Publications by authors named "Hongwei Pan"

61 Publications

Resveratrol inhibits necroptosis by mediating the TNF-α/RIP1/RIP3/MLKL pathway in myocardial hypoxia/reoxygenation injury.

Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) 2021 Mar;53(4):430-437

Department of Ultrasound, The People's Hospital of Hunan Province, Changsha 410061, China.

Resveratrol (RES) protects myocardial cells from hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-caused injury. However, the mechanism of this effect has not been clarified. Thus, in this study, we aimed to determine whether RES attenuates H/R-induced cell necroptosis by inhibiting the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)/receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIP1)/RIP3/mixed-lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) signaling pathway. Rat myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) models and H/R-injured cell models were constructed. Our study showed that myocardial H/R injury significantly increased the levels of TNF-α, RIP1, RIP3, and p-MLKL/MLKL by western blot analysis. Cell viability assay and 4,6-dianmidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI)-propidium iodide staining showed that the cell viability was decreased, and necroptosis was increased after myocardial H/R injury. The expressions of TNF-α, RIP1, RIP3, and p-MLKL/MLKL in H/R myocardial cells treated with different concentrations of RES were significantly downregulated. In addition, we also found that the cell viability was increased and necroptosis was decreased in dose-dependent manners when H/R-injured cells were treated with RES. In addition, the enhanced effect of TNF-α on necroptosis in myocardial H/R-injured cells was improved by RES, and the effect of RES was confirmed in vivo in I/R rats. This study also showed that RES suppresses necroptosis in H9c2 cells, which may occur through the inhibition of the TNF-α/RIP1/RIP3/MLKL signaling pathway. Our data suggest that necroptosis is a promising therapeutic target and may be a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of myocardial I/R injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/abbs/gmab012DOI Listing
March 2021

MiR-200a-3p Aggravates DOX-Induced Cardiotoxicity by Targeting PEG3 Through SIRT1/NF-κB Signal Pathway.

Cardiovasc Toxicol 2021 Apr 27;21(4):302-313. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Department of Cardiovasology, Hunan Provincial People's Hospital, Changsha, Hunan, 410000, People's Republic of China.

Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely used cytotoxic drug whose application is limited by its severe side effects. Little was known regarding how to offset its side effects. Therefore this study aims to explore the role of miR-200a-3p in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity and its possible mechanism. DOX-induced myocardial injury rat models were established, which were then injected with miR-200a-3p inhibitor (miR-200a-3p suppression) to observe the effects of miR-200a-3p on cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Heart function and weights of rat models were also measured. Cardiomyocytes were induced by DOX, in which PEG3 knockdown or corresponding plasmids were transfected to assess the possible effect of PEG3 on cell activity. Dual luciferase reporter assay was applied to verify the binding of PEG3 with miR-200a-3p. Elevated levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), as well as suppressed left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP) and ± dp/dt were showed in myocardial injury rat models. DOX induced myocardial injury and increased miR-200a-3p expression levels. miR-200a-3p inhibitor could partially attenuate DOX-induced cardiotoxicity in rat models, while PEG3 could regulate myocardial injury in DOX-treated cell models. miR-200a-3p, by targeting PEG3 through SIRT1/NF-κB signal pathway, regulated cell proliferation, inflammation and apoptosis of myocardiocytes. The results in current study demonstrated that miR-200a-3p regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis of cardiomyocytes by targeting PEG3 through SIRT1/NF-κB signal pathway. This result may provide a potential clue for the treatment of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12012-020-09620-3DOI Listing
April 2021

miR-520d suppresses rapid pacing-induced apoptosis of atrial myocytes through mediation of ADAM10.

J Mol Histol 2021 Apr 5;52(2):207-217. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Cardiovascular Department, Hunan Provincial People's Hospital, No. 61, West Jiefang Road, Furong District, Changsha, 410000, Hunan, People's Republic of China.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a key role in various pathological processes like atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the mechanisms remain unclear. Herein, this study was undertaken to probe the roles of ADAM10 and its targeting miR-520d in rapid pacing-induced apoptosis in atrial myocytes. In this study, the atrial myocytes grew adherently with irregular morphology. Immunofluorescence showed that more than 90% of atrial myocytes were α-sarcomeric actin (α-SCA) positive, indicating that the primary cells were positive for α-SCA staining and atrial myocytes were successfully isolated. The pacing atrial myocyte model was established after rapid pacing stimulation and we found the rapid pacing stimulation caused elevated ADAM10 and suppressed miR-520d. CCK-8 assay was applied for evaluation of cell viability, TUNEL staining for assessment of cell apoptosis and dual-luciferase reporter gene assay for verification of the targeting relationship between miR-520d and ADAM10. Overexpression of miR-520d or silencing of ADAM10 could enhance cell viability and reduce cell apoptosis in the rapid pacing-induced atrial myocytes. ADAM10 was a target gene of miR-520d. MiR-520d negatively targeted ADAM10, thereby promoting cell viability and inhibiting apoptosis in rapid pacing atrial myocyte model. In summary, miR-520d enhances atrial myocyte viability and inhibits cell apoptosis in rapid pacing-induced AF mouse model through negative mediation of ADAM10.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10735-020-09938-wDOI Listing
April 2021

The Effects of High-Salt Gastric Intake on the Composition of the Intestinal Microbiota in Wistar Rats.

