Publications by authors named "Hongli Yang"

123 Publications

Efficacy and Safety of Actively Personalized Neoantigen Vaccination in the Management of Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma: A Systematic Review.

Int J Gen Med 2021 4;14:5209-5220. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Department of Oncology, Shenzhen People's Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital of Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, 518020, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Glioblastoma (GBM) shows frequent relapse and is highly resistant to treatment; therefore, it is considered fatal. Various vaccination protocols that have been tested in patients with GBM, which is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor, have indicated safety and efficacy, to some extent, when used alone or in combination with standard of care. Recently, neoantigen-based personalized vaccines have shown tremendous immunogenicity and safety in GBM. We aimed to systematically review the medical literature for clinical trials to evaluate the efficacy and safety of neoantigen-based personalized vaccines for newly diagnosed GBM.

Methods: We conducted a literature search for clinical trials on PubMed, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and ClinicalTrials.gov until March 20, 2021. The primary outcomes of interest were immunogenicity and safety of the therapy. Efficacy outcomes, such as progression-free survival and overall survival, were secondary outcomes of interest.

Results: Two clinical trials involving 24 patients were included in this review. High immunogenicity was observed in both studies. The GAPVAC-101 trial reported 50% APVAC1-induced and 84.7% APVAC2-induced immunogenicity with CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses in 92% (12/13) and 80% (8/10) immune responders, respectively. Two out of five patients showed CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses in the study by Keskin et al. Dexamethasone use had limited immunogenicity in a trial by Keskin et al (6/8). No serious treatment-related adverse events were reported.

Conclusion: Actively personalized vaccines aimed at unmutated peptides and neoantigens for patients with GBM are safe and highly immunogenic, particularly when administered in combination. Larger studies are warranted to investigate the role.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S323576DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8427683PMC
September 2021

Derivation and validation of prognostic models for predicting survival outcomes in Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) patients.

J Viral Hepat 2021 Sep 8. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.

Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a syndrome characterised by acute decompensation of chronic liver disease associated with high bacterial infection (BI) and short term mortality. However, many ACLF prognostic predictive modelsare complicated. The aim of this study is to develop prognostic models for ACLF patients to predict BI and mortality. We retrospective recruited 263 patients with ACLF from Shandong Provincial Hospital and Taizhou Enze Medical Center (Group) Enze Hospital. ACLF was defined according to the Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver (APASL)criteria. Multivariable logistic regression was used to derive prediction models for occurring BI and 28-day mortality in ACLF patients. 97 of 263 patients (37%) occurred BI and 41 of 155 (26%) died within 28 days of admission. C-reactive protein (CRP), glucose, and albumin were the independent predictors for occurring BIduring the hospital stay. We also found that hepatic encephalopathy (HE), prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time(APRI), and glucose were the independent predictors of 28-day mortality of ACLF patients. Using logistic regression model, we generated a new modified MELD model (M-MELD) by incorporating HE, APRI, and glucose. AUC of M-MELD model was 0.871, which were significantly higher than MELD score (AUC:0.734), MELD-Na score (AUC:0.742), and integrated MELD score (iMELD)(AUC:0.761). HE, MELD score, APRI, and blood glucose were independent risk factors for 28-day mortality of ACLF patients. The modified MELD model (M-MELD) by incorporating HE, APRI, and glucose has better discriminative performances compared with MELD in predicting 28-day mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvh.13611DOI Listing
September 2021

MOFs-Derived Fusiform In O Mesoporous Nanorods Anchored with Ultrafine CdZnS Nanoparticles for Boosting Visible-Light Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution.

Small 2021 Sep 16;17(36):e2102307. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Institute of Materials, Ningbo University of Technology, Ningbo, 315211, P. R. China.

The development of efficient visible-light-driven photocatalysts is one of the critically important issues for solar hydrogen production. Herein, high-efficiency visible-light-driven In O /CdZnS hybrid photocatalysts are explored by a facile oil-bath method, in which ultrafine CdZnS nanoparticles are anchored on NH -MIL-68-derived fusiform In O mesoporous nanorods. It is disclosed that the as-prepared In O /CdZnS hybrid photocatalysts exhibit enhanced visible-light harvesting, improves charges transfer and separation as well as abundant active sites. Correspondingly, their visible-light-driven H production rate is significantly enhanced for more than 185 times to that of pristine In O nanorods, and superior to most of In O -based photocatalysts ever reported, representing their promising applications in advanced photocatalysts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202102307DOI Listing
September 2021

MiR-153-3p reduces extracellular matrix accumulation in high glucose-stimulated human glomerular mesangial cells via targeting PAQR3 in diabetic nephropathy.

Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Nephrology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu Province 226001, China. Electronic address:

Introduction: This study aims to explore the effect and related molecular mechanism of miR-153-3p on high glucose-stimulated human glomerular mesangial cells.

Materials And Methods: The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay was employed to check miR-153-3p and PAQR3 expression levels in diabetic nephropathy patients. (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) MTT assay was applied to investigate the effects of miR-153-3p transfection or PAQR3 administration on mesangial cell (MC) activity. ELISA assays were used to check the expression levels of extracellular matrix (ECM) related proteins. The bioinformatics method and dual-luciferase reporter assay were employed together to anticipate and check the targeting relationship between miR-153-3p and PAQR3. Western blot assays were applied to check the PAQR3, PI3K and AKT expression after miR-153-3p transfection or PAQR3 administration.

Results: The expression level of miR-153-3p was lower in diabetic nephropathy patients, while the expression of PAQR3 was concomitantly higher. Upregulation of miR-153-3p can reduce MC proliferation and ECM accumulation. Further research indicated that miR-153-3p directly regulated PAQR3 expression via coupling with the 3'-UTR of PAQR3. Finally, the fact that miR-153-3p regulates the PI3K/AKT pathway by PAQR3 was confirmed.

Conclusion: MiR-153-3p regulates the PI3K/AKT pathway through PAQR3, thereby playing a role in regulating cell proliferation and ECM accumulation in high glucose-stimulated MCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.endinu.2021.03.005DOI Listing
July 2021

Transcriptome Profiling Reveals Molecular Changes during Flower Development between Male Sterile and Fertile Chinese Cabbage (  ssp. ) Lines.

