Publications by authors named "Hongbo Ma"

44 Publications

Serum thymidine kinase 1 protein concentration for predicting early progression and monitoring the response to TACE in hepatocellular carcinomas: a network meta-analysis.

Future Sci OA 2021 Aug 21;7(7):FSO717. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Medicine, Shenzhen SSTK Precision Medicine Institute, A301, Bulding 1, 2nd Yinxingzhijie, 1301-76 Guanguang Road, Longhua District, Shenzhen, China.

Aim: A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the clinical significance of serum thymidine kinase 1 protein concentration (STK1p) in distinguishing between hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC and non-HCC for predicting early progression and monitoring the response to transarterial chemoembolization in HCC.

Materials & Methods: A total of 24 eligible studies were included, containing 1849 HCC patients and 1069 healthy subjects.

Results: The STK1p level significantly increased from normal controls to benign/pre-HCC and HCC (p < 0.0001). STK1p also increased significantly in sub-malignant groups: control being the lowest, followed consecutively by hepatic hemangioma, hepatitis B virus infection and hepatic cirrhosis (p < 0.05). After 1 month of transarterial chemoembolization treatment, STK1p level declined significantly, by 44.4% (p < 0.0001).

Conclusion: STK1p is a useful prognostic biomarker in HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2144/fsoa-2021-0016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8256325PMC
August 2021

Online monitoring of air activation at the China spallation neutron source.

J Environ Radioact 2021 Aug 11;234:106642. Epub 2021 May 11.

Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing, 100049, China; Spallation Neutron Source Science Center, Dongguan, 523808, China.

During the operation of high-energy proton accelerators, the air in the tunnel is activated with the production of radionuclides. For CSNS (China Spallation Neutron Source), the first pulsed neutron source in China for multidisciplinary research, an online air activation monitoring system was developed to evaluate the radiation safety of the staff and the public, which consisted of a NaI detector, Pb shielding, an MB container and a control system. With the monitoring system, gamma spectra of the activated air from controlled areas are measured, and the activity concentration and immersion dose rates of radionuclides in air are calculated and displayed in real time. The system has been in stable operation since February 2020, and results have been obtained for the evaluation of the radiation risk from activated air.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2021.106642DOI Listing
August 2021

Successful conservative treatment of placenta accreta with traditional Chinese medicine: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Feb;100(7):e24820

Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jingwuweiqi Road, Jinan, Shandong, China.

Rationale: Currently, placenta accreta treatment mainly includes nonconservative surgical and conservative treatments such as Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). This report describes the case of a 37-year-old woman who suffered incomplete placenta accreta after vaginal delivery and was cured by TCM. TCM treatment of placenta accreta has its own unique advantages, including low toxicity and few side effects, unaffected breastfeeding, and retention of the uterus, which can ensure the expulsion of residual placenta and be beneficial to patients' physical and mental health.

Patient Concerns: Symptoms included a small amount of vaginal bleeding and occasional lesser abdominal pain. The patient showed lesser abdominal tenderness, a red tongue moss with petechial hemorrhage, and a hesitant pulse. The reproductive history was G3P2L2A1. In addition, the patient was afraid of having her uterus removed due to incomplete placental separation.

Diagnoses: The case was diagnosed as placental accreta. Ultrasound is the preferred method of diagnosis, and biomarkers, such as beta hCG, assist in screening for placental accreta. Doppler ultrasonography showed that in the bottom of the right uterine cavity, there was an uneven echo group of 7.6 × 4.6 cm, which was not clearly demarcated from the posterior wall; the muscle layer became thinner, with a thinnest part of 0.19 cm, and abundant blood flow signals were observed (Fig. 1JOURNAL/medi/04.03/00005792-202102190-00086/figure1/v/2021-02-16T234818Z/r/image-tiff). The beta hCG was 580.92 mIu/ml.

Interventions: The patient initially underwent curettage therapy 9 days after delivery, but it failed due to excessive intraoperative bleeding. The patient then turned to TCM treatment. The doctor prescribed a multi-herbal formula.

Outcomes: After 4 months, the residual placenta was expelled, and the patient's symptoms disappeared completely. No adverse and unexpected events occurred during treatment. During 3 months of follow-up, the patient had no abdominal pain, abnormal vaginal bleeding, or other complications.

Lessons: This study shows that TCM is safe and effective for treating placenta accreta, and it is worth recommending TCM as a conservative treatment along with other treatments. In practice, however, we find that the earlier TCM treatment is applied, the better the effect; therefore, early intervention with TCM is particularly important.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000024820DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7899819PMC
February 2021

STK1p as a prognostic biomarker for overall survival in non-small-cell lung carcinoma, based on real-world data.

Future Sci OA 2020 Nov 23;7(3):FSO661. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Department of Medicine, Shenzhen SSTK Precision Medicine Institute, A301, Building 1, 1301-76 Guanguang Road, Longhua District, Shenzhen, China.

Aim: A prospective investigation of serum thymidine kinase 1 concentration (STK1p) was performed to evaluate its prognostic value in patients with non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLCs).

Patients & Methods: The STK1p values of 127 patients were determined by an enhanced chemiluminescent dot blot assay. The patients were recruited from March 2011 to December 2017.

Results: Kaplan-Meier plot showed that patients with elevated STK1p values had worse overall survival (OS), especially patients of early/middle stages. Multi-variable COX regression showed that STK1p value and combined treatment surgery + chemotherapy were independent prognostic factors for favorable OS.

Conclusion: STK1p is helpful in predicting OS of early/middle stages (I-IIIA) NSCLCs patients following a nonrandomized individual adapted treatment, but is may be not recommended in advanced stages (IIIB + IV) of NSCLCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2144/fsoa-2020-0130DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7849927PMC
November 2020

Podocyte RNF166 deficiency alleviates diabetic nephropathy by mitigating mitochondria impairment and apoptosis via regulation of CYLD signal.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 03 2;545:46-53. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Nephrology, Shandong Province Zibo Central Hospital, 54 West Communist Youth League Road, Zhangdian District, Zibo, Shandong, 255000, China.