Med Sci Monit 2020 Jun 6;26:e922160. Epub 2020 Jun 6.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND A high-salt diet may result in chronic disease and changes in the intestinal microbiota. This pilot study aimed to investigate the microbial composition of the intestine in Wistar rats given intragastric high-salt infusions for four weeks. MATERIAL AND METHODS Six 4-week-old male Wistar rats were fed standard chow and divided into the high-salt group (n=3) and the control study group (n=3). Rats in the high-salt group were given 1 ml of 10% NaCl solution intragastrically three times per week for four weeks. The fecal pellets were collected, and the microbiota was characterized using 16S rRNA gene sequencing that targeted the V4 region. The relative abundance of microbial populations was compared using linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) statistical analysis for the identification of biomarkers between two or more groups, principal component analysis (PCA), and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Microbial genome prediction was performed using the phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstructing the unobserved states (PICRUSt) bioinformatics software. RESULTS There was no significant difference in the alpha diversity of the fecal microbiota between the high-salt group and the control group. However, PCA showed structural segregation between the two groups. Further analysis using LEfSe showed that the intestinal contents in the high-salt group had significantly reduced populations of Lactobacillus and Prevotella NK3B31, and a significant increase in Alloprevotella and Prevotella 9, without physiological or pathological changes. CONCLUSIONS A pilot study in Wistar rats showed that high-salt intake was associated with a change in the composition of the intestinal microbiota.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.922160DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7297027PMC
June 2020

Active SB-P Versus Conventional Approach to the Protection of High-Risk Side Branches: The CIT-RESOLVE Trial.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2020 05;13(9):1112-1122

National Clinical Research Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Beijing, China; Catheterization Laboratories, Fu Wai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine whether an active side branch protection (SB-P) strategy is superior to the conventional strategy in reducing side branch (SB) occlusion in high-risk bifurcation treatment.

Background: Accurate prediction of SB occlusion after main vessel stenting followed by the use of specific strategies to prevent occlusion would be beneficial during bifurcation intervention.

Methods: Eligible patients who had a bifurcation lesions with high risk for occlusion as determined using the validated V-RESOLVE (Visual Estimation for Risk Prediction of Side Branch Occlusion in Coronary Bifurcation Intervention) score were randomized to an active SB-P strategy group (elective 2-stent strategy for large SBs and jailed balloon technique for small SBs) or a conventional strategy group (provisional stenting for large SBs and jailed wire technique for small SBs) in a 1:1 ratio stratified by SB vessel size. The primary endpoint of SB occlusion was defined as an angiography core laboratory-assessed decrease in TIMI (Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction) flow grade or absence of flow in the SB immediately after full apposition of the main vessel stent to the vessel wall.

Results: A total of 335 subjects at 16 sites were randomized to the SB-P group (n = 168) and conventional group (n = 167). Patients in the SB-P versus conventional strategy group had a significantly lower rate of SB occlusion (7.7% [13 of 168] vs. 18.0% [30 of 167]; risk difference: -9.1%; 95% confidence interval: -13.1% to -1.8%; p = 0.006), driven mainly by the difference in the small SB subgroup (jailed balloon technique vs. jailed wire technique: 8.1% vs. 18.5%; p = 0.01).

Conclusions: An active SB-P strategy is superior to a conventional strategy in reducing SB occlusion when treating high-risk bifurcation lesions. (Conventional Versus Intentional Strategy in Patients With High Risk Prediction of Side Branch Occlusion in Coronary Bifurcation Intervention [CIT-RESOLVE]; NCT02644434).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2020.01.233DOI Listing
May 2020

Acute Myocarditis Triggers Coronary Artery Spasm: A Rare Association.

J Emerg Med 2020 Jun 4;58(6):962-966. Epub 2020 May 4.

Department of Cardiology, Hunan Provincial People's Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital of Hunan Normal University, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jemermed.2020.03.029DOI Listing
June 2020

Characterization and whole genome sequencing of a novel strain of Bergeyella cardium related to infective endocarditis.

BMC Microbiol 2020 02 12;20(1):32. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, 250012, Shandong Province, China.

Background: Bergeyella cardium infection is becoming increasingly prevalent in patients with infective endocarditis, suggesting its significance in disease pathogenesis. However, few studies have fully characterized this species.

Results: Herein, we report the morphological and physiological characteristics, as well as whole genome sequencing of a newly identified B. cardium HPQL strain isolated from a patient with infective endocarditis. Results from the cellular morphology and biochemical analysis provide basic knowledge on the new pathogen. The whole genome sequencing of B. cardium HPQL consists of a circular chromosome with a total length of 2,036,890 bp. No plasmid was detected. Comparative genomics were carried out then. Antibiotics resistance related genes, pathogenesis related genes, predicted insertion sequences, genome islands and predicted CRISPRs sequences were demonstrated. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide a complete genome sequence for Bergeyella spp.

Conclusions: This study provides fundamental phenotypic and genomic information for the newly identified fastidious infective endocarditis causative bacteria, B. cardium. Our results provide insights into effective clinical diagnosis and treatment of this pathogen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12866-020-1715-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7017618PMC
February 2020

Study on miscibility, thermal properties, degradation behaviors, and toughening mechanism of poly(lactic acid)/poly (ethylene-butylacrylate-glycidyl methacrylate) blends.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Jan 29;143:443-452. Epub 2019 Nov 29.

Key Laboratory of Polymer Ecomaterials, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Changchun 130022, China.