Life (Basel) 2021 Jun 4;11(6). Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Institute of Horticultural Crops, Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Yunnan Branch of the National Vegetable Improvement Center, Kunming 650205, China.

Male sterility exists widely in flowering plants and is used as a fascinating tool by breeders for creating hybrid varieties. Herein, stamen samples from male sterile CCR20000 and male fertile CCR20001 lines during two developmental stages were employed to elucidate the molecular changes during flower development in fertile and sterile Chinese cabbage lines. RNA-seq revealed weak transcriptional activity in the sterile line, which may have led to the abnormal stamen development. The differentially expressed genes were enriched in plant hormone, carbon metabolism, and biosynthesis of amino acid pathways. Important genes with opposite patterns of regulation between the two lines have been associated with the male sterility trait. Members of the transcription factor families such as AP2, MYB, bHLH, and WRKY were highly active in the regulation of structural genes involved in pollen fertility. This study generated important genomic information to support the exploitation of the male sterility trait in Chinese cabbage breeding programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/life11060525DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8227754PMC
June 2021

A Clinical Study on the Association of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors and Acute Kidney Injury Among Diabetic Chinese Population.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2021 13;14:1621-1630. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Nephrology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu, 226001, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: To investigate the association of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitors and acute kidney injury in comparison to other classes of drugs.

Patients And Methods: A total of 4966 diabetes mellitus patients were investigated for developing Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) who were under prescription with the following class of drugs viz. SGLT2 Inhibitors, Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DDP4) inhibitors, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), first-line drugs and anti-biotics. The primary outcome was based on the hospital encounter and Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcome (KDIGO) threshold values were used to assess the serum creatinine concentration. The secondary outcome was assessed based on the concentration level of serum creatinine after 90 days of hospital admission and evaluation of the KDIGO threshold values.

Results: The study observed that the risk of causing AKI for SGLT2 inhibitors was 5.59% which was comparatively low compared to other class of the investigated drugs (DPP4 inhibitors = 6.47%, antibiotics = 6.30%, first-line drugs = 6.82% and NSAIDs = 10.65%). The multivariate analysis observed that ibuprofen, celecoxib, indomethacin, insulin, cephalexin, and alogliptin were mostly associated with an increased rate of AKI. SGLT2 inhibitors have the lowest risk for developing AKI compared to other drugs and control.

Conclusion: AKI incidence is relatively low after initiation of SLGT2 inhibitors and concludes that regulatory warnings from certain health agencies about its risk for AKI on prescription are unwarranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S300494DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8053501PMC
April 2021

Role of exosomal miRNAs in brain metastasis affected by radiotherapy.

Transl Neurosci 2021 Jan 31;12(1):127-137. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Radiation Oncology, The Second Clinical Medical College of Jinan University, Shenzhen Municipal People's Hospital, 1017 Dongmen North Road, Shenzhen, Guangdong, 518020, China.

In oncogenesis and development of malignant tumor, microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate the complex gene expression associated with the tumor pathogenesis. Currently, only few studies have been conducted to identify miRNAs and the potential pathways involved in the pathogenesis of brain metastasis in patients who underwent radiotherapy, especially miRNAs in the plasma exosomes. Therefore, this study is aimed to use small RNA analysis to identify miRNAs and their potential target genes in plasma exosomes during the initiation and development of brain metastasis in patients who underwent radiotherapy. Using high-throughput sequencing technologies, we identified 35 differentially expressed miRNAs in patients with brain metastasis who had undergone radiotherapy. In annotation of miRNA targets, gene ontology enrichment analysis revealed that the targets of the differentially expressed miRNAs were significantly enriched in the regulation of cellular processes. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes revealed that most of the miRNA targets were cancer-related, including genes involved in the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway, cancer-related pathways, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-protein kinase B signaling pathway, microtubule-associated protein kinase signaling pathway, Ras signaling pathway, regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, and axon guidance. In conclusion, this study provides a new perspective to understand the possible function of these miRNAs in the pathogenesis of brain metastasis. This was the first time that a pilot study identified plasma exosomal miRNAs in five patients with brain metastasis before and after radiotherapy. This study is the beginning; more specimen and further research are needed to explore the functional role of specific miRNAs and their potential as therapeutic targets for brain metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/tnsci-2020-0163DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8012736PMC
January 2021

Relationship between pancreatic parenchyma loss and early postoperative hyperglycemia in patients with benign pancreatic diseases.

Abdom Radiol (NY) 2021 09 4;46(9):4210-4217. Epub 2021 Apr 4.

Department of Radiology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430022, China.

Objective: To evaluate the relationship between pancreatic parenchyma loss and early postoperative hyperglycemia in patients with benign pancreatic diseases.

Methods: A total of 171 patients with benign pancreatic tumors or chronic pancreatitis, whose preoperative fasting blood glucose (FBG) was normal and who underwent partial pancreatectomy were reviewed. The pancreatic volume was measured by CT imaging before and after the operation. According to their different pancreatic resection volume (PRV), 171 patients were divided into five groups: < 30%, 30%-39%, 40%-49%, 50%-59%, and ≥ 60%. The correlation between the PRV and postoperative FBG was investigated. According to the postoperative FBG value, the patients were divided into a hyperglycemia group (HG) and nonhyperglycemia group (non-HG) to explore the best cutoff value of the PRV between the two groups.

Results: There were significant differences in the postoperative FBG among the five groups (PRV < 30%, 30%-39%, 40%-49%, 50%-59%, and ≥ 60%). The PRV was positively correlated with postoperative FBG in the benign tumor group and chronic pancreatitis group (R = 0.727 and 0.651, respectively). ROC curve analysis showed that the best cutoff value of the PRV between the HG (n = 84) and non-HG (n = 87) was 39.95% with an AUC = 0.898; the sensitivity was 89.29%, and the specificity was 82.76%.

