Publications by authors named "Hope S Rugo"

310 Publications

A Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Trial for Early Breast Cancer is Impacted by COVID-19: Addressing Vaccination and Cancer Trials Through Education, Equity, and Outcomes.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Medicine, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco.

While COVID-19 vaccine distribution has addressed vulnerabilities related to age and co-morbidities, there is a need to ensure vaccination of cancer patients receiving experimental and routine treatment, where interruption of treatment by infection is likely to result in inferior outcomes. Among cancer patients, those undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) or adjuvant chemotherapy (Adj chemo) for early breast cancer (EBC) are at particularly high risk for inferior outcomes, in part because optimal timing of chemotherapy is essential for promoting distant disease-free survival (DDFS). COVID-19 data from the ongoing multicenter I-SPY 2 trial of NAC for EBC provides a window into the magnitude of the problem of treatment interruption, not only for the trial itself but also for routine Adj chemo. In the I-SPY 2 trial 4.5% of patients had disruption of therapy by COVID-19 prior to wide vaccine availability, suggesting that nationally up to 5,700 EBC patients were at risk for adverse outcomes from COVID-19 infection in 2020. To address this problem, vaccine education and public engagement are essential to overcome hesitancy, while equity of distribution is needed to address access. To accomplish these goals, health care organizations (HCOs) need to not only call out disinformation but engage the public with vaccine education and find common ground for vaccine acceptance, while partnering with state/local governments to improve efficiency of vaccine distribution. These approaches are important to improving trial access and to reducing susceptibility to COVID-19, as the pandemic could continue to impact access to clinical trials and routine cancer treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-21-1133DOI Listing
June 2021

PD-L1 Immunohistochemistry Assay Comparison in Atezolizumab plus nab-Paclitaxel-Treated Advanced Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Hillman Cancer Center, Pittsburgh, PA.

Background: In the Phase III IMpassion130 study, atezolizumab plus nab-paclitaxel (A+nP) showed clinical benefit in advanced/metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients who were programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) + (tumor-infiltrating immune cells [IC] ≥1%) using the SP142 immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay. Here we evaluate 2 other PD-L1 assays for analytical concordance with SP142 and patient-associated clinical outcomes.

Methods: Samples from 614 patients (68.1% of intention-to-treat population) were centrally evaluated by IHC for PD-L1 status on IC (VENTANA SP142, SP263, Dako 22C3) or as a combined positive score (CPS; 22C3).

Results: Using SP142, SP263, and 22C3 assays, PD-L1 IC ≥ 1% prevalence was 46.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 42.5-50.4%), 74.9% (95% CI = 71.5-78.3%), and 73.1% (95% CI = 69.6-76.6%), respectively; 80.9% were 22C3 at CPS ≥1. At IC ≥ 1% (+), the analytical concordance between SP142 and SP263 and 22C3 was 69.2% and 68.7%, respectively. Almost all SP142+ cases were captured by other assays (double positive), but several SP263 + (29.6%) or 22C3 + (29.0%) cases were SP142- (single positive). A+nP clinical activity vs placebo+nP in SP263+ and 22C3+ patients (progression-free survival [PFS] hazard ratios [HRs] = 0.64-0.68; overall survival [OS] HRs = 0.75-0.79) was driven by double-positive (PFS HRs = 0.60-0.61; OS HRs = 0.71-0.75) rather than single-positive cases (PFS HRs = 0.68-0.81; OS HRs = 0.87-0.95). Concordance for harmonized cutoffs for SP263 (IC ≥ 4%) and 22C3 (CPS ≥10) to SP142 IC ≥ 1% was subpar (approximately 75%).

Conclusions: 22C3 and SP263 assays identified more patients as PD-L1 + (IC ≥ 1%) than SP142. No inter-assay analytical equivalency was observed. Consistent improved A+nP efficacy was captured by the SP142 PD-L1 IC ≥ 1% subgroup nested within 22C3 and SP263 PD-L1 + (IC ≥ 1%) populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djab108DOI Listing
June 2021

Adjuvant Trastuzumab Emtansine Versus Paclitaxel in Combination With Trastuzumab for Stage I HER2-Positive Breast Cancer (ATEMPT): A Randomized Clinical Trial.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Jun 2:JCO2003398. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Abramsom Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

Purpose: The ATEMPT trial was designed to determine if treatment with trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) caused less toxicity than paclitaxel plus trastuzumab (TH) and yielded clinically acceptable invasive disease-free survival (iDFS) among patients with stage I human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive (HER2+) breast cancer (BC).

Methods: Patients with stage I centrally confirmed HER2+ BC were randomly assigned 3:1 to T-DM1 or TH and received T-DM1 3.6 mg/kg IV every 3 weeks for 17 cycles or T 80 mg/m IV with H once every week × 12 weeks (4 mg/kg load →2 mg/kg), followed by H × 39 weeks (6 mg/kg once every 3 weeks). The co-primary objectives were to compare the incidence of clinically relevant toxicities (CRTs) in patients treated with T-DM1 versus TH and to evaluate iDFS in patients receiving T-DM1.

Results: The analysis population includes all 497 patients who initiated protocol therapy (383 T-DM1 and 114 TH). CRTs were experienced by 46% of patients on T-DM1 and 47% of patients on TH ( = .83). The 3-year iDFS for T-DM1 was 97.8% (95% CI, 96.3 to 99.3), which rejected the null hypothesis ( < .0001). Serially collected patient-reported outcomes indicated that patients treated with T-DM1 had less neuropathy and alopecia and better work productivity compared with patients on TH.

Conclusion: Among patients with stage I HER2+ BC, one year of adjuvant T-DM1 was associated with excellent 3-year iDFS, but was not associated with fewer CRT compared with TH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.03398DOI Listing
June 2021

Breast-Gynaecological & Immuno-Oncology International Cancer Conference (BGICC) Consensus and Recommendations for the Management of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 May 8;13(9). Epub 2021 May 8.

Russian Association of Oncological Mammology, Department of Breast Tumours of Federal State Budgetary Institution "Petrov Research Institute of Oncology", 197758 Saint Petersburg, Russia.

: The management of patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is challenging with several controversies and unmet needs. During the 12th Breast-Gynaecological & Immuno-oncology International Cancer Conference (BGICC) Egypt, 2020, a panel of 35 breast cancer experts from 13 countries voted on consensus guidelines for the clinical management of TNBC. The consensus was subsequently updated based on the most recent data evolved lately. : A consensus conference approach adapted from the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) was utilized. The panellists voted anonymously on each question, and a consensus was achieved when ≥75% of voters selected an answer. The final consensus was later circulated to the panellists for critical revision of important intellectual content. : These recommendations represent the available clinical evidence and expert opinion when evidence is scarce. The percentage of the consensus votes, levels of evidence and grades of recommendation are presented for each statement. The consensus covered all the aspects of TNBC management starting from defining TNBC to the management of metastatic disease and highlighted the rapidly evolving landscape in this field. Consensus was reached in 70% of the statements (35/50). In addition, areas of warranted research were identified to guide future prospective clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13092262DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8125909PMC
May 2021

Prognostic Factors for Overall Survival in Patients with Hormone Receptor-Positive Advanced Breast Cancer: Analyses From PALOMA-3.