In the work, the poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/poly (ethylene-butylacrylate-glycidyl methacrylate) (PTW) blends were prepared by melt compounding. PTW as a toughening agent for PLA, the PLA/PTW blends had good compatibility due to the chemical reaction between the epoxy groups of PTW and the end group of PLA during the blending process. With increasing PTW content from 0 to 20%, the impact strength of PLA/PTW blends was enhanced from 4.6 to 54.1 kJ/m and the elongation at break was increased from 5.6% to 270%. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the impact fracture surfaces showed a large amount of cavities and plastic deformation, which caused by the elastomer and the interfacial adhesion enhanced through the interaction of the terminal functional groups. That was the reason that the toughness of PLA was increased. Finally, proteinase K-catalyzed degradation tests shown that the addition of PTW was beneficial to the biodegradation of PLA and reduced environmental pollution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.11.226DOI Listing
January 2020

Prostaglandin E1 protects cardiomyocytes against hypoxia-reperfusion induced injury via the miR-21-5p/FASLG axis.

Biosci Rep 2019 12;39(12)

Depatment of Pharmacy, The third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Background: Prostaglandin-E1 (PGE1) is a potent vasodilator with anti-inflammatory and antiplatelet effects. However, the mechanism by which PGE1 contributes to the amelioration of cardiac injury remains unclear.

Methods: The present study was designed to investigate how PGE1 protects against hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced injuries by regulating microRNA-21-5p (miR-21-5p) and fas ligand (FASLG). Rat H9C2 cells and isolated primary cardiomyocytes were cultured under hypoxic conditions for 6 h (6H, hypoxia for 6 h), and reoxygenated for periods of 6 (6R, reoxygenation for 6 h), 12, and 24 h, respectively. Cells from the 6H/6R group were treated with various doses of PGE1; after which, their levels of viability and apoptosis were detected.

Results: The 6H/6R treatment regimen induced the maximum level of H9C2 cell apoptosis, which was accompanied by the highest levels of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and cleaved-caspase-3 expression and the lowest level of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) expression. Treatment with PGE1 significantly diminished the cell cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by the 6H/6R regimen, and also decreased expression of IL-2, IL-6, P-p65, TNF-α, and cleaved-caspase-3. In addition, we proved that PGE1 up-regulated miR-21-5p expression in rat cardiomyocytes exposed to conditions that produce H/R injury. FASLG was a direct target of miR-21-5p, and PGE1 reduced the ability of H/R-injured rat cardiomyocytes to undergo apoptosis by affecting the miR-21-5p/FASLG axis. In addition, we proved that PGE1 could protect primary cardiomyocytes against H/R-induced injuries.

Conclusions: These results indicate that PGE1 exerts cardioprotective effects in H9C2 cells during H/R by regulating the miR-21-5p/FASLG axis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BSR20190597DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6923339PMC
December 2019

Emerging protective roles of shengmai injection in septic cardiomyopathy in mice by inducing myocardial mitochondrial autophagy via caspase-3/Beclin-1 axis.

Inflamm Res 2020 Jan 11;69(1):41-50. Epub 2019 Nov 11.

Chest Pain Center of Hunan, Hunan Provincial People's Hospital (The First Affiliated Hospital of Hunan Normal University), No. 61, Jiefang West Road, Changsha, 410000, People's Republic of China.

Background: Sepsis, a life-threatening systemic syndrome related to inflammatory response, usually accompanied by major organ dysfunctions. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the role by which Shengmai injection (SMI) acts to septic cardiomyopathy.

Methods: Initially, the induced mice with septic cardiomyopathy were treated with SMI or normal saline (NS) with oe-caspase-3, and HL-1 cells were treated with oe-Beclin-1 and oe-caspase-3 and then cultured with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Subsequently, we measured the cardiac troponin I (cTnI) level, and expression of mitochondrial autophagy protein (parkin and pink1) and myocardial cell autophagy-related proteins (LC3-II and LC3-I). Additionally, we identified the cleavage of Beclin-1 by caspase-3 and detected the changes of mitochondrial membrane potential, level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and apoptosis of myocardial cells in myocardial tissues of mice.

Results: It has been demonstrated that SMI contributed to the increase of myocardial mitochondrial autophagy, reduction of cTnI level, and elevation of mitochondrial membrane potential in septic cardiomyopathy mice. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments showed that caspase-3 promoted cleavage of Beclin-1 and release of ROS, whereas repressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mitochondrial autophagy. Furthermore, the facilitation of myocardial mitochondrial autophagy and protection of myocardial mitochondria by SMI through inhibition of cleavage Beclin-1 by caspase-3 in septic cardiomyopathy mice were also proved by in vivo experiments.

Conclusion: Taken together, SMI could protect myocardial mitochondria by promoting myocardial mitochondrial autophagy in septic cardiomyopathy via inhibition of cleavage of Beclin-1 by caspase-3. Our study demonstrates that SMI could represent a novel target for treatment of septic cardiomyopathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00011-019-01292-2DOI Listing
January 2020

Long non-coding RNA KCNQ1OT1/microRNA-204-5p/LGALS3 axis regulates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice.

Cell Signal 2020 02 20;66:109441. Epub 2019 Oct 20.

Department of Cardiology, Hunan Provincial People's Hospital, The Frist Affiliated Hospital of Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410000, PR China. Electronic address:

Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury is one of the most prevalent cardiovascular diseases, known for its high mortality and morbidity worldwide. Based on pre-existing evidence, LGALS3 has been found to be closely associated with cardiac diseases. Hence, the objective of our study is to explore the potential function of KCNQ1OT1/microRNA-204-5p (miR-204-5p)/ LGALS3 axis on myocardial IR injury and the underlying mechanism. A myocardial IR injury mouse model was established in vivo and an in vitro cardiomyocyte model was induced by hypoxia/Reoxygenation exposure. Next, gain- and loss-of-function experiments were employed in order to measure the viability and apoptosis of cardiomyocytes and the area of ischemic infarct by CCK-8, TUNEL staining and Evans blue/TTC double staining. LGALS3 was found to be highly expressed in myocardial IR injury. The downregulation of LGALS3 resulted in the alleviation of myocardial IR injury in mouse models. In addition, KCNQ1OT1 could promote the LGALS3 expression by binding to miR-204-5p, which led to aggravated myocardial IR injury. In conclusion, KCNQ1OT1 binds to miR-204-5p to exacerbate myocardial IR injury in mice through the up-regulation of LGALS3, providing a novel insight for myocardial IR injury treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cellsig.2019.109441DOI Listing
February 2020

Detection of Microbial 16S rRNA Gene in the Serum of Patients With Gastric Cancer.

