Publications by authors named "Hoonsoo Lee"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Hyperspectral Shortwave Infrared Image Analysis for Detection of Adulterants in Almond Powder with One-Class Classification Method.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Oct 16;20(20). Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Department of Biosystems Machinery Engineering, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34134, Korea.

The widely used techniques for analyzing the quality of powdered food products focus on targeted detection with a low-throughput screening of samples. Owing to potentially significant health threats and large-scale adulterations, food regulatory agencies and industries require rapid and non-destructive analytical techniques for the detection of unexpected compounds present in products. Accordingly, shortwave-infrared hyperspectral imaging (SWIR-HSI) for high throughput authenticity analysis of almond powder was investigated in this study. Two different varieties of almond powder, adulterated with apricot and peanut powder at different concentrations, were imaged using the SWIR-HSI system. A one-class classifier technique, known as data-driven soft independent modeling of class analogy (DD-SIMCA), was used on collected data sets of pure and adulterated samples. A partial least square regression (PLSR) model was further developed to predict adulterant concentrations in almond powder. Classification results from DD-SIMCA yielded 100% sensitivity and 89-100% specificity for different validation sets of adulterated samples. The results obtained from the PLSR analysis yielded a high determination coefficient (R) and low error values (<1%) for each variety of almond powder adulterated with apricot; however, a relatively higher error rates of 2.5% and 4.4% for the two varieties of almond powder adulterated with peanut powder, which indicates the performance of quantitative analysis model could vary with sample condition, such as variety, originality, etc. PLSR-based concentration mapped images visually characterized the adulterant (apricot) concentration in the almond powder. These results demonstrate that the SWIR-HSI technique combined with the one-class classifier DD-SIMCA can be used effectively for a high-throughput quality screening of almond powder regarding potential adulteration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20205855DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7589775PMC
October 2020

Vis/NIR hyperspectral imaging distinguishes sub-population, production environment, and physicochemical grain properties in rice.

Sci Rep 2020 06 9;10(1):9284. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Dale Bumpers National Rice Research Center, United States Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service, Stuttgart, AR, 72160, USA.

Rice grain quality is a multifaceted quantitative trait that impacts crop value and is influenced by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Chemical, physical, and visual analyses are the standard methods for measuring grain quality. In this study, we evaluated high-throughput hyperspectral imaging for quantification of rice grain quality and classification of grain samples by genetic sub-population and production environment. Whole grain rice samples from the USDA mini-core collection grown in multiple locations were evaluated using hyperspectral imaging and compared with results from standard phenotyping. Loci associated with hyperspectral values were mapped in the mini-core with 3.2 million SNPs in a genome-wide association study (GWAS). Our results show that visible and near infra-red (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy can classify rice according to sub-population and production environment based on differences in physicochemical grain properties. The 702-900 nm range of the NIR spectrum was associated with the chalky grain trait. GWAS revealed that grain chalk and hyperspectral variation share genomic regions containing several plausible candidate genes for grain chalkiness. Hyperspectral quantification of grain chalk was validated using a segregating bi-parental mapping population. These results indicate that Vis/NIR can be used for non-destructive high throughput phenotyping of grain chalk and potentially other grain quality properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65999-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7283329PMC
June 2020

Multispectral Fluorescence Imaging Technique for On-Line Inspection of Fecal Residues on Poultry Carcasses.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 Aug 9;19(16). Epub 2019 Aug 9.

Department of Biosystems Machinery Engineering, College of Agricultural and Life Science, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34134, Korea.

Rapid and reliable inspection of food is essential to ensure food safety, particularly in mass production and processing environments. Many studies have focused on spectral imaging for poultry inspection; however, no research has explored the use of multispectral fluorescence imaging (MFI) for on-line poultry inspection. In this study, the feasibility of MFI for on-line detection of fecal matter from the ceca, colon, duodenum, and small intestine of poultry carcasses was investigated for the first time. A multispectral line-scan fluorescence imaging system was integrated with a commercial poultry conveying system, and the images of chicken carcasses with fecal contaminants were scanned at processing line speeds of one, three, and five birds per second. To develop an optimal detection and classification algorithm to distinguish upper and lower feces-contaminated parts from skin, the principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were first performed using the spectral data of the selected regions, and then applied in spatial domain to visualize the feces-contaminated area based on binary images. Our results demonstrated that for the spectral data analysis, both the PCA and PLS-DA can distinguish the high and low feces-contaminated area from normal skin; however, the PCA analysis based on selected band ratio images (F630 nm/F600 nm) exhibited better visualization and discrimination of feces-contaminated area, compared with the PLS-DA-based developed chemical images. A color image analysis using histogram equalization, sharpening, median filter, and threshold value (1) demonstrated 78% accuracy. Thus, the MFI system can be developed utilizing the two band ratios for on-line implementation for the effective detection of fecal contamination on chicken carcasses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19163483DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6720503PMC
August 2019

