Publications by authors named "Hongxia Zhang"

353 Publications

Low-dose PCB126 exposure disrupts cardiac metabolism and causes hypertrophy and fibrosis in mice.

Environ Pollut 2021 Aug 31;290:118079. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Food, Nutrition and Health, Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510080, China. Electronic address:

The residue of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) exists throughout the environment and humans are subject to long-term exposure. As such, the potential environmental and health risk caused by low-dose exposure to PCBs has attracted much attention. 3, 3', 4, 4', 5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126), the highest toxicity compound among dioxin-like-PCBs, has been widely used and mass-produced. Cardiotoxicity is PCB126's crucial adverse effect. Maintaining proper metabolism underlies heart health, whereas the impact of PCB126 exposure on cardiac metabolic patterns has yet to be elucidated. In this study, we administered 0.5 and 50 μg/kg bw of PCB126 to adult male mice weekly by gavage for eight weeks. Pathological results showed that low-dose PCB126 exposure induced heart injury. Metabolomic analysis of the heart tissue exposed to low-dose PCB126 identified 59 differential metabolites that were involved in lipid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Typical metabolomic characteristic of cardiac hypertrophy was reflected by accumulation of fatty acids (e.g. palmitic, palmitoleic, and linoleic acid), and disturbance of carbohydrates including D-glucose and intermediates in TCA cycle (fumaric, succinic, and citric acid). Low-dose PCB126 exposure increased glycine and threonine, the amino acids necessary for the productions of collagen and elastin. Besides, PCB126-exposed mice exhibited upregulation of collagen synthesis enzymes and extracellular matrix proteins, indicative of cardiac fibrosis. Moreover, the expression of genes related to TGFβ/PPARγ/MMP-2 signaling pathway was perturbed in the PCB126-treated hearts. Together, our results reveal that low-dose PCB126 exposure disrupts cardiac metabolism correlated with hypertrophy and fibrosis. This study sheds light on the underlying mechanism of PCBs' cardiotoxicity and identifies potential sensitive biomarkers for environmental monitoring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.118079DOI Listing
August 2021

A stable lanthanum-based metal-organic framework as fluorescent sensor for detecting TNP and Fe with hyper-sensitivity and ultra-selectivity.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Aug 19;264:120276. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

State Key Laboratory of High-efficiency Utilization of Coal and Green Chemical Engineering, Ningxia University, Yinchuan 750021, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

A new Lanthanum-based luminescent metal-organic framework, {[La(HO)(HL)]·HO} (1), has been successfully synthesized by employing 3,3',5,5'-azodioxybenzenetetracarboxylic acid (HL) as a rigid organic linker through the solvothermal reactions. 1 exhibits a two-dimensional (2D) layered structure and a three-dimensional (3D) supramolecular structure is formed by hydrogen bonds between the layers. Stability studies indicate that 1 has good chemical stability and thermostability. Meanwhile, the K values for TNP is 4.61 × 10 M with the LOD of 4.13 × 10 M and the K value for Fe is 1.22 × 10 M with the LOD of 1.72 × 10 M, respectively, which demonstrated that 1 exhibits high sensitivity and excellent selectivity for the detection of TNP and Fevia fluorescence quenching. Significantly, 1 shows high regenerability after five recycling progress for sensing Fe. The possible mechanisms associated with the luminescent quenching are discussed in detail through some relevant experiments and tests, as well as the DFT calculations. Based on the above excellent properties of 1, it will have extremely potential to be used as a dual functional sensor for both detecting TNP and Fe in aqueous solution, simultaneously.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2021.120276DOI Listing
August 2021

Deep learning-based carotid plaque vulnerability classification with multicentre contrast-enhanced ultrasound video: a comparative diagnostic study.

BMJ Open 2021 08 27;11(8):e047528. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Department of Ultrasound, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Beijing, China.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of deep learning-based detection and classification of carotid plaque (DL-DCCP) in carotid plaque contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS).

Methods And Analysis: A prospective multicentre study was conducted to assess vulnerability in patients with carotid plaque. Data from 547 potentially eligible patients were prospectively enrolled from 10 hospitals, and 205 patients with CEUS video were finally enrolled for analysis. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to evaluate the effectiveness of DL-DCCP and two experienced radiologists who manually examined the CEUS video (RA-CEUS) in diagnosing and classifying carotid plaque vulnerability. To evaluate the influence of dynamic video input on the performance of the algorithm, a state-of-the-art deep convolutional neural network (CNN) model for static images (Xception) was compared with DL-DCCP for both training and holdout validation cohorts.

Results: The AUCs of DL-DCCP were significantly better than those of the experienced radiologists for both the training and holdout validation cohorts (training, DL-DCCP vs RA-CEUS, AUC: 0.85 vs 0.69, p<0.01; holdout validation, DL-DCCP vs RA-CEUS, AUC: 0.87 vs 0.66, p<0.01), that is, also better than the best deep CNN model Xception we had performed, for both the training and holdout validation cohorts (training, DL-DCCP vs Xception, AUC:0.85 vs 0.82, p<0.01; holdout validation, DL-DCCP vs Xception, AUC: 0.87 vs 0.77, p<0.01).

Conclusion: DL-DCCP shows better overall performance in assessing the vulnerability of carotid atherosclerotic plaques than RA-CEUS. Moreover, with a more powerful network structure and better utilisation of video information, DL-DCCP provided greater diagnostic accuracy than a state-of-the-art static CNN model.

Trial Registration Number: ChiCTR1900021846.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-047528DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8404444PMC
August 2021

Exposure to GenX and Its Novel Analogs Disrupts Hepatic Bile Acid Metabolism in Male Mice.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Aug 24. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Health Impact Assessment of Emerging Contaminants, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Minhang District, Shanghai 200240, China.

