Publications by authors named "Hong Zhu"

1,662 Publications

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Deubiquitinating enzymes: promising targets for drug resistance.

Drug Discov Today 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

The Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China; The Westlake Laboratory of Life Sciences and Biomedicine, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Drug resistance to chemotherapy and molecularly targeted therapies is a current challenge in cancer treatments. The underlying mechanisms of resistance to cytotoxic chemotherapeutics and to drugs that target a specific molecule are not understood completely. In recent years, emerging evidence has frequently suggested that the dysregulation of deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) plays important roles in the development of drug resistance. We focus on the molecular mechanisms through which DUBs enable cancer cells to escape cell death and survive when exposed to a variety of anti-cancer drugs. Furthermore, this review summarizes the potential application of DUB inhibitors in combination therapies to overcome drug resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drudis.2022.06.009DOI Listing
June 2022

Polyunsaturated fatty acids promote the rapid fusion of lipid droplets in Caenorhabditis elegans.

J Biol Chem 2022 Jun 22:102179. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Center for Life Sciences, School of Life Sciences, State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Bio-Resources, Yunnan University, Kunming, Yunnan 650500, China. Electronic address:

Lipid droplets (LDs) are intracellular organelles that dynamically regulate lipids and energy homeostasis in the cell. LDs can grow through either local lipid synthesis or LDs fusion. However, how lipids involving in LD fusion for LD growth is largely unknown. Here we show that genetic mutation of acox-3 (acyl-CoA oxidase), maoc-1 (enoyl-CoA hydratase), dhs-28 (3-hydroxylacyl-CoA dehydrogenase), and daf-22 (3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase), all involved in the peroxisomal β-oxidation pathway in C. elegans, led to rapid fusion of adjacent LDs to form giant LDs (gLDs). Mechanistically, we show dysfunction of peroxisomal β-oxidation results in the accumulation of long chain fatty acid-CoA (LCFA-CoAs) and phosphocholine (PC), which may activate the sterol regulatory element binding protein SBP-1/SREBP to promote gLD formation. Furthermore, we found inactivation of either FAT-2 (delta-12 desaturase) or FAT-3 and FAT-1 (delta-15 desaturase and delta-6 desaturase, respectively) to block the biosynthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acids with 3 or more double bonds (n≥3-PUFAs) fully repressed the formation of gLDs; in contrast, dietary supplementation of n≥3-PUFAs or PC bearing these PUFAs led to recovery of the formation of gLDs in peroxisomal β-oxidation-defective worms lacking PUFA biosynthesis. Thus, we conclude that n≥3-PUFAs, distinct from other well-known lipids and proteins, promote rapid LD fusion leading to LD growth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbc.2022.102179DOI Listing
June 2022

Mineralocorticoid Receptor Deficiency in Treg Cells Ameliorates DSS-Induced Colitis in a Gut Microbiota-Dependent Manner.

Immunology 2022 Jun 25. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Laboratory of Oral Microbiota and Systemic Diseases, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, College of Stomatology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is a classic nuclear receptor and an effective drug target in the cardiovascular system. The function of MR in immune cells such as macrophages and T cells has been increasingly appreciated. The aim of this study was to investigate the function of Treg MR in the process of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We treated Treg MR-deficient (MR Foxp3 , KO) mice and control (Foxp3 , WT) mice with dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) to induce colitis and found that the severity of DSS-induced colitis was markedly alleviated in Treg MR-deficient mice, accompanied by reduced production of inflammatory cytokines, and relieved infiltration of monocytes, neutrophils and interferon γ T cells in colon lamina propria. Fecal microbiota of mice with colitis was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and the composition of gut microbiota was vastly changed in Treg MR-deficient mice. Furthermore, depletion of gut microbiota by antibiotics abolished the protective effects of Treg MR deficiency and resulted in similar severity of DSS-induced colitis in WT and KO mice. Fecal microbiota transplantation from KO mice attenuated DSS-induced colitis characterized by alleviated inflammatory infiltration compared to that from WT mice. Hence, our study demonstrates that Treg MR deficiency protects against DSS-induced colitis by attenuation of colonic inflammatory infiltration. Gut microbiota is both sufficient and necessary for Treg MR deficiency to exert the beneficial effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imm.13522DOI Listing
June 2022

The Sweetpotato Voltage-Gated K Channel β Subunit, KIbB1, Positively Regulates Low-K and High-Salinity Tolerance by Maintaining Ion Homeostasis.

Genes (Basel) 2022 Jun 20;13(6). Epub 2022 Jun 20.

College of Agronomy, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109, China.

Voltage-gated K channel β subunits act as a structural component of K channels in different species. The β subunits are not essential to the channel activity but confer different properties through binding the T1 domain or the C-terminal of α subunits. Here, we studied the physiological function of a novel gene, , encoding a voltage-gated K channel β subunit in sweetpotato. The transcriptional level of this gene was significantly higher in the low-K-tolerant line than that in the low-K-sensitive line under K deficiency conditions. In , positively regulated low-K tolerance through regulating K uptake and translocation. Under high-salinity stress, the growth conditions of transgenic lines were obviously better than wild typr (WT). Enzymatic and non-enzymatic reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging were activated in transgenic plants. Accordingly, the malondialdehyde (MDA) content and the accumulation of ROS such as HO and O were lower in transgenic lines under salt stress. It was also found that the overexpression of enhanced K uptake, but the translocation from root to shoot was not affected under salt stress. This demonstrates that acted as a positive regulator in high-salinity stress resistance through regulating Na and K uptake to maintain K/Na homeostasis. These results collectively suggest that the mechanisms of in regulating K were somewhat different between low-K and high-salinity conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes13061100DOI Listing
June 2022

Preparation and in vivo bacteriostatic application of PPDO-coated Ag loading TiO nanoparticles.

Sci Rep 2022 Jun 22;12(1):10585. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Department of Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, North Sichuan Medical College, Nanchong, China.