Through-packaging analysis of butter adulteration using line-scan spatially offset Raman spectroscopy.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2018 Sep 22;410(22):5663-5673. Epub 2018 Jun 22.

Department of Biosystems Machinery Engineering, College of Agricultural and Life Science, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseoung-gu, Daejeon, 34134, South Korea.

Spectroscopic techniques for food quality analysis are limited to surface inspections and are highly affected by the superficial layers (skin or packaging material) of the food samples. The ability of spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) to obtain chemical information from below the surface of a sample makes it a promising candidate for the non-destructive analysis of the quality of packaged food. In the present study, we developed a line-scan SORS technique for obtaining the Raman spectra of packaged-food samples. This technique was used to quantify butter adulteration with margarine through two different types of packaging. Further, the significant commercial potential of the developed technique was demonstrated by its being able to discriminate between ten commercial varieties of butter and margarine whilst still in their original, unopened packaging. The results revealed that, while conventional backscattering Raman spectroscopy cannot penetrate the packaging, thus preventing its application to the quality analysis of packaged food, SORS analysis yielded excellent qualitative and quantitative analyses of butter samples. The partial least-square regression analysis predictive values for the SORS data exhibit correlation coefficient values of 0.95 and 0.92, associated with the prediction error 3.2 % and 3.9 % for cover-1 & 2, respectively. The developed system utilizes a laser line (ca. 14-cm wide) that enables the simultaneous collection of a large number of spectra from a sample. Thus, by averaging the spectra collected for a given sample, the signal-to-noise ratio of the final spectrum can be enhanced, which will then have a significant effect on the multivariate data analysis methods used for qualitative and/or qualitative analyses. This recently presented line-scan SORS technique could be applied to the development of high-throughput and real-time analysis techniques for determining the quality and authenticity various packaged agricultural products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-018-1189-1DOI Listing
September 2018

Detection of melamine in milk powder using MCT-based short-wave infrared hyperspectral imaging system.

Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 2018 Jun 5;35(6):1027-1037. Epub 2018 Jun 5.

b Department of Biosystems Machinery Engineering, College of Agricultural and Life Science , Chungnam National University , Daejeon , South Korea.

Extensive research has been conducted on non-destructive and rapid detection of melamine in powdered foods in the last decade. While Raman and near-infrared hyperspectral imaging techniques have been successful in terms of non-destructive and rapid measurement, they have limitations with respect to measurement time and detection capability, respectively. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop a mercury cadmium telluride (MCT)-based short-wave infrared (SWIR) hyperspectral imaging system and algorithm to detect melamine quantitatively in milk powder. The SWIR hyperspectral imaging system consisted of a custom-designed illumination system, a SWIR hyperspectral camera, a data acquisition module and a sample transfer table. SWIR hyperspectral images were obtained for melamine-milk samples with different melamine concentrations, pure melamine and pure milk powder. Analysis of variance and the partial least squares regression method over the 1000-2500 nm wavelength region were used to develop an optimal model for detection. The results showed that a melamine concentration as low as 50 ppm in melamine-milk powder samples could be detected. Thus, the MCT-based SWIR hyperspectral imaging system has the potential for quantitative and qualitative detection of adulterants in powder samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2018.1469050DOI Listing
June 2018

Calibration and testing of a Raman hyperspectral imaging system to reveal powdered food adulteration.

PLoS One 2018 30;13(4):e0195253. Epub 2018 Apr 30.

Department of Biosystems Machinery Engineering, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseoung-gu, Daejeon, Korea.