Conclusion: There was a linear positive correlation between the postoperative FBG level and PRV. Patients with a PRV ≥ 40% are more likely to develop early postoperative hyperglycemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00261-021-03061-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8346412PMC
September 2021

Lipase-catalyzed Synthesis of Feruloylated Lysophospholipid in Toluene-Ionic Liquids and Its Antioxidant Activity.

J Oleo Sci 2021 Apr 10;70(4):531-540. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

College of Food Science, Northeast Agricultural University.

In this study, Novozym 435-catalyzed interesterification of ethyl ferulate (EF) with phosphatidylcholine (PC) in a two-phase system consisting of an ionic liquid (IL) and toluene was optimized to prepare feruloylated lysophospholipids (FLPs). Optimum conditions for the interesterification process were found to be [Bmim][TfN]/toluene ratio of 1:1 (v/v), solvent volume of 4 mL, molecular sieves (4 Å) concentration of 80 mg/mL, reaction temperature of 55°C, substrate molar ratio of 5:1 (PC/EF), Novozym 435 concentration of 50 mg/mL. Under these conditions, two FLPs products (1-FLP and 2-FLP) with total conversion rate of 50.79% were obtained. Because the formation of 1-FLP was significantly higher than 2-FLP, 1-FLP was purified and characterized by LC-MS and NMR. In addition, 1-FLP showed DPPH scavenging activity comparable with those of EF and BHT. Therefore, this study provides a good method for transformation of ferulic acid to improve its solubility and promote its application as functional ingredient in the food and pharmaceutical industries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5650/jos.ess20268DOI Listing
April 2021

PLK1 Inhibition Sensitizes Breast Cancer Cells to Radiation via Suppressing Autophagy.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 07 20;110(4):1234-1247. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Affiliated Cancer Hospital & Institute of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Purpose: Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) is a protein kinase that is overexpressed in breast cancer and may represent an attractive target for breast cancer treatment. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between PLK1 and radiosensitivity in breast cancer. Here, we attempted to explore whether PLK1 inhibition could sensitize breast cancer cells to radiation.

Methods And Materials: Breast cancer cells were treated with PLK1 small interference RNA or the PLK1-inhibitor, GSK461364. Cell proliferation was assessed using a colony formation assay. Cell cycle analyses were performed by flow cytometry. DNA damage, autophagy, and reactive oxygen species induced by ionizing radiation were detected by immunofluorescence, Western blot, and flow cytometry, respectively. Microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 alpha (LC3) puncta were detected using an immunofluorescence assay. A clonogenic survival assay was used to determine the effect of PLK1 inhibition on cell radiosensitivity. A xenograft mouse model of breast cancer cells was used to investigate the potential synergistic effects of PLK1 inhibition and irradiation in vivo. Finally, the expression of PLK1 and LC3 in the breast cancer tissues was evaluated by immunohistochemistry.

Results: PLK1 inhibition significantly suppressed the proliferation and increased the radiosensitivity of breast cancer cells. Pharmacologic inhibition of PLK1 by the selective inhibitor, GSK461364, enhanced the radiosensitivity of breast cancer cells in vivo (n = 4, P = .002). Mechanistically, PLK1 inhibition led to the downregulation of radiation-induced reactive oxygen species and autophagy, thereby increasing the radiosensitivity of breast cancer cells. Additionally, we detected a positive correlation between the expression of PLK1 and LC3 in human breast cancer samples (n = 102, R = 0.486, P = .005).

Conclusions: Our findings indicate that PLK1 inhibition enhances the radiosensitivity of breast cancer cells in a manner associated with the suppression of radiation-induced autophagy. The inhibition of PLK1 represents a promising strategy for radiosensitizing breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2021.02.025DOI Listing
July 2021

NASH/liver fibrosis prevalence and incidence of non-liver comorbidities among people with NAFLD and incidence of NAFLD by metabolic comorbidites: Lessons from South Korea.

Dig Dis 2021 Feb 3. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Background: NAFLD incidence, NASH prevalence, NAFLD fibrosis prevalence, incidence of metabolic comorbidities, as well as mortality data in the NAFLD population remain limited.

Aims: We used a meta-analytic approach to "stage" NAFLD among the Korean population.

Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and KoreaMed from inception until June 29, 2019 and calculated pooled estimates via random-effects model.

Results: We screened 1,485 studies and analyzed 191 eligible studies: 179 (3,556,579 participants) for NAFLD prevalence and outcome analysis and 32 (1,089,785 participants) for NAFLD incidence analysis. NAFLD prevalence was 31.46% overall and 50-60% in those with metabolic risks. The incidence (per 1,000 person-years) of NAFLD was 42.8 overall and 70-77% in those with metabolic risk. The incidence (per 1,000 person-years) of new onset T2DM, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and chronic kidney disease were found to be 16.9, 47.9, 100.6, and 13.9, respectively. From biopsy data, 30.21% of the NAFLD population had moderate-to-severe steatosis (9 studies, 2,461 participants) and 52.27% had NASH (7 studies, 1,168 participants); 85.41% had fibrosis < stage 2 (8 studies, 1,995 participants). All-cause mortality was 2.6 (1.3 if without malignancy) per 1,000 person-years.

Conclusions: The overall prevalence of NAFLD was 31.46% with an incidence rate of 42.8 per 1000 person-years. NASH prevalence was 52% but <15% had significant fibrosis. The prevalence and incidence of non-liver comorbidities was high especially for cardiovascular disease incidence. The burden of NAFLD is high in Korea. Health policy efforts need to be directed towards reversing the course of NAFLD disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000514953DOI Listing
February 2021

Downregulation of Retinal Connexin 43 in GFAP-Expressing Cells Modifies Vasoreactivity Induced by Perfusion Ocular Pressure Changes.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2021 01;62(1):26

Devers Eye Institute, Legacy Research Institute, Portland, Oregon, United States.

Purpose: Glia and their communication via connexin 43 (Cx43) gap junctions are known to mediate neurovascular coupling, a process driven by metabolic demand. However, it is unclear whether Cx43 mediated glial communication intermediates classical autoregulation. Here we used viral transfection and a glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter to downregulate glial Cx43 to evaluate its role in retinal vascular autoregulation to ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) reduction.