Oncologist 2021 May 26. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Molecular Oncology, Royal Marsden Hospital and Institute of Cancer Research, London, United Kingdom.

Background: This analysis investigated whether baseline characteristics affect the survival benefit derived from palbociclib-fulvestrant and the optimal timing of cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitor therapy for advanced breast cancer (ABC) in patients from PALOMA-3.

Patients And Methods: In total, 521 patients were randomized 2:1 to receive palbociclib (125 mg/day, 3/1 schedule)-fulvestrant (500 mg, intramuscular injection, on days 1 and 15 of cycle 1, and then day 1 of each subsequent cycle) or matching placebo-fulvestrant. Median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method.

Results: Multivariable analysis identified endocrine sensitivity, nonvisceral disease, no prior chemotherapy for ABC, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) of 0 as significant prognostic factors for OS. Patients without chemotherapy for ABC had fewer prior lines of treatment in any setting and in the ABC setting versus patients with prior chemotherapy for ABC (two or fewer prior systemic therapies: 69% vs. 42%; no more than one prior line for ABC: 82% vs. 33%, respectively). Median OS was prolonged with palbociclib-fulvestrant in patients without prior chemotherapy for ABC (39.7 vs. 29.5 months; hazard ratio, 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.56-1.01) and was similar in patients with prior chemotherapy for ABC (25.6 vs. 26.2 months; hazard ratio, 0.91 [95% CI: 0.63-1.32]) versus placebo-fulvestrant.

Conclusion: Prognostic factors for OS included endocrine sensitivity, nonvisceral disease, ECOG PS of 0, and no prior chemotherapy for ABC. Exploratory analyses suggest improved OS with palbociclib-fulvestrant versus placebo-fulvestrant in patients with no prior chemotherapy for ABC, prior endocrine sensitivity, and fewer prior regimens of systemic therapy. (Clinical trial identification number: NCT01942135).

Implications For Practice: Prognostic factors for overall survival in HR+/HER2- advanced breast cancer (ABC) include the absence of prior chemotherapy in the advanced setting, endocrine sensitivity, nonvisceral disease, and an ECOG performance status of 0. Improved overall survival benefit was observed with palbociclib-fulvestrant versus placebo-fulvestrant in patients (regardless of menopausal status or visceral involvement) with no prior chemotherapy for ABC, with prior endocrine sensitivity, and fewer prior regimens of systemic therapy. Progression-free survival was prolonged with palbociclib across subgroups (regardless of chemotherapy exposure in ABC). These exploratory findings suggest that patients may receive greater clinical benefit from palbociclib-fulvestrant if they receive the combination before chemotherapy in the advanced setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/onco.13833DOI Listing
May 2021

NCCN Guidelines® Insights: Breast Cancer, Version 4.2021.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2021 05 1;19(5):484-493. Epub 2021 May 1.

Research Advocacy Network.

The NCCN Guidelines for Breast Cancer include up-to-date guidelines for clinical management of patients with carcinoma in situ, invasive breast cancer, Paget disease, phyllodes tumor, inflammatory breast cancer, male breast cancer, and breast cancer during pregnancy. These guidelines are developed by a multidisciplinary panel of representatives from NCCN Member Institutions with breast cancer-focused expertise in the fields of medical oncology, surgical oncology, radiation oncology, pathology, reconstructive surgery, and patient advocacy. These NCCN Guidelines Insights focus on the most recent updates to recommendations for adjuvant systemic therapy in patients with nonmetastatic, early-stage, hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6004/jnccn.2021.0023DOI Listing
May 2021

Physical Activity, Weight, and Outcomes in Patients Receiving Chemotherapy for Metastatic Breast Cancer (C40502/Alliance).

JNCI Cancer Spectr 2021 Jun 12;5(3):pkab025. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber/Harvard Cancer Center, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Obesity and inactivity are associated with increased risk of cancer-related and overall mortality in breast cancer, but there are few data in metastatic disease.

Methods: Cancer and Leukemia Group B 40502 was a randomized trial of first-line taxane-based chemotherapy for patients with metastatic breast cancer. Height and weight were collected at enrollment. After 299 patients enrolled, the study was amended to assess recreational physical activity (PA) at enrollment using the Nurses' Health Study Exercise Questionnaire. Associations with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were evaluated using stratified Cox modeling (strata included hormone receptor status, prior taxane, bevacizumab use, and treatment arm). All statistical tests were 2-sided.

Results: A total of 799 patients were enrolled, and at the time of data lock, median follow-up was 60 months. At enrollment, median age was 56.7 years, 73.1% of participants had hormone receptor-positive cancers, 42.6% had obesity, and 47.6% engaged in less than 3 metabolic equivalents of task (MET) hours of PA per week (<1 hour of moderate PA). Neither baseline body mass index nor PA was statistically significantly associated with PFS or OS, although there was a marginally statistically significant increase in PFS (hazard ratio = 0.83, 95% confidence interval = 0.79 to 1.02;  = .08) and OS (hazard ratio = 0.81, 95% confidence interval = 0.65 to 1.02;  = .07) in patients who reported PA greater than 9 MET hours per week vs 0-9 MET hours per week.

Conclusions: In a trial of first-line chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer, rates of obesity and inactivity were high. There was no statistically significant relationship between body mass index and outcomes. More information is needed regarding the relationship between PA and outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jncics/pkab025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8103727PMC
June 2021

Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) receptor and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) gene expression in primary breast cancer.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2021 Jun 28;187(2):387-395. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

UCSF Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center Precision Medicine Cancer Building, University of California San Francisco (UCSF), 1825, 4th Street, 3rd Floor, Box 1710, San Francisco, CA, 94158-1710, USA.

Purpose: The interaction of the programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) receptor on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes with programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) on tumor cells downregulates anti-tumor immunity. This study evaluated associations between PD-1 and PD-L1 expression in primary breast cancer, clinical characteristics, and patient outcomes.

Methods: Microarray data from the Investigation of Serial Studies to predict your therapeutic response with imaging and molecular analysis (I-SPY 1) study (n = 149) was used to evaluate PD-1 and PD-L1 expression. Associations with clinical features and chemotherapy response were determined using Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon rank sum tests, respectively. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) associations were determined with the Cox proportional hazard model. Associations of PD-1 and PD-L1 and selected genes associated with breast cancer, as well as a predictor of olaparib response (PARPi-7), were determined in I-SPY 1 and 2 other datasets: METABRIC (n = 1992) and TCGA (n = 817), using Pearson correlations.