The potential adulteration of foodstuffs has led to increasing concern regarding food safety and security, in particular for powdered food products where cheap ground materials or hazardous chemicals can be added to increase the quantity of powder or to obtain the desired aesthetic quality. Due to the resulting potential health threat to consumers, the development of a fast, label-free, and non-invasive technique for the detection of adulteration over a wide range of food products is necessary. We therefore report the development of a rapid Raman hyperspectral imaging technique for the detection of food adulteration and for authenticity analysis. The Raman hyperspectral imaging system comprises of a custom designed laser illumination system, sensing module, and a software interface. Laser illumination system generates a 785 nm laser line of high power, and the Gaussian like intensity distribution of laser beam is shaped by incorporating an engineered diffuser. The sensing module utilize Rayleigh filters, imaging spectrometer, and detector for collection of the Raman scattering signals along the laser line. A custom-built software to acquire Raman hyperspectral images which also facilitate the real time visualization of Raman chemical images of scanned samples. The developed system was employed for the simultaneous detection of Sudan dye and Congo red dye adulteration in paprika powder, and benzoyl peroxide and alloxan monohydrate adulteration in wheat flour at six different concentrations (w/w) from 0.05 to 1%. The collected Raman imaging data of the adulterated samples were analyzed to visualize and detect the adulterant concentrations by generating a binary image for each individual adulterant material. The results obtained based on the Raman chemical images of adulterants showed a strong correlation (R>0.98) between added and pixel based calculated concentration of adulterant materials. This developed Raman imaging system thus, can be considered as a powerful analytical technique for the quality and authenticity analysis of food products.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0195253PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5927415PMC
July 2018

Temporal Stability of Escherichia coli Concentrations in Waters of Two Irrigation Ponds in Maryland.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 02 17;84(3). Epub 2018 Jan 17.

USDA-ARS Environmental Microbial and Food Safety Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland, USA.

Fecal contamination of water sources is an important water quality issue for agricultural irrigation ponds. concentrations are commonly used to evaluate recreational and irrigation water quality. We hypothesized that there may exist temporally stable spatial patterns of concentrations across ponds, meaning that some areas mostly have higher and other areas mostly lower than average concentrations of To test this hypothesis, we sampled two irrigation ponds in Maryland at nodes of spatial grids biweekly during the summer of 2016. Environmental covariates-temperature, turbidity, conductivity, pH, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll , and nutrients-were measured in conjunction with concentrations. Temporal stability was assessed using mean relative differences between measurements in each location and averaged measurements across ponds. Temporally stable spatial patterns of concentrations and the majority of environmental covariates were expressed for both ponds. In the pond interior, larger relative mean differences in chlorophyll corresponded to smaller mean relative differences in concentrations, with a Spearman's rank correlation coefficient of 0.819. Turbidity and ammonium concentrations were the two other environmental covariates with the largest positive correlations between their location ranks and the concentration location ranks. Tenfold differences were found between geometric mean concentrations in locations that were consistently high or consistently low. The existence of temporally stable patterns of concentrations can affect the results of microbial water quality assessment in ponds and should be accounted for in microbial water quality monitoring design. The microbial quality of water in irrigation water sources must be assessed to prevent the spread of microbes that can cause disease in humans because of produce consumption. The microbial quality of irrigation water is evaluated based on concentrations of as the indicator organism. Given the high spatial and temporal variability of concentrations in irrigation water sources, recommendations are needed on where and when samples of water have to be taken for microbial analysis. This work demonstrates the presence of a temporally stable spatial pattern in the distributions of concentrations across irrigation ponds. The ponds studied had zones where concentrations were mostly higher than average and zones where the concentrations were mostly lower than average over the entire observation period, covering the season when water was used for irrigation. Accounting for the existence of such zones will improve the design and implementation of microbial water quality monitoring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.01876-17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5772220PMC
February 2018

Raman Hyperspectral Imaging for Detection of Watermelon Seeds Infected with Acidovorax citrulli.

Sensors (Basel) 2017 Sep 23;17(10). Epub 2017 Sep 23.

Department of Biosystems Machinery Engineering, College of Agricultural and Life Science, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34134, Korea.

The bacterial infection of seeds is one of the most important quality factors affecting yield. Conventional detection methods for bacteria-infected seeds, such as biological, serological, and molecular tests, are not feasible since they require expensive equipment, and furthermore, the testing processes are also time-consuming. In this study, we use the Raman hyperspectral imaging technique to distinguish bacteria-infected seeds from healthy seeds as a rapid, accurate, and non-destructive detection tool. We utilize Raman hyperspectral imaging data in the spectral range of 400-1800 cm to determine the optimal band-ratio for the discrimination of watermelon seeds infected by the bacteria using ANOVA. Two bands at 1076.8 cm and 437 cm are selected as the optimal Raman peaks for the detection of bacteria-infected seeds. The results demonstrate that the Raman hyperspectral imaging technique has a good potential for the detection of bacteria-infected watermelon seeds and that it could form a suitable alternative to conventional methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s17102188DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5677267PMC
September 2017

Non-destructive technique for determining the viability of soybean (Glycine max) seeds using FT-NIR spectroscopy.