Implant-associated infections limit the clinical application of implants therapy; hence, exploiting strategies to prevent biomaterial-associated infections has become important. Therefore, in this study, a series of poly (p-dioxanone) (PPDO)-coated Ag loading TiO nanoparticles ([email protected]) was synthesized to be applied as bacteriostatic coating materials that could be easily dispersed in organic solvent and coated onto implantable devices via temperate methods such as electrospraying. The lattice parameters of TiO were a = 0.504 nm, b = c = 1.05 nm, alpha = beta = gamma = 90 degree and the size of crystallite was about 13 nm, indicating that part of Ag has been embedded into crystal defects of TiO. Both XRD and TEM determinations indicated the successful grating of PPDO on the surface of [email protected] Among [email protected] nanoparticles with various Ag loading quantities, 12% [email protected] nanoparticles exhibited relatively higher grafting efficiency and Ag contents on the surface of grafted composites. In addition, 12% [email protected] exhibited the best bacteriostatic effect in vitro owing to its higher grafted efficiency and relatively short length of PPDO segments. Subsequently, [email protected] was coated on the surface of a poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) electrospun membrane via the electrospraying method. Finally, the in vivo bacteriostatic effect of 12% [email protected] coating was verified by implanting 12% [email protected] PLGA membrane into a rat subcutaneously combined with an injection of Staphylococcus aureus at implanting sites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-14814-6DOI Listing
June 2022

Ethnic disparities in early-onset gastric cancer: a population-based study in Texas and California.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2022 Jun 22. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, United States.

Background: Incidence rates of gastric cancer are increasing in young adults (age <50 years), particularly among Hispanic persons. We estimated incidence rates of early-onset gastric cancer (EOGC) among Hispanic and non-Hispanic White persons by census tract poverty level and county-level metro/non-metro residence.

Methods: We used population-based data from the California and Texas Cancer Registries from 1995-2016 to estimate age-adjusted incidence rates of EOGC among Hispanic and non-Hispanic White persons by year, sex, tumor stage, census tract poverty level, metro vs. non-metro county, and state. We used logistic regression models to identify factors associated with distant stage diagnosis.

Results: Of 3047 persons diagnosed with EOGC, 73.2% were Hispanic White. Incidence rates were 1.29 (95% CI 1.24, 1.35) and 0.31 (95% CI 0.29, 0.33) per 100,000 Hispanic White and non-Hispanic White persons, respectively, with consistently higher incidence rates among Hispanic persons at all levels of poverty. There was no statistically significant associations between ethnicity and distant stage diagnosis in adjusted analysis.

Conclusion: There are ethnic disparities in EOGC incidence rates that persist across poverty levels.

Impact: EOGC incidence rates vary by ethnicity and poverty; these factors should be considered when assessing disease risk and targeting prevention efforts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-22-0210DOI Listing
June 2022

[Effects of aridity on carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus contents in soils and plants of mountain swamps, Zhejiang, China].

Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 2022 May;33(5):1267-1274

Zhejiang Academy of Forestry, Hangzhou 310023, China.

Mountain swamps in Zhejiang Province have been suffered from severe drouhgt threats because of climate change and artificial interruption. bogs and swamps were gradually degraded into arid swamps. However, the effects of arid processes on the C, N, P contents of soils and their stoichiometry in mountain swamps are still unclear. We measured C, N and P concentrations, pH values, and bulk density in the upper 0-60 cm soil layers in the stands of five mountain swamps with the different arid levels. Moreover, the aboveground biomass and the C, N, P concentrations in the crushed plant mixture were also measured. The results showed that the soils of mountain swamps in Zhejiang Province were rich in soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), but infertile in phosphorus (TP). Aboveground biomass, soil pH, bulk density increased, while SOC, TN, TP, C:N, C:P, N:P decreased with aridity. Soil pH and bulk density had significant negative correlations with SOC, TN, and TP in soils, respectively. The differences in the C, N, P accumulation in the soils were probably associated with litterfall production, the oxygen condition of wetlands, and the degree of plant decomposition at the different types of mountain swamps. In all, arid trends were obvious at the mountain swamps in Zhejiang Province. Soil nutrients, such as C, N, P, deceased, while plant community succeeded from the wet swamp to the mesophyte vegetation with the arid processes. The contents of C, N and P in the plants varied across species, and were not coupled with those in the soils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13287/j.1001-9332.202205.029DOI Listing
May 2022

SDHA/B reduction promotes hepatocellular carcinoma by facilitating the deNEDDylation of cullin1 and stabilizing YAP/TAZ.

Hepatology 2022 Jun 17. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Institute of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Anti-Cancer Drug Research, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China.

Background & Aims: Succinate dehydrogenase enzyme (SDH) is frequently diminished in Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patient samples, and SDH reduction is associated with elevated succinate level and poor prognosis in HCC patients. But the underlying mechanisms about how impaired SDH activity promotes HCC remain unclear.

Approach & Results: In this study, we observed remarkable downregulations of SDH subunits A and B (SDHA/B) in chronic liver injury-induced murine HCC models and patient samples. Subsequent RNA sequencing, hematoxylin & eosin (H&E) staining and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analyses of HCC samples revealed that Yes-associated protein (YAP) and transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) were significantly upregulated in HCC, with their levels inversely correlating with that of SDHA/B. YAP/TAZ stability was greatly enhanced in SDHA/B-depleted HCC cells along with accumulation of succinate. Further mechanistic analyses demonstrated that impaired activity of SDHA/B resulted in succinate accumulation which facilitated the deNEDDylation of cullin1, therefore disrupted the E3 ubiquitin ligase SCF complex, consequently led to YAP/TAZ stabilization and activation in HCC cells. The accelerated in vitro cell proliferation and in vivo tumor growth caused by SDHA/B reduction or succinate exposure were largely dependent on the aberrant activation of YAP/TAZ.