Methods: Adult rats were intravitreally injected with the viral active construct or a control. Three weeks after the injection, eyes were imaged using confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy before and during a period of OPP decrease induced by blood draw to lower blood pressure or by manometric IOP elevation. Vessel diameter responses to the OPP decrease were compared between Cx43-downregulated and control-injected eyes. The extent of Cx43 downregulation was evaluated by Western blot and immunohistochemistry.

Results: In control eyes, the OPP decrease induced dilatation of arterioles, but not venules. In Cx43-downregulated eyes, Cx43 expression in whole retina was decreased by approximately 40%. In these eyes, the resting diameter of the venules increased significantly, but there was no effect on arterioles. In Cx43-downregulated eyes, vasoreactivity evoked by blood pressure lowering was significantly compromised in both arterioles (P = 0.005) and venules (P = 0.001). Cx43 downregulation did not affect the arteriole responses to IOP elevation, whereas the responses of the venules showed a significantly greater decrease in diameter (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: The downregulation of retinal Cx43 in GFAP-expressing cells compromises vasoreactivity of both arterioles and venules in response to an OPP decrease achieved via blood pressure lowering or IOP elevation. The results also suggest that Cx43-mediated glial communication actively regulates resting venular diameter.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.62.1.26DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7846954PMC
January 2021

Outcomes of combination treatment with MARS and TIPS for hepatic veno-occlusive disease: a report of 12 cases.

J Int Med Res 2020 Dec;48(12):300060520980877

Department of Gastroenterology, Shandong Qianfoshan Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University, Jinan, China.

Background: In patients with acute liver injury caused by hepatic veno-occlusive disease (HVOD), molecular adsorbent recirculation system (MARS) may be used to improve liver function in conjunction with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) to reduce portal hypertension.

Methods: Twelve patients were admitted to our hospital following treatment for HVOD for 10 to 21 days at other hospitals. All patients were treated with a combination of MARS and TIPS, and they were evaluated clinically including liver function tests.

Results: After the initial treatment with MARS, liver function improved significantly in all patients. TIPS placement decreased the hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) to 10.17 ± 2.26 mmHg from a pre-TIPS HVPG of 23.58 ± 9.43 mmHg. The outcomes of combination treatment with MARS and TIPS in 12 patients with HVOD were as follows: 1) improvement of various clinical and biological parameters leading to full recovery in 1 year in 6 patients; 2) full recovery following liver transplantation for acute liver failure in three patients; and 3) three patients died due to hepatic failure after TIPS placement.

Conclusion: The combination of MARS and TIPS creation is promising as a potential treatment for acute HVOD, and it showed an improvement in overall survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0300060520980877DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7783893PMC
December 2020

In situ decorated Au NPs on chitosan-encapsulated FeO-NH NPs as magnetic nanocomposite: Investigation of its anti-colon carcinoma, anti-gastric cancer and anti-pancreatic cancer.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Feb 10;171:198-207. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Department of Gastroenterology, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University, No. 16766, Jingshi Road, Lixia District, Jinan, Shandong Province 250014, China. Electronic address:

Chitosan is a linear polysaccharide and non-toxic bioactive polymer with a wide variety of applications due to its functional properties such as ease of modification, and biodegradability. In this investigation, magnetic cores (FeO) were synthesized using a fabrication method involving coprecipitation of Fe and Fe. Then the magnetic nanoparticles were encapsulated by chitosan layers. In the next step, magnetite-gold composite nanoparticles were synthesized with spherical shapes and sizes ranging from 20 to 30 nm, using sodium citrate as a natural reducing agent. The morphological and physicochemical features of the material were determined using several advanced techniques like FT-IR, ICP analysis, FESEM, EDS, XRD, TEM, XPS and VSM. In the biological part of the present study, the cell viability of FeO, HAuCl, and [email protected]/AuNPs was very low against human colorectal carcinoma cell lines i.e. Ramos.2G6.4C10, HCT-8 [HRT-18], HCT 116, and HT-29, human gastric cancer cell lines i.e. MKN45, AGS, and KATO III, and human pancreatic cancer cell lines i.e. PANC-1, AsPC-1, and MIA PaCa-2. The IC50 of [email protected]/AuNPs against Ramos.2G6.4C10, HCT-8 [HRT-18], HCT 116, HT-29, MKN45, AGS, KATO III, PANC-1, AsPC-1, and MIA PaCa-2 cell lines were 385, 429, 264, 286, 442, 498, 561, 513, 528, and 425 μg/mL, respectively. Thereby, the best cytotoxicity results of our [email protected]/AuNPs were observed in the case of the HCT 116 cell line. Seemingly, the present nanoparticles may be used for the treatment of several types of gastro-duodenal cancers especially colon, gastric, and pancreatic cancers in near future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.12.037DOI Listing
February 2021

Individual-Specific Modeling of Rat Optic Nerve Head Biomechanics in Glaucoma.

J Biomech Eng 2021 04;143(4)

Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology/Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30332.

Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide and is characterized by the death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the cells that send vision information to the brain. Their axons exit the eye at the optic nerve head (ONH), the main site of damage in glaucoma. The importance of biomechanics in glaucoma is indicated by the fact that elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is a causative risk factor for the disease. However, exactly how biomechanical insult leads to RGC death is not understood. Although rat models are widely used to study glaucoma, their ONH biomechanics have not been characterized in depth. Therefore, we aimed to do so through finite element (FE) modeling. Utilizing our previously described method, we constructed and analyzed ONH models with individual-specific geometry in which the sclera was modeled as a matrix reinforced with collagen fibers. We developed eight sets of scleral material parameters based on results from our previous inverse FE study and used them to simulate the effects of elevated IOP in eight model variants of each of seven rat ONHs. Within the optic nerve, highest strains were seen inferiorly, a pattern that was consistent across model geometries and model variants. In addition, changing the collagen fiber direction to be circumferential within the peripapillary sclera resulted in more pronounced decreases in strain than changing scleral stiffness. The results from this study can be used to interpret data from rat glaucoma studies to learn more about how biomechanics affects RGC pathogenesis in glaucoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/1.4049157DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7871999PMC
April 2021

Genome-wide survey of soybean papain-like cysteine proteases and their expression analysis in root nodule symbiosis.