Front Oncol 2019 9;9:608. Epub 2019 Jul 9.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Aberrance in the blood bacterial microbiome has been identified and validated in several non-infectious diseases, including cancer. The occurrence and progression of gastric cancer has been found to be associated with alterations in the microbiome composition. However, the composition of the blood microbiome in patients with gastric cancer is not well-characterized. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a case-control study to investigate the microbiota compositions in the serum of patients with gastric cancer. The serum microbiome was investigated in patients with gastric cancer, atypical hyperplasia, chronic gastritis, and in healthy controls using 16S rRNA gene sequencing targeting the V1-V2 region. Our results revealed that the structure of the serum microbiome in gastric cancer was significantly different from all other groups, and alpha diversity decreased from the healthy control to patients with gastric cancer. The serum microbiome correlated significantly with tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage, lymphatic metastasis, tumor diameter, and invasion depth in gastric cancer. Three genera or species, namely, , were enriched in patients with gastric cancer, whereas , and were enriched in the healthy control. Furthermore, the structure of serum microbiota differed between gastric cancer lymphatic metastasis and non-lymphatic metastasis. As a pilot investigation to characterizing the serum microbiome in gastric cancer, our study provided a foundation for improving our understanding of the role of microbiota in the pathogenesis of gastric cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00608DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6629868PMC
July 2019

Ductile and biodegradable poly (lactic acid) matrix film with layered structure.

Int J Biol Macromol 2019 Sep 8;137:1141-1152. Epub 2019 Jul 8.

Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022, China; University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China. Electronic address:

Polylactide (PLA), as a biodegradable packing material, has attracted plenty of attention. However, some problems still limit the application of PLA in packing industry such as the inherent brittleness and low crack propagation resistance. In order to overcome these challenges, we blended PLA with a reactive toughening agent (Ethylene-Acrylic ester-Glycidyl methacrylate terpolymer) during extrusion and film processing. The glycidyl methacrylate groups in toughening agent offered some sites to react with COOH and OH groups of PLA thus leaded to a great interfacial compatibility. The proper compatibility was the premise of adjusting the phase structure of blend and film based on different processing methods. The blend had a sea-island structure after melting extrusion and heat pressed technologies while film formed annular layer structure after film blowing. The structure determined properties. Both the toughness and melt strength of blends had been improved. Moreover, it was interesting to found that tear strength of film with 10% toughening agent dramatically increased to 197.8 KN/m and 137.7 KN/m in the transverse direction (TD) and in the machine direction (MD), respectively. Besides, the elongation at break of film could reach 242.2% in MD. This work exhibited that phase morphology was significant for mechanical performances.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.07.047DOI Listing
September 2019

Effect of molecular stereoregularity on the transcrystallinization properties of poly(l-lactide)/basalt fiber composites.

Int J Biol Macromol 2019 Sep 21;137:238-246. Epub 2019 Jun 21.

Key Laboratory of Polymer Ecomaterials, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Changchun 130022, China. Electronic address:

A comparative study on interfacial crystallization of poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) with different stereoregularity (PLLA2003D 96.0%, PLLA4032D 98.5%, and PLLA290 99.2%) surrounding macroscopic basalt fibers (BF) has been carried out in polymer composites. The effect of stereoregularity on the interface crystallization was systemically studied by microstructure. From polarized optical microscopy (POM) analysis, it was found that the transcrystallinity of PLLA was influenced by temperature. Moreover, stereoregularity significantly affects the crystallization kinetics. It was also found that increased molecular mobility providing faster orientation with high stereoregularity and low molecular weight. It might be the reason for the observation that the PLLA290 samples crystallized more rapidly than the PLLA4032D samples. Appropriate molecular stereoregularity exhibits a clear increase in extensional stress that is directly correlated with the crystalline orientation of the crystallization samples. The mechanism of formation of transcrystallinity underwent the process of "a mismatch in thermal expansion coefficients" with the extensional stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.06.147DOI Listing
September 2019

Rapid Identification and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing for Urinary Tract Pathogens by Direct Analysis of Urine Samples Using a MALDI-TOF MS-Based Combined Protocol.