Conclusions: Our study demonstrated that SDHA/B reduction promotes HCC proliferation by preventing the proteasomal degradation of YAP/TAZ through modulating cullin1 NEDDylation, thus addicts SDH-deficient HCC cells to YAP/TAZ pathway and renders these cells vulnerable to YAP/TAZ inhibition. Our findings warrant further investigation on the therapeutic effects of targeting YAP/TAZ in HCC patients displaying reduced SDHA/B or elevated succinate levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.32621DOI Listing
June 2022

Regression modeling of restricted mean survival time for left-truncated right-censored data.

Stat Med 2022 Jul 28;41(16):3003-3021. Epub 2022 Mar 28.

Division of BiostatisticsDepartment of Population and Data Sciences, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA.

The restricted mean survival time (RMST) is a clinically meaningful summary measure in studies with survival outcomes. Statistical methods have been developed for regression analysis of RMST to investigate impacts of covariates on RMST, which is a useful alternative to the Cox regression analysis. However, existing methods for regression modeling of RMST are not applicable to left-truncated right-censored data that arise frequently in prevalent cohort studies, for which the sampling bias due to left truncation and informative censoring induced by the prevalent sampling scheme must be properly addressed. The pseudo-observation (PO) approach has been used in regression modeling of RMST for right-censored data and competing-risks data. For left-truncated right-censored data, we propose to directly model RMST as a function of baseline covariates based on POs under general censoring mechanisms. We adjust for the potential covariate-dependent censoring or dependent censoring by the inverse probability of censoring weighting method. We establish large sample properties of the proposed estimators and assess their finite sample performances by simulation studies under various scenarios. We apply the proposed methods to a prevalent cohort of women diagnosed with stage IV breast cancer identified from surveillance, epidemiology, and end results-medicare linked database.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/sim.9399DOI Listing
July 2022

Current status and temporal trend of disease burden of thyroid cancer in China from 1990 to 2019.

Asia Pac J Clin Oncol 2022 Jun 12. Epub 2022 Jun 12.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.

Objective: Thyroid cancer has been an increasingly high-profile public health issue. Comprehensive assessment for its disease burden seems particularly important for understanding health priorities and hinting high-risk populations.

Methods: We estimated the age-sex-specific thyroid cancer burden and its temporal trend in China from 1990 to 2019 by following the general methods from the global burden of disease (GBDs) 2019 Study. And Joinpoint regression model, the Cox-Stuart trend test, and Cochran-Armitage test were applied for the analysis of temporal and age trend. The Mantel-Haenszel statistical method was used to compare the gender difference.

Results: From 1990 to 2019, the age-standardized incidence rate of thyroid cancer in China has almost doubled to 2.05 per 100,000. Although the mortality rate and DALY rate kept leveling off, they presented a downtrend among females, while an upward trend in males. While the average annual percentage changes of those metrics all became deline since 2010 than the previous years. With age advancing, the rates of incidence, mortality, and DALYs for both sexes all presented linear fashion increases, which was particularly typical among males.

Conclusion: Given the serious trend and gender-age heterogeneity of Chinese thyroid cancer burden, male gender and advanced age may be related to poor prognosis of thyroid cancer, and strengthening primary prevention and exploring the underlying risk factors should be among the top priorities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajco.13800DOI Listing
June 2022

Nursing students' attitudes and associated factors towards older people in Heilongjiang Province, northern China: A cross-sectional study.

Nurs Open 2022 Jun 9. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

School of Health Management, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Aim: Attitudes toward older persons could affect services that are provided to them and change the value of the care they receive. The attitude of nursing students toward older persons is very important as it will affect their care of older patients in future. However, in China, the attitude of higher vocational nursing students toward older persons has not been widely studied. The purpose of this study is to explore the attitudes and factors toward older people among nursing students in higher vocational colleges in Heilongjiang Province.

Design: A cross-sectional study.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using cluster sampling. A total of 1106 nursing students from two higher vocational colleges in Heilongjiang Province participated. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to identify the factors influencing nursing students' attitudes toward older people.

Conclusion: This study showed that the vocational college nursing students have a positive attitude towardolder persons. However, the proportion of respondents taking care of older persons as their first choice in their future career needs to be increased. Advanced vocational colleges should pay attention to the attitudes of nursing students toward older persons, and strengthen the education of career development planning, which has practical significance in meeting the diversified health needs of older persons and ensuring healthy aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nop2.1262DOI Listing
June 2022

Prognostic role of an inflammation scoring system in radical resection of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

BMC Oral Health 2022 Jun 8;22(1):226. Epub 2022 Jun 8.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, The Affiliated Huaian No.1 People's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Huaian, No. 1, Huanghe West Road, Huaian, 223300, Jiangsu Province, China.

Background: Inflammatory markers can influence the postoperative prognosis and outcome of malignant tumors. However, the role of inflammatory factors in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) are still debatable. The primary objective of this investigation was to detect the preoperative blood fibrinogen and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in OSCC patients and to determine the predictive validity of F-NLR (combined fibrinogen and NLR score).

Methods: A total of 365 patients with oral cancer after surgery were separated into three classes: F-NLR of 2, with hyperfibrinogenemia (> 250 mg/dL) and high NLR (> 3.2); F-NLR of 1, with only one higher index; and F-NLR of 0, with no higher indices. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify risk factors for the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients in the three F-NLR groups. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to assess the prognosis.

Results: Preoperative F-NLR showed a relatively better predictive role in oral cancer prognosis than fibrinogen and NLR alone. Multivariate analysis revealed that F-NLR has the potential to be an independent predictor for OSCC cancer-specific survival (P < 0.001). Patients with high scores had a relatively poorer prognosis than those with low scores (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Our findings indicate that blood F-NLR may serve as an independent prognostic factor in OSCC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12903-022-02261-8DOI Listing
June 2022

Survival of cancer survivors with a new pancreatic cancer diagnosis.

Cancer Med 2022 Jun 8. Epub 2022 Jun 8.

School of Public Health, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas, USA.