BMC Plant Biol 2020 Nov 12;20(1):517. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Oil Crops, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Oil Crops Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan, China.

Background: Plant papain-like cysteine proteases (PLCPs) are a large class of proteolytic enzymes and play important roles in root nodule symbiosis (RNS), while the whole-genome studies of PLCP family genes in legume are quite limited, and the roles of Glycine max PLCPs (GmPLCPs) in nodulation, nodule development and senescence are not fully understood.

Results: In the present study, we identified 97 GmPLCPs and performed a genome-wide survey to explore the expansion of soybean PLCP family genes and their relationships to RNS. Nineteen paralogous pairs of genomic segments, consisting of 77 GmPLCPs, formed by whole-genome duplication (WGD) events were identified, showing a high degree of complexity in duplication. Phylogenetic analysis among different species showed that the lineage differentiation of GmPLCPs occurred after family expansion, and large tandem repeat segment were specifically in soybean. The expression patterns of GmPLCPs in symbiosis-related tissues and nodules identified RNS-related GmPLCPs and provided insights into their putative symbiotic functions in soybean. The symbiotic function analyses showed that a RNS-related GmPLCP gene (Glyma.04G190700) really participate in nodulation and nodule development.

Conclusions: Our findings improved our understanding of the functional diversity of legume PLCP family genes, and provided insights into the putative roles of the legume PLCPs in nodulation, nodule development and senescence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-020-02725-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7659060PMC
November 2020

Association of Optic Nerve Head Prelaminar Schisis With Glaucoma.

Am J Ophthalmol 2021 03 6;223:246-258. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Discoveries in Sight Research Laboratories, Devers Eye Institute, Legacy Research Institute, Legacy Health, Portland, Oregon, USA. Electronic address:

Purpose: To compare the frequency of observing optic nerve head (ONH) prelaminar schisis by optical coherence tomography (OCT) in glaucoma and glaucoma suspect (GL/S) eyes vs healthy control (HC) eyes and to assess its association with other markers of glaucoma severity.

Methods: This cross-sectional study included 298 eyes of 150 GL/S patients and 88 eyes of 44 HCs. OCT scans were obtained, including 24 radial B-scans, each composed of 768 A-lines spanning 15°, centered on the ONH. Two reviewers masked to all other clinical, demographic, and ocular information independently graded the OCT scans for the presence of ONH prelaminar schisis on a 4-point scale of 0 (none) to 3 (severe). The probability of ONH schisis was compared between groups and against demographic and ocular factors, including structural and functional measures of glaucoma severity.

Results: The frequency and severity of ONH prelaminar schisis were greater in GL/S than in HC (P = .009). Among the GL/S group, 165 eyes (55.4%) had no visible schisis (Grade 0), 71 (23.8%) had Grade 1, 46 (15.4%) had Grade 2 and 16 (5.4%) had Grade 3 schisis. Among HC eyes, 59 (67.0%) had Grade 0, 24 (27.3%) had Grade 1, 5 (5.7%) had Grade 2, none had Grade 3. ONH schisis was more common in eyes with thinner MRW and a deeper cup.

Conclusions: ONH prelaminar schisis may be a sign of glaucomatous deformation and reflect ongoing pathophysiological damage. ONH prelaminar schisis can impact OCT image segmentation and diagnostic parameters, resulting in substantial overestimation of the true rim tissue thickness and underestimation of cup depth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajo.2020.10.021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7979447PMC
March 2021

Overexpression of GmMYB14 improves high-density yield and drought tolerance of soybean through regulating plant architecture mediated by the brassinosteroid pathway.

Plant Biotechnol J 2021 04 23;19(4):702-716. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Oil Crops, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Oil Crops Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan, China.

MYB transcription factors (TFs) have been reported to regulate the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, as well as to mediate plant adaption to abiotic stresses, including drought. However, the roles of MYB TFs in regulating plant architecture and yield potential remain poorly understood. Here, we studied the roles of the dehydration-inducible GmMYB14 gene in regulating plant architecture, high-density yield and drought tolerance through the brassinosteroid (BR) pathway in soybean. GmMYB14 was shown to localize to nucleus and has a transactivation activity. Stable GmMYB14-overexpressing (GmMYB14-OX) transgenic soybean plants displayed a semi-dwarfism and compact plant architecture associated with decreased cell size, resulting in a decrease in plant height, internode length, leaf area, leaf petiole length and leaf petiole angle, and improved yield in high density under field conditions. Results of the transcriptome sequencing suggested the involvement of BRs in regulating GmMYB14-OX plant architecture. Indeed, GmMYB14-OX plants showed reduced endogenous BR contents, while exogenous application of brassinolide could partly rescue the phenotype of GmMYB14-OX plants. Furthermore, GmMYB14 was shown to directly bind to the promoter of GmBEN1 and up-regulate its expression, leading to reduced BR content in GmMYB14-OX plants. GmMYB14-OX plants also displayed improved drought tolerance under field conditions. GmBEN1 expression was also up-regulated in the leaves of GmMYB14-OX plants under polyethylene glycol treatment, indicating that the GmBEN1-mediated reduction in BR level under stress also contributed to drought/osmotic stress tolerance of the transgenic plants. Our findings provided a strategy for stably increasing high-density yield and drought tolerance in soybean using a single TF-encoding gene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pbi.13496DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8051608PMC
April 2021

Honokiol ameliorates radiation-induced brain injury via the activation of SIRT3.

J Int Med Res 2020 Oct;48(10):300060520963993

Department of Radiation Oncology, Shenzhen People's Hospital, the First Affiliated Hospital, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, China; Second Clinical Medicine College of Jinan University, Shenzhen, China.

Objective: Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) plays a vital role in regulating oxidative stress in tissue injury. The aim of this study was to evaluate the radioprotective effects of honokiol (HKL) in a zebrafish model of radiation-induced brain injury and in HT22 cells.