Front Microbiol 2019 5;10:1182. Epub 2019 Jun 5.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, The Second Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Usually, 18-48 h are needed for the identification of microbial pathogens causing urinary tract infections (UTIs) by urine culture. Moreover, antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) takes an additional 18-24 h. Rapid identification and AST of the pathogens allow fast and precise treatment. The objective of this study was to shorten the time of diagnosis of UTIs by combining pathogen screening through flow cytometry, microbial identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), and AST using the VITEK 2 system for the direct analysis of urine samples. We analyzed 1,638 urine samples from patients with suspected UTIs submitted to the microbiology laboratory for culture. Each urine sample had an approximate volume of 30 mL and was divided into three aliquots. Urine processing included differential centrifugation and two washes to enrich the bacterial fraction for direct MALDI-TOF MS and direct AST. From a total of 1,638 urine samples, 307 were found to be positive through UF-1000i screening. Among them, 265 had significant growth of a single-microorganism. Direct identification was obtained in 229 (86.42%) out of these 265 samples, and no pathogens were misidentified. Moreover, species-level identification was obtained in 163 (88.59%) out of the 184 samples with Gram-negative bacteria, and 27 (38.03%) out of the 71 samples with Gram-positive bacteria. VITEK 2 AST was performed for 117 samples with a single-microorganism. data showed an agreement rate of antimicrobial categories of 94.83% (1,229/1,296), with minor, major, and very major error rates of 4.17% (54/1,296), 0.92% (12/1,296), and 0.08% (1/1,296), respectively. For spp., the overall categorical agreement was 92.94% (158/170), with a minor error rate of 2.94% (5/170) and major error rate of 4.12% (7/170). The turnaround time of this combined protocol to diagnose UTIs was 1 h for pathogen identification and 6-24 h for AST; noteworthily, only 6-8 h are needed for AST of using the VITEK 2 system. Overall, our findings show that the combination of flow cytometry, MALDI-TOF MS, and VITEK 2 provided a direct, rapid, and reliable identification and AST method for assessing urine samples, especially for Gram-negative bacterial infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.01182DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6560049PMC
June 2019

Exploring polylactide/poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate)/rare earth complexes biodegradable light conversion agricultural films.

Int J Biol Macromol 2019 Apr 11;127:210-221. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Key Laboratory of Polymer Ecomaterials, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Changchun 130022, China.

In this work, rare earth europium was combined with different organic ligands to obtain two kinds of rare earth conversion agents, Eu(DBM)CPC and Eu(TTA)(TPPO). Two kinds of conversion films were successfully prepared by combining them with polylactide and poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate). Results showed that the film has excellent light conversion ability and high color purity, and rare earth complexes improved melt flowing property and decreased melt viscosity of blend. At the same time, the elongation at break of the film increased greatly, which could up to 595.0/460.9% in the both machine direction (MD) and transverse direction (TD). The results of GPC show that rare earth complexes can make main chain of PLA scission, which causes rapid molecular weight reduction, and the effect of Eu(DBM)CPC on the molecular weight of PLA was more significant than Eu(TTA)(TPPO). SEM shows that the complicity of PLA and PBAT has been improved, the dispersed phase of the blend is more uniform. DSC shows that both rare earth complexes can improve the crystallization capacity of PLA. And with the addition of cetylpyridinium chloride could improve the compatibility of rare earth complexes and polymer materials, the light transmittance and hydrophilicity of the film also increased obviously.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.01.044DOI Listing
April 2019

Improved heat resistance properties of poly(l-lactide)/basalt fiber biocomposites with high crystallinity under forming hybrid-crystalline morphology.

Int J Biol Macromol 2019 Feb 26;122:848-856. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

Key Laboratory of Polymer Ecomaterials, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Changchun 130022, PR China. Electronic address:

In this work, the heat resistance and thermomechanical properties of biodegradable poly(l‑lactide) (PLLA) was improved greatly by using short basalt fibers (SBF). The heat deformation temperature (HDT) of PLLA/SBF composites was markedly improved from 62.5 to158.8 °C when its crystallinity was increased from 44.3% to 67.7% after appropriate thermal treatment. Fibers reinforcement and interface crystalline morphology were the two important reasons for the change of in heat deformation and storage modulus of PLLA before and after crystallization. Polarized optical microscopy (POM) demonstrated that the transcrystalline and shish-kebab were successfully induced by SBF, and the "crystalline-network" structure was formed in the composites after isothermal treatment. The PLLA/SBF composites with the formation of interface crystalline had a significantly higher overall heat resistance compared with the common PLLA. As the scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis, the low values of impact strength might be due to the presence of large spherulites cracks and weak interfacial adhesion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.10.178DOI Listing
February 2019

Genome-wide identification of a novel miRNA-based signature to predict recurrence in patients with gastric cancer.

Mol Oncol 2018 12 10;12(12):2072-2084. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, China.

The current tumor node metastasis (TNM) staging system is inadequate for identifying high-risk gastric cancer (GC) patients. Using a systematic and comprehensive-biomarker discovery and validation approach, we attempted to build a microRNA (miRNA)-recurrence classifier (MRC) to improve the prognostic prediction of GC. We identified 312 differentially expressed miRNAs in 446 GC tissues compared to 45 normal controls by analyzing high-throughput data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Using a Cox regression model, we developed an 11-miRNA signature that could successfully discriminate high-risk patients in the training set (n = 372; P < 0.0001). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction-based validation in an independent clinical cohort (n = 88) of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded clinical GC samples showed that MRC-derived high-risk patients succumb to significantly poor recurrence-free survival in GC patients (P < 0.0001). Cox and stratification analysis indicated that the prognostic value of this signature was independent of clinicopathological risk factors. Time-dependent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed that the area under the curve of this signature was significantly larger than that of TNM stage in the TCGA (0.733 vs. 0.589 at 3 years, P = 0.004; 0.802 vs. 0.635 at 5 years, P = 0.005) and validation cohort (0.835 vs. 0.689 at 3 years, P = 0.003). A nomogram was constructed for clinical use, which integrated both MRC and clinical-related variables (depth of invasion, lymph node status and distance metastasis) and did well in the calibration plots. In conclusion, this novel miRNA-based signature is superior to currently used clinicopathological features for identifying high-risk GC patients. It can be readily translated into clinical practice with formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens for specific decision-making applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1878-0261.12385DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6275280PMC
December 2018

Nitrogen and phosphorus stoichiometry of Schima superba under nitrogen deposition.