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major cause of renal failure in diabetic patients. RING-finger protein 166 (RNF166), composed of an N-terminal RING domain and C-terminal ubiquitin interaction motif, plays a critical role in mediating various cellular processes. However, its potential in DN has not been investigated. In the present study, we found that DN patients exhibited significantly increased expression of RNF166 in renal tissues compared with the normal individuals, and abundant RNF166 was detected in podocytes. We then showed that podocyte-conditional RNF166 knockout (RNF166) markedly reduced blood glucose levels and ameliorated renal dysfunction in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Additionally, abnormal histological changes and podocyte injury were observed in STZ-induced diabetic mice, while being markedly ameliorated by RNF166. Furthermore, podocyte-specific RNF166 deficiency considerably mitigated apoptosis and mitochondrial impairments in glomeruli podocytes of STZ-challenged mice through suppressing Caspase-3 cleavage and improving mitochondrial fission-associated molecules. In vitro studies further confirmed that high glucose (HG) induced mitochondrial dysfunction, along with enhanced releases of Cyto-c from mitochondria and elevated expression of cleaved Caspase-9, contributing to intrinsic apoptosis in podocytes. Intriguingly, these effects triggered by HG were dramatically ameliorated by RNF166 knockout. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that RNF166 directly interacted with cylindromatosis (CYLD), and negatively regulated CYLD expression. Notably, RNF166 knockout-attenuated mitochondrial damage and apoptosis were mainly through CYLD in podocytes upon HG stimulation. Together, all these findings provided new insights into the novel effects of RNF166 on maintaining mitochondrial function and apoptosis in podocytes during DN progression both in vivo and in vitro through interacting with CYLD, indicating that RNF166/CYLD may be an innovative therapeutic target for developing effective strategy against DN development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2020.12.014DOI Listing
March 2021

Effects of Yixintai Pills on Myocardial Cell Apoptosis in Rats With Adriamycin-Induced Heart Failure.

Heart Surg Forum 2020 04 23;23(2):E234-E238. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Shandong Province, P. R. China.

Objective: To study the effects of Yixintai pills on myocardial cell apoptosis in rats with adriamycin (ADR)-induced heart failure (HF) and the mechanism of action.

Methods: Sixty healthy male Wistar rats randomly were divided into Control, Model, Captopril, and Yixintai pill groups. A rat model of ADR-induced HF was constructed by intraperitoneal injection of ADR (2.5 mg/kg). The control group was given an equal volume of normal saline; the Yixintai pill and Captopril groups were given corresponding mediations (5 mg/kg) by lavage. After 4 weeks of treatment, fasting blood was collected to detect the contents of plasma rennin activity (PRA), angiotensin II (AngII), and aldosterone (ALD). B ultrasound was used to detect the heart structure, and the heart weight/body weight (HW/BW) ratio was calculated. The pathology of myocardial tissues was observed by HE staining. The apoptosis of myocardial cells was detected by TUNEL assay. The expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in serum were analyzed by ELISA, and the protein expression levels of protein kinase B (Akt), phosphorylated (p)-Akt, glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and p-GSK-3β in myocardial tissues were measured by Western blotting.

Results: Compared with the Control group, the PRA, AngII, ALD, left ventricular posterior wall thickness at end-systole (LVPWs), left ventricular posterior wall thickness at end-diastole (LVPWd), interventricular septal thickness at end-systole (IVSs), interventricular septal thickness at end-diastole (IVSd), HW/BW, TNF-α and IL-6 of model group increased significantly (P < .05). PRA, AngII, ALD, LVPWs, LVPWd, IVSs, IVSd, HW/BW, TNF-α and IL-6 of the Yixintai pill and Captopril groups were significantly lower than those of the Model group (P < .05). There were no significant differences in the indices between the Yixintai pill and Captopril groups (P > .05). In the Model group, lamellar necrosis, vacuolar degeneration, increased myocardial fibers and lamellar dissolution of myocardial cells were found in myocardial tissues. However, the myocardial cells of the Control group were neatly arranged and clearly structured, and only a few ones underwent fibrosis. There were mild myocardial fibrosis and vacuolar degeneration in the Yixintai pill and Captopril groups, and the degeneration and hyperplasia of myocardial fibers were obviously relieved. Compared with the Control group, the apoptosis index (AI) of the Model group increased significantly (P < .05). The AI values of the Yixintai pill and Captopril groups were significantly lower than those of the Model group (P < .05). Compared with the Control group, the expression levels of p-Akt and p-GSK-3β in the Model group decreased significantly (P < .05). The expression levels of p-Akt and p-GSK-3β in the Yixintai pill and Captopril groups were significantly higher than those of the Model group (P < .05), whereas the former 2 groups had similar results (P > 0.05).

Conclusion: Yixintai pills may inhibit myocardial cell apoptosis and ventricular remodeling in rats by up-regulating PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β signal, thus protecting the heart function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1532/hsf.2941DOI Listing
April 2020

A meta-analysis of serological thymidine kinase 1 as a marker for colorectal benign and malignant tumor risk assessment.

Mol Clin Oncol 2020 May 25;12(5):440-450. Epub 2020 Feb 25.

Department of Medicine, Shenzhen Sino-Swed Precision Medicine Institute, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518057, P.R. China.

The present study investigated whether a concentration of serum thymidine kinase 1 (STK1p) could be used to distinguish between healthy individuals, patients with colorectal benign tumors and individuals with colorectal cancer (CRC). The effectiveness of surgery on patients with CRC was monitored. A total of 20 publications containing patients with CRC (n=1,836), patients with colorectal benign tumors (n=774) and healthy controls (n=1,701) were analysed in the present meta-analysis. The publications were collected from PubMed, Embase, CENTRAL, CNKI, Wanfang, VIP and SinoMed databases from January 1, 2009 until August 31, 2019. Articles were analyzed according to sensitivity (Forest plot) and publication bias (Begg's plot, Egger's linear regression) using fixed or random effect models to calculate the weighted mean difference. Study quality was checked using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale Document Quality Assessment Scale. The meta-analysis followed the PRISMA statement. The results revealed that STK1p significantly distinguished healthy individuals and those with colorectal benign tumors from patients with CRC, and from patients with benign tumors (P<0.000001). STK1p levels also decreased by 40% following surgery (P<0.0001), which corresponded to half-life of ~1 month. The quality of the present study was high and no bias was identified among publication. It was concluded that STK1p was a reliable biomarker for the early detection of benign lesions, which may therefore prevent their future development into colorectal malignancies. STK1p may also be used for the clinical dynamic monitoring of the effectiveness of surgery in patients with CRC. Combining STK1p with colorectal-associated biomarkers, in addition to the determination of tumor stage and grade may therefore be of use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mco.2020.2002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7087469PMC
May 2020