Methods: The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) were evaluated in the zebrafish brain and HT22 cells. The expression levels of SIRT3 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were measured using western blot assays and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

Results: HKL treatment attenuated the levels of ROS, TNF-α, and IL-1β in both the and models of irradiation injury. Furthermore, HKL treatment increased the expression of SIRT3 and decreased the expression of COX-2. The radioprotective effects of HKL were achieved via SIRT3 activation.

Conclusions: HKL attenuated oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory responses in a SIRT3-dependent manner in radiation-induced brain injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0300060520963993DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7583394PMC
October 2020

A GATA Transcription Factor from Soybean () Regulates Chlorophyll Biosynthesis and Suppresses Growth in the Transgenic .

Plants (Basel) 2020 Aug 15;9(8). Epub 2020 Aug 15.

Key Laboratory of Plant Germplasm Enhancement and Specialty Agriculture, Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430074, China.

Chlorophyll plays an essential role in photosynthetic light harvesting and energy transduction in green tissues of higher plants and is closely related to photosynthesis and crop yield. Identification of transcription factors (TFs) involved in regulating chlorophyll biosynthesis is still limited in soybean (), and the previously identified is suggested to potentially modulate chlorophyll and nitrogen metabolisms, but its complete function is still unknown. In this study, subcellular localization assay showed that GmGATA58 was localized in the nucleus. Histochemical GUS assay and qPCR assay indicated that was mainly expressed in leaves and responded to nitrogen, light and phytohormone treatments. Overexpression of in the ortholog () mutant complemented the greening defect, while overexpression in Arabidopsis wild-type led to increasing chlorophyll content in leaves through up-regulating the expression levels of the large of chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway genes, but suppressing plant growth and yield, although the net photosynthetic rate was slightly improved. Dual-luciferase reporter assay also supported that GmGATA58 activated the transcription activities of three promoters of key chlorophyll biosynthetic genes of soybean in transformed protoplast of Arabidopsis. It is concluded that played an important role in regulating chlorophyll biosynthesis, but suppressed plant growth and yield in transgenic Arabidopsis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants9081036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7464611PMC
August 2020

Epidemiology of COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical characteristics, risk factors, and outcomes.

J Med Virol 2021 03 25;93(3):1449-1458. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, California.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a pandemic, but its reported characteristics and outcomes vary greatly amongst studies. We determined pooled estimates for clinical characteristics and outcomes in COVID-19 patients including subgroups by disease severity (based on World Health Organization Interim Guidance Report or Infectious Disease Society of America/American Thoracic Society criteria) and by country/region. We searched Pubmed, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane, Chinese Medical Journal, and preprint databases from 1 January 2020 to 6 April 2020. Studies of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients with relevant data were included. Two reviewers independently performed study selection and data extraction. From 6007 articles, 212 studies from 11 countries/regions involving 281 461 individuals were analyzed. Overall, mean age was 46.7 years, 51.8% were male, 22.9% had severe disease, and mortality was 5.6%. Underlying immunosuppression, diabetes, and malignancy were most strongly associated with severe COVID-19 (coefficient =  53.9, 23.4, 23.4, respectively, all P < .0007), while older age, male gender, diabetes, and hypertension were also associated with higher mortality (coefficient = 0.05 per year, 5.1, 8.2, 6.99, respectively; P = .006-.0002). Gastrointestinal (nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain) and respiratory symptoms (shortness of breath, chest pain) were associated with severe COVID-19, while pneumonia and end-organ failure were associated with mortality. COVID-19 is associated with a severe disease course in about 23% and mortality in about 6% of infected persons. Individuals with comorbidities and clinical features associated with severity should be monitored closely, and preventive efforts should especially target those with diabetes, malignancy, and immunosuppression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26424DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7436673PMC
March 2021

Enhanced sugar accumulation and regulated plant hormone signalling genes contribute to cold tolerance in hypoploid Saccharum spontaneum.

BMC Genomics 2020 Jul 22;21(1):507. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

Sugarcane Research Institute, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming, 650201, Yunnan Province, PR China.

Background: Wild sugarcane Saccharum spontaneum plants vary in ploidy, which complicates the utilization of its germplasm in sugarcane breeding. Investigations on cold tolerance in relation to different ploidies in S. spontaneum may promote the exploitation of its germplasm and accelerate the improvement of sugarcane varieties.

Results: A hypoploid clone 12-23 (2n = 54) and hyperploid clone 15-28 (2n = 92) of S. spontaneum were analysed under cold stress from morphological, physiological, and transcriptomic perspectives. Compared with clone 15-28, clone 12-23 plants had lower plant height, leaf length, internode length, stem diameter, and leaf width; depressed stomata and prominent bristles and papillae; and thick leaves with higher bulliform cell groups and thicker adaxial epidermis. Compared with clone 15-28, clone 12-23 showed significantly lower electrical conductivity, significantly higher water content, soluble protein content, and superoxide dismutase activity, and significantly higher soluble sugar content and peroxidase activity. Under cold stress, the number of upregulated genes and downregulated genes of clone 12-23 was higher than clone 15-28, and many stress response genes and pathways were affected and enriched to varying degrees, particularly sugar and starch metabolic pathways and plant hormone signalling pathways. Under cold stress, the activity of 6-phosphate glucose trehalose synthase, trehalose phosphate phosphatase, and brassinosteroid-signalling kinase and the content of trehalose and brassinosteroids of clone 12-23 increased.

Conclusions: Compared with hyperploid clone 15-28, hypoploid clone 12-23 maintained a more robust osmotic adjustment system through sugar accumulation and hormonal regulation, which resulted in stronger cold tolerance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-020-06917-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7376677PMC
July 2020

Thymidine phosphorylase promotes angiogenesis and tumour growth in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

Cell Biochem Funct 2020 Aug 31;38(6):743-752. Epub 2020 May 31.

Department of Gastroenterology, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, The First Hospital Affiliated with Shandong First Medical University, Jinan, People's Republic of China.

Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is the second most common primary liver cancer, and thymidine phosphorylase (TP) is a regulator of angiogenesis. To investigate the biological activities of TP in ICC, we established human cholangiocarcinoma RBE cell lines overexpressing TP or silencing TP. Overexpression of TP enhanced viability, suppressed apoptosis and increased tube formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, while downregulation of TP reversed these effects. Moreover, an orthotopic xenograft mouse model of ICC was built to further explore TP's function in ICC in vivo. Histological analysis using H&E, TUNEL and Ki67 staining showed that TP promoted tumour growth and inhibited cell apoptosis. Immunostaining for CD31 revealed an elevation in microvessel density in the presence of TP. Besides, upregulation of TP increased the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, interleukin-8 and tumour necrosis factor alpha. In contrast, TP knockdown inhibited tumour growth, suppressed microvessel formation and decreased the expression of angiogenesis-related proteins. Therefore, we suggest that TP promotes angiogenesis and tumour growth in ICC, which can be a potent therapeutic target for ICC treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbf.3541DOI Listing
August 2020

Optical Coherence Tomography Optic Nerve Head Morphology in Myopia I: Implications of Anterior Scleral Canal Opening Versus Bruch Membrane Opening Offset.

Am J Ophthalmol 2020 10 21;218:105-119. Epub 2020 May 21.

Devers Eye Institute Optic Nerve Head Research Laboratory, Legacy Research Institute, Portland, Oregon, USA; Devers Eye Institute Discoveries in Sight Research Laboratories, Legacy Research Institute, Portland, Oregon, USA. Electronic address:

Purpose: To measure the magnitude and direction of anterior scleral canal opening (ASCO) offset relative to the Bruch membrane opening (BMO) (ASCO/BMO offset) to characterize neural canal obliqueness and minimum cross-sectional area (NCMCA) in 69 highly myopic and 138 healthy, age-matched, control eyes.

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Methods: Using optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans of the optic nerve head (ONH), BMO and ASCO were manually segmented and their centroids and size and shape were calculated. ASCO/BMO offset magnitude and direction were measured after projecting the ASCO/BMO centroid vector onto the BMO plane. Neural canal axis obliqueness was defined as the angle between the ASCO/BMO centroid vector and the vector perpendicular to the BMO plane. NCMCA was defined by projecting BMO and ASCO points onto a plane perpendicular to the neural canal axis and measuring their overlapping area.

Results: ASCO/BMO offset magnitude was greater (highly myopic eyes 264.3 ± 131.1 μm; healthy control subjects 89.0 ± 55.8 μm, P < .001, t test) and ASCO centroid was most frequently nasal relative to BMO centroid (94.2% of eyes) in the highly myopic eyes. BMO and ASCO areas were significantly larger (P < .001, t test), NCMCA was significantly smaller (P < .001), and all 3 were significantly more elliptical (P ≤ .001) in myopic eyes. Neural canal obliqueness was greater in myopic (65.17° ± 14.03°) compared with control eyes (40.91° ± 16.22°; P < .001, t test).

Conclusions: Our data suggest that increased temporal displacement of BMO relative to the ASCO, increased BMO and ASCO area, decreased NCMCA, and increased neural canal obliqueness are characteristic components of ONH morphology in highly myopic eyes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajo.2020.05.015DOI Listing
October 2020

Global prevalence, incidence, and outcomes of non-obese or lean non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020 08 12;5(8):739-752. Epub 2020 May 12.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Stanford University Medical Center, Palo Alto, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Although non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is commonly associated with obesity, it is increasingly being identified in non-obese individuals. We aimed to characterise the prevalence, incidence, and long-term outcomes of non-obese or lean NAFLD at a global level.

Methods: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library from inception to May 1, 2019, for relevant original research articles without any language restrictions. The literature search and data extraction were done independently by two investigators. Primary outcomes were the prevalence of non-obese or lean people within the NAFLD group and the prevalence of non-obese or lean NAFLD in the general, non-obese, and lean populations; the incidence of NAFLD among non-obese and lean populations; and long-term outcomes of non-obese people with NAFLD. We also aimed to characterise the demographic, clinical, and histological characteristics of individuals with non-obese NAFLD.

Findings: We identified 93 studies (n=10 576 383) from 24 countries or areas: 84 studies (n=10 530 308) were used for the prevalence analysis, five (n=9121) were used for the incidence analysis, and eight (n=36 954) were used for the outcomes analysis. Within the NAFLD population, 19·2% (95% CI 15·9-23·0) of people were lean and 40·8% (36·6-45·1) were non-obese. The prevalence of non-obese NAFLD in the general population varied from 25% or lower in some countries (eg, Malaysia and Pakistan) to higher than 50% in others (eg, Austria, Mexico, and Sweden). In the general population (comprising individuals with and without NAFLD), 12·1% (95% CI 9·3-15·6) of people had non-obese NAFLD and 5·1% (3·7-7·0) had lean NAFLD. The incidence of NAFLD in the non-obese population (without NAFLD at baseline) was 24·6 (95% CI 13·4-39·2) per 1000 person-years. Among people with non-obese or lean NALFD, 39·0% (95% CI 24·1-56·3) had non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, 29·2% (21·9-37·9) had significant fibrosis (stage ≥2), and 3·2% (1·5-5·7) had cirrhosis. Among the non-obese or lean NAFLD population, the incidence of all-cause mortality was 12·1 (95% CI 0·5-38·8) per 1000 person-years, that for liver-related mortality was 4·1 (1·9-7·1) per 1000 person-years, cardiovascular-related mortality was 4·0 (0·1-14·9) per 1000 person-years, new-onset diabetes was 12·6 (8·0-18·3) per 1000 person-years, new-onset cardiovascular disease was 18·7 (9·2-31·2) per 1000 person-years, and new-onset hypertension was 56·1 (38·5-77·0) per 1000 person-years. Most analyses were characterised by high heterogeneity.

Interpretation: Overall, around 40% of the global NAFLD population was classified as non-obese and almost a fifth was lean. Both non-obese and lean groups had substantial long-term liver and non-liver comorbidities. These findings suggest that obesity should not be the sole criterion for NAFLD screening. Moreover, clinical trials of treatments for NAFLD should include participants across all body-mass index ranges.

