Publications by authors named "Hope T Badawy"

4 Publications

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Antimicrobial properties of a nanostructured eggshell from a compost-nesting bird.

J Exp Biol 2014 Apr 5;217(Pt 7):1116-21. Epub 2013 Dec 5.

Department of Biology and Integrated Bioscience Program, University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325-3908, USA.

Infection is an important source of mortality for avian embryos but parental behaviors and eggs themselves can provide a network of antimicrobial defenses. Mound builders (Aves: Megapodiidae) are unique among birds in that they produce heat for developing embryos not by sitting on eggs but by burying them in carefully tended mounds of soil and microbially decomposing vegetation. The low infection rate of eggs of one species in particular, the Australian brush-turkey (Alectura lathami), suggests that they possess strong defensive mechanisms. To identify some of these mechanisms, we first quantified antimicrobial albumen proteins and characterized eggshell structure, finding that albumen was not unusually antimicrobial, but that eggshell cuticle was composed of nanometer-sized calcite spheres. Experimental tests revealed that these modified eggshells were significantly more hydrophobic and better at preventing bacterial attachment and penetration into the egg contents than chicken eggs. Our results suggest that these mechanisms may contribute to the antimicrobial defense system of these eggs, and may provide inspiration for new biomimetic anti-fouling surfaces.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jeb.098343DOI Listing
April 2014

Bacterial adhesion and growth reduction by novel rubber-derived oligomers.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2013 Sep 3;438(4):691-6. Epub 2013 Aug 3.

Biology Department, University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325, USA.

In the medical field, attached bacteria can cause infections associated with catheters, incisions, burns, and medical implants especially in immunocompromised patients. The problem is exacerbated by the fact that attached bacteria are ∼1000 times more resistant to antibiotics than planktonic cells. The rapid spread of antibiotic resistance in these and other organisms has led to a significant need to find new methods for preventing bacterial attachment. The goal of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of novel polymer coatings to prevent the attachment of three medically relevant bacteria. Tests were conducted with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Staphylococcus aureus for oligomers derived from modifications of natural rubber (cis 1,4-polyisoprene). The different oligomers were: PP04, with no quaternary ammonium (QA); MV067, one QA; PP06, three QA groups. In almost all experiments, cell attachment was inhibited to various extents as long as the oligomers were used. PP06 was the most effective as it decreased the planktonic cell numbers by at least 50% for all bacteria. Differences between species sensitivity were also observed. P. aeruginosa was the most resistant bacteria tested, S. aureus, the most sensitive. Further experiments are required to understand the full extent and mode of the antimicrobial properties of these surfaces.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2013.07.120DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3864970PMC
September 2013

Mathematical modelling of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm growth and treatment in the cystic fibrosis lung.

Math Med Biol 2014 Jun 21;31(2):179-204. Epub 2013 Mar 21.

Department of Chemistry, University of Akron, Akron, OH, USA.

Lung failure due to chronic bacterial infection is the leading cause of death for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). It is thought that the chronic nature of these infections is, in part, due to the increased tolerance and recalcitrant behaviour of bacteria growing as biofilms. Inhalation of silver carbene complex (SCC) antimicrobial, either encased in polymeric biodegradable particles or in aqueous form, has been proposed as a treatment. Through a coordinated experimental and mathematical modelling effort, we examine this proposed treatment of lung biofilms. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms grown in a flow-cell apparatus irrigated with an artificial CF sputum medium are analysed as an in vitro model of CF lung infection. A 2D mathematical model of biofilm growth within the flow-cell is developed. Numerical simulations demonstrate that SCC inactivation by the environment is critical in aqueous SCC, but not SCC-polymer, based treatments. Polymer particle degradation rate is shown to be an important parameter that can be chosen optimally, based on environmental conditions and bacterial susceptibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/imammb/dqt003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4571485PMC
June 2014

Development of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa mushroom morphology and cavity formation by iron-starvation: a mathematical modeling study.

J Theor Biol 2012 Sep 4;308:68-78. Epub 2012 Jun 4.

Integrated Bioscience, University of Akron, Akron, OH, USA.

We present a mathematical model of mushroom-like architecture and cavity formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. We demonstrate that a proposed disparity in internal friction between the stalk and cap extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) leads to spatial variation in volumetric expansion sufficient to produce the mushroom morphology. The capability of diffusible signals to induce the formation of a fluid-filled cavity within the cap is then investigated. We assume that conversion of bacteria to the planktonic state within the cap occurs in response to the accumulation or depletion of some signal molecule. We (a) show that neither simple nutrient starvation nor signal production by one or more subpopulations of bacteria is sufficient to trigger localized cavity formation. We then (b) demonstrate various hypothetical scenarios that could result in localized cavity formation. Finally, we (c) model iron availability as a detachment signal and show simulation results demonstrating cavity formation by iron starvation. We conclude that iron availability is a plausible mechanism by which fluid-filled cavities form in the cap region of mushroom-like structures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtbi.2012.05.029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3410399PMC
September 2012