Results: In I-SPY 1, PD-1 expression was higher in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and HER2 + breast cancer (p = 0.003), and grade 2/3 tumors (p = 0.043), and was associated with pathologic complete response (p = 0.006). PD-L1 expression in the lowest quintile was associated with worse RFS, even after subtype adjustment (HR 2.33, p = 0.01). PD-1 and PD-L1 gene expression correlated with the expression of immune-related genes and PARPi-7.

Conclusions: PD-1 expression is higher in breast cancers with aggressive features such as TNBC. Low PD-L1 expression may be an adverse prognostic factor. PD-1 and PD-L1 gene expression correlates with the expression of immune-related and DNA damage repair genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-021-06234-3DOI Listing
June 2021

Effectiveness of Alpelisib + Fulvestrant Compared with Real-World Standard Treatment Among Patients with HR+, HER2-, PIK3CA-Mutated Breast Cancer.

Oncologist 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

University of California San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, California, USA.

Background: The BYLieve trial (NCT03056755) confirmed efficacy and safety of alpelisib with fulvestrant for hormone receptor-positive (HR+), human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-negative (HER2-), PIK3CA-mutated advanced breast cancer (ABC), after cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitor (CDK4/6i) with an aromatase inhibitor (AI) as immediate prior therapy. Further analyses were performed to compare efficacy from BYLieve with effectiveness of standard treatment in the real-world setting.

Materials And Methods: Patients who progressed on a CDK4/6i plus AI and were treated with alpelisib with fulvestrant in BYLieve were matched with a real-world patient cohort who received standard-of-care from a deidentified clinico-genomics database (CGDB). Primary and secondary endpoints were to compare progression-free survival (PFS), estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and the proportion of patients remaining progression-free at 6 months, respectively, between the two cohorts.

Results: A total of 855 patients with PIK3CA-mutant disease who had prior CDK4/6i plus hormone therapy were selected from the CGDB; further matching to 120 patients from BYLieve selected 95 patients without exposure to HER2-targeting agents, clinical study drug, or alpelisib. In unadjusted and postmatching results, primary and secondary endpoints favored treatment with alpelisib with fulvestrant in BYLieve more than standard treatments in the real-world cohort. Postadjustment, median PFS for patients treated with alpelisib in BYLieve was 7.3 versus 3.7 months in the real-world cohort, and 6-month PFS was 54.6% versus 40.1%, respectively.

Conclusion: Matched/weighted analysis comparing BYLieve with the real-world setting further supports the clinical benefit of alpelisib with fulvestrant for treatment of HR+, HER2-, PIK3CA-mutant ABC after CDK4/6i treatment.

Implications For Practice: Approximately 40% of patients with hormone receptor-positive (HR+), human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-negative (HER2-) advanced breast cancer (ABC) have PIK3CA-mutated tumors, which have been associated with endocrine therapy resistance. Alpelisib, an α-selective phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase inhibitor, demonstrated significantly improved progression-free survival in SOLAR-1 and demonstrated clinical efficacy in BYLieve when combined with fulvestrant. Data are limited in comparing the efficacy of alpelisib combined with fulvestrant with effectiveness of standard therapy after CDK4/6i treatment. Using real-world data, this is the first analysis comparing alpelisib combined with fulvestrant with standard treatments for HR+, HER2-, PIK3CA-mutant ABC in the post-CDK4/6i setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/onco.13804DOI Listing
April 2021

Correlation between week 24 trastuzumab-dkst response and week 48 progression-free survival: the HERITAGE trial.

Breast 2021 Apr 1;58:18-26. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Haematology, Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation, University Medical Centre Freiburg and Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Hugstetter Str. 55, 79106, Freiburg, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: Trastuzumab-dkst is a biosimilar of trastuzumab. The phase 3 HERITAGE trial demonstrated equivalent overall response rate (ORR) with trastuzumab-dkst or originator trastuzumab at 24 weeks in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer receiving chemotherapy. We now present the correlation of ORR with progression-free survival (PFS) for maintenance monotherapy with trastuzumab-dkst vs trastuzumab at 48 weeks of treatment, and the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity.

Methods: HERITAGE is a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, phase 3 study. Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive trastuzumab-dkst or trastuzumab in combination with taxane followed by continued monotherapy until disease progression. The analysis included PFS at 48 weeks to support the primary efficacy endpoint of ORR and safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of trastuzumab-dkst vs trastuzumab as maintenance monotherapy.

Results: Of 500 randomized patients, 342 entered the monotherapy phase; 214 patients received ≥48 weeks of treatment. There were no statistically significant differences between PFS, ORR, or interim overall survival at week 48 between trastuzumab-dkst and trastuzumab. Week 24 ORR was highly correlated with week 48 PFS (r = 0.75). Cumulative treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) and serious AEs were similar in both groups, with few grade ≥3 TEAEs. Immunogenicity was low and similar in both groups at 48 weeks.

Conclusion: The correlation between ORR and PFS supports the design of first-line metastatic trials assessing biosimilar trastuzumab. Overall, trastuzumab-dkst and trastuzumab were well tolerated with similar efficacy, including ORR and PFS, in combination with a taxane followed by monotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.breast.2021.03.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8091175PMC
April 2021

Sacituzumab Govitecan in Metastatic Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

N Engl J Med 2021 04;384(16):1529-1541

From the Division of Medical Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center (A. Bardia), and the Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (S.M.T.) - both in Boston; the University of California, Los Angeles, Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles (S.A.H.); the Medical Oncology Department and the Department of Drug Development and Innovation, Institut Curie, Paris (D.L.), Institut Claudius Regaud, Institut Universitaire du Cancer de Toulouse Oncopole, Toulouse (F.D.), and the Department of Medical Oncology, Centre Eugène Marquis, Rennes (V.D.) - all in France; the Department of General Medical Oncology and Multidisciplinary Breast Center, Leuven Cancer Institute, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (K.P.), and the Clinical Trials Conduct Unit (P.A.), Institut Jules Bordet-Université Libre de Bruxelles (M.J.P.), Brussels - all in Belgium; the Medical Oncology Department and Breast Cancer Group, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital and Vall d'Hebron Institute of Oncology (M.O.), and the International Breast Cancer Center, Quiron Group (J.C.) - all in Barcelona; Magee-Womens Hospital and the Hillman Cancer Center, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh (A. Brufsky); Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus (S.D.S.); Columbia University Irving Medical Center (K.K.) and Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (T.T.) - both in New York; Northside Hospital, Atlanta (A.B.Z.); Florida Cancer Specialists, Tampa (R.W.); Georgetown Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Washington, DC (F.L.); Rocky Mountain Cancer Centers, Greenwood Village, CO (S.D.); Baylor University Medical Center and Texas Oncology, Dallas (J.O.); Segal Cancer Centre, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal (C.F.); Barts Cancer Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London (P.S.); University of North Carolina Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chapel Hill (L.A.C.); Gianni Bonadonna Foundation, Milan (L.G.); the Department of Medicine and Research, Hämatologisch-Onkologische Gemeinschaftspraxis am Bethanien-Krankenhaus, Frankfurt, Germany (S.L.); Immunomedics, Morris Plains, NJ (D.M.G., Q.H., M.S.O., L.M.I.); and the University of California, San Francisco, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco (H.S.R.).