Funding: None.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2468-1253(20)30077-7DOI Listing
August 2020

Peripapillary Scleral Bowing Increases with Age and Is Inversely Associated with Peripapillary Choroidal Thickness in Healthy Eyes.

Am J Ophthalmol 2020 09 13;217:91-103. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Devers Eye Institute Optic Nerve Head Research Laboratory, Legacy Research Institute, Portland, Oregon, USA; Devers Eye Institute Discoveries in Sight Research Laboratories, Legacy Research Institute, Portland, Oregon, USA. Electronic address:

Purpose: To use optical coherence tomography (OCT) to 3-dimensionally characterize the optic nerve head (ONH) in peripapillary scleral bowing in non-highly myopic healthy eyes.

Design: Cross-sectional, multicenter study.

Methods: A total of 362 non-highly myopic (+6 diopters [D] > spherical equivalent > -6D) eyes of 362 healthy subjects from 20-90 years old underwent OCT ONH radial B-scan imaging. Bruch's membrane (BM), BM opening (BMO), anterior scleral canal opening (ASCO), and the peripapillary scleral surface were segmented. BMO and ASCO planes were fit, and their centroids, major axes, ovality, areas and offsets were determined. Peripapillary scleral bowing was characterized by 2 parameters: peripapillary scleral slope (ppSS) of 3 anterior peripapillary scleral segments (0-300, 300-700, and 700-1,000 μm from the ASCO centroid); and ASCO depth relative to a peripapillary scleral reference plane (ASCOD-ppScleral). Peripapillary choroidal thickness (ppCT) was calculated relative to the ASCO as the minimum distance between the anterior scleral surface and BM.

Results: Both ppSS and ASCOD-ppScleral ranged from slightly inward through profoundly outward in direction. Both parameters increased with age and were independently associated with decreased ppCT.

Conclusions: In non-highly myopic healthy eyes, outward peripapillary scleral bowing achieved substantial levels, was markedly increased with age, and was independently associated with decreased peripapillary choroidal thickness. These findings provide a normative foundation for characterizing this anatomy in cases of high myopia and glaucoma and in eyes with optic disc tilt, torsion, and peripapillary atrophy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajo.2020.03.050DOI Listing
September 2020

Connective Tissue Remodeling in Myopia and its Potential Role in Increasing Risk of Glaucoma.

Curr Opin Biomed Eng 2020 Sep 28;15:40-50. Epub 2020 Jan 28.

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States.

Myopia and glaucoma are both increasing in prevalence and are linked by an unknown mechanism as many epidemiologic studies have identified moderate to high myopia as an independent risk factor for glaucoma. Myopia and glaucoma are both chronic conditions that lead to connective tissue remodeling within the sclera and optic nerve head. The mechanobiology underlying connective tissue remodeling differs substantially between both diseases, with different homeostatic control mechanisms. In this article, we discuss similarities and differences between connective tissue remodeling in myopia and glaucoma; selected multi-scale mechanisms that are thought to underlie connective tissue remodeling in both conditions; how asymmetric remodeling of the optic nerve head may predispose a myopic eye for pathological remodeling and glaucoma; and how neural tissue deformations may accumulate throughout both pathologies and increase the risk for mechanical insult of retinal ganglion cell axons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cobme.2020.01.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7093055PMC
September 2020

Central Retinal Vessel Trunk Caliber Changes After Short-term Intraocular Pressure Elevation.

J Glaucoma 2020 06;29(6):467-472

Beijing Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences Key Laboratory, Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing.

Precis: After a short-term intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation, the central retinal vein caliber may be widened at lower IOP rise levels, while be compressed at higher IOP rise values.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in the calibers of the central retinal vein trunk (CRVT) and central retinal artery trunk (CRAT) trunk during a short-term elevation of IOP.

Methods: A prospective observational study. Acute primary angle-closure suspects underwent a dark room prone provocative test (DRPPT) for 2 hours. Before and at the end of the test, tonometry, swept-source optical coherence tomography, and nonmydriatic fundus photography were performed. The calibers of the CRVT and CRAT were measured on the fundus photos taken at baseline and at the end of the DRPPT.

Results: The study included 101 eyes (61 individuals; mean age: 54.8±9.3 y; range: 30 to 70 y) which showed an increase in IOP by 9.6±9.0 mm Hg (range: 2.3 to 46.7 mm Hg). From baseline to the end of the DRPPT, the mean CRVT caliber increased from 101.8±25.9 to 107.7±26.6 μm (P<0.001), while the CRAT caliber did not differ significantly (110.3±24.2 vs. 109.7±21.5 μm; P=0.54) during the test. The CRVT widening was larger in the subgroup with IOP rise of <6 mm Hg than in the subgroup with an IOP rise of 6 to 15 mm Hg, while in the subgroup with an IOP rise of >15 mm Hg the CRVT caliber did not change significantly (P=0.20) during the test.

Conclusions: A physiological short-term IOP rise at lower levels of IOP elevation led to a widening of the CRVT, while at higher IOP values, the further IOP-rise may have compressed the retinal vein. Because of higher intraluminal pressure values, the retinal artery diameters were not affected by the IOP-rise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IJG.0000000000001472DOI Listing
June 2020

Author Correction: iTRAQ-based quantitative analysis reveals proteomic changes in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.) in response to Plasmodiophora brassicae infection.

Sci Rep 2020 Jan 30;10(1):1849. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Institute of Vegetables and Flowers, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhongguancun, Nandajie No. 12, Haidian District, Beijing, 100081, China.

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-57948-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6992629PMC
January 2020

Overexpression of GmWRI1b in soybean stably improves plant architecture and associated yield parameters, and increases total seed oil production under field conditions.

Plant Biotechnol J 2020 08 25;18(8):1639-1641. Epub 2020 Jan 25.

Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Oil Crops, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Oil Crops Research Institute, Wuhan, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pbi.13324DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7336282PMC
August 2020
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