Universal relation with regime transition for sediment transport in fine-grained rivers.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 01 18;117(1):171-176. Epub 2019 Dec 18.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Ven Te Chow Hydrosystems Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL 61801;

Fine-grained sediment (grain size under 2,000 μm) builds floodplains and deltas, and shapes the coastlines where much of humanity lives. However, a universal, physically based predictor of sediment flux for fine-grained rivers remains to be developed. Herein, a comprehensive sediment load database for fine-grained channels, ranging from small experimental flumes to megarivers, is used to find a predictive algorithm. Two distinct transport regimes emerge, separated by a discontinuous transition for median bed grain size within the very fine sand range (81 to 154 μm), whereby sediment flux decreases by up to 100-fold for coarser sand-bedded rivers compared to river with silt and very fine sand beds. Evidence suggests that the discontinuous change in sediment load originates from a transition of transport mode between mixed suspended bed load transport and suspension-dominated transport. Events that alter bed sediment size near the transition may significantly affect fluviocoastal morphology by drastically changing sediment flux, as shown by data from the Yellow River, China, which, over time, transitioned back and forth 3 times between states of high and low transport efficiency in response to anthropic activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1911225116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6955285PMC
January 2020

Efficacy and safety of bevacizumab-based maintenance therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer: A meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2019 Dec;98(50):e18227

The Fuling Center Hospital of Chongqing City.

Objective: To identify the optimal treatment strategy after first-line induction chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC).

Methods: We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing bevacizumab-based maintenance therapy, observation, and continuous chemotherapy.We searched the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases for relevant articles published through March 2018. All randomized phase-III trials evaluating bevacizumab-based maintenance treatment after bevacizumab-based induction treatment were eligible for inclusion. The primary and secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS), respectively. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) or data for calculating HRs with 95% CIs were extracted. The RevMan v5.3 (Copenhagen, Denmark) software was used for data analysis.

Results: Nine trials (3121 patients) were included in this meta-analysis. Compared with observation alone, bevacizumab-based maintenance therapy significantly improved PFS (HR: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.47-0.82) and showed a trend toward prolonged OS (HR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.83-1.05). The incidence of grade 3/4 toxicity, including hypertension and fatigue, was higher after maintenance therapy than after observation alone. PFS (HR: 0.91, 95% CI: 0.70-1.18) and OS (HR: 0.88, 95% CI: 0.74-1.04) did not differ between the maintenance treatment and continuous chemotherapy groups. Grade 3/4 toxicity, including diarrhea and sensory neuropathy, was less common after maintenance therapy than after continuous chemotherapy.

Conclusion: Bevacizumab-based maintenance therapy significantly improved PFS, showed a trend toward prolonged OS, and reduced cumulative grade 3/4 toxicity relative to continuous chemotherapy with comparable efficacy. Although maintenance therapy was beneficial, the optimal strategy should be individualized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000018227DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6922481PMC
December 2019

A novel effect of glycine on the growth and starch biosynthesis of storage root in sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.).

Plant Physiol Biochem 2019 Nov 11;144:395-403. Epub 2019 Oct 11.

Institute of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Scientific Observation and Experimental Station of Arable Land Conservation of Jiangsu Province, Ministry of Agriculture, Nanjing, 210014, China. Electronic address:

Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) plays an indispensable role in feed, starch-based industries and ethanol biofuel production. Few studies have investigated on how external amino acids affect the growth and production of sweetpotato. In the study, we evaluated morphological, physiological and molecular effects of external glycine (Gly) on the root growth and starch metabolism of sweetpotato, Xushu16. At morphological level, the Xushu16 with Gly stimuli had larger plant biomass than that under control condition. At physiological level, the photosynthesis strength of the Xushu16 with Gly treatments showed significant differences relative to those under control condition. The relative content of plant hormone and starch in storage roots was higher under Gly conditions than that under control condition. At molecular level, a total of 4836 differentially expression genes were identified in the storage roots with different Gly treatments by RNA-Seq. Among them, as many as 1830 genes were involved in carbohydrate metabolism, which held maximum proportion among all the DEGs. Further, a few genes involved in starch biosynthesis were proved to be Gly-induced significantly by RT-qPCR. All the results indicated extrinsic Gly promotes the growth of storage roots by strengthening photosynthesis and increasing plant hormone, and enhances starch biosynthesis of storage roots by accelerating carbohydrate metabolism and regulating the expression of starch-related genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2019.10.012DOI Listing
November 2019

Changes in Prealbumin and Body Mass Index Associated with T Lymphocyte Subsets and Nutritional Status in Chronic Hepatitis B and HBV-Cirrhosis Patients.

Clin Lab 2018 Oct;64(11)

Background: Patient immune response is one of the main factors influencing hepatitis virus (HBV) eradication or chronicity. Our study aimed to investigate the relationship between the nutritional status and immune function, and to provide the appropriate clinical diagnosis data for treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (CHB) and cirrhosis. Methods: T lymphocyte subsets were tested using flow cytometry in 100 patients (48 with CHB, 52 with cirrhosis) and 26 healthy individuals. Nutritional parameters were analyzed including body mass index (BMI), blood white blood cell count, albumin, prealbumin, and biochemistry parameters in patient and control groups. Results: Moderate and severe malnutrition (53.84%) were observed in HBV-cirrhosis patients. Serum albumin and prealbumin levels were the lowest in the cirrhosis group. There were significantly lower levels of lymphocyte subsets (CD3+, CD3+CD4+, and CD3+CD8+) in patient groups compared with the control group. There was significantly lower cholesterol, white blood cells, lymphocytes, and platelet levels in the patient group compared with the control group. Interrelation between nutritional and immune parameters showed that serum prealbumin levels were negatively correlated with CD3+, CD3+CD4+, and CD3+CD8+ count in the CHB group, and the immune parameters (CD3+, CD3+CD4+, and CD3+CD8+ count) correlated significantly with BMI in the patients with cirrhosis (r > 0.45). Conclusions: Our data demonstrate that there is a correlation between nutrition deficiency and immune dysfunction in patients with CHB and cirrhosis. It is necessary to assess the nutritional status and immune balance in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7754/Clin.Lab.2018.180501DOI Listing
October 2018

Comparative toxicity of a food additive TiO, a bulk TiO, and a nano-sized P25 to a model organism the nematode C. elegans.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 Feb 6;26(4):3556-3568. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Mid-Continent Ecology Division, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, MN, USA.