Background: Patients with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer have a poor prognosis. Sacituzumab govitecan is an antibody-drug conjugate composed of an antibody targeting the human trophoblast cell-surface antigen 2 (Trop-2), which is expressed in the majority of breast cancers, coupled to SN-38 (topoisomerase I inhibitor) through a proprietary hydrolyzable linker.

Methods: In this randomized, phase 3 trial, we evaluated sacituzumab govitecan as compared with single-agent chemotherapy of the physician's choice (eribulin, vinorelbine, capecitabine, or gemcitabine) in patients with relapsed or refractory metastatic triple-negative breast cancer. The primary end point was progression-free survival (as determined by blinded independent central review) among patients without brain metastases.

Results: A total of 468 patients without brain metastases were randomly assigned to receive sacituzumab govitecan (235 patients) or chemotherapy (233 patients). The median age was 54 years; all the patients had previous use of taxanes. The median progression-free survival was 5.6 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.3 to 6.3; 166 events) with sacituzumab govitecan and 1.7 months (95% CI, 1.5 to 2.6; 150 events) with chemotherapy (hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.32 to 0.52; P<0.001). The median overall survival was 12.1 months (95% CI, 10.7 to 14.0) with sacituzumab govitecan and 6.7 months (95% CI, 5.8 to 7.7) with chemotherapy (hazard ratio for death, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.59; P<0.001). The percentage of patients with an objective response was 35% with sacituzumab govitecan and 5% with chemotherapy. The incidences of key treatment-related adverse events of grade 3 or higher were neutropenia (51% with sacituzumab govitecan and 33% with chemotherapy), leukopenia (10% and 5%), diarrhea (10% and <1%), anemia (8% and 5%), and febrile neutropenia (6% and 2%). There were three deaths owing to adverse events in each group; no deaths were considered to be related to sacituzumab govitecan treatment.

Conclusions: Progression-free and overall survival were significantly longer with sacituzumab govitecan than with single-agent chemotherapy among patients with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer. Myelosuppression and diarrhea were more frequent with sacituzumab govitecan. (Funded by Immunomedics; ASCENT ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02574455; EudraCT number, 2017-003019-21.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2028485DOI Listing
April 2021

Highlights in metastatic breast cancer from the 2020 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium: commentary.

Authors:
Hope S Rugo

Clin Adv Hematol Oncol 2021 Jan;19 Suppl 1(1):18-19

University of California San Francisco Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, California.

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January 2021

Answers Are in the Blood: cfDNA to Enhance Precision Medicine for Breast Cancer.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Jun 9;27(12):3275-3277. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

University of California San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, California.

Identification of biomarkers to drive treatment using cell-free DNA allows dynamic and safe assessment of tumor biology representing an important advance adding to tissue-based genotyping. Caution must be exercised interpreting commercial matching information as validation is often lacking, and true matching is feasible in a minority of patients..
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-21-0353DOI Listing
June 2021

In Reply.

Oncologist 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/onco.13782DOI Listing
April 2021

Alpelisib plus fulvestrant in PIK3CA-mutated, hormone receptor-positive advanced breast cancer after a CDK4/6 inhibitor (BYLieve): one cohort of a phase 2, multicentre, open-label, non-comparative study.

Lancet Oncol 2021 04;22(4):489-498

British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Background: Alpelisib, a PI3Kα-selective inhibitor and degrader, plus fulvestrant showed efficacy in hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative, PIK3CA-mutated advanced breast cancer in SOLAR-1; limited data are available in the post-cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitor setting. BYLieve aimed to assess alpelisib plus endocrine therapy in this setting in three cohorts defined by immediate previous treatment; here, we report results from cohort A.

Methods: This ongoing, phase 2, multicentre, open-label, non-comparative study enrolled patients with hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative, advanced breast cancer with tumour PIK3CA mutation, following progression on or after previous therapy, including CDK4/6 inhibitors, from 114 study locations (cancer centres, medical centres, university hospitals, and hospitals) in 18 countries worldwide. Participants aged 18 years or older with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or less, with no more than two previous anticancer treatments and no more than one previous chemotherapy regimen, were enrolled in three cohorts. In cohort A, patients must have had progression on or after a CDK4/6 inhibitor plus an aromatase inhibitor as the immediate previous treatment. Patients received oral alpelisib 300 mg/day (continuously) plus fulvestrant 500 mg intramuscularly on day 1 of each 28-day cycle and on day 15 of cycle 1. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients alive without disease progression at 6 months per local assessment using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, version 1.1, in patients with a centrally confirmed PIK3CA mutation. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03056755.

Findings: Between Aug 14, 2017, and Dec 17, 2019 (data cutoff), 127 patients with at least 6 months' follow-up were enrolled into cohort A. 121 patients had a centrally confirmed PIK3CA mutation. At data cutoff, median follow-up was 11·7 months (IQR 8·5-15·9). 61 (50·4%; 95% CI 41·2-59·6) of 121 patients were alive without disease progression at 6 months. The most frequent grade 3 or worse adverse events were hyperglycaemia (36 [28%] of 127 patients), rash (12 [9%]), and rash maculopapular (12 [9%]). Serious adverse events occurred in 33 (26%) of 127 patients. No treatment-related deaths were reported.

Interpretation: BYLieve showed activity of alpelisib plus fulvestrant with manageable toxicity in patients with PIK3CA-mutated, hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative advanced breast cancer, after progression on a CDK4/6 inhibitor plus an aromatase inhibitor.

Funding: Novartis Pharmaceuticals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(21)00034-6DOI Listing
April 2021

Palbociclib for Residual High-Risk Invasive HR-Positive and HER2-Negative Early Breast Cancer-The Penelope-B Trial.

J Clin Oncol 2021 May 1;39(14):1518-1530. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

German Breast Group, Neu-Isenburg, Germany.

Purpose: About one third of patients with hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative breast cancer who have residual invasive disease after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) will relapse. Thus, additional therapy is needed. Palbociclib is a cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and 6 inhibitor demonstrating efficacy in the metastatic setting.

Patients And Methods: PENELOPE-B (NCT01864746) is a double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III study in women with hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative primary breast cancer without a pathological complete response after taxane-containing NACT and at high risk of relapse (clinical pathological staging-estrogen receptor grading score ≥ 3 or 2 and ypN+). Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive 13 cycles of palbociclib 125 mg once daily or placebo on days 1-21 in a 28-day cycle in addition to endocrine therapy (ET). Primary end point is invasive disease-free survival (iDFS). Final analysis was planned after 290 iDFS events with a two-sided efficacy boundary < .0463 because of two interim analyses.