Due to its wide usage and recent detection in environmental matrices, hexafluoropropylene oxide dimer acid (HFPO-DA, commercial name GenX) has attracted considerable attention. Here, we explored and compared the toxicity of GenX and its novel analogs with that of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) to provide guidance on the structural design and optimization of novel alternatives to poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Adult male BALB/c mice were continuously exposed to PFOA, GenX, perfluoro-2-methyl-3,6-dioxo-heptanoic acid (PFMO2HpA), and perfluoro-2-methyl-3,6,8-trioxo-nonanoic acid (PFMO3NA; 0, 0.4, 2, or 10 mg/kg/d) via oral gavage for 28 days. The PFOA, GenX, and PFMO3NA treatment groups showed an increase in relative liver weight, and bile acid metabolism was the most significantly affected pathway in all treatment groups, as shown via weighted gene coexpression network analysis. The highest total bile acid levels were observed in the 2 and 10 mg/kg/d PFMO3NA groups. The ratios of primary bile acids to all bile acids increased in the high-dose groups, while the ratios of secondary bile acids showed a downward trend. Thus, bile acid metabolism disorder may be a prominent adverse effect induced by exposure to GenX, its analogs, and PFOA. Results also showed that the hepatotoxicity of PFMO2HpA was lower than that of GenX, whereas the hepatotoxicity of PFMO3NA was stronger, suggesting that PFMO2HpA may be a potential alternative to GenX.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c02471DOI Listing
August 2021

Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) alleviates oxidative stress and apoptosis of hippocampal neuron in response to beta-Amyloid peptide fragment Aβ.

Bioengineered 2021 Dec;12(1):5440-5449

Department of Geriatrics, The Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.

CPT1C, which is expressed in hippocampus, influences ceramide level, endogenous cannabinoid and oxidation process, as well as plays an important role in various brain functions such as learning. This study aimed to investigate the role of CPT1C in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its underlying mechanism. We established a model of Alzheimer's disease in vitro by exposing primary hippocampal neurons to beta-Amyloid peptide fragment 25-35 (Aβ). The cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level, expressions of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were detected using Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), LDH assay, ROS kits, malondialdehyde (MDA) kits and SOD kits, respectively. Moreover, the expression of oxidative stress-related proteins as well as the expressions of amyloid precursor protein (App), p-Tau andβ-site APP-cleaving enzyme1 (Bace-1) were measured using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) and western blot. Tunel and western blot were adopted to detect apoptosis as well as its related proteins. After the treatment of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), CPT1C expression was detected with the application of RT-qPCR and western blot. CPT1C expression was reduced in Aβ-induced HT22 cells. Overexpression of CPT1C relieved cell viability and toxic injury as well as attenuated oxidative stress, apoptosis and expression levels of AD marker proteins. Moreover, higher doses of PPARα agonist activate the expression of CPT1C in Aβ-induced HT22 cells. In conclusion, CPT1C alleviates Aβ-induced oxidative stress, apoptosis and deposition of AD marker proteins in hippocampal neurons, suggesting that CPT1C has favorable effects on alleviating AD and participates in PPARα activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21655979.2021.1967032DOI Listing
December 2021

Circulating Pro-inflammatory Exosomes Worsen Stroke Outcomes in Aging.

Circ Res 2021 Aug 17. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Pharmacology and Neuroscience, University of North Texas Health Science Center, UNITED STATES.

The systemic inflammatory milieu plays an important role in the age-related decline in functional integrity, but its contribution to age-related disease (e.g., stroke) remains largely unknown. To determine the role of systemic inflammatory milieu in ischemic stroke. Here, we report that systemic administration of serum exosomes from young rats (Y-exo) into aged ischemic rats improved short- and long-term functional outcomes after ischemic stroke and reduced synaptic loss. By contract, similar injections of serum exosomes from aged rats (O-exo) into aged ischemic rats worsened sensorimotor deficits through exacerbation of synaptic dysfunction due to excessive microglial phagoptosis (primary phagocytosis). Our proteomic analysis further revealed that the expression of CD46, a C3b/C4b-inactivating factor, was higher in Y-exo, compared to O-exo. Whereas the prevalence of pro-inflammatory mediators (C1q, C3a and C3b) in serum exosomes increased with age. Microglial expression of C3a/b and C3aR increased after O-exo treatment, compared with Y-exo and vehicle groups. Administration of a selective C3aR inhibitor or microglial depletion attenuated synaptic dysfunction associated with O-exo treatment and improved post-stroke functional recovery. Our data suggest that the levels of pro-inflammatory mediators in serum exosomes increase with age and are associated with worsened stroke outcomes through excessive C3aR-dependent microglial phagoptosis. Modulation of this process may serve as a promising therapy for stroke and other age-related brain disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.121.318897DOI Listing
August 2021

Design and characteristics of tunable in-plane optofluidic lens actuated by viscous force.

Opt Lett 2021 Aug;46(16):4017-4020

In this Letter, we report a tunable in-plane optofluidic lens based on a new regulation method. The viscous force (VF) adjusts a 68# white mineral oil-air interface and focal length (). Two glass plates bonded by ultraviolet adhesive strips form a lens chamber. Liquid enters the chamber by capillary action and forms a convex interface due to VF. As the liquid filling amount increases, VF is enhanced, and the interface deforms. Because of the uneven VF, interface is aspheric, which can reduce the lens aberration. Bendings on both sides of the interface caused by edge effect lead to an even polynomial profile of the entire interface, and they can be used for aberration correction of an in-plane spherical reflector. Experiments demonstrate the continuous tuning of from 17.7 to 45.1 mm. The positive longitudinal spherical aberration (LSA) is effectively suppressed below 0.078 when <35.5. Interface with a large negative LSA is used for spherical reflector aberration correction. Simulation results proved that the light spot improvement rate is>90, and the maximum reached 99%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.435540DOI Listing
August 2021

CYB561D2 up-regulation activates STAT3 to induce immunosuppression and aggression in gliomas.