Sci Rep 2018 09 12;8(1):13669. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Research Institute of Subtropical Forestry, CAF. Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Tree Breeding. Daqiao road73#, Fuyang, 311400, Zhejiang, PR China.

In this study, leaf nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) stoichiometry were used as indicators of nitrogen saturation and to assess ecosystem nutrient limitations. Schima superba, a representative and widely distributed dominant evergreen broadleaf tree species of the subtropical forests in southern China, was used for this purpose. A nutrient-addition experiment and a field survey were conducted to test the responses of trees from different provenances to N deposition. The relationships between leaf N and P stoichiometry and biomass, nutrient limitation, and soil N:P were analyzed. There was a relationship between leaf N, P, N:P, soil N:P and plant dry biomass. A threshold leaf N:P ratio (16.3) divided the five provenances into different nutrient-limitation classes that were related to the soil N:P ratio or N deposition. The leaf N:P ratio provided an indication of P limitation. A higher soil P level reduced the N deposition effect on plant growth. The leaf N:P ratio of individuals from different provenances can be used as a predictor of nutrient limitation, and this was related to the soil N:P ratio.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-32031-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6135797PMC
September 2018

Spectroscopic study on transformations of dissolved organic matter in coal-to-liquids wastewater under integrated chemical oxidation and biological treatment process.

J Environ Sci (China) 2018 Aug 17;70:206-216. Epub 2018 Apr 17.

School of Water Conservancy, North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power, Zhengzhou 450045, China.

A large amount of wastewater containing various toxic organic contaminants is produced during coal-to-liquids process. In this study, several spectroscopic methods were used to monitor the transformation of organic pollutants during an integrated chemical oxidation and biological process. The results showed that the hydrophobic acid fraction increased after Fenton oxidation, which was likely due to the production of small-molecule organic acids. Soluble microbial products were generated during biological treatment processes, which were degraded after ozonation; meanwhile, the hydrophilic base and acid components increased. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopic analysis indicated that peaks at the absorption wavelengths of 280 and 254nm, which are associated with aromatic substances, were detected in the raw water. The aromatic substances were gradually removed, becoming undetectable after biological aeration filter (BAF) treatment. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis revealed that the functional groups of phenols; benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX); aromatic hydrocarbons; aliphatic acids; aldehydes; and esters were present in raw wastewater. The organic substances were oxidized into small molecules after Fenton treatment. Aromatic hydrocarbons were effectively removed through bioadsorption and biodegradation after BAF process. Biodegradable organic matter was reduced and finally became undetectable after anoxic-oxic treatment in combination with a membrane bioreactor. Four fluorescent components were fractionated and obtained via excitation-emission matrix parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC). Dissolved organic matter fractionation in conjunction with EEM-PARAFAC was able to monitor more precisely the evolution of characteristic organic contaminants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2018.04.006DOI Listing
August 2018

Increased expression of antisense lncRNA predicts a poor prognosis in colorectal cancer and is negatively correlated with its sense transcript.

Onco Targets Ther 2018 10;11:3969-3978. Epub 2018 Jul 10.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, The Second Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250033, China,

Purpose: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer-associated mortality worldwide. Natural antisense transcripts (NATs) are pervasively expressed in human genome and have been confirmed to contribute to cancer progression. In our study, we aimed to investigate the expression and clinical pertinence of serine peptidase inhibitor, Kunitz type 1 antisense RNA1 () in CRC.

Materials And Methods: The expression levels of and the corresponding sense transcript were analyzed in 150 pairs of CRC tissues and adjacent normal (AN) tissues, along with 45 pairs of preoperative and postoperative serum exosome samples by the strand-specific real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

Results: Compared with AN tissues, the expression of was increased (<0.001, 3.771 vs 0.980) in CRC tissues, while expression was decreased in CRC (<0.001, 0.927 vs 1.165), and there was an obviously negative correlation between expression and its sense transcript (=-0.701, <0.001). yielded an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve value of 0.865 (95% confidence interval, 0.821-0.902) for discriminating CRC tissues from AN tissues. Moreover, high expression was correlated with regional lymph node metastasis (<0.001), distant metastasis (<0.001), and shorter relapse-free survival (RFS) time (<0.001), and Cox regression analysis indicated that was an independent prognostic factor for RFS. Meanwhile, significant reduction of expression level (=0.001) was observed in CRC serum exosomes after surgical resection.

Conclusion: is upregulated in CRC tissues and plays an essential role in CRC progression and prognosis. Thereby, may serve as a candidate prognostic biomarker and molecular therapy target for CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S163883DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6044340PMC
July 2018

The mouse autonomic nervous system modulates inflammation and epithelial renewal after corneal abrasion through the activation of distinct local macrophages.

Mucosal Immunol 2018 09 9;11(5):1496-1511. Epub 2018 Jul 9.

International Ocular Surface Research Center, Institute of Ophthalmology, Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine, Jinan University Medical School, Guangzhou, China.