Results: One thousand two hundred fifty patients were randomly assigned. The median age was 49.0 years (range, 19-79), and the majority were ypN+ with Ki-67 ≤ 15%; 59.4% of patients had a clinical pathological staging-estrogen receptor grading score ≥ 3. 50.1% received aromatase inhibitor, and 33% of premenopausal women received a luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analog in addition to either tamoxifen or an aromatase inhibitor. After a median follow-up of 42.8 months (92% complete), 308 events were confirmed. Palbociclib did not improve iDFS versus placebo added to ET-stratified hazard ratio, 0.93 (95% repeated CI, 0.74 to 1.17) and two-sided weighted log-rank test (Cui, Hung, and Wang) = .525. There was no difference among the subgroups. Most common related serious adverse events were infections and vascular disorders in 113 (9.1%) patients with no difference between the treatment arms. Eight fatal serious adverse events (two palbociclib and six placebo) were reported.

Conclusion: Palbociclib for 1 year in addition to ET did not improve iDFS in women with residual invasive disease after NACT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.03639DOI Listing
May 2021

Patient-Reported Outcomes in Patients With -Mutated Hormone Receptor-Positive, Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Negative Advanced Breast Cancer From SOLAR-1.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Mar 29:JCO2001139. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Medical Oncology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France.

Purpose: In the phase III SOLAR-1 trial (NCT02437318), the PI3Kα-selective inhibitor and degrader alpelisib significantly improved median progression-free survival when added to fulvestrant in patients with phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha ()-mutated, hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative advanced breast cancer. We assessed health-related quality of life using patient-reported outcome measures in these patients.

Materials And Methods: In the -mutant cohort, 341 patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive alpelisib 300 mg daily or placebo plus fulvestrant 500 mg on days 1 and 15 of cycle 1 and on day 1 of subsequent 28-day cycles. Patient-reported outcomes were evaluated with the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer QoL of Cancer Patients and Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form questionnaires. Changes from baseline and time to 10% deterioration were analyzed using repeated measurement models and Cox models, respectively.

Results: Global Health Status/QoL and functional status were maintained from baseline (mean changes < 10 points) in the alpelisib (overall change from baseline [95% CI], -3.50 [-8.02 to 1.02]) and placebo arms (overall change from baseline [95% CI], 0.27 [-4.48 to 5.02]). Overall treatment effect in Global Health Status/QoL was not significantly different between arms (-3.77; 95% CI, -8.35 to 0.80; = .101). Time to 10% deterioration for Global Health Status/QoL was similar between arms (hazard ratio, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.72 to 1.48). Compared with placebo, deterioration in social functioning and in diarrhea, appetite loss, nausea or vomiting, and fatigue symptom subscales occurred with alpelisib. Numerical improvement in Worst Pain was observed with alpelisib versus placebo (42% 32%, week 24; = .090).

Conclusion: In SOLAR-1, there was no statistical difference in deterioration of Global Health Status/QoL between arms, whereas symptom subscales favored placebo for diarrhea, appetite loss, nausea or vomiting, and fatigue, known side effects of alpelisib. Treatment decisions must consider efficacy and tolerability; taken with clinical efficacy, these results support the benefit-risk profile of alpelisib in patients with hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative -mutated advanced breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.01139DOI Listing
March 2021

Comparative effectiveness of first-line palbociclib plus letrozole versus letrozole alone for HR+/HER2- metastatic breast cancer in US real-world clinical practice.

Breast Cancer Res 2021 Mar 24;23(1):37. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California Los Angeles, 2825 Santa Monica Blvd, Suite 200, Santa Monica, CA, 90404, USA.

Background: Findings from randomized clinical trials may have limited generalizability to patients treated in routine clinical practice. This study examined the effectiveness of first-line palbociclib plus letrozole versus letrozole alone on survival outcomes in patients with hormone receptor-positive (HR+)/human epidermal growth factor receptor-negative (HER2-) metastatic breast cancer (MBC) treated in routine clinical practice in the USA.

Patients And Methods: This was a retrospective observational analysis of electronic health records within the Flatiron Health Analytic Database. A total of 1430 patients with ≥ 3 months of follow-up received palbociclib plus letrozole or letrozole alone in the first-line setting between February 3, 2015, and February 28, 2019. Stabilized inverse probability treatment weighting (sIPTW) was used to balance baseline demographic and clinical characteristics. Real-world progression-free survival (rwPFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed.

Results: After sIPTW adjustment, median follow-up was 24.2 months (interquartile range [IQR], 14.2-34.9) in the palbociclib group and 23.3 months (IQR, 12.7-34.3) in those taking letrozole alone. Palbociclib combination treatment was associated with significantly longer median rwPFS compared to letrozole alone (20.0 vs 11.9 months; hazard ratio [HR], 0.58; 95% CI, 0.49-0.69; P < 0.0001). Median OS was not reached in the palbociclib group and was 43.1 months with letrozole alone (HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.53-0.82; P = 0.0002). The 2-year OS rate was 78.3% in the palbociclib group and 68.0% with letrozole alone. A propensity score matching analysis showed similar results.

Conclusions: In this "real-world" population of patients with HR+/HER2- MBC, palbociclib in combination with endocrine therapy was associated with improved survival outcomes compared with patients treated with letrozole alone in the first-line setting.

Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov; NCT04176354.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13058-021-01409-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7989035PMC
March 2021

Phase I/II trial of exemestane, ribociclib, and everolimus in women with HR+/HER2- advanced breast cancer after progression on CDK4/6 inhibitors (TRINITI-1).

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Mar 15. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Breast Medical Oncolohy, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center.

PURPOSE Standard-of-care treatment for metastatic hormone receptor-positive (HR+), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-) breast cancer includes endocrine therapy (ET) combined with a cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitor (CDK4/6i). Optimal treatment after progression on CDK4/6i is unknown. The TRINITI-1 trial investigated ribociclib, a CDK4/6i which has recently demonstrated significant OS benefit in 2 phase III trials, in combination with everolimus and exemestane in patients with HR+, HER2- advanced breast cancer (ABC) after progression on a CDK4/6i. METHODS This multicenter, open-label, single-arm, phase I/II study included patients with locally advanced/metastatic HR+/HER2- BC. The primary endpoint was clinical benefit rate (CBR) at week 24 among patients with ET-refractory disease with progression on a CDK4/6i. Other endpoints included safety and biomarker analysis. RESULTS Of 104 patients enrolled (phases I and II), 96 had prior CDK4/6i. Recommended phase II doses (all once daily days 1-28 of 28-day cycle) were ribociclib 300 mg, everolimus 2.5 mg, and exemestane 25 mg (group 1) and ribociclib 200 mg, everolimus 5 mg, and exemestane 25 mg (group 2). CBR among 95 efficacy-evaluable patients (phases I and II) at week 24 was 41.1% (95% CI, 31.1%-51.6%), which met the primary endpoint (predetermined threshold: 10%). Common adverse events included neutropenia (69.2%) and stomatitis (40.4%). No new safety signals were observed; no grade 3/4 QTc prolongation was reported. CONCLUSION Preliminary TRINITI-1 safety and efficacy results support further investigation of CDK4/6 blockade and targeting of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway in patients with ETrefractory HR+/HER2- ABC after progression on a CDK4/6i.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-2114DOI Listing
March 2021

An Overview of PARP Inhibitors for the Treatment of Breast Cancer.

