflux disease is a common gastrointestinal problem. The association between reflux disease and gastritis pattern is controversial.

Aim: To determine the association between reflux disease and gastritis pattern in patients with infection. METHODS 470 patients with dyspepsia and reflux disease were enrolled in this study. The inclusion criteria were willing to participate in the study, age over 40 years, and having the criteria of ROME III for at least 3 months. Patients with history of eradication therapy during the 3 months before the study, a history of gastric surgery, and gastric cancer were excluded. All of the participants underwent upper endoscopy and two biopsy samples were taken from antrum, body, and fundal areas. RESULTS infection rate was 367 (78.1%) with mean age of 59.8 ± 11.4 years. Of them 131 patients (35.7%) were male. Reflux disease was detected in 273 (74.4%) patients. 216 (58.9%) and 102 (27.8%) patients had non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), respectively. Corpus predominant and antral predominant gastritis were seen in 72 (19.6%) and 129 (35.2%) patients, respectively. Antral gastritis was significantly associated with GERD (<0.01). In regression analysis, antral predominant gastritis had a significant association with GERD (OR=1.92; 95%CI: 1.22- 3.12). The same result was observed in mild to moderate antral and greater curvature gastritis (OR= 1.26; 95%CI: 0.25-6.40 and OR= 3.0; 95%CI: 0.63-14.17, respectively). CONCLUSION According to these finding ,we could suggest that the pattern of gastritis could be associated with reflux disease and GERD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15171/mejdd.2016.33DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5045673PMC
July 2016

Fatty liver index vs waist circumference for predicting non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

World J Gastroenterol 2016 Mar;22(10):3023-30

Nima Motamed, Department of Social Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan 45154, Iran.

Aim: To determine the discriminatory performance of fatty liver index (FLI) for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

Methods: The data of 5052 subjects aged over 18 years were analyzed. FLI was calculated from body mass index, waist circumference (WC), triglyceride, and gamma glutamyl transferase data. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the association between FLI and NAFLD. The discriminatory performance of FLI in the diagnosis of NAFLD was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic analysis. Area under the curves (AUCs) and related confidence intervals were estimated. Optimal cutoff points of FLI in the diagnosis of NAFLD were determined based on the maximum values of Youden's index.

Results: The mean age of men and women in the study population were 44.8 ± 16.8 and 43.78 ± 15.43, respectively (P = 0.0216). The prevalence of NAFLD was 40.1% in men and 44.2% in women (P < 0.0017). FLI was strongly associated with NAFLD, so that even a one unit increase in FLI increased the chance of developing NAFLD by 5.8% (OR = 1.058, 95%CI: 1.054-1.063, P < 0.0001). Although FLI showed good performance in the diagnosis of NAFLD (AUC = 0.8656 (95%CI: 0.8548-0.8764), there was no significant difference with regards to WC (AUC = 0.8533, 95%CI: 0.8419-0.8646). The performance of FLI was not significantly different between men (AUC = 0.8648, 95%CI: 0.8505-0.8791) and women (AUC = 0.8682, 95%CI: 0.8513-0.8851). The highest performance with regards to age was related to the 18-39 age group (AUC = 0.8930, 95%CI: 0.8766-0.9093). The optimal cutoff points of FLI were 46.9 in men (sensitivity = 0.8242, specificity = 0.7687, Youden's index = 0.5929) and 53.8 in women (sensitivity = 0.8233, specificity = 0.7655, Youden's index = 0.5888).

Conclusion: Although FLI had acceptable discriminatory power in the diagnosis of NAFLD, WC was a simpler and more accessible index with a similar performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v22.i10.3023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4779925PMC
March 2016

Mutation Analysis of KRAS and BRAF Genes in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: a First Large Scale Study from Iran.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2016 ;17(2):603-8

Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases Research Center, Firoozgar Hospital, Iran University Of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran E-mail :

Background: The investigation of mutation patterns in oncogenes potentially can make available a reliable mechanism for management and treatment decisions for patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). This study concerns the rate of KRAS and BRAF genes mutations in Iranian metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients, as well as associations of genotypes with clinicopathological features.