Background: Persons newly diagnosed with pancreas cancer and who have survived a previous cancer are often excluded from clinical trials, despite limited evidence about their prognosis. We examined the association between previous cancer and overall survival.

Methods: This US population-based cohort study included older adults (aged ≥66 years) diagnosed with pancreas cancer between 2005 and 2015 in the linked Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare data. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate stage-specific effects of previous cancer on overall survival, adjusting for sociodemographic, treatment, and tumor characteristics.

Results: Of 32,783 patients, 18.7% were previously diagnosed with another cancer. The most common previous cancers included prostate (29.0%), breast (18.9%), or colorectal (9.7%) cancer. More than half of previous cancers (53.9%) were diagnosed 5 or more years prior to pancreas cancer diagnosis or at an in situ or localized stage (47.8%). The proportions of patients surviving 1, 3, and 5 years after pancreas cancer were nearly identical for those with and without previous cancer. Median survival in months was as follows for those with and without previous cancer respectively: 7 versus 8 (Stage 0/I), 10 versus 10 (Stage II), 7 versus 7 (Stage III), and 3 versus 2 (Stage IV). Cox models indicated that patients with previous cancer had very similar or statistically equivalent survival to those with no previous cancer.

Conclusions: Given nearly equivalent survival compared to those without previous cancer, cancer survivors newly diagnosed with pancreas cancer should be considered for inclusion in pancreas cancer clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.4903DOI Listing
June 2022

The beneficial cutoffs of vitamin D for metabolic syndrome varies by sex among the elderly Chinese population: A cross-sectional study.

Nutr Res 2022 May 15;104:91-100. Epub 2022 May 15.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Environment, Nutrition & Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070, China. Electronic address:

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a risk factor for various diseases with a high prevalence globally. We aimed to investigate the association of serum vitamin D levels with MetS, and we hypothesized that the beneficial cutoffs of vitamin D for MetS might vary by sex among urban people aged ≥60 years in Tianjin, China. This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2 community health centers. We collected lifestyle and anthropometric information and measured serum 25(OH)D concentrations by high-performance liquid chromatography. MetS was diagnosed based on the 2009 International Diabetes Federation/American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute criterion. Binary logistic regression and stratification analysis were performed to determine the association between MetS and 25(OH)D levels. Among 840 eligible participants (347 males and 493 females), 439 (52.3%) were diagnosed with MetS. The prevalence rates of MetS in men and women were 52.7% and 51.9%, respectively (P = .82). In the whole population, no significant association was found between 25(OH)D and MetS, regardless of which 25(OH)D cutoff was used. After stratification by sex, men with serum 25(OH)D ≥40 ng/mL had a significantly lower risk of MetS before and after adjustment, with odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of 0.55 (0.31-0.98) and 0.53 (0.29-0.96), respectively. For women, serum 25(OH)D ≥20 ng/mL was associated with a lower MetS risk, with unadjusted and adjusted ORs (95% CI) of 0.64 (0.43-0.95) and 0.61 (0.41-0.91), respectively. This association was more significant among females with respect to diastolic pressure and triglycerides. The beneficial cutoffs of serum 25(OH)D levels for MetS among men and women might be different.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2022.05.002DOI Listing
May 2022

Endoscopic stent versus diverting stoma as a bridge to surgery for obstructive colorectal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Langenbecks Arch Surg 2022 Jun 6. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, No. 37 Guoxue Lane, Chengdu, 610041, Sichuan, China.

Background: Self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS), an alternative to diverting stoma (DS), has been used as a "bridge to surgery" (BTS) to decompress acute obstruction of colorectal cancer (CRC) for decades. However, whether SEMS is a safe technique for obstruction of CRC without compromising the long-term survival of patients remains unidentified compared to those of DS. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the safety and survival outcomes of SEMS and DS.

Methods: Embase, PubMed, and Medline were searched for qualified studies published until October, 2020, in which SEMS or DS was performed as a BTS without resection at the same stage. The last search was on December 5th, 2020. The Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS) was used to assess the quality of included studies. The major complication rate, mortality, 3-year overall survival (OS), and permanent stoma rate were estimated as outcomes.

Results: The present study was registered on INPLASY (No. 2020100079). Seven eligible studies were included, involving 646 and 712 patients who underwent SEMS and DS treatments, respectively. The Clavien-Dindo I/II grade complication rate was significantly lower in the SEMS group than in the DS group (8.68 vs. 16.85%; RR, 0.59; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.41-0.84; P = 0.004). The Clavien-Dindo III/IV grade complication rate was comparable in two groups (7.69 vs. 8.79%; RR, 0.82; 95% CI 0.54-1.27; P = 0.37). There were no statistical differences in the short-term mortality (5.16 vs. 4.53%; RR, 1.25; 95% CI 0.75-2.08; P = 0.39), 3-year OS (71.91 vs. 76.60%; RR, 0.93; 95% CI 0.86-1.01; P = 0.10), and permanent stoma rate (22.08 vs. 27.54%; RR, 0.84; 95% CI 0.67-1.06; P = 0.14) between the two groups.

Conclusions: To some extent, SEMS is a safe BTS technique for acute obstructive CRC, without significant adverse effect on the survival of patients. Given the advantage of minimal invasion, SEMS may be a better alternative to DS for obstructive CRC. However, the conclusions remain to be discussed because of lacking high-quality randomized controlled trails.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00423-022-02517-5DOI Listing
June 2022

Bone Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Exosome-Enclosed miR-181a Induces CD4CD25FOXP3 Regulatory T Cells via SIRT1/Acetylation-Mediated FOXP3 Stabilization.

J Oncol 2022 26;2022:8890434. Epub 2022 May 26.

First Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming, China.

Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have been identified as a potential therapeutic approach to immune-related diseases. Here, we show that BMSC-derived exosomes promote FOXP3 expression and induce the conversion of CD4 T cells into CD4CD25FOXP3 Treg cells, which is significant for immunosuppressive activity. We found that miR-181a-5p is upregulated in BMSC-derived exosomes and can be transferred to CD4 T cells. In CD4 cells, miR-181a directly targets SIRT1 and suppresses its expression. Moreover, downregulated SIRT1 enhances FOXP3 via protein acetylation. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that BMSC-derived exosomal miR-181a is critical in the maintenance of immune tolerance. Furthermore, our results reveal that BMSC-derived exosomal miR-181a induces the production of CD4CD25FOXP3 Treg cells via SIRT1/acetylation/FOXP3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/8890434DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9162841PMC
May 2022

Nuclear RIPK1 promotes chromatin remodeling to mediate inflammatory response.

Cell Res 2022 Jun 3. Epub 2022 Jun 3.

Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

RIPK1 is a master regulator of multiple cell death pathways, including apoptosis and necroptosis, and inflammation. Importantly, activation of RIPK1 has also been shown to promote the transcriptional induction of proinflammatory cytokines in cells undergoing necroptosis, in animal models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), and in human ALS and AD. Rare human genetic carriers of non-cleavable RIPK1 variants (D324V and D324H) exhibit distinct symptoms of recurrent fevers and increased transcription of proinflammatory cytokines. Multiple RIPK1 inhibitors have been advanced into human clinical trials as new therapeutics for human inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases, such as ALS and AD. However, it is unclear whether and how RIPK1 kinase activity directly mediates inflammation independent of cell death as the nuclear function of RIPK1 has not yet been explored. Here we show that nuclear RIPK1 is physically associated with the BAF complex. Upon RIPK1 activation, the RIPK1/BAF complex is recruited by specific transcription factors to active enhancers and promoters marked by H3K4me1 and H3K27ac. Activated nuclear RIPK1 mediates the phosphorylation of SMARCC2, a key component of the BAF complex, to promote chromatin remodeling and the transcription of specific proinflammatory genes. Increased nuclear RIPK1 activation and RIPK1/BAF-mediated chromatin-remodeling activity were found in cells expressing non-cleavable RIPK1, and increased enrichment of activated RIPK1 on active enhancers and promoters was found in an animal model and human pathological samples of ALS. Our results suggest that RIPK1 kinase serves as a transcriptional coregulator in nucleus that can transmit extracellular stimuli to the BAF complex to modulate chromatin accessibility and directly regulate the transcription of specific genes involved in mediating inflammatory responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41422-022-00673-3DOI Listing
June 2022

The impact of psychological capital on turnover intention among Chinese nurses: A moderated mediation model.

J Nurs Manag 2022 Jun 4. Epub 2022 Jun 4.

School of Public Health, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Aims: This study examined how the mediating effect of psychological distress and the moderating role of social support influence the connection between psychological capital and turnover intention among Chinese nurses.

Background: Nurses play a crucial role in medical and health services, but turnover intentions are common among them.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted involving 4865 nurses in China. The Chinese Psychological Capital Questionnaire, Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, Social Support Rating Scale, and Turnover Intention Scale were used to gather data. Bootstrap and simple slope methods were used to test the mediating effect of psychological distress and the moderating effect of social support.

Results: Psychological capital had a significant direct impact on turnover intention among nurses (B = -0.040, t = -10.032, p < .001). Psychological distress had a mediation effect of 46.89% between psychological capital and turnover intention. Moreover, social support had a moderating role in the relationship between psychological distress and psychological capital and between psychological distress and turnover intention.

Conclusions: Psychological capital correlated negatively with psychological distress and turnover intention and indirectly influenced turnover intention through psychological distress. Social support moderated the first and second half of the path in the mediating model of psychological distress. These findings have implications for early intervention for and the prevention of turnover intention in nurses.

Implications For Nursing Management: This study's findings can inform the design of effective nurse support programmes to reduce the impact of psychological distress on turnover intention among nurses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jonm.13702DOI Listing
June 2022

Impact of red cell distribution width and red cell distribution width/albumin ratio on all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes and foot ulcers: a retrospective cohort study.

Cardiovasc Diabetol 2022 Jun 3;21(1):91. Epub 2022 Jun 3.

Department of Endocrinology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 325000, China.

Background: Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) has emerged as a prognostic factor for mortality in various diseases. Up to now, few studies have focused on the prognostic value of RDW in patients with diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs). This retrospective cohort study aimed to investigate the impact of RDW and RDW/albumin (ALB) ratio on all-cause mortality in patients with DFUs.

Methods: This study included 860 patients with DFUs in a tertiary academic hospital. The associations of RDW and RDW/ALB with all-cause mortality were assessed by multivariable cox regression analyses. The pairwise comparisons of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were performed to compare the predictive performance of RDW and RDW/ALB ratio. Harrell's concordance index, integrated discrimination improvement, and net reclassification improvement were used to estimate the improvements in risk discrimination.

Results: Patients with high RDW and RDW/ALB had lower overall survival rates (all P < 0.001). The multivariable Cox regression revealed that high RDW [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 2.426, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.557-3.778, P < 0.001] and high RDW/ALB (adjusted HR 2.360, 95% CI: 1.414-3.942, P = 0.001) were independent associated with high all-cause mortality. In subgroup analyses, the comparative analysis of ROC curves revealed that the discriminating ability of the RDW/ALB ratio was significantly superior to RDW in patients with no severe DFUs or no severe peripheral artery disease, or in young and middle-aged patients (all P < 0.05). Adding RDW and RDW/ALB ratio to base models improved discrimination and risk reclassification for all-cause mortality.

Conclusions: RDW and RDW/ALB ratio are robust and independent prognostic markers in patients with DFUs. The RDW/ALB ratio appears to be of more predictive value for mortality in younger and less severely ill patients with DFUs. Both RDW and RDW/ALB ratio can provide incremental predictive value for all-cause mortality over traditional risk factors. RDW and RDW/ALB ratio can be used to identify high-risk patients with DFUs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12933-022-01534-4DOI Listing
June 2022

Prevalence and correlates of false-positive results after 3-D screening mammography among uninsured women in a community outreach program.