Inflammation and reepithelialization after corneal abrasion are critical for the rapid restoration of vision and the prevention of microbial infections. However, the endogenous regulatory mechanisms are not completely understood. Here we report that the manipulation of autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulates the inflammation and healing processes. The activation of sympathetic nerves inhibited reepithelialization after corneal abrasion but increased the influx of neutrophils and the release of inflammatory cytokines. Conversely, the activation of parasympathetic nerves promoted reepithelialization and inhibited the influx of neutrophils and the release of inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, we observed that CD64CCR2 macrophages in the cornea preferentially expressed the β-2 adrenergic receptor (AR), whereas CD64CCR2 macrophages preferentially expressed the α-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR). After abrasion, the topical administration of a β2AR agonist further enhanced the expression of the proinflammatory genes in the CD64CCR2 cell subset sorted from injured corneas. In contrast, the topical administration of an α7nAChR agonist further enhanced the expression of the anti-inflammatory genes in the CD64CCR2 subset. Thus crosstalk between the ANS and local macrophage populations is necessary for the progress of corneal wound repair. Manipulation of ANS inputs to the wounded cornea may represent an alternative approach to the treatment of impaired wound healing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41385-018-0031-6DOI Listing
September 2018

Effect of inoculation with a microbial consortium that degrades organic acids on the composting efficiency of food waste.

Microb Biotechnol 2018 11 2;11(6):1124-1136. Epub 2018 Jul 2.

Innovation Base of Groundwater and Environmental Systems Engineering, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, No. 8, Dayangfang, Beiyuan Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100012, China.

In order to overcome the excessive acidification problem, a microbial consortium for the degradation of organic acids (MCDOA), which acts synergistically in degrading organic acids, was developed and used as an inoculum to improve the efficiency of food waste composting. MCDOA could eliminate the initial lag phase of the pile temperature rise because of excessive acidification and effectively shorten the composting period. Fluorescence regional integration analysis of the excitation-emission matrix spectra of dissolved organic matter showed that compared with raw material, in compost with MCDOA inoculation, the percent fluorescence response (P ) values of Regions I, II and IV decreased by 95.11%, 94.19% and 87.41%, respectively, and P of Region V increased by 172.57%. The decreased and increased levels were markedly higher than in the two control groups (MgO and K HPO treatment, and uninoculated compost). These findings revealed that MCDOA accelerated the degradation of proteinaceous compounds and the formation of complicated humic-like materials. Bacterial profiles implied that MCDOA could improve the indigenous bacterial community structure and diversities of acetic and propionic acid-degrading and lignin-degrading bacteria, which might account for the high composting efficiency and degree of humification of the inoculated compost.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1751-7915.13294DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6196389PMC
November 2018

Impact of anti-acidification microbial consortium on carbohydrate metabolism of key microbes during food waste composting.

Bioresour Technol 2018 Jul 7;259:1-9. Epub 2018 Mar 7.

Innovation Base of Groundwater and Environmental Systems Engineering, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Science, Beijing 100012, China.

This study investigated the effect of anti-acidification microbial consortium (AAMC), which act synergistically for rapid bioconversion of organic acids on carbohydrate metabolism of key microbes in the course of food waste (FW) composting by metaproteomics. AAMC was inoculated to the composting mass and compared with treatment with alkaline compounds and the control without any amendment. Inoculating AAMC could effectively accelerate carbohydrate degradation process and improve composting efficiency. Carbohydrate metabolic network profiles showed the inoculation with AAMC could increase significantly the types of enzymes catalysing the degradation of lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose. Furthermore, AAMC inoculum could increase not only diversities of microbes producing key enzymes in metabolism pathways of acetic and propionic acids, but also the amounts of these key enzymes. The increase of diversities of microbes could disperse the pressure from acidic adversity on microorganisms which were capable to degrade acetic and propionic acids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2018.03.022DOI Listing
July 2018

Application of UV-visible absorption spectroscopy combined with two-dimensional correlation for insight into DOM fractions from native halophyte soils in a larger estuarine delta.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 May 9;25(14):14197-14205. Epub 2018 Mar 9.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Science, Beijing, 100012, People's Republic of China.

UV-visible absorption spectroscopy combined with principal component analysis (PCA) and two-dimensional correlation (2D correlation) is used to trace components of dissolved organic matter (DOM) extracted from soils in a larger estuarine delta and to investigate spatial variations of DOM fractions. Soil samples of different depths were collected from native halophyte soils along a saline gradient, i.e., Suaeda salsa Comm. (SSC), Chenopodium album Comm. (CAC), Phragmites australis Comm. (PAC), and Artemisia selengensis Comm. (ASC). Molecular weights of DOM within the SSC soil profile were the lowest, followed by the CAC, PAC, and ASC soil profiles. Humification degree of DOM within the ASC soil profile was the highest, followed by the PAC, SSC, and CAC soil profiles. DOM within the soil profiles mainly contained phenolic, carboxylic, microbial products, and aromatic and alkyl groups through the PCA, which presented the significant differentiation among the four native halophyte soil profiles. The 2D UV correlation spectra of DOM within the SSC soil profile indicated that the variations of the phenolic groups were the largest, followed by the carboxylic groups, microbial products, and humified organic materials according to the band changing order of 285 → 365 → 425 → 520 nm. The 2D UV correlation spectra of DOM within the CAC soil profiles determined that the decreasing order of the variations was phenolic groups > carboxylic groups > microbial products according the band changing order of 285 → 365 → 425 nm. The 2D UV correlation spectra of DOM within the PAC soil profile proved that the variations of the phenolic groups were larger than those of the carboxylic groups according to the band changing order of 285 → 365 nm. The 2D UV correlation spectra of DOM within the ASC soil profile demonstrated that the variations of the phenolic groups were larger than those of the other DOM fractions according to the broad cross-peak at 285/365-700 nm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-1645-7DOI Listing
May 2018

Epothilone B Speeds Corneal Nerve Regrowth and Functional Recovery through Microtubule Stabilization and Increased Nerve Beading.

Sci Rep 2018 02 8;8(1):2647. Epub 2018 Feb 8.

International Ocular Surface Research Center, Institute of Ophthalmology, Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine of the Ministry of Education, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China.