To help fill the knowledge gap regarding the potential human health impacts of food pigment TiO, a comparative toxicity study was performed on a food-grade TiO (f-TiO), a bulk TiO (b-TiO), and a nano-sized TiO (Degussa P25), and in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Acute phototoxicity and chronic toxicity effects including reproduction, lifespan, and vulval integrity were evaluated. The f-TiO, b-TiO, and P25 had a primary particle size (size range) of 149 (53-308) nm, 129 (64-259) nm, and 26 (11-52) nm, respectively. P25 showed the greatest phototoxicity with a 24-h LC50 of 6.0 mg/L (95% CI 5.95, 6.3), followed by the f-TiO (LC50 = 6.55 mg/L (95% CI 6.35, 6.75)), and b-TiO was the least toxic. All three TiO (1-10 mg/L) induced concentration-dependent effects on the worm's reproduction, with a reduction in brood size by 8.5 to 34%. They all caused a reduction of worm lifespan, accompanied by an increased frequency of age-associated vulval integrity defects (Avid). The impact on lifespan and Avid phenotype was more notable for P25 than the f-TiO or b-TiO. Ingestion and accumulation of TiO particles in the worm intestine was observed for all three materials by light microscopy. These findings demonstrate that the food pigment TiO induces toxicity effects in the worm and further studies are needed to elucidate the human health implication of such toxicities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-3810-4DOI Listing
February 2019

Serum thymidine kinase 1 is associated with Gleason score of patients with prostate carcinoma.

Oncol Lett 2018 Nov 21;16(5):6171-6180. Epub 2018 Aug 21.

Department of Medicine, Sino-Swed Molecular Bio-Medicine Research Institute, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518057, P.R. China.

The aim of the present was to assess whether serum thymidine kinase 1 (STK1) concentration is a useful biomarker for the screening of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) or prostate malignancy. Serum samples were collected from 123 patients with prostate carcinoma prior to surgery, biopsy or androgen deprivation therapy and at 3, 6 and 10 months following the procedure. A total of 205 patients with BPH and 266 healthy controls were also utilized. STK1 concentration and total prostate-specific antigen (PSA) were measured in patient serum by use of commercial assays. The pathological specimens (obtained from surgery or biopsy) were assessed according to Gleason scores (GS). STK1 concentration and total PSA were significantly higher in patients with prostate carcinoma compared with patients with BPH and healthy individuals. Furthermore, STK1 concentration was associated with Gleason score, while total PSA was not. However, no association was identified between STK1 concentration and total serum PSA. A receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed on STK1 concentrations among patients with prostate carcinoma. The results demonstrated that the sensitivity and specificity were high, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.97. Although the sensitivity and specificity of total PSA were also high, the AUC value was relatively low (0.74). The results indicated that STK1 concentration is a more reliable prognostic biomarker than total PSA in respect to the GS system. Additionally, since STK1 concentration is associated with Gleason score, the use of biopsies to determine Gleason score may be replaced to some extent by the STK1 concentration test, thus reducing the discomfort of patients from which biopsies are obtained.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2018.9345DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6176382PMC
November 2018

Anabaenopeptins and cyanopeptolins induce systemic toxicity effects in a model organism the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

Chemosphere 2019 Jan 15;214:60-69. Epub 2018 Sep 15.

Joseph J. Zilber School of Public Health, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, P.O. Box 413, Milwaukee, WI, 53201, USA. Electronic address:

Cyanobacterial blooms represent a significant risk to environmental and human health due to their production of toxic secondary metabolites, cyanopeptides. Anabaenopeptins and cyanopeptolins are cyanopeptides increasingly detected in surface waters at concentrations exceeding regulatory toxicity levels for other cyanotoxins such as microcystins. Yet their toxicity to aquatic organisms are not well understood. Here we assessed the toxicological effects of three anabaenopeptins (AP-A, AP-B, and AP-F) and three cyanopeptolins (CYP-1007, CYP-1020, and CYP-1041) to a model organism the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Examined toxicity endpoints included reproduction, hatching time, growth rate, lifespan, and age-related vulval integrity. Microcystin RR (MC-RR) and microginin 690 were also included in the study for comparisons. At an identical mass concentration (10 μg/L, corresponding to a molar concentration ranging 0.01-0.014 μM depending on the specific peptide), anabaenopeptins (APs) showed the greatest toxicity among all cyanopeptides tested. APs decreased worm reproduction by 23%-34% and shortened worm lifespan by 5 days (a 30% reduction) compared to the controls. APs also induced a remarkable age-related vulval integrity defect (Avid phenotype) in the worm, where over 95% of exposed worms developed the phenotype, compared to a less than 15% in control worms. CYPs showed similar toxicity as MC-RR, and Microginin 690 was the least toxic. These findings suggest that APs and CYPs may pose significant health risks to aquatic organisms. More toxicological studies of these cyanopeptides using different species across different trophic levels are needed to gain a thorough understanding of their potential impact on ecological systems and human health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.09.076DOI Listing
January 2019

Toxicity interactions between manganese (Mn) and lead (Pb) or cadmium (Cd) in a model organism the nematode C. elegans.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Jun 21;25(16):15378-15389. Epub 2018 Mar 21.