J Transl Med 2021 08 9;19(1):338. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Department of Neurosurgery, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, School of Medicine, 1665 Kongjiang Road, Shanghai, 200092, China.

Background: Fine tuned balance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is essential for tumor cells and tumor cells use immune checkpoints to evade attack form immunity system. However, it's unclear whether there is any crosstalk between these two pathways. CYB561D2, an antioxidant protein, is part of 5-gene prognosis signature in gliomas and its involvement in gliomas is unknown. Here, we aim to provide a detailed characterization of CYB561D2 in gliomas.

Methods: CYB561D2 expression was measured in clinical samples of gilomas and normal tissues. The effects of CYB561D2 on immunity related genes and tumor behaviors were investigated in glioma cell lines with various in vitro and in vivo assays.

Results: CYB561D2 expression was enhanced in gliomas compared to control tissues. CYB561D2 up-regulation was associated with high grading of gliomas and short survival in patients. CYB561D2 expression was induced by HO in glioma cell lines. CYB561D2 and its functional product ascorbate activated STAT3 dose-dependently. CYB561D2 over-expression increased PD-L1, CCL2 and TDO2 expression, and induced immunosuppression in co-cultured T cells. In in vitro assays, CYB561D2 knock-down suppressed cell growth, colony formation, migration and promoted apoptosis. In contrast, CYB561D2 over-expression reduced survival rate in intracranial glioma model and this effect could be blocked by dominant negative-STAT3. The CYB561D2 up-regulation and the positive association of CYB561D2 with PD-L1, CCL2 and TDO2 expression were cross-validated in open-access datasets.

Conclusions: CYB561D2 up-regulation induces immunosuppression and aggression via activating STAT3 in gliomas and CYB561D2 mediates ROS-tumor immunity crosstalk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12967-021-02987-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8351164PMC
August 2021

Organ Specific Differences in Alteration of Aquaporin Expression in Rats Treated with Sennoside A, Senna Anthraquinones and Rhubarb Anthraquinones.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 27;22(15). Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Key Laboratory of Resource Biology and Modern Biotechnology in Western China, Ministry of Education, Northwest University, No. 229 TaiBai North Road, Xi'an 710069, China.

Senna and rhubarb are often used as routine laxatives, but there are differences in mechanism of action and potential side effects. Here, we studied metabolites of senna anthraquinones (SAQ), rhubarb anthraquinones (RAQ) and their chemical marker, sennoside A (SA), in a rat diarrhea model. In in vitro biotransformation experiments, SAQ, RAQ and SA were incubated with rat fecal flora solution and the metabolites produced were analyzed using HPLC. In in vivo studies, the same compounds were investigated for purgation induction, with measurement of histopathology and gene expression in six organs. The results indicated that SAQ and RAQ had similar principal constituents but could be degraded into different metabolites. A similar profile of down-regulation for all compounds was seen in the colon, suggesting a similar mechanism of action for purgation. However, in the kidneys and livers of the diarrhea-rats, down-regulation of was found in the RAQ-rats whereas up-regulation of was seen in the SAQ-rats. Furthermore, the RAQ-rats showed lower Aqp2 protein expression in the kidneys, whilst the SA-rats and SAQ-rats had higher Aqp2 protein expression in the kidneys. This may have implications for side effects of SAQ or RAQ in patients with chronic kidney or liver diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22158026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8347161PMC
July 2021

Alternative splicing of the dormancy-associated MADS-box transcription factor gene PpDAM1 is associated with flower bud dormancy in 'Dangshansu' pear (Pyrus pyrifolia white pear group).

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Sep 18;166:1096-1108. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Department of Horticulture, Zhejiang University, 866 Yuhangtang Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, 310058, China. Electronic address:

Alternative splicing (AS) plays a crucial role in plant growth, development and response to various environmental changes. However, whether alternative splicing of MADS-box transcription factors contributes to the flower bud dormancy process in fruit trees still remains unknown. In this work, the AS profile of genes in the dormant flower buds of 'Dangshansu' pear tree were examined. A total number of 3661 alternatively spliced genes were identified, and three mRNA isoforms of the dormancy associated MADS box (DAM) gene, PpDAM1, derived by alternative splicing, designated as PpDAM1.1, PpDAM1.2 and PpDAM1.3, were characterized. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) analysis indicated that AS of PpDAM1 didn't affect the nucleus localization and homo-/heterodimerization of PpDAM1.1, PpDAM1.2 and PpDAM1.3 proteins, but disturbed the translocation of PpDAM1.1/PpDAM1.1, PpDAM1.3/PpDAM1.3, PpDAM1.1/PpDAM1.3, and PpDAM1.2/PpDAM1.3 dimers to the nucleus. Constitutive expression of PpDAM1.2, but not PpDAM1.1 and PpDAM1.3, in Arabidopsis retarded the growth and development of transgenic plants. Further comparative expression analyses of PpDAM1.1, PpDAM1.2 and PpDAM1.3 in the flower buds of 'Dangshansu' and a less dormant pear cultivar, 'Cuiguan', exhibited that the expression of all the three isoforms in 'Dangshansu' were significantly higher than in 'Cuiguan', especially PpDAM1.2, which showed a predominantly higher expression than PpDAM1.1 and PpDAM1.3 in both cultivars. Our results suggest that alternative splicing of PpDAM1 could play a crucial role in pear flower bud dormancy process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2021.07.017DOI Listing
September 2021

Mevalonate Blockade in Cancer Cells Triggers CLEC9A Dendritic Cell-Mediated Antitumor Immunity.

Cancer Res 2021 Sep 15;81(17):4514-4528. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, China.