Materials And Methods: A total of 1,000 mCRC specimens collected from 2008 to 2012 that referred to the Mehr Hospital and Partolab center, Tehran, Iran enrolled in this cross sectional study. Using HRM, Dxs Therascreen and Pyrosequencing methods, we analyzed the mutational status of KRAS and BRAF genes in these.

Results: KRAS mutations were present in 33.6% cases (n=336). Of KRAS mutation positive cases, 85.1% were in codon 12 and 14.9% were in codon 13. The most frequent mutation at KRAS codon 12 was Gly12Asp; BRAF mutations were not found in any mCRC patients (n=242). In addition, we observed a strong correlation of KRAS mutations with some clinicopathological characteristics.

Conclusions: KRAS mutations are frequent in mCRCs while presence of BRAF mutations in these patients is rare. Moreover, associations of KRAS genotypes with non-mucinous adenocarcinoma and depth of invasion (pT3) were remarkable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/apjcp.2016.17.2.603DOI Listing
January 2017

Decrease expression and clinicopathological significance of miR-148a with poor survival in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues.

Diagn Pathol 2015 Aug 7;10:135. Epub 2015 Aug 7.

Cellular & Molecular Research Center, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran.

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, mainly due to its high rates of postoperative recurrence and metastasis. Please remove, it currently ranks as the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths. MiRNAs are a set of small, single-stranded, non-coding RNA molecules that negatively regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. In this study, we demonstrated the down-regulation of miR-148a in HCC and non-cancerous tissues using qRT-PCR.

Methods: Ninety six HCC samples and their noncancerous normal liver tissues were collected. Total mRNA including miRNA was extracted, and miR-148a expression was determined using qRT-PCR. Furthermore, the correlation between the miR-148a expression and clinicopathological parameters was investigated.

Results: The result showed that reduction of miR-148a expression was associated with TNM stage, metastasis, and number of tumor nodes. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards model analysis showed that low expression of miR-148a was independently associated with recurrence of HCC in the current study. Moreover, our result showed that lower expression in tumor tissues in comparison with corresponding normal control tissues.

Conclusion: Down-regulation of miR-148a is related to HCC carcinogenesis and deterioration of HCC. MicroRNA-148a may act as a suppressor miRNA of HCC, and it is therefore a potential prognostic biomarker for HCC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13000-015-0371-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4528397PMC
August 2015

Prevalence of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Its Predictors in North of Iran.

Iran J Public Health 2014 Sep;43(9):1275-83

1. Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease Research Center (GILDRC), Iran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran, Iran.

Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the aspects of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Due to the increase of MetS in Iran, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of NAFLD, its potential predictors and their sex distribution in north of Iran, Amol.

Methods: In 2008 this population based cross-sectional study included 5023 adult individuals who were randomly selected from Amol healthcare centers. Blood analysis and hepatic sonography was performed for each individual and Clinical histories were reviewed. MetS was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. Chi-square test, univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to analyze data.

Results: The prevalence of NAFLD and metabolic syndrome was 43.8% and 29.6% respectively. Both NAFLD and metabolic syndrome were significantly more prevalent in women. There was a stronger association between these two factors in women which may indicate MetS has a much more potency to result in NAFLD in women. The strongest predictors of NAFLD in men were waist circumference>102 cm, serum ALT ≥40 (U/L) and the age group of 40-60 years. The strongest predictors of NAFLD in women were waist circumference>88 cm, the age groups of 40-60 and >60 years.

Conclusions: The observed prevalence is alarming because almost 7out of 10 subjects with MetS had NAFLD. As high waist circumference was an important predictor of NAFLD in both sexes, health care policies to reduce the incidence of obesity in the country will have an important impact on the occurrence of NAFLD.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4500430PMC
September 2014
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