Prev Med Rep 2022 Jun 5;27:101790. Epub 2022 Apr 5.

Department of Population & Data Sciences, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.

False-positive results have been rarely investigated among uninsured minority women who undergo 3-D screening mammography. Here, we analyzed data from 21,022 women participating in the Breast Screening and Patient Navigation (BSPAN) program of North Texas with an aim to report prevalence and correlates of false-positive results after 3-D screening mammography, stratified by age. False-positives were defined as a negative diagnostic mammogram or a negative biopsy within 1 year of a positive screen. We used multivariable logistic regression to assess associations of demographic and clinical covariates and false positive results for age groups 40-49 and 50-64 years. Prevalence of false-positive results was 11.8% and 9.6% in the 40-49 and 50-64 age groups, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression demonstrated that, in the 40-49 age group, women who were non-menopausal, did not use hormone replacement therapy (HRT), and had self-reported prior mammograms had higher odds of false-positive results than those who were menopausal, used HRT and had no self-reported prior mammograms, respectively. In the 50-64 age group, women with a prior self-reported diagnostic mammogram had higher odds of false-positive results than those without a prior self-reported diagnostic mammogram. This study establishes contemporary evidence regarding prevalence and correlates of false-positive results after 3-D mammography in the unique BSPAN population, and demonstrate that use of 3-D mammography is not enough to reduce false-positive rates among uninsured women served through community outreach programs. Further research is needed to explore improved techniques to reduce false-positive rates, and ensure optimal use of scarce resources in outreach programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2022.101790DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9152806PMC
June 2022

Structure modification and property improvement of plant cellulose: Based on emerging and sustainable nonthermal processing technologies.

Food Res Int 2022 Jun 28;156:111300. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

School of Food Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641, China; Academy of Contemporary Food Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Centre, Guangzhou 510006, China; Engineering and Technological Research Centre of Guangdong Province on Intelligent Sensing and Process Control of Cold Chain Foods, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Centre, Guangzhou 510006, China. Electronic address:

Cellulose has attracted high attention due to its advantages of abundant resources, renewable and biodegradable. Modification of natural plant cellulose has become a hot topic worldwide. Conventional chemical modification methods commonly cause great damage to the environment. The current review presents the effects of innovative, eco-friendly and sustainable nonthermal processing technologies on cellulose structure and properties. Typical techniques include high pressure processing, cold plasma, ultrasonic and irradiation treatment. Their superiorities in the modification of cellulose are highlighted, and the advantages and limitations of nonthermal processing technologies for plant cellulose modification are also discussed. Nonthermal processing technologies can improve cellulose functional properties by playing an important role in the chemical bonds of the molecular chains, crystalline regions or amorphous parts through energy or active particles generated in the process, or promoting the crosslinking and graft copolymerization of cellulose molecules. The development of modified cellulose functional materials will have wider applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2022.111300DOI Listing
June 2022

Alpha-fetoprotein, protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II, lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of alpha-fetoprotein alone and in combination for early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma from nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: A multicenter analysis.

Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Hepatobiliary, Pancreatic and Minimal Invasive Surgery, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital, People's Hospital of Hangzhou Medical College, Hangzhou 310014, China; School of Clinical Medicine, Hangzhou Medical College, Hangzhou 310059, China; Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Second Military Medical University (Navy Medical University), Shanghai 200438, China. Electronic address:

Background: Current surveillance strategies for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) among patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are insufficient. This study aimed to investigate the diagnostic performance of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II), lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of AFP (AFP-L3), and their combinations in HCC underlying NAFLD patients.

Methods: Serologic AFP, AFP-L3, and PIVKA-II levels in NAFLD patients with and without HCC were measured. By receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses, the area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity were obtained to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of each biomarker and their combinations.

Results: This study was conducted on 139 patients with NAFLD-HCC and 345 NAFLD controls. The elevation of these three biomarkers was observed in patients with NAFLD-HCC compared to those in NAFLD controls (all P < 0.001). When they were analyzed individually, PIVKA-II showed the best performance in diagnosing any-stage HCC with an AUC of 0.869, followed by AFP (0.763; vs. PIVKA-II, P < 0.001) and AFP-L3 (0.689; vs. PIVKA-II, P < 0.001). When they were analyzed in combination, AFP + PIVKA-II yielded the highest AUC (0.906), followed by AFP + PIVKA-II + AFP-L3 (0.904; vs. AFP + PIVKA-II, P = 0.086), PIVKA-II + AFP-L3 (0.881; vs. AFP + PIVKA-II, P < 0.001), and AFP + AFP-L3 (0.759; vs. AFP + PIVKA-II, P < 0.001). Similar findings were obtained in the subgroup with early-stage NAFLD-HCC, as well as the non-cirrhotic subgroup.

Conclusions: These data validated the better diagnostic ability of PIVKA-II than AFP or AFP-L3 alone for diagnosing any-stage HCC among patients with NAFLD, and the combination of AFP + PIVKA-II significantly improved the diagnostic accuracy of NAFLD-HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hbpd.2022.05.003DOI Listing
May 2022

Energy homeostasis mediated by the LcSnRK1α-LcbZIP1/3 signaling pathway modulates litchi fruit senescence.

Plant J 2022 May 30. Epub 2022 May 30.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Botany, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, 510650, China.