Hyperactive mevalonate (MVA) metabolic activity is often observed in cancer cells, and blockade of this pathway inhibits tumor cell lipid synthesis and cell growth and enhances tumor immunogenicity. How tumor cell MVA metabolic blockade promotes antitumor immune responses, however, remains unclear. Here we show that inhibition of the MVA metabolic pathway in tumor cells elicits type 1 classical dendritic cells (cDC1)-mediated tumor recognition and antigen cross-presentation for antitumor immunity. Mechanistically, MVA blockade disrupted prenylation of the small GTPase Rac1 and induced cancer cell actin filament exposure, which was recognized by CLEC9A, a C-lectin receptor specifically expressed on cDC1s, in turn activating antitumor T cells. MVA pathway blockade or Rac1 knockdown in tumor cells induced CD8 T-cell-mediated antitumor immunity in immunocompetent mice but not in mice lacking CLEC9A dendritic cells. These findings demonstrate tumor MVA metabolic blockade stimulates a cDC1 response through CLEC9A-mediated immune recognition of tumor cell cytoskeleton, illustrating a new immune surveillance mechanism by which dendritic cells monitor tumor metabolic dysregulation and providing insight into how MVA pathway inhibition may potentiate anticancer immunity. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that mevalonate blockade in cancer cells disrupts Rac1 prenylation to increase recognition and cross-presentation by conventional dendritic cells, suggesting this axis as a potential target for cancer immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-20-3977DOI Listing
September 2021

Computer-Aided Diagnosis Evaluation of the Correlation Between Magnetic Resonance Imaging With Molecular Subtypes in Breast Cancer.

Front Oncol 2021 23;11:693339. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Radiology, Third Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China.

Background: There is a demand for additional alternative methods that can allow the differentiation of the breast tumor into molecular subtypes precisely and conveniently.

Purpose: The present study aimed to determine suitable optimal classifiers and investigate the general applicability of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) to associate between the breast cancer molecular subtype and the extracted MR imaging features.

Methods: We analyzed a total of 264 patients (mean age: 47.9 ± 9.7 years; range: 19-81 years) with 264 masses (mean size: 28.6 ± 15.86 mm; range: 5-91 mm) using a Unet model and Gradient Tree Boosting for segmentation and classification.

Results: The tumors were segmented clearly by the Unet model automatically. All the extracted features which including the shape features,the texture features of the tumors and the clinical features were input into the classifiers for classification, and the results showed that the GTB classifier is superior to other classifiers, which achieved F1-Score 0.72, AUC 0.81 and score 0.71. Analyzed the different features combinations, we founded that the texture features associated with the clinical features are the optimal features to different the breast cancer subtypes.

Conclusion: CAD is feasible to differentiate the breast cancer subtypes, automatical segmentation were feasible by Unet model and the extracted texture features from breast MR imaging with the clinical features can be used to help differentiating the molecular subtype. Moreover, in the clinical features, BPE and age characteristics have the best potential for subtype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.693339DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8260834PMC
June 2021

Highly Prevalent Multidrug-Resistant spp. Isolated From a Yellow-Feathered Broiler Slaughterhouse in South China.

Front Microbiol 2021 16;12:682741. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Key Laboratory of Zoonoses, Ministry of Agriculture, Key Laboratory of Zoonoses Prevention and Control of Guangdong Province, Guangdong Laboratory for Lingnan Modern Agriculture, National and Regional Joint Engineering Laboratory for Medicament of Zoonoses Prevention and Control, College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, virulence genes, and genetic diversity of spp. along the yellow-feathered broiler slaughtering line in Southern China from December 2018 to June 2019. A total of 157 spp. isolates were identified from 1,102 samples (including 53.6% (75/140) of live chicken anal swab samples, 27.5% (44/160) of defeathering samples, 18.1% (29/160) of evisceration samples, 2.1% (3/140) of washing samples, 1.4% (2/140) of chilling samples, and 1.1% (4/362) of environmental samples). The prevalence of spp. was 14.2%, including 43.9% , 53.5% , and 2.5% other species. The highest antimicrobial resistance rate was found to be against sulfamethoxazole (138/157, 87.9%), and 90.4% (142/157) of the isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR). Examination of resistance-related genes revealed the double base mutated Thr-86-Ile, which informed ACA-TTA, with an Arg-79-Lys substitution in . Eleven virulence-associated genes (, , , , , , , , , , and ) were also detected by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, and (81.5%) was the most prevalent. Based on an analysis of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) results, we found that spp. could be cross-contaminated throughout the entire slaughtering line. These results show that it is imperative to study the spp. from the yellow-feathered broiler along the slaughtering line in China to develop preventative and treatment measures for the poultry industry, as well as food safety and public health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.682741DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8242590PMC
June 2021

Knockdown of lncRNA NORAD inhibits the proliferation, inflammation and fibrosis of human mesangial cells under high-glucose conditions by regulating the miR-485/NRF1 axis.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Aug 14;22(2):874. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Nephrology, Shengli Oilfield Central Hospital, Dongying, Shandong 257000, P.R. China.