Target Oncol 2021 05 12;16(3):255-282. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Sana Klinikum Offenbach, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Breast Cancer Center, Starkenburgring 66, 63069, Offenbach, Germany.

Loss-of-function mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are detected in at least 5% of unselected patients with breast cancer (BC). These BC susceptibility genes encode proteins critical for DNA homologous recombination repair (HRR). This review provides an update on oral poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors for the treatment of BC. Olaparib and talazoparib are PARP inhibitors approved as monotherapies for deleterious/suspected deleterious germline BRCA-mutated, HER2-negative BC. Olaparib is approved in the USA for metastatic BC and in Europe for locally advanced/metastatic BC. Talazoparib is approved for locally advanced/metastatic BC in the USA and Europe. In phase 3 trials, olaparib and talazoparib monotherapies demonstrated significant progression-free survival benefits compared with chemotherapy. Common toxicities were effectively managed by supportive treatment and dose interruptions/reductions. Veliparib combined with platinum-based chemotherapy has also shown promise for locally advanced/metastatic BC in a phase 3 trial. Differences in efficacy and safety across PARP inhibitors (olaparib, talazoparib, veliparib, niraparib, rucaparib) may relate to differences in potency of PARP trapping on DNA and cytotoxic specificity. PARP inhibitors are being investigated in early BC, in novel combinations, and in patients without germline BRCA mutations, including those with somatic BRCA mutations and other HRR gene mutations. Ongoing phase 2/3 studies include PARP inhibitors combined with immune checkpoint inhibitors for the treatment of triple-negative BC. Wider access to testing for BRCA and other mutations, and to genetic counseling, are required to identify patients who could benefit from PARP inhibitor therapy. The advent of PARP inhibitors has potential benefits for BC treatment beyond the locally advanced/metastatic setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11523-021-00796-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8105250PMC
May 2021

Optimal Strategies for Successful Initiation of Neratinib in Patients with HER2-Positive Breast Cancer.

Clin Breast Cancer 2021 Feb 6. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, CA.

Neratinib is an irreversible, pan-human epidermal growth factor inhibitor that has shown efficacy across human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer settings. Neratinib is indicated for use as extended adjuvant therapy for HER2-positive early-stage breast cancer or, in combination with capecitabine, in the treatment of HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. The primary tolerability concern with neratinib is diarrhea, and severe diarrhea early in treatment can lead to a substantial proportion of patients discontinuing neratinib, which may lead to reduced or nonexistent efficacy. In order to establish a set of treatment recommendations for use of neratinib, on May 12, 2020, an expert panel of oncologists and gastroenterologists met virtually to discuss the role of neratinib in the treatment of patients with HER2-positive breast cancer. The panel reviewed the current data on neratinib, including efficacy across settings and diarrhea management strategies. Based on these data and their clinical experience, the panelists developed a set of recommendations to guide selection of patients for neratinib, implement weekly dose escalation at initiation of therapy, and prophylactically manage diarrhea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clbc.2021.02.001DOI Listing
February 2021

Baseline characteristics and first-line treatment patterns in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer in the SystHERs registry.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2021 Feb 28. Epub 2021 Feb 28.

Florida Precision Oncology, a Division of 21st Century Oncology, Boca Raton, FL, USA.

Background: Systemic Therapies for HER2-Positive Metastatic Breast Cancer Study (SystHERs, NCT01615068) was a prospective, observational disease registry designed to identify treatment patterns and clinical outcomes in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC) in real-world treatment settings.

Methods: SystHERs enrolled patients aged ≥ 18 years with recently diagnosed HER2-positive MBC. Treatment regimens and clinical management were determined by the treating physician. In this analysis, patients were compared descriptively by first-line treatment, age, or race. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the associations between baseline variables and treatment selections. Clinical outcomes were assessed in patients treated with trastuzumab (Herceptin [H]) + pertuzumab (Perjeta [P]).

Results: Patients were enrolled from June 2012 to June 2016. As of February 22, 2018, 948 patients from 135 US treatment sites had received first-line treatment, including HP (n = 711), H without P (n = 175), or no H (n = 62) (with or without chemotherapy and/or hormonal therapy). Overall, 68.7% received HP + taxane and 9.3% received H without P + taxane. Patients aged < 50 years received HP (versus H without P) more commonly than those ≥ 70 years (odds ratio 4.20; 95% CI, 1.62-10.89). Chemotherapy was less common in patients ≥ 70 years (68.2%) versus those < 50 years (88.0%) or 50-69 years (87.4%). Patients treated with HP had median overall survival of 53.8 months and median progression-free survival of 15.8 months.

Conclusions: Our analysis of real-world data shows that most patients with HER2-positive MBC received first-line treatment with HP + taxane. However, older patients were less likely to receive dual HER2-targeted therapy and chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-021-06103-zDOI Listing
February 2021

Matching-adjusted indirect comparison of palbociclib versus ribociclib and abemaciclib in hormone receptor-positive/HER2-negative advanced breast cancer.

J Comp Eff Res 2021 04 25;10(6):457-467. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

EVERSANA, Sydney, Nova Scotia B1P 1C6, Canada.

Palbociclib (PAL), ribociclib (RIB) and abemaciclib (ABM), in combination with fulvestrant (FUL), are approved for the treatment of hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative advanced breast cancer. This study aims to determine relative efficacy of PAL+FUL versus RIB+FUL and ABM+FUL using matching-adjusted indirect treatment comparisons. Anchored matching-adjusted indirect treatment comparisons were conducted using individual patient data from PALOMA-3 and published summary-level data from MONARCH 2 and MONALEESA-3. The primary outcome was overall survival (OS). OS was similar for PAL+FUL versus ABM+FUL (hazard ratio: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.54-1.40) and RIB+FUL (hazard ratio: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.48-1.63). Adjusting for cross-trial differences suggests similar OS between treatments, underscoring the importance of accounting for these differences when indirectly comparing treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/cer-2020-0272DOI Listing
April 2021

Association of Immunophenotype With Pathologic Complete Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: A Secondary Analysis of the BrighTNess Phase 3 Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Oncol 2021 Apr;7(4):603-608

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston.

Importance: Adding carboplatin to standard neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) likely benefits a subset of patients; however, determinants of benefit are poorly understood.