Joseph J. Zilber School of Public Health, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 1240 N 10th St, Milwaukee, WI, USA.

Manganese (Mn) is considered as an emerging metal contaminant in the environment. However, its potential interactions with companying toxic metals and the associated mixture effects are largely unknown. Here, we investigated the toxicity interactions between Mn and two commonly seen co-occurring toxic metals, Pb and Cd, in a model organism the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The acute lethal toxicity of mixtures of Mn+Pb and Mn+Cd were first assessed using a toxic unit model. Multiple toxicity endpoints including reproduction, lifespan, stress response, and neurotoxicity were then examined to evaluate the mixture effects at sublethal concentrations. Stress response was assessed using a daf-16::GFP transgenic strain that expresses GFP under the control of DAF-16 promotor. Neurotoxicity was assessed using a dat-1::GFP transgenic strain that expresses GFP in dopaminergic neurons. The mixture of Mn+Pb induced a more-than-additive (synergistic) lethal toxicity in the worm whereas the mixture of Mn+Cd induced a less-than-additive (antagonistic) toxicity. Mixture effects on sublethal toxicity showed more complex patterns and were dependent on the toxicity endpoints as well as the modes of toxic action of the metals. The mixture of Mn+Pb induced additive effects on both reproduction and lifespan, whereas the mixture of Mn+Cd induced additive effects on lifespan but not reproduction. Both mixtures seemed to induce additive effects on stress response and neurotoxicity, although a quantitative assessment was not possible due to the single concentrations used in mixture tests. Our findings demonstrate the complexity of metal interactions and the associated mixture effects. Assessment of metal mixture toxicity should take into consideration the unique property of individual metals, their potential toxicity mechanisms, and the toxicity endpoints examined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-1752-5DOI Listing
June 2018

A Review on Central Nervous System Effects of Gastrodin.

Front Pharmacol 2018 2;9:24. Epub 2018 Feb 2.

Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, China.

(also known as ), the dried rhizome of Blume, is a famous Chinese herb that has been traditionally used for the treatment of headache, dizziness, spasm, epilepsy, stoke, amnesia and other disorders for centuries. Gastrodin, a phenolic glycoside, is the main bioactive constituent of . Since identified in 1978, gastrodin has been extensively investigated on its pharmacological properties. In this article, we reviewed the central nervous system (CNS) effects of gastrodin in preclinical models of CNS disorders including epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, affective disorders, cerebral ischemia/reperfusion, cognitive impairment as well as the underlying mechanisms involved and, where possible, clinical data that support the pharmacological activities. The sources and pharmacokinetics of gastrodin were also reviewed here. As a result, gastrodin possesses a broad range of beneficial effects on the above-mentioned CNS diseases, and the mechanisms of actions include modulating neurotransmitters, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, suppressing microglial activation, regulating mitochondrial cascades, up-regulating neurotrophins, etc. However, more detailed clinical trials are still in need for positioning it in the treatment of neurological disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2018.00024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5801292PMC
February 2018

Benzalkonium chloride, benzethonium chloride, and chloroxylenol - Three replacement antimicrobials are more toxic than triclosan and triclocarban in two model organisms.

Environ Pollut 2018 Apr 21;235:814-824. Epub 2018 Feb 21.

Joseph J. Zilber School of Public Health, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 1240 N 10th St, Milwaukee, WI 53205, USA. Electronic address:

With the recent ban of triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) from some personal care products, many replacement antimicrobial compounds have been used. Yet the potential health risk and environmental impact of these replacement compounds are largely unknown. Here we investigated the toxicological effects of three commonly used replacement antimicrobials, benzalkonium chloride (BAC), benzethonium chloride (BEC), and chloroxylenol (CX) to two model organisms, the nematode C. elegans and zebrafish (Danio rerio), and compared them to the banned TCS and TCC. We found that these replacement compounds are not any safer than the banned antimicrobials. In the worm, at least one of the three, BAC, showed comparable toxicity to TCS from organismal to molecular levels, with toxic effects occurring at lower hundred μg/L to lower mg/L levels. In the fish, all three compounds at the tested concentration ranges (0.05-5 mg/L) showed toxicity effects to zebrafish embryos, indicated by hatching delay or inhibition, embryonic mortality, morphological malformations, and neurotoxicity. BAC was the most toxic among the three, with acute lethal toxicity occurring at environmentally relevant concentrations (hundreds of μg/L), which is comparable to the banned TCC. However, the toxicity effects of BAC and TCC occurred within different time windows, potentially suggesting different mechanisms of toxicity. CX was the only compound that induced a "body curvature" phenotype among the five compounds examined, suggesting a unique mode of toxic action for this compound. Furthermore, all five compounds except TCS induced neurotoxicity in fish larvae, indicated by alterations in secondary motoneuron axonal projections. Such neurotoxicity has been largely understudied for these antimicrobials in the past years and calls for further investigations in terms of its underlying mechanisms and ecological significance. These findings strongly indicate that scrutiny should be put on these replacement compounds before their introduction into massive use in personal care products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2017.12.108DOI Listing
April 2018

Triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) induce systemic toxic effects in a model organism the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

Environ Pollut 2017 Dec 22;231(Pt 1):462-470. Epub 2017 Aug 22.

Joseph J. Zilber School of Public Health, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 1240 N 10th St, Milwaukee, WI, USA. Electronic address:

The broad application of triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) as antimicrobials in household and personal care products has led to the concerns regarding their human health risk and environmental impact. Although many studies have examined the toxicological effects of these compounds to a wide range of aquatic organisms from algae to fish, their potential toxicity to an important model organism the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has never been systematically investigated. Here we assessed the toxicological effects of TCS and TCC in C. elegans using endpoints from organismal to molecular levels, including lethality, reproduction, lifespan, hatching, germline toxicity, and oxidative stress. L4 stage or young adult worms were exposed to TCS or TCC and examined using above-mentioned endpoints. Both TCS and TCC showed acute toxicity to C. elegans, with 24-h LC50s of 3.65 (95% CI: 3.15, 4.3) mg/L and 0.91 (95% CI: 0.47, 1.53) mg/L, respectively. TCS at 0.1-2 mg/L and TCC at 0.01-0.5 mg/L, respectively, induced concentration dependent reduction in the worm's reproduction, lifespan, and delay in hatching. Using a DAF-16:GFP transgenic strain, we found both compounds induced oxidative stress in the worm, indicated by the relocalization of DAF-16:GFP from cytoplasm to the nucleus upon exposure. Germline toxicity of the two compounds was also demonstrated using a xol-1:GFP transgenic strain. These findings suggest that TCS and TCC induce systemic toxic effects in C. elegans. Further studies are needed to elucidate the potential mechanisms of toxicity of these antimicrobials in the model organism, especially their potential endocrine disruption effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2017.08.036DOI Listing
December 2017

The Half-Life of Serum Thymidine Kinase 1 Concentration Is an Important Tool for Monitoring Surgical Response in Patients with Lung Cancer: A Meta-Analysis.