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) serve major roles in diabetic nephropathy (DN). The present study investigated the regulatory mechanism of lncRNA non-coding RNA activated by DNA damage (NORAD) on DN . Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to detect the expression of lncRNA NORAD, microRNA-485 (miR-485) and nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1) in the tissues of patients with DN and high-glucose (HG)-induced human mesangial cells (HMCs). The viability of HMCs was determined using an MTT assay. The levels of inflammatory [tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6] and fibrotic [type IV collagen (Col. IV), fibronectin (FN) and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1)] factors in HMCs were measured by ELISA. The interactions between miR-485 and NORAD/NRF1 were predicted using StarBase and miRDB softwares and confirmed by a dual-luciferase reporter assay. Western blot analysis was utilized to measure NRF1 protein levels. lncRNA NORAD was highly expressed in tissues and HG-induced HMCs. NORAD knockdown suppressed cell viability in HG-induced HMCs. The levels of the inflammatory and fibrotic factors in HG-induced HMCs were inhibited by NORAD knockdown. miR-485 was the direct target of NORAD. NORAD reversed the inhibitory effects of miR-485 on HG-induced HMCs. Furthermore, NRF1 was the target gene of miR-485. Downregulation of miR-485 and upregulation of NRF1 reversed the inhibitory effects of NORAD knockdown on HG-induced HMCs. NORAD knockdown inhibited HG-induced HMC proliferation, inflammation and fibrosis by regulating miR-485/NRF1, providing a possible therapeutic strategy for DN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.10306DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8237396PMC
August 2021

More sensitive to drought of young tissues with weak water potential adjustment capacity in two desert shrubs.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Oct 29;790:148103. Epub 2021 May 29.

Shapotou Desert Research and Experiment Station, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 320 Donggang West Road, Lanzhou 730000, China. Electronic address:

Water is the main limiting factor for survival and growth for desert plants, and plants can alleviate water deficits under drought by adjusting water potential (Ψ). However, the water potential adjustment capacity and water-sensitivity at the tissue level among shrub species remains unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate water potential adjustment capacity and water-sensitivity of different tissues in Artemisia ordosica and Caragana korshinskii through calculating the water relation parameters from pressure-volume (P-V) curves. The present study found that the sensitivity coefficients, -1/β and -1/b, were gradually decreased with increasing degree of lignification in A. ordosica and C. korshinskii, suggesting that younger tissues with low lignification are more sensitive to water deficit. Additionally, the younger tissues with more negative osmotic potential at full turgor (Ψ), water potential at turgor loss point (Ψ), and lower the bulk modulus of elasticity (ε), the relative water deficit at turgor loss point (RWD), apoplastic water fraction (AWF) and total hydraulic capacitance (C), which indicated that younger tissues have stronger turgor adjustment capacity compared to osmotic adjustment capacity and them were more easily lose water during times of decreased water potential because of higher cell wall elasticity and weaker water storage capacity. Collectively, the present study highlighted that younger tissues are more sensitive to drought due to their weaker water potential adjustment capacity and provided critical insight into water physiological mechanism or sensitivity of species to drought.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148103DOI Listing
October 2021

Anti-ovarian cancer potential of phytocompound and extract from South African medicinal plants and their role in the development of chemotherapeutic agents.

Am J Cancer Res 2021 15;11(5):1828-1844. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Biotechnology, Bharathidasan University Tamil Nadu, India.

Ovarian cancer (OC) accounts for the highest tumor-related mortality among the gynecologic malignancies. Most of the OC patients diagnosed with advanced-stage (III and IV) this situation creates panic and provokes an emergency to discover a new therapeutic strategy. Plants that possess medicinal properties are gaining attention as they are enriched with various chemical compounds that are potential to treat various diseases. It is a prolonged process to provide innovative and significant leads against a range of pharmacological targets for a human disease management system. Though challenges and difficulties are faced in the development of a new drug, the emergence of combinatorial chemistry is providing a new ray of hope and also, the executed effort in discovering the drug, and a chemical compound has been remarkably successful. This review discussed the role of medicinal plants that are native of South Africa in treating the Ovarian Cancer and in drug discovery.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8167668PMC
May 2021

PtBRI1.2 promotes shoot growth and wood formation through a brassinosteroid-mediated PtBZR1-PtWNDs module in poplar.

J Exp Bot 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

The Engineering Research Institute of Agriculture and Forestry, Ludong University, 186 Hongqizhong Road, Yantai, China.

Brassinosteroid-insensitive-1 (BRI1) plays important roles in various signaling pathways controlling plant growth and development. However, the regulatory mechanism of BRI1 in brassinosteroid (BR)-mediated signaling for shoot growth and wood formation in woody plant is largely unknown. In this study, PtBRI1.2, a brassinosteroid-insensitive-1 gene, was overexpressed in poplar. Shoot growth and wood formation of transgenic plants were examined and the regulatory genes involved were verified. PtBRI1.2 was localized to plasma membrane, with a predominant expression in leaves. Ectopic expression of PtBRI1.2 in Arabidopsis bri1-201 and bri1-5 mutants rescued their retarded-growth phenotype. Overexpression of PtBRI1.2 in poplar promoted shoot growth and wood formation of transgenic plants. Further studies revealed that overexpression of PtBRI1.2 impelled the accumulation of PtBZR1 into the nucleus, which subsequently activated PtWNDs to up-regulate the expression of secondary cell wall biosynthesis genes involved in wood formation. Our results suggest that PtBRI1.2 plays a crucial role in regulating shoot growth and wood formation by activating BR signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erab260DOI Listing
June 2021

Clinical Significance of Ultrasound-Based Hemodynamic Assessment of Extracranial Internal Carotid Artery and Posterior Cerebral Artery in Symptomatic and Angiographic Evolution of Moyamoya Disease: A Preliminary Study.