Cellular energy status is a key factor deciding the switch-on of the senescence of horticultural crops. Despite the established significance of the conserved energy master regulator sucrose non-fermenting 1 (SNF1)-related protein kinase 1 (SnRK1) in plant development, its working mechanism and related signaling pathway in the regulation of fruit senescence remain enigmatic. Here, we demonstrate that energy deficit accelerates fruit senescence, whereas exogenous ATP treatment delays it. The transient suppression of LcSnRK1α in litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) fruit inhibited the expression of energy metabolism-related genes, while its ectopic expression in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) promoted ripening and a high energy level. Biochemical analyses revealed that LcSnRK1α interacted with and phosphorylated the transcription factors LcbZIP1 and LcbZIP3, which directly bound to the promoters to activate the expression of DARK-INDUCIBLE 10 (LcDIN10), ASPARAGINE SYNTHASE 1 (LcASN1), and ANTHOCYANIN SYNTHASE (LcANS), thereby fine-tuning the metabolic reprogramming to ensure energy and redox homeostasis. Altogether, these observations reveal a post-translational modification mechanism by which LcSnRK1α-mediated phosphorylation of LcbZIP1 and LcbZIP3 regulates the expression of metabolic reprogramming-related genes, consequently modulating litchi fruit senescence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tpj.15845DOI Listing
May 2022

Dynamics of a Bacterial Community in the Anode and Cathode of Microbial Fuel Cells under Sulfadiazine Pressure.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 05 20;19(10). Epub 2022 May 20.

Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China.

Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) could achieve the removal of antibiotics and generate power in the meantime, a process in which the bacterial community structure played a key role. Previous work has mainly focused on microbes in the anode, while their role in the cathode was seldomly mentioned. Thus, this study explored the bacterial community of both electrodes in MFCs under sulfadiazine (SDZ) pressure. The results showed that the addition of SDZ had a limited effect on the electrochemical performance, and the maximum output voltage was kept at 0.55 V. As the most abundant phylum, Proteobacteria played an important role in both the anode and cathode. Among them, (40.30%) worked for power generation, while (11.11%), (9.04%), and (7.30%) functioned in SDZ removal. Actinobacteria mainly clustered in the cathode, in which (9.85%) was responsible for SDZ removal. Bacteroidetes, associated with the degradation of SDZ, showed no significant difference between the anode and cathode. Cathodic and part of anodic bacteria could remove SDZ efficiently in MFCs through synergistic interactions and produce metabolites for exoelectrogenic bacteria. The potential hosts of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) presented mainly at the anode, while cathodic bacteria might be responsible for ARGs reduction. This work elucidated the role of microorganisms and their synergistic interaction in MFCs and provided a reference to generate power and remove antibiotics using MFCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19106253DOI Listing
May 2022

Prevalence And Impact of Medical Comorbidities in A Real-World Lung Cancer Screening Population.

Clin Lung Cancer 2022 Jul 29;23(5):419-427. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Department of Population and Data Sciences, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA; Harold C. Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA; Department of Internal Medicine, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA; Division of Hematology-Oncology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Lung cancer screening trials generally enroll motivated, relatively healthy, and adherent populations. We therefore evaluated the prevalence and effects of comorbidities in a real-world population undergoing low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) scans.

Patients And Methods: We calculated the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) of patients for whom an initial low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) for lung cancer screening was ordered between February 2017 and February 2019 in an integrated safety-net healthcare system. We examined the association between CCI and initial LDCT completion using multivariable logistic regression, assessed the association between specific medical comorbidity and LDCT completion using Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test as appropriate, and examined the association between CCI and LDCT Lung-RADS results using Fisher's exact test.

Results: A total of 1358 patients were included in the analysis. Mean age was 63 years, 57% were women, and 50% were Black. Patients had moderate comorbidity burden (median CCI 3) with chronic pulmonary disease the most common comorbidity. Overall, 943 LDCT (70%) were completed. There was no difference in 30-day, 90-day, or 1-year completion rates of initial LDCT according to CCI. However, 30-day LDCT completion rates did increase over time (P < .001). Lung-RADS scores were not associated with CCI.

Conclusion: In a real-world setting, patients undergoing lung cancer screening have moderate comorbidity burden. The degree and type of medical comorbidity are not associated with initial screening completion or results. Timeliness of LDCT completion may improve as program experience increases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cllc.2022.03.009DOI Listing
July 2022

Unplanned reoperation after radical surgery for oral cancer: an analysis of risk factors and outcomes.

BMC Oral Health 2022 May 25;22(1):204. Epub 2022 May 25.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, The Affiliated Huaian No.1 People's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Huaian, 223300, Jiangsu Province, China.

Background: Unplanned reoperation (UR) after radical surgery for oral cancer (OC) is a health threat for the patients. The aim of the study was to identify the incidence of and risk factors for unplanned reoperation following oral cancer radical surgery, and to explore a potential role for long-term survival.

Methods: The present study followed a retrospective study design. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify risk factors for demographic and clinical characteristics of patients. Survival analysis was performed by the Kaplan-Meier method. The data was analyzed statistically between November and December 2021.

Results: The incidence of UR was 15.7%. The primary cause of UR was reconstructed flap complications. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that diabetes, tumor size, type of reconstruction, and nodal metastasis were independent risk factors for UR. Patients undergoing UR had a longer hospitalization, more post-operative complications, and a higher mortality compared with the non-UR group. UR is negatively correlated with the cancer-specific survival rate of patients (Log-rank test, P = 0.024).

Conclusion: Diabetes, tumor size, pedicled flap reconstruction and cervical nodal metastasis (N2) as independent risk factors for UR was discovered. UR was positively correlated with perioperative complications prolong hospital stay, and increased early mortality, but negatively correlated with the cancer-specific survival rate survival rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12903-022-02238-7DOI Listing
May 2022

Can automated driving prevent crashes with distracted Pedestrians? An exploration of motion planning at unsignalized Mid-block crosswalks.

Accid Anal Prev 2022 Aug 19;173:106711. Epub 2022 May 19.