Genet Test Mol Biomarkers 2017 Aug;21(8):471-478

1 Department of Endocrinology, Huadong Hospital Affiliated to Fudan University , Shanghai, China .

Aims: In this meta-analysis, we evaluated the usefulness of serum thymidine kinase 1 concentration (STK1c) for monitoring the outcome of extensive open surgery in patients with lung cancer. We also compared STK1c between a healthy population and patients with benign and malignant lung tumors to assess its potential value for early detection of lung cancer and for distinguishing between benign lung disease and malignant cancer.

Materials And Methods: Related studies were retrieved from publications in PubMed, Cochrane, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang databases, and Internet searches. Correlation was evaluated using weighted mean difference. Fixed or random effect models were selected for data analyses based on heterogeneity tested with the chi-square test. Publication bias was assessed using a funnel plot and Egger's test.

Results: Twenty studies were selected for analysis, which showed that STK1c was significantly (p < 0.00001) reduced by 41.7% 1 month after extensive open surgery, approximately corresponding to an STK1c half-life of 1 month. STK1c levels were significantly higher in lung cancer patients than in healthy persons (p < 0.00001) or in patients with benign lung disease (p < 0.00001). There was also a significant difference in STK1c between patients with benign and malignant lung disease (p < 0.0001).

Conclusions: The half-life of STK1c may be an important tool in the clinical evaluation of surgical response in patients with lung cancer. STK1c may also be beneficial in the early detection of lung cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/gtmb.2017.0003DOI Listing
August 2017

The exceptional sediment load of fine-grained dispersal systems: Example of the Yellow River, China.

Sci Adv 2017 May 12;3(5):e1603114. Epub 2017 May 12.

Ven Te Chow Hydrosystems Laboratory, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL 61801, USA.

Sedimentary dispersal systems with fine-grained beds are common, yet the physics of sediment movement within them remains poorly constrained. We analyze sediment transport data for the best-documented, fine-grained river worldwide, the Huanghe (Yellow River) of China, where sediment flux is underpredicted by an order of magnitude according to well-accepted sediment transport relations. Our theoretical framework, bolstered by field observations, demonstrates that the Huanghe tends toward upper-stage plane bed, yielding minimal form drag, thus markedly enhancing sediment transport efficiency. We present a sediment transport formulation applicable to all river systems with silt to coarse-sand beds. This formulation demonstrates a remarkably sensitive dependence on grain size within a certain narrow range and therefore has special relevance to silt-sand fluvial systems, particularly those affected by dams.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1603114DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5429038PMC
May 2017

Serum TK1 is a more reliable marker than CEA and AFP for cancer screening in a study of 56,286 people.

Cancer Biomark 2016 Mar;16(4):529-36

Sino-Swed Molecular Bio-Medicine Research Institute, Shanghai, China.

Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) has estimated that the number of cancer patients will increase by about 70% during the next 25 years world-wide. To deal with this problem, WHO has suggested a focus on prevention of tumor incidence and health screening for early detection of people with tumors.

Objective: To investigate the use of thymidine kinase 1 (TK1), CEA and AFP in serum to discover people with malignant tumors through health cancer screening.

Methods: Of a cohort in 486,085 people of a routine health screening at the Health Centre, Fujun 180 Hospital, Quanzhou city, China, 56,286 people were investigated according to the presence of cancer during 2009-2014. The concentration of CEA and AFP were determined by an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay from Roche Diagnostics e601GmbH and STK1 by a commercial kit based on an enhanced chemiluminescent dot blot assay.

Results: The cancer incident rate increased from 0.048/100,000 to 0.220/100,000. The most common types of tumors were those of the liver, cervix and lung. STK1 correlated to tumor growth rate, was more sensitive than CEA and AFP for discovering people with malignant tumors and more sensitive among people who had diagnosis of malignant tumor. STK1 was also a prognostic biomarker for death at 10-40 months follow-up, while CEA and AFP were not. A combination of these markers increased the sensitivity by about 30%.

Conclusion: STK1 is a reliable biomarker for discovering people with malignant tumors in cancer screening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/CBM-160594DOI Listing
March 2016

Impact of natural organic matter on particle behavior and phototoxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

Sci Total Environ 2016 Jan 29;542(Pt A):324-33. Epub 2015 Oct 29.

Nanosafe Inc., Blacksburg, VA, USA.

Due to their inherent phototoxicity and inevitable environmental release, titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) are increasingly studied in the field of aquatic toxicology. One of the particular interests is the interactions between nano-TiO2 and natural organic matter (NOM). In this study, a series of experiments was conducted to study the impacts of Suwannee River natural organic matter (SRNOM) on phototoxicity and particle behaviors of nano-TiO2. For Daphnia magna, after the addition of 5mg/L SRNOM, LC50 value decreased significantly from 1.03 (0.89-1.20) mg/L to 0.26 (0.22-0.31) mg/L. For zebrafish larvae, phototoxic LC50 values were 39.9 (95% CI, 25.9-61.2) mg/L and 26.3 (95% CI, 18.3-37.8) mg/L, with or without the presence of 5mg/L SRNOM, respectively. There was no statistically significant change of these LC50 values. The impact of SRNOM on phototoxicity of nano-TiO2 was highly dependent on test species, with D. magna being the more sensitive species. The impact on particle behavior was both qualitatively and quantitatively examined. A global predictive model for particle behavior was developed with a three-way interaction of SRNOM, TiO2 concentration, and time and an additive effect of ionic strength. Based on power analyses, 96-h exposure in bioassays was recommended for nanoparticle-NOM interaction studies. The importance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) quenching of SRNOM was also systematically studied using a novel exposure system that isolates the effects of environmental factors. These experiments were conducted with minimal impacts of other important interaction mechanisms (NOM particle stabilization, NOM UV attenuation, and NOM photosensitization). This study highlighted both the particle stabilization and ROS quenching effects of NOM on nano-TiO2 in an aquatic system. There is an urgent need for representative test materials, together with key environmental factors, for future risk assessment and regulations of nanomaterials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.09.141DOI Listing
January 2016

Association of ACE polymorphism and diabetic nephropathy susceptibility.