Front Neurol 2021 17;12:614749. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Ultrasound, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

To investigate the hemodynamic changes using ultrasound according to digital subtraction angiography (DSA) findings and explore the association between ultrasound parameters and clinical symptoms of moyamoya disease (MMD). Hemodynamic parameters of extracranial internal carotid artery (EICA) and posterior cerebral artery (PCA) were evaluated by ultrasound. According to DSA findings, EICA parameters among Suzuki stages (stage I-II, III-IV, and V-VI), and PCA parameters among leptomeningeal system scores (score 0-2, 3-4, and 5-6) were compared, respectively. ROC analysis was performed based on the ultrasound parameters to distinguish stroke from non-stroke patients. Forty patients with MMD were included in our study (16 men; median age, 37 years). The diameter (D), peak systolic velocity (PSV), end diastolic velocity (EDV) and flow volume (FV) of EICA decreased as the Suzuki stage advanced (D: < 0.001; PSV: < 0.001; EDV: < 0.001; FV: < 0.001). The PSV and EDV of PCA increased as the leptomeningeal system scores advanced (PSV: < 0.001; EDV: < 0.001). ROC analysis showed that the area under the curves (AUCs) based on the D and FV of EICA, the PSV and EDV of PCA and their combination were 0.688, 0.670, 0.727, 0.684, and 0.772, respectively, to distinguish stroke from non-stroke patients. Ultrasound parameters were related to Suzuki stages and leptomeningeal system scores. Ultrasound may be useful in predicting the occurrence of stroke in patients with MMD. Future prospective studies with large sample sizes and long-term follow-up are needed to confirm our preliminary findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.614749DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8165238PMC
May 2021

Modulation of lactate-lysosome axis in dendritic cells by clotrimazole potentiates antitumor immunity.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 May;9(5)

State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, China

Background: Dendritic cells (DCs) play a critical role in antitumor immunity, but the therapeutic efficacy of DC-mediated cancer vaccine remains low, partly due to unsustainable DC function in tumor antigen presentation. Thus, identifying drugs that could enhance DC-based antitumor immunity and uncovering the underlying mechanism may provide new therapeutic options for cancer immunotherapy.

Methods: In vitro antigen presentation assay was used for DC-modulating drug screening. The function of DC and T cells was measured by flow cytometry, ELISA, or qPCR. B16, MC38, CT26 tumor models and C57BL/6, Balb/c, nude, and mice were used to analyze the in vivo therapy efficacy and impact on tumor immune microenvironment by clotrimazole treatment.

Results: By screening a group of small molecule inhibitors and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs, we identified that clotrimazole, an antifungal drug, could promote DC-mediated antigen presentation and enhance T cell response. Mechanistically, clotrimazole acted on hexokinase 2 to regulate lactate metabolic production and enhanced the lysosome pathway and expression in DCs subsequently induced DC maturation and T cell activation. Importantly, in vivo clotrimazole administration induced intratumor immune infiltration and inhibited tumor growth depending on both DCs and CD8+ T cells and potentiated the antitumor efficacy of anti-PD1 antibody.

Conclusions: Our findings showed that clotrimazole could trigger DC activation via the lactate-lysosome axis to promote antigen cross-presentation and could be used as a potential combination therapy approach to improving the therapeutic efficacy of anti-PD1 immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jitc-2020-002155DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8141455PMC
May 2021

Changes in carbon and nitrogen metabolism during seawater-induced mortality of Picea sitchensis trees.

Tree Physiol 2021 May 20. Epub 2021 May 20.

Atmospheric Sciences & Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington.

Increasing seawater exposure is causing mortality of coastal forests, yet the physiological response associated with seawater-induced tree mortality, particularly in non-halophytes, is poorly understood. We investigated the shifts in carbon and nitrogen metabolism of mature Sitka-spruce trees that were dying after an ecosystem-scale manipulation of tidal seawater exposure. Soil porewater salinity and foliar ion concentrations increased after seawater exposure and were strongly correlated with the percentage of live foliated crown (PLFC; e.g., crown 'greenness', a measure of progression to death). Co-occurring with decreasing PLFC was decreasing photosynthetic capacity, N-investment into photosynthesis, N-resorption efficiency, and non-structural carbohydrate (NSC, soluble sugars and starch) concentrations, with the starch reserves depleted to near zero when PLFC dropped below 5%. Combined with declining PLFC, these changes subsequently decreased total carbon gain and thus exacerbated the carbon starvation process. This study suggests that an impairment in carbon and N metabolism during the mortality process after seawater exposure is associated with the process of carbon starvation, and provides critical knowledge necessary to predict sea-level rise impacts on coastal forests.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/treephys/tpab073DOI Listing
May 2021

Phellodendrine promotes autophagy by regulating the AMPK/mTOR pathway and treats ulcerative colitis.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 06 18;25(12):5707-5720. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin Institute of Digestive Disease, Tianjin, China.

To investigate the therapeutic effects of phellodendrine in ulcerative colitis (UC) through the AMPK/mTOR pathway. Volunteers were recruited to observe the therapeutic effects of Compound Cortex Phellodendri Liquid (Huangbai liniment). The main components of Compound Cortex Phellodendri Liquid were analysed via network pharmacology. The target of phellodendrine was further analysed. Caco-2 cells were cultured, and H O was used to stimulate in vitro cell model. Expression levels of LC3, AMPK, p-AMPK, mTOR and p-mTOR were detected via Western blotting and through immunofluorescence experiments. The therapeutic effects of phellodendrine were analysed via expression spectrum chip sequencing. The sequencing of intestinal flora further elucidated the therapeutic effects of phellodendrine. Compared with the control group, Compound Cortex Phellodendri Liquid could substantially improve the healing of intestinal mucosa. Network pharmacology analysis revealed that phellodendrine is the main component of Compound Cortex Phellodendri Liquid. Moreover, this alkaloid targets the AMPK signalling pathway. Results of animal experiments showed that phellodendrine could reduce the intestinal damage of UC compared with the model group. Findings of cell experiments indicated that phellodendrine treatment could activate the p-AMPK /mTOR signalling pathway, as well as autophagy. Expression spectrum chip sequencing showed that treatment with phellodendrine could promote mucosal healing and reduce inflammatory responses. Results of intestinal flora detection demonstrated that treatment with phellodendrine could increase the abundance of flora and the content of beneficial bacteria. Phellodendrine may promote autophagy by regulating the AMPK-mTOR signalling pathway, thereby reducing intestinal injury due to UC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.16587DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8184668PMC
June 2021

Persistent follicular granulosa cell senescence and apoptosis induced by methotrexate leading to oocyte dysfunction and aberrant embryo development.