Objective: To define the association of molecular subtype, tumor proliferation, and immunophenotype with benefit of carboplatin added to NAC for patients with stages II to III TNBC.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This was a prespecified secondary analysis of a phase 3, double-blind, randomized clinical trial (BrighTNess) that enrolled 634 women across 145 centers in 15 countries. Women with clinical stages II to III TNBC who had undergone pretreatment biopsy were eligible to participate. Whole transcriptome RNA sequencing was performed on the biopsy specimens. The prespecified end point was association of pathologic complete response (pCR) with gene expression-based molecular subtype, with secondary end points investigating established signatures (proliferation, immune) and exploratory analyses of immunophenotype. Data were collected from April 2014 to March 2016. The study analyses were performed from January 2018 to March 2019.

Interventions: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with paclitaxel followed by doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide, or this same regimen with carboplatin or carboplatin plus veliparib.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Association of gene expression-based molecular subtype (PAM50 and TNBC subtypes) with pCR.

Results: Of the 634 women (median age, 51 [range, 22-78] years) enrolled in BrighTNess, 482 (76%) patients had evaluable RNA sequencing data, with similar baseline characteristics relative to the overall intention-to-treat population. Pathologic complete response was significantly more frequent in PAM50 basal-like vs nonbasal-like cancers overall (202 of 386 [52.3%] vs 34 of 96 [35.4%]; P = .003). Carboplatin benefit was not significantly different in basal-like vs nonbasal-like subgroups (P = .80 for interaction). In multivariable analysis, proliferation (hazard ratio, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.21-0.61; P < .001) and immune (hazard ratio, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.49-0.79; P < .001) signatures were independently associated with pCR. Tumors above the median for proliferation and immune signatures had the highest pCR rate (84 of 125; 67%), while those below the median for both signatures had the lowest pCR rate (42 of 125; 34%). Exploratory gene expression immune analyses suggested that tumors with higher inferred CD8+ T-cell infiltration may receive greater benefit with addition of carboplatin.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial, triple-negative breast cancer subtyping revealed high pCR rates in basal-like and immunomodulatory subsets. Analysis of biological processes related to basal-like and immunomodulatory phenotypes identified tumor cell proliferation and immune scores as independent factors associated with achieving pCR; the benefit of carboplatin on pCR was seen across all molecular subtypes. Further validation of immunophenotype with existing biomarkers may help to escalate or de-escalate therapy for patients with TNBC.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02032277.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2020.7310DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7893540PMC
April 2021

The efficacy and safety of enzalutamide with trastuzumab in patients with HER2+ and androgen receptor-positive metastatic or locally advanced breast cancer.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2021 May 16;187(1):155-165. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Division of Breast Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 450 Brookline Ave., Boston, MA, 02215, USA.

Purpose: Androgen receptor (AR) expression occurs in up to 86% of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive (HER2+) breast cancers. In vitro, AR inhibitors enhance antitumor activity of trastuzumab, an anti-HER2 antibody, in trastuzumab-resistant HER2+ cell lines. This open-label, single-arm, phase II study evaluated the efficacy and safety of enzalutamide, an AR-signaling inhibitor, in patients with advanced HER2+ AR+ breast cancer previously treated with trastuzumab.

Methods: Eligible patients had measurable or non-measurable evaluable disease per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) v1.1, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group status ≤ 1, no history of brain metastases, and previously received ≥ 1 anti-HER2 regimen for advanced disease. Patients received 160 mg oral enzalutamide daily and 6 mg/kg intravenous trastuzumab every 21 days until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Primary end point was clinical benefit rate at 24 weeks (CBR24); secondary end points included progression-free survival (PFS) and safety.

Results: Overall, 103 women were enrolled [median age 60 years (range 34-83)]; 62% had received ≥ 3 lines of prior anti-HER2 therapy. CBR24, comprising patients with confirmed partial responses (5%) and durable stable disease at 24 weeks (19%), was 24% in the efficacy evaluable set (n = 89). CBR24 did not seem related to AR-expression levels or hormone receptor status. Median PFS was 3.4 months (95% confidence interval 2.0-3.8). Overall, 97 (94%) patients experienced treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs), with fatigue most common (34%). Dyspnea (4%) and malignant neoplasm progression (3%) were the only TEAEs grade ≥ 3 reported in ≥ 3 patients. 22 patients (21%) reported serious TEAEs. Four patients (4%) experienced fatal, non-drug-related TEAEs.

Conclusions: Enzalutamide plus trastuzumab was well tolerated, and a subset of patients in this heavily pretreated population had durable disease control. Determination of biomarkers is needed to identify patients most likely to benefit from this combination. CLINICALTRIALS.

Gov Number: NCT02091960.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-021-06109-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8062601PMC
May 2021

Expected Medium- and Long-Term Impact of the COVID-19 Outbreak in Oncology.

JCO Glob Oncol 2021 02;7:162-172

Medical Oncology, CHU Sart Tilman Liège and University of Liège, Liège, Belgium.

Purpose: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected healthcare systems globally, leading to reorganization of medical activities. We performed an international survey aimed to investigate the medium- and long-term impact on oncology units.

Materials And Methods: An 82-item survey was distributed from June 17 to July 14, 2020 among medical oncologists worldwide.

Results: One hundred nine medical oncologists from 18 countries in Europe (n = 93), United States (n = 5), and Latin America (n = 11) answered the survey. A systematic tracing of COVID-19-positive patients was continued in the postacute phase by 77.1% of the centers; 64.2% of the respondents participated in a local registry and 56% in international or national registries of infected patients. Treatment adaptations were introduced, and surgery was the most affected modality being delayed or canceled in more than 10% of patients in 34% of the centers, whereas early cessation of palliative treatment was reported in 32.1% of the centers; 64.2% of respondents reported paying attention to avoid undertreatments. The use of telemedicine has been largely increased. Similarly, virtual tools are increasingly used particularly for medical education and international or national or multidisciplinary meetings. 60.6% of the participants reduced clinical activity, and 28.4% compensated by increasing their research activity. Significant reduction of clinical trial activities is expected in 37% of centers this year. The well-being of healthcare staff would not recover by the end of the year according to 18% of the participants.

Conclusion: The COVID-19 outbreak has had a major impact on oncologic activity, which will persist in the future, irrespective of geographical areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/GO.20.00589DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8081548PMC
February 2021

Atezolizumab and nab-Paclitaxel in Advanced Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Biomarker Evaluation of the IMpassion130 Study.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 Feb 1. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Barts Cancer Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Understanding the impact of the tumor immune microenvironment and BRCA-related DNA repair deficiencies on the clinical activity of immune checkpoint inhibitors may help optimize both patient and treatment selection in metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (mTNBC). In this substudy from the phase 3 IMpassion130 trial, immune biomarkers and BRCA alterations were evaluated for association with clinical benefit with atezolizumab (A) + nab-paclitaxel (nP) vs placebo + nP in unresectable locally advanced or mTNBC.