J Sci Food Agric 2018 Mar 17;98(5):1734-1742. Epub 2017 Oct 17.

Department of Biosystems Machinery Engineering, College of Agricultural and Life Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Republic of Korea.

Background: The viability of seeds is important for determining their quality. A high-quality seed is one that has a high capability of germination that is necessary to ensure high productivity. Hence, developing technology for the detection of seed viability is a high priority in agriculture. Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy is one of the most popular devices among other vibrational spectroscopies. This study aims to use FT-NIR spectroscopy to determine the viability of soybean seeds.

Results: Viable and artificial ageing seeds as non-viable soybeans were used in this research. The FT-NIR spectra of soybean seeds were collected and analysed using a partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) to classify viable and non-viable soybean seeds. Moreover, the variable importance in projection (VIP) method for variable selection combined with the PLS-DA was employed. The most effective wavelengths were selected by the VIP method, which selected 146 optimal variables from the full set of 1557 variables.

Conclusions: The results demonstrated that the FT-NIR spectral analysis with the PLS-DA method that uses all variables or the selected variables showed good performance based on the high value of prediction accuracy for soybean viability with an accuracy close to 100%. Hence, FT-NIR techniques with a chemometric analysis have the potential for rapidly measuring soybean seed viability. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.8646DOI Listing
March 2018

Quantitative analysis of Sudan dye adulteration in paprika powder using FTIR spectroscopy.

Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 2017 May 17;34(5):678-686. Epub 2017 Feb 17.

a Department of Biosystems Machinery Engineering, College of Agricultural and Life Science , Chungnam National University , Yuseoung-gu , Korea.

As adulteration of foodstuffs with Sudan dye, especially paprika- and chilli-containing products, has been reported with some frequency, this issue has become one focal point for addressing food safety. FTIR spectroscopy has been used extensively as an analytical method for quality control and safety determination for food products. Thus, the use of FTIR spectroscopy for rapid determination of Sudan dye in paprika powder was investigated in this study. A net analyte signal (NAS)-based methodology, named HLA/GO (hybrid linear analysis in the literature), was applied to FTIR spectral data to predict Sudan dye concentration. The calibration and validation sets were designed to evaluate the performance of the multivariate method. The obtained results had a high determination coefficient (R) of 0.98 and low root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.026% for the calibration set, and an R of 0.97 and RMSE of 0.05% for the validation set. The model was further validated using a second validation set and through the figures of merit, such as sensitivity, selectivity, and limits of detection and quantification. The proposed technique of FTIR combined with HLA/GO is rapid, simple and low cost, making this approach advantageous when compared with the main alternative methods based on liquid chromatography (LC) techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2017.1290828DOI Listing
May 2017

Detection and quantification of adulterants in milk powder using a high-throughput Raman chemical imaging technique.

Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 2017 Feb 8;34(2):152-161. Epub 2016 Dec 8.

c National Institute of Agricultural Science , Rural Development Administration , Jeonju-si , South Korea.

Milk is a vulnerable target for economically motivated adulteration. In this study, a line-scan high-throughput Raman imaging system was used to authenticate milk powder. A 5 W 785 nm line laser (240 mm long and 1 mm wide) was used as a Raman excitation source. The system was used to acquire hyperspectral Raman images in a wave number range of 103-2881 cm from the skimmed milk powder mixed with two nitrogen-rich adulterants (i.e., melamine and urea) at eight concentrations (w/w) from 50 to 10,000 ppm. The powdered samples were put in sample holders with a surface area of 150 ×100 mm and a depth of 2 mm for push-broom image acquisition. Varying fluorescence signals from the milk powder were removed using a correction method based on adaptive iteratively reweighted penalised least squares. Image classifications were conducted using a simple thresholding method applied to single-band fluorescence-corrected images at unique Raman peaks selected for melamine (673 cm) and urea (1009 cm). Chemical images were generated by combining individual binary images of melamine and urea to visualise identification, spatial distribution and morphological features of the two adulterant particles in the milk powder. Limits of detection for both melamine and urea were estimated in the order of 50 ppm. High correlations were found between pixel concentrations (i.e., percentages of the adulterant pixels in the chemical images) and mass concentrations of melamine and urea, demonstrating the potential of the high-throughput Raman chemical imaging method for the detection and quantification of adulterants in the milk powder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2016.1263880DOI Listing
February 2017

Non-destructive evaluation of bacteria-infected watermelon seeds using visible/near-infrared hyperspectral imaging.