Clin Transl Sci 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Cell Biology, Naval Medical University (Second Military Medical University), Shanghai, China.

Evidence from clinical cases indicates an association between the low success rate of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and ovarian injury due to previous methotrexate (MTX) administration. Therefore, it is necessary to develop and propose reasonable clinical drug guidelines to improve the quality of oocytes and the development of embryos before pregnancy. In this study, we established a mouse model with previous MTX exposure to validate the effects of MTX on reproductive function in female mice. We observed that MTX administration could result in a decrease in the success rate of fertilization and an aberrant embryonic development in both natural fertilization and IVF, even after completion of five to six ovulation cycles after MTX withdrawal. Further research revealed senescence and apoptosis of follicular granulosa cells (GCs), accompanied by arrested follicle development and aberrant estradiol and anti-Mullerian hormone levels. Supportive evidence indicated that MTX administration induced senescence and apoptosis of human GCs in vitro, and the effects were consistent with the high levels of p21, p53, and oxidative stress. We further demonstrated that folic acid (FA) could improve oocyte function and embryonic development in vivo and in vitro by protecting GCs against apoptosis and senescence. Based on these findings, we propose the implementation of extended intervals between MTX exposure and conception or IVF and recommend FA as a special dietary supplement during this interval period; however, prospective inquiry in humans is necessary to further understand the relationship between MTX and FA recovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cts.13068DOI Listing
May 2021

Eliminating base-editor-induced genome-wide and transcriptome-wide off-target mutations.

Nat Cell Biol 2021 05 10;23(5):552-563. Epub 2021 May 10.

School of Life Science and Technology and Shanghai Institute for Advanced Immunochemical Studies, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai, China.

The fusion of CRISPR-Cas9 with cytidine deaminases leads to base editors (BEs) capable of programmable C-to-T editing, which has potential in clinical applications but suffers from off-target (OT) mutations. Here, we used a cleavable deoxycytidine deaminase inhibitor (dCDI) domain to construct a transformer BE (tBE) system that induces efficient editing with only background levels of genome-wide and transcriptome-wide OT mutations. After being produced, the tBE remains inactive at OT sites with the fusion of a cleavable dCDI, therefore eliminating unintended mutations. When binding at on-target sites, the tBE is transformed to cleave off the dCDI domain and catalyses targeted deamination for precise base editing. After delivery into mice through a dual-adeno-associated virus (AAV) system, the tBE system created a premature stop codon in Pcsk9 and significantly reduced serum PCSK9, resulting in a ~30-40% decrease in total cholesterol. The development of tBE establishes a highly specific base editing system and its in vivo efficacy has potential for therapeutic applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41556-021-00671-4DOI Listing
May 2021

RNA cancer vaccines: developing mRNA nanovaccine with self-adjuvant property for cancer immunotherapy.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 Sep 4;17(9):2995-2998. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Experiment Medicine, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, China.

Messenger RNA (mRNA)-based cancer vaccine has become a popular approach for developing personalized and effective antitumor immunotherapy. To achieve robust antitumor efficacy, mRNA-encoding tumor antigens needs to be efficiently delivered and translated in dendritic cells for efficient antigen presentation; meanwhile, the vaccine would have adjuvant effect by stimulating innate immune response to boost the full activation of adaptive immunity. Recently, we reported a minimalist nanovaccine by formulating tumor antigen-encoding mRNA with a lipid-like material named C1, which could efficiently deliver mRNA into dendritic cells with simultaneous Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) stimulation, together induced T cell activation. Importantly, C1 mRNA nanovaccine exhibited significant antitumor efficacy on several tumor mouse models. Here, we discuss the nanovector-facilitated mRNA delivery and translation in dendritic cells, the self-adjuvant property of nanovectors, the challenges of personalized tumor antigen selection, and the potential strategies for developing efficacious mRNA cancer vaccines targeting the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2021.1921524DOI Listing
September 2021

Fatigue Performance Evaluation of AZ31B Magnesium Alloy Based on Statistical Analysis of Self-Heating.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Apr 27;14(9). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, 92# Xidazhi Street, Nangang District, Harbin 150001, China.

AZ31B magnesium alloy is the experimental material in this study. Considering its anisotropy, fatigue assessment based on self-heating is carried out for both the extrusion direction and the transverse direction. The self-heating behavior in the two orientations is compared. Similar to steels, an obvious inflection point that corresponds to the fatigue limit can be found in the self-heating vs. load curve for AZ31B. A new fatigue limit assessment method is proposed based on a statistical analysis of self-heating data. This method can provide a satisfactory assessment of the fatigue limit for AZ31B in the both orientations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14092251DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8123767PMC
April 2021

A semi-crystalline carbonaceous structure as a wide-spectrum-responsive photocatalyst for efficient redox catalysis.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 May;57(41):5086-5089

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006, China.

Herein, we synthesized an oxygen- and nitrogen-containing carbonaceous structure (ONCS). This ONCS possessed exceptional light-harvesting ranging from the visible to NIR light region. Characterization results confirmed that the ONCS was an n-type semiconductor. The ONCS can efficiently catalyze hydrogen photosynthesis and benzyl alcohol oxidation under visible light, even under NIR light irradiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc01116bDOI Listing
May 2021

Declining carbohydrate content of Sitka-spruce treesdying from seawater exposure.

Plant Physiol 2021 04;185(4):1682-1696

Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, USA.