Methods: Patients were randomized 1:1 to nab-paclitaxel 100 mg/m2 (days 1, 8, and 15 of a 28-day cycle) + atezolizumab 840 mg every 2 weeks or placebo until progression or toxicity. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were evaluated based on programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression on immune cells (IC) and tumor cells (TC), intratumoral CD8, stromal tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (sTILs), and BRCA1/2 mutations.

Results: PD-L1 IC+ in either primary or metastatic tumor tissue was linked to PFS and OS benefit with A+nP. PD-L1 IC+ low (26.9%; 243 of 902 patients) and high (13.9%; 125 of 902 patients) populations had improved outcomes that were comparable. Intratumoral CD8 and sTILs positivity were associated with PD-L1 IC+ status; A+nP vs P+nP improved outcomes were observed only in CD8+ and sTIL+ patients who were also PD-L1 IC+. BRCA1/2 mutations (occurring in 14.5% [89 of 612 patients]) were not associated with PD-L1 IC status, and PD-L1 IC+ patients benefited from A+nP regardless of BRCA1/2 mutation status.

Conclusions: Although A+nP was more efficacious in patients with richer tumor immune microenvironment, clinical benefit was only observed in patients whose tumors were PD-L1 IC+.S.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djab004DOI Listing
February 2021

Long-Term Pooled Safety Analysis of Palbociclib in Combination with Endocrine Therapy for Hormone Receptor-Positive/Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Negative Advanced Breast Cancer: Updated Analysis with up to 5 Years of Follow-Up.

Oncologist 2021 May 10;26(5):e749-e755. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Centre Eugène Marquis, Rennes, France.

Background: Previous studies demonstrated the tolerability of palbociclib plus endocrine therapy (ET). This analysis evaluated safety based on more recent cutoff dates and a longer palbociclib treatment exposure.

Patients And Methods: Data were pooled from three randomized studies of patients with hormone receptor-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HR+/HER2-) advanced breast cancer (ABC), including postmenopausal women who had not received prior systemic treatment for advanced disease (PALOMA-1/-2) and pre- and postmenopausal women who had progressed on prior ET (PALOMA-3).

Results: Updated cutoff dates were December 21, 2017 (PALOMA-1), May 31, 2017 (PALOMA-2), and April 13, 2018 (PALOMA-3). Total person-years of treatment exposure were 1,421.6 with palbociclib plus ET (n = 872) and 528.4 with ET (n = 471). Any-grade neutropenia and infections were more frequent with palbociclib plus ET (82.1% and 59.2%, respectively) than with ET (5.1% and 39.5%). The hazard ratios were 1.6 (p = .0995) for grade 3/4 infections, 1.8 (p = .4358) for grade 3/4 viral infections, 1.4 (p = .0001) for infections, and 30.8 (p < .0001) for neutropenia. Febrile neutropenia was reported in 1.4% of patients receiving palbociclib plus ET. Cumulative incidence of all-grade hematologic adverse events in both arms peaked during the first year of treatment and plateaued over the 5 subsequent years. Interstitial lung disease was reported in 13 patients receiving palbociclib plus ET and 3 receiving ET.

Conclusion: This 5-year, long-term analysis demonstrated that palbociclib plus ET has a consistent and stable safety profile and is a safe treatment for patients with HR+/HER2- ABC.

Implications For Practice: Several treatments for patients with breast cancer are associated with long-term or latent adverse events. This long-term, 5-year analysis demonstrated that palbociclib plus endocrine therapy has a consistent and stable safety profile without cumulative or delayed toxicities. These results further support palbociclib plus endocrine therapy as a safe and manageable treatment in clinical practice for patients with hormone receptor-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative advanced breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/onco.13684DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8100571PMC
May 2021

Efficacy of Margetuximab vs Trastuzumab in Patients With Pretreated ERBB2-Positive Advanced Breast Cancer: A Phase 3 Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Oncol 2021 Apr;7(4):573-584

Division of Hematology/Oncology, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois.

Importance: ERRB2 (formerly HER2)-positive advanced breast cancer (ABC) remains typically incurable with optimal treatment undefined in later lines of therapy. The chimeric antibody margetuximab shares ERBB2 specificity with trastuzumab but incorporates an engineered Fc region to increase immune activation.

Objective: To compare the clinical efficacy of margetuximab vs trastuzumab, each with chemotherapy, in patients with pretreated ERBB2-positive ABC.

Design, Setting, And Participants: The SOPHIA phase 3 randomized open-label trial of margetuximab plus chemotherapy vs trastuzumab plus chemotherapy enrolled 536 patients from August 26, 2015, to October 10, 2018, at 166 sites in 17 countries. Eligible patients had disease progression on 2 or more prior anti-ERBB2 therapies and 1 to 3 lines of therapy for metastatic disease. Data were analyzed from February 2019 to October 2019.

Interventions: Investigators selected chemotherapy before 1:1 randomization to margetuximab, 15 mg/kg, or trastuzumab, 6 mg/kg (loading dose, 8 mg/kg), each in 3-week cycles. Stratification factors were metastatic sites (≤2, >2), lines of therapy (≤2, >2), and chemotherapy choice.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Sequential primary end points were progression-free survival (PFS) by central blinded analysis and overall survival (OS). All α was allocated to PFS, followed by OS. Secondary end points were investigator-assessed PFS and objective response rate by central blinded analysis.

Results: A total of 536 patients were randomized to receive margetuximab (n = 266) or trastuzumab (n = 270). The median age was 56 (27-86) years; 266 (100%) women were in the margetuximab group, while 267 (98.9%) women were in the trastuzumab group. Groups were balanced. All but 1 patient had received prior pertuzumab, and 489 (91.2%) had received prior ado-trastuzumab emtansine. Margetuximab improved primary PFS over trastuzumab with 24% relative risk reduction (hazard ratio [HR], 0.76; 95% CI, 0.59-0.98; P = .03; median, 5.8 [95% CI, 5.5-7.0] months vs 4.9 [95% CI, 4.2-5.6] months; October 10, 2018). After the second planned interim analysis of 270 deaths, median OS was 21.6 months with margetuximab vs 19.8 months with trastuzumab (HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.69-1.13; P = .33; September 10, 2019), and investigator-assessed PFS showed 29% relative risk reduction favoring margetuximab (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.58-0.86; P < .001; median, 5.7 vs 4.4 months; September 10, 2019). Margetuximab improved objective response rate over trastuzumab: 22% vs 16% (P = .06; October 10, 2018), and 25% vs 14% (P < .001; September 10, 2019). Incidence of infusion-related reactions, mostly in cycle 1, was higher with margetuximab (35 [13.3%] vs 9 [3.4%]); otherwise, safety was comparable.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this phase 3 randomized clinical trial, margetuximab plus chemotherapy had acceptable safety and a statistically significant improvement in PFS compared with trastuzumab plus chemotherapy in ERBB2-positive ABC after progression on 2 or more prior anti-ERBB2 therapies. Final OS analysis is expected in 2021.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02492711.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2020.7932DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7823434PMC
April 2021