Int J Clin Exp Med 2015 15;8(2):2962-5. Epub 2015 Feb 15.

Department of Nephrology, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University Shandong, Jinan 250021, China.

Aim: The study was aimed to analyze whether ACE rs267604983 polymorphism was related to the onset of diabetic nephropathy (DN).

Methods: 80 DN patients and 78 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. The differences of age, sex, body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) between two groups were analyzed. The genotyping of ACE rs267604983 was conducted by the technology of PCR-HRM. Odds ratio (ORs) with 95% CI were used to evaluate the relationship of ACE rs267604983 with DN susceptibility.

Results: The AA genotype of ACE rs267604983 was remarkably associated with the risk for DN (OR = 2.90, 95% CI = 1.12-7.51). In addition, for the A allele carriers, the risk for DN increased 1.87 fold (OR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.16-3.01). The subgroup analysis showed that the AA genotype was found higher in normal albuminuria group than other groups (P = 0.006), while AG genotype was higher in macro albuminuria group (P = 0.036).

Conclusion: ACE rs267604983 polymorphism is associated with the risk of DN. AA genotype and A allele may increase the risk for DN. Furthermore, AA and AG genotypes may have effects on the subgroups of DN.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4402911PMC
May 2015

Chronic TiO₂ nanoparticle exposure to a benthic organism, Hyalella azteca: impact of solar UV radiation and material surface coatings on toxicity.

Sci Total Environ 2014 Nov 7;499:356-62. Epub 2014 Sep 7.

Office of Research and Development, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, MN, 55804, USA. Electronic address:

There is limited information on the chronic effects of nanomaterials to benthic organisms, as well as environmental mitigating factors that might influence this toxicity. The present study aimed to fill these data gaps by examining various growth endpoints (weight gain, instantaneous growth rate, and total protein content) for up to a 21 d sediment exposure of TiO2 nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) to a representative benthic species, Hyalella azteca. An uncoated standard, P25, and an Al(OH)3 coated nano-TiO2 used in commercial products were added to sediment at 20 mg/L or 100 mg/L Under test conditions, UV exposure alone was shown to be a greater cause of toxicity than even these high levels of nano-TiO2 exposure, indicating that different hazards need to be addressed in toxicity testing scenarios. In addition, this study showed the effectiveness of a surface coating on the decreased photoactivity of the material, as the addition of an Al(OH)3 coating showed a dramatic decrease in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. However, this reduced photoactivity was found to be partially restored when the coating had been degraded, leading to the need for future toxicity tests which examine the implications of weathering events on particle surface coatings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.08.068DOI Listing
November 2014

MEF2 transcription factors promotes EMT and invasiveness of hepatocellular carcinoma through TGF-β1 autoregulation circuitry.

Tumour Biol 2014 Nov 3;35(11):10943-51. Epub 2014 Aug 3.

Department of Hepatopancreatobiliary Surgery, The Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Henan Cancer Hospital, 127 Dongming Road, 450008, Zhengzhou, China.

Invasion and metastasis is the main causes leading to the death of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. However, the underlying mechanism is still to be explored. Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) is a stronger inducer of HCC cell invasion. However, the downstream effector of TGF-β1 that promotes HCC invasion is still unknown. In this study, we found that PI3K/Akt activation takes place following the stimulation of TGF-β1. The inhibition of PI3K/Akt activation abolished epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasion of HCC cells induced by TGF-β1. Myocyte enhancer factors 2 (MEF2) family proteins were found to be overexpressed in HCC cells under the treatment of TGF-β1 in a PI3K/Akt-dependent way. Silencing the expression of MEF2s was able to prevent the effect of TGF-β1 on HCC EMT and invasion. Unexpectedly, MEF2 proteins were able to promote the expression of TGF-β1 in HCC cells, suggesting the existence of regulatory circuitry consisting of TGF-β1, PI3K/Akt, and MEF2. A natural compound, oleanolic acid, was demonstrated to suppress the invasion and EMT of HCC cells by downregulating MEF2, showing that targeting this pathway is an effective therapeutic strategy for HCC invasion. We believe that our findings can contribute to better understanding of the involved mechanism of HCC invasion and the development of preventive and therapeutic strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13277-014-2403-1DOI Listing
November 2014

Impact of solar UV radiation on toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles through photocatalytic reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and photo-induced dissolution.

Environ Pollut 2014 Oct 15;193:165-172. Epub 2014 Jul 15.

Texas Tech University, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Lubbock, TX, USA.

The present study investigated the impact of solar UV radiation on ZnO nanoparticle toxicity through photocatalytic ROS generation and photo-induced dissolution. Toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles to Daphnia magna was examined under laboratory light versus simulated solar UV radiation (SSR). Photocatalytic ROS generation and particle dissolution were measured on a time-course basis. Two toxicity mitigation assays using CaCl2 and N-acetylcysteine were performed to differentiate the relative importance of these two modes of action. Enhanced ZnO nanoparticle toxicity under SSR was in parallel with photocatalytic ROS generation and enhanced particle dissolution. Toxicity mitigation by CaCl2 to a less extent under SSR than under lab light demonstrates the role of ROS generation in ZnO toxicity. Toxicity mitigation by N-acetylcysteine under both irradiation conditions confirms the role of particle dissolution and ROS generation. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering environmental solar UV radiation when assessing ZnO nanoparticle toxicity and risk in aquatic systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2014.06.027DOI Listing
October 2014

Preparation of a novel rape pollen shell microencapsulation and its use for protein adsorption and pH-controlled release.