Increasing sea levels associated with climate change threaten the survival of coastal forests, yet the mechanisms by which seawater exposure causes tree death remain poorly understood. Despite the potentially crucial role of nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) reserves in tree survival, their dynamics in the process of death under seawater exposure are unknown. Here we monitored progressive tree mortality and associated NSC storage in Sitka-spruce (Picea sitchensis) trees dying under ecosystem-scale increases in seawater exposure in western Washington, USA. All trees exposed to seawater, because of monthly tidal intrusion, experienced declining crown foliage during the sampling period, and individuals with a lower percentage of live foliated crown (PLFC) died faster. Tree PLFC was strongly correlated with subsurface salinity and needle ion contents. Total NSC concentrations in trees declined remarkably with crown decline, and reached extremely low levels at tree death (2.4% and 1.6% in leaves and branches, respectively, and 0.4% in stems and roots). Starch in all tissues was almost completely consumed, while sugars remained at a homeostatic level in foliage. The decreasing NSC with closer proximity to death and near zero starch at death are evidences that carbon starvation occurred during Sitka-spruce mortality during seawater exposure. Our results highlight the importance of carbon storage as an indicator of tree mortality risks under seawater exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/plphys/kiab002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8133543PMC
April 2021

Leaky Gut Driven by Dysbiosis Augments Activation and Accumulation of Liver Macrophages RIP3 Signaling Pathway in Autoimmune Hepatitis.

Front Immunol 2021 25;12:624360. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, General Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.

The gut-liver axis has been increasingly recognized as a major autoimmunity modulator. However, the implications of intestinal barrier in the pathogenesis of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) remain elusive. Here, we investigated the functional role of gut barrier and intestinal microbiota for hepatic innate immune response in AIH patients and murine models. In this study, we found that AIH patients displayed increased intestinal permeability and pronounced RIP3 activation of liver macrophages. In mice models, intestinal barrier dysfunction increased intestinal bacterial translocation, thus amplifying the hepatic RIP3-mediated innate immune response. Furthermore, GSK872 dampened RIP3 activation and ameliorated the activation and accumulation of liver macrophages and experiments. Strikingly, broad-spectrum antibiotic ablation significantly alleviated RIP3 activation and liver injury, highlighting the causal role of intestinal microbiota for disease progression. Our results provided a potentially novel mechanism of immune tolerance breakage in the liver the gut-liver axis. In addition, we also explored the therapeutic and research potentials of regulating the intestinal microbiota for the therapy of AIH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.624360DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8027109PMC
September 2021

A review of the aromatic genus Adenosma: Geographical distribution, traditional uses, phytochemistry and biological activities.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Jul 3;275:114075. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Economic Plants and Biotechnology, Yunnan Key Laboratory for Wild Plant Resources, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: The strongly scented genus Adenosma R. Brown (Plantaginaceae) comprises between 26 and 29 species with mainly southeast Asian distributions. Several species are used traditionally, mostly in Asian countries, for medicinal purposes including the treatment of colds and tumors, as well as stomach, liver, and skin disorders. Some species are also used as insecticides and/or insect repellents against mosquitoes or fleas.

Aim Of The Review: Although the potential health benefits of Adenosma spp. are not yet well-known or well-studied in modern medicine, the aim of the present review is to provide a critical appraisal of the current state of knowledge regarding the geographical distribution, traditional uses, phytochemistry, phytochemicals and biological properties of Adenosma spp.

Materials And Methods: Electronic databases (Web of Science, Science Direct, Google Scholar, Scifinder, Microsoft Academic, eFloras), Biodiversity Heritage Library (BHL), and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), were searched using the key words "Adenosma", "", "", "", "nhân trần", as well as the scientific names of the species, and a library search was also conducted for articles and books related to the subject published in English, Chinese or Vietnamese, as well as Ph.D. theses and M.Sc. dissertations published before April 2020.

Results: Adenosma spp. is traditionally used to treat gastrointestinal disorders, hepatitis, colds, and skin problems. Phenolic acids, flavonoids, and terpenoids constitute the main phytochemicals in these plants. Several evaluations based on bioassays have demonstrated biological activity for Adenosma spp., including antidiabetic, anticancer, and insecticidal activities; extracts and isolated compounds have also shown effective biological activity. However, current research has focused only on a few species, and on limited geographical regions, mainly in China and Vietnam. More and broader ethnopharmacological studies are therefore needed to provide further evidence of the health benefits of these plants.

Conclusions: Adenosma spp. are plants rich in essential oils, particularly terpenoids, and the crude extracts have valuable bioactive properties. Certain lines of research based on cell lines and animal models show the potential value in different areas of health management. Further investigation into the traditional knowledge in southeast Asian and Pacific island regions, as well as the into the toxicity and identity of the bioactive compounds and their mechanisms of action is necessary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.114075DOI Listing
July 2021

Design and characteristics of a Maxwell force-driven liquid lens.

Opt Express 2021 Mar;29(6):8323-8332

Varifocal lenses (especially large-aperture lenses), which are formed by two immiscible liquids based on electrowetting and dielectrophoretic effects, are usually modulated by an external high-voltage power source, with respect to the volume of the liquid. Hence, a Maxwell force-driven liquid lens with large aperture and low threshold voltage is proposed. With the polarization effect, the accumulated negative charges on the surface of the polyvinyl chloride/dibutyl adipate gel near the anode results in the generation of Maxwell force and deformation with cosine wave. The effect of surface roughness on wettability is linear with the cosine of the contact angle, leading to a sharp reduction in the threshold voltage when the volume of liquid is increased. When the volume of the droplet increases to 80 μl, the threshold voltage is about 10 V. Hence, the aperture of polarization effect-driven liquid lenses can potentially reach the centimeter level. Moreover, when Maxwell force increases, the lens ranges from concave to convex lens, which holds great promise in rich application such as those in light-sheet microscopes and virtual reality systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.418630DOI Listing
March 2021
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