The successful restoration of corneal innervation and function after a corneal injury is a clinically challenging issue. Structural and functional recovery after a nerve injury involves a complex series of steps in which microtubules play a key role. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of epothilone B (EpoB), a microtubule-stabilizing agent, on corneal innervation and the functional recovery of the corneal nerve in mice after corneal epithelial abrasion. The pretreatment of mice with EpoB has a remarkable effect on the stabilization of beta-III tubulin, as demonstrated by substantial increases in the visualization of beta-III tubulin, nerve beading, corneal reinnervation, and reaction to stimuli. Furthermore, a pharmacokinetic analysis showed that EpoB remains at a high concentration in the cornea and the trigeminal ganglion for at least 6 days after administration. In addition, the administration of EpoB at 24 hours after corneal abrasion has a marked therapeutic effect on nerve regrowth and functional recovery. In conclusion, EpoB treatment may have therapeutic utility for improving corneal reinnervation and restoring sensitivity following corneal injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-20734-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5805685PMC
February 2018

The Role of AChE in Swimming Behavior of : Correlation Analysis of Both Parameters Affected by Deltamethrin and Methomyl Exposure.

J Toxicol 2017 19;2017:3265727. Epub 2017 Oct 19.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Tandon School of Engineering, New York University, Brooklyn, NY 11201, USA.

The unpredictable toxicity of insecticides may cause behavior disorder of biological organisms. In order to assess the role of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in swimming behavior of , a correlation analysis of both parameters in 24 h exposure of deltamethrin (DM) and methomyl (MT) was investigated. The behavior responses of in DM (13.36 g/L and 33.40 g/L) and MT (19.66 g/L and 49.15 g/L) suggested that recovery behavior in the adjustment phase was crucial, and behavior homeostasis provided them with an optimal way to achieve a wider tolerance against environmental stress. During the experiment, positive effects on AChE activity occurred in the beginning of the exposure. Even though the de novo synthesis of AChE in might help it recover, the AChE inhibition in different treatments could be observed. Some induction effects on AChE activity at the beginning of exposure occurred, and a 50% decrease may cause toxic effects on behavior. In most treatments, the results showed that both behavior strength and AChE activity stayed in the same field within a correlation circle. These results illustrated that the environmental stress caused by both DM and MT could inhibit AChE activity and subsequently induce a stepwise behavior response, though both pesticides affect it as direct and indirect inhibitors, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2017/3265727DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5671736PMC
October 2017

Notch1 signaling activation protected myocardium against hypoxia injury via reducing programmed cell death.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2017 Nov;30(6(Supplementary)):2429-2433

Vasculocardiology Department of Hunan Provincial People's Hospital, Jiefang Road No.61, Changsha, China.

Programmed cell death plays an important role in cardio protection, and Notch1 was an important factor related to programmed cell death. The role of Notch1 on ischemia myocardium remains unclear.H9C2 myocardial cells were cultured with routine medium, transfected with Notch1 over expression plasmid, Notch1-siRNA-overexpression plasmid and vehicle plasmid for further hypoxic experiment. Condition of hypoxic experiment was 1% oxygen centration and culturing for 12hours, then the cell proliferation activity and apoptosis rate was assessed by MTS kit and flow cytometry, respectively. The expressions of Caspase-3, Caspase-9 and Bcl-2 were determined by RT-qPCR and Western Blot, respectively. Compared with normoxia treatment, hypoxia could decrease H9C2 cell proliferation activity as well as Bcl-2 mRNA expression, and increase cell apoptosis rate as well as Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 mRNA expression. Notch1 activation could increase proliferation activity as well as Bcl-2 mRNA expression, while decrease apoptosis rate as well as Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 mRNA expression. Compared with Notch1 activation H9C2 cells, the opposite effect on programmed cell death was observed in cells with Notch1-siRNA-overexpression plasmid. Targeted activation of Notch1 gene to reduce hypoxia-induced programmed cell death in myocardial cells via up-regulating the expression of Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 and inhibiting the expression of Bcl-2.
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November 2017

Investigating variations of fluorescent dissolved organic matter in wastewater treatment using synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy combined with principal component analysis and two-dimensional correlation.

Environ Technol 2018 Oct 10;39(19):2495-2502. Epub 2017 Aug 10.

a School of Water Conservancy , North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power , Zhengzhou , People's Republic of China.

Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) combined with principal component analysis (PCA) and two-dimensional (2D) correlation was applied to investigate removal efficiencies and variations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) fractions in the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) with an A2O craft. A decreasing order of total removal efficiencies was tyrosine-like fluorescence component (89.58%) > humic-like fluorescence (HLF) component (39.83%) > tryptophan-like fluorescence component (36.89%) > microbial humic-like fluorescence (HLF) component (12.47%) > fulvic-like fluorescence component (6.37%). The tyrosine-like, tryptophan-like and HLF components were deeply decomposed by anaerobic bacteria in the anaerobic zone. The tyrosine-like component was the preponderant fraction of DOM in the raw water and primary sediment tank. The tyrosine-like component was the dominant component of DOM too in the anaerobic and anoxic zones, but its proportion was slightly more than the tryptophan-like component. The tryptophan-like component was the dominant component in the facultative zone, the oxic zone and the secondary sediment tank. Based on the changing band order of 279 → 304 → 490 → 330 → 380 → 430 nm, the decreasing variation order was tyrosine-like > tryptophan-like > humic-like > microbial humic-like > fulvic-like component. Therefore, the SFS combined with PCA and 2D correlation is an effective tool for not only monitoring the removal of DOM components but also characterizing variations of DOM fractions in the WWTP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2017.1357759DOI Listing
October 2018