Department of Environmental Engineering and Architecture, Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603, Japan. Electronic address:

Pedestrian distraction may provoke severe difficulties in automated vehicle (AV) control, which may significantly affect the safety performance of AVs, especially at unsignalized mid-block crosswalks (UMCs). However, there is no available motion-planning model for AVs that considers the effect of pedestrian distraction on UMCs. This study aims to explore innovative approaches for safe and reasonable automated driving in response to distracted pedestrians with various speed profiles at UMCs. Based on two common model design concepts, two new models are established for AVs: a rule-based model that solves motion plans through a fixed calculation procedure incorporating several optimization models, and a learning-based model that replaces the deterministic optimization process with policy-gradient reinforcement learning. The developed models were assessed through simulation experiments in which pedestrian speed profiles were defined using empirical data from field surveys. The results reveal that the learning-based model has outstanding safety performance, whereas the rule-based model leads to remarkable safety problems. For distracted pedestrians with significant crossing-speed changes, rule-based AVs lead to a 5.1% probability of serious conflict and a 1.4% crash probability. The learning-based model is oversensitive to risk and always induces high braking rates, which results in unnecessary efficiency loss. To overcome this, a hybrid model based on the learning-based model was developed, which introduces a rule-based acceleration value to regularize the action space of the proposed learning-based model. The results indicate that the hybrid approach outperforms the other two models in preventing crash hazards from distracted pedestrians by employing appropriate braking behaviors. The high safety performance of the hybrid models can be attributed to the spontaneous slowing down of the vehicle that initiates before detecting pedestrians on UMCs. Although such a cautious driving pattern leads to extra delay, the time cost of the hybrid model is acceptable considering the significant improvements in ensuring pedestrian safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2022.106711DOI Listing
August 2022

BMP4 drives primed to naïve transition through PGC-like state.

Nat Commun 2022 May 19;13(1):2756. Epub 2022 May 19.

Center for Cell Lineage and Development, Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, 510530, China.

Multiple pluripotent states have been described in mouse and human stem cells. Here, we apply single-cell RNA-seq to a newly established BMP4 induced mouse primed to naïve transition (BiPNT) system and show that the reset is not a direct reversal of cell fate but goes through a primordial germ cell-like cells (PGCLCs) state. We first show that epiblast stem cells bifurcate into c-Kit naïve and c-Kit trophoblast-like cells, among which, the naïve branch undergoes further transition through a PGCLCs intermediate capable of spermatogenesis in vivo. Mechanistically, we show that DOT1L inhibition permits the transition from primed pluripotency to PGCLCs in part by facilitating the loss of H3K79me2 from Gata3/6. In addition, Prdm1/Blimp1 is required for PGCLCs and naïve cells, while Gata2 inhibits PGC-like state by promoting trophoblast-like fate. Our work not only reveals an alternative route for primed to naïve transition, but also gains insight into germ cell development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-30325-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9120449PMC
May 2022

Influencing Factors of Stereotypes on Wastewater Treatment Plants- Case Study of 9 Wastewater Treatment Plants in Xi'an, China.

Environ Manage 2022 May 19. Epub 2022 May 19.

School of Civil Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 410083, China.

As an indispensable part of cities, wastewater treatment plants play an important role in environmental protection and urbanization. However, the promotion of wastewater treatment plants has been consistently hindered by residents' negative stereotypes and rejections, which is called "Not-In-My-Back-Yard" (NIMBY) effect. This study collected the first-hand data with the residents residing within 3 kilometers of 9 wastewater treatment plants in Xi'an, China through a survey. Keyword co-occurrence network analysis was conducted and the results illustrate that residents have stereotypes toward wastewater treatment plants. There are two types of residents' stereotypes toward wastewater treatment plants: positive and negative. The positive stereotypes of wastewater treatment plants in turn can be subdivided into the three categories of treatment technologies, treatment results, and social impacts. But the negative stereotypes didn't demonstrate meaningful categories. We also tried to identify the influencing factors that cause residents' stereotypes. The distance from residents' residence to the wastewater treatment plants has impacts on the stereotypes of residents' who reside within 1000 meters of the wastewater treatment plant: the farther from the wastewater treatment plants their residence is, the more positive their stereotypes are. We also found that the more educated the participants are, the more positive stereotypes of wastewater treatment plants they have. Moreover, residents' stereotypes toward wastewater treatment plants are more influenced by formal education. Non-formal education and informal learning probably have less influence on the promotion of wastewater treatment plants. Therefore, we propose to incorporate environmental education for sustainable development into formal education to increase residents' acceptance of wastewater treatment plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00267-022-01663-2DOI Listing
May 2022

Characteristics of a capnophilic small colony variant of Escherichia coli co-isolated with two other strains from a patient with bacteremia in China.

Arch Microbiol 2022 May 18;204(6):333. Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, the Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, 210008, Jiangsu, China.

Small colony variants (SCVs) are a slow-growing subpopulation of bacteria characterized by their atypical colony morphology and distinct biochemical properties, which are known to cause chronic persistent infections. Here, we investigated the characteristics of three phenotypes of Escherichia coli, including a capnophilic SCV, co-isolated from a 64-year-old patient with bacteremia in China. The three strains were identified as a capnophilic strain (EC1), a capnophilic SCV (EC2), and a normal colony strain (EC3). The EC1 and EC2 strains did not grow in the absence of CO, while the EC2 colonies were pinpoint in appearance and had the ability to revert to the normal colony phenotype. The growth of the SCV was slow and not enhanced in the presence of thymidine, hemin, thiamine, and menadione. The results of antimicrobial susceptibility among the three strains showed similar sensitivity to cefoxitin and imipenem, but resistant to most of the other antimicrobials tested. Whole-genome sequencing showed that no genetic mutational variations associated with SCVs were observed, while EC1, EC2 and the revertible strains of EC2 lacked the can gene. Multi-locus sequence typing showed that all strains belonged to ST457 and nucleotide similarity analysis indicated that they had high homology. In conclusion, we report rarely described co-isolated forms of three phenotypes of E. coli that included a capnophilic SCV in a patient with bacteremia. The capnophilic SCV strain had atypical morphology and biochemical characteristics in the absence of can gene. Based on our findings, we have discussed the laboratory identification, characterization, mechanisms, and clinical treatment of capnophilic SCV strains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00203-022-02932-8DOI Listing
May 2022
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