J Microencapsul 2014 25;31(7):667-73. Epub 2014 Jun 25.

Institute of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences and Scientific Observing and Experimental Station of Arable Land Conservation, Ministry of Agriculture , Nanjing , People's Republic of China .

This study aims to synthesize hollow microspheres (HMS) from rape pollen via H3PO4 hydrothermal carbonization. The rape pollen hollow shell was used as the carrier and bovine serum albumin as a model protein. The properties of HMS were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance and elemental analysis. The SEM images clearly showed that the HMS had perfect spherical morphology and porous hollow surface. In the separated filtrate, a large number of sucroses were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography, suggesting that the hydrolysis of starch molecules occurred during the hydrothermal process. The formation of HMS was that the rape pollen inclusion was removed from rape pollen shell to preserve integral HMS by H3PO4 hydrothermal. The HMS possessed amphiphilic surfaces, which was suitable for protein adsorpion and pH-controlled release application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/02652048.2014.913723DOI Listing
June 2015

Species sensitivity and dependence on exposure conditions impacting the phototoxicity of TiO₂ nanoparticles to benthic organisms.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2014 Jul 20;33(7):1563-9. Epub 2014 May 20.

National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, US Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, Minnesota, USA.

Toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2 ) to aquatic organisms can be greatly increased after exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. This phenomenon has received some attention for water column species; however, investigations of nano-TiO2 phototoxicity for benthic organisms are still limited. In the present study, bioassays of 3 representative benthic organisms (Hyalella azteca, Lumbriculus variegatus, and Chironomus dilutus) were conducted to evaluate nano-TiO2 phototoxicity. When exposed to 20 mg/L of nano-TiO2 and various light intensities (0-30 W/m(2)), H. azteca was the most sensitive, with a median lethal dose of 40.7 (95% confidence interval, 36.3-44.7) Wh/m(2), and hence is a potential model organism in future toxicological guidelines for photoactive nanomaterials to freshwater benthos. Without the presence of nano-TiO2 , no mortality was observed in L. variegatus and C. dilutus exposed to UV intensity ranging from 0 W/m(2) to 41 W/m(2). However, a sharp drop of H. azteca survival was observed when UV intensity was higher than 9.4 W/m(2), demonstrating the importance of UV-only effects on the ultimate phototoxicity of nanomaterials. Furthermore, both bioavailability and surface attachment of nano-TiO2 onto organisms were affected by the exposure scenario, supported by the exposure scenario-dependent phototoxicity seen in H. azteca and C. dilutus. Overall, the present study demonstrates the importance of species sensitivity and exposure scenarios in future test guidelines of nano-phototoxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/etc.2583DOI Listing
July 2014

Chinese herbal medicine Shenqi Detoxification Granule inhibits fibrosis in adenine induced chronic renal failure rats.

Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med 2014 2;11(1):194-204. Epub 2013 Nov 2.

Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, 324, Jinwu Weiqi Road, Ji'nan, 250021, China.

Background: Progressive fibrosis accompanies all chronic renal disease, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF,) and platelet-derived growth factor-B, (PDGF-B,) play important roles in extra-cellular matrix abnormal accumulation, while endothelin-1 (ET-1) nitric oxide (NO,) are related to endothelial dysfunction, which mediates the progression of renal fibrosis. Shenqi Detoxification Granule (SDG), a traditional Chinese herbal formula, has been used for treatment of chronic renal failure in clinic for many years.

Materials And Methods: In order to evaluate the efficacy, and explore the mechanism of SDG to inhibit the progression of renal fibrosis, study was carried out using the adenine-induced Wister rats as the CRF model, and losartan as postive control drug. Levels of serum creatinine [Scr], and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), albumin (ALB), 24hrs, urine protein (24hUP), triacylglycerol (TG), and cholesterol (CHO), together with ET-1, and NO were detected. Pathological changes of renal tissues were observed by HE, staining. In addition, CTGF and PDGF-B expression were analyzed by immuno-histo-chemistry.

Results: The results indicated that SDG can effectively reduce Scr, BUN, 24hUP, TG, and CHO levels, increase ALB levels, inhibit renal tissue damage in CRF rats, and the mechanism maybe reduce PDGF-B, CTGF expression and ET-1/NO.

Conclusion: Shenqi Detoxification Granule is a beneficial treatment for chronic renal failure.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3957265PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajtcam.v11i1.31DOI Listing
November 2014

Preparation and loading buffer study of polyvinyl alcohol-based immobilized Ti4+ affinity chromatography for phosphopeptide enrichment.

J Sep Sci 2013 Nov 1;36(21-22):3563-70. Epub 2013 Oct 1.

Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing, P. R. China.

Despite recent advances in phosphoproteomics, an efficient and simple enrichment protocol is still a challenge and of high demand aiming at large-scale plant phosphoproteomics studies. Here, we developed a novel loading buffer system for synthesized immobilized metal affinity chromatography material targeting plant samples, which was prepared by a simple one-step esterification between polyvinyl alcohol and phosphoric acid and then was subjected to immobilize Ti(4+). SEM and Fourier transform IR spectroscopy were used to assure the synthesis protocol of the polyvinyl alcohol-based Ti(4+) immobilized material, and the specific surface areas and pore volumes of the polymers were measured. The selectivity for phosphopeptide enrichment from α-casein was improved by optimizing the pH and components of the loading buffer. By using potassium hydrogen phthalate/hydrochloric acid with pH at 2.50 as the loading buffer, 19 phosphopeptides with high intensity were identified. The final optimized protocol was adapted to salt-stressed maize leaves for phosphoproteome analysis. A total of 57 phosphopeptides containing 59 phosphorylated sites from 50 phosphoproteins were identified in salt-stressed maize leaf. The research was meaningful to obtain much more information about phosphoproteins leading to the comprehension of salt resistance and salt-inducible phosphorylated processes of maize leaves.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jssc.201300622DOI Listing
November 2013
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