J Sci Food Agric 2017 Mar 30;97(4):1084-1092. Epub 2016 Jun 30.

Department of Biosystems Machinery Engineering, College of Agricultural and Life Science, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764, South Korea.

Background: There is a need to minimize economic damage by sorting infected seeds from healthy seeds before seeding. However, current methods of detecting infected seeds, such as seedling grow-out, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the real-time PCR have a critical drawbacks in that they are time-consuming, labor-intensive and destructive procedures. The present study aimed to evaluate the potential of visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) hyperspectral imaging system for detecting bacteria-infected watermelon seeds.

Results: A hyperspectral Vis/NIR reflectance imaging system (spectral region of 400-1000 nm) was constructed to obtain hyperspectral reflectance images for 336 bacteria-infected watermelon seeds, which were then subjected to partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and a least-squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) to classify bacteria-infected watermelon seeds from healthy watermelon seeds. The developed system detected bacteria-infected watermelon seeds with an accuracy > 90% (PLS-DA: 91.7%, LS-SVM: 90.5%), suggesting that the Vis/NIR hyperspectral imaging system is effective for quarantining bacteria-infected watermelon seeds.

Conclusion: The results of the present study show that it is possible to use the Vis/NIR hyperspectral imaging system for detecting bacteria-infected watermelon seeds. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.7832DOI Listing
March 2017

Detection of cracks on tomatoes using a hyperspectral near-infrared reflectance imaging system.

Sensors (Basel) 2014 Oct 10;14(10):18837-50. Epub 2014 Oct 10.

Department of Biosystems Machinery Engineering, College of Agricultural and Life Science, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764, Korea.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of hyperspectral near-infrared (NIR) reflectance imaging techniques for detecting cuticle cracks on tomatoes. A hyperspectral NIR reflectance imaging system that analyzed the spectral region of 1000-1700 nm was used to obtain hyperspectral reflectance images of 224 tomatoes: 112 with and 112 without cracks along the stem-scar region. The hyperspectral images were subjected to partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) to classify and detect cracks on the tomatoes. Two morphological features, roundness (R) and minimum-maximum distance (D), were calculated from the PLS-DA images to quantify the shape of the stem scar. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and a support vector machine (SVM) were then used to classify R and D. The results revealed 94.6% and 96.4% accuracy for classifications made using LDA and SVM, respectively, for tomatoes with and without crack defects. These data suggest that the hyperspectral near-infrared reflectance imaging system, in addition to traditional NIR spectroscopy-based methods, could potentially be used to detect crack defects on tomatoes and perform quality assessments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s141018837DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4239932PMC
October 2014

Hyperspectral reflectance imaging technique for visualization of moisture distribution in cooked chicken breast.

Sensors (Basel) 2013 Sep 30;13(10):13289-300. Epub 2013 Sep 30.

Department of Biosystems Machinery Engineering, College of Agricultural and Life Science, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764, Korea.

Spectroscopy has proven to be an efficient tool for measuring the properties of meat. In this article, hyperspectral imaging (HSI) techniques are used to determine the moisture content in cooked chicken breast over the VIS/NIR (400-1,000 nm) spectral range. Moisture measurements were performed using an oven drying method. A partial least squares regression (PLSR) model was developed to extract a relationship between the HSI spectra and the moisture content. In the full wavelength range, the PLSR model possessed a maximum  of 0.90 and an SEP of 0.74%. For the NIR range, the PLSR model yielded an  of 0.94 and an SEP of 0.71%. The majority of the absorption peaks occurred around 760 and 970 nm, representing the water content in the samples. Finally, PLSR images were constructed to visualize the dehydration and water distribution within different sample regions. The high correlation coefficient and low prediction error from the PLSR analysis validates that HSI is an effective tool for visualizing the chemical properties of meat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s131013289DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3859064PMC
September 2013
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