Publications by authors named "Hong Zhang"

5,871 Publications

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Evaluating the Optical Response of Heavily Decorated Black Silicon Based on a Realistic 3D Modeling Methodology.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2022 Jun 29. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

College of Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, China.

Combining black silicon (BS), a nanostructured silicon containing highly roughened surface morphology with plasmonic materials, is becoming an attractive approach for greatly enhancing light-matter interactions with promising applications of sensing and light harvesting. However, precisely describing the optical response of a heavily decorated BS structure is still challenging due to the increasing complexity in surface morphology and plasmon hybridization. Here, we propose and fully characterize BS-based multistacked nanostructures with randomly distributed nanoparticles on the highly roughened nonflat surface. We demonstrate a realistic 3D modeling methodology based on parametrized scanning electron microscopy images that provides high-precision morphology details, successfully linking the theoretical analysis with experimental optical response of the complex nanostructures. Far-field calculations very nicely reproduce experimental reflectance spectra, revealing the dependency of light trapping on the thickness of the conformal reflector and the atop nanoparticle size. Near-field analysis clearly identifies three types of stochastic "hotspots". Their contribution to the overall field enhancement is shown to be very much sensitive to the nanoscale surface morphology. The simulated near-field property is then used to examine the measured surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) response on the multistacked structures. The present modeling approach combined with spectroscopic characterizations is expected to offer a powerful tool for the precise description of the optical response of other large-scale highly disordered realistic 3D systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.2c05652DOI Listing
June 2022

Interactions of Bacterial Toxin CNF1 and Host JAK1/2 Driven by Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation Enhance Macrophage Polarization.

mBio 2022 Jun 29:e0114722. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Key Laboratory of Immune Microenvironment and Disease (Ministry of Education), Tianjin Institute of Urology, Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Tianjin Medical Universitygrid.265021.2grid.412645.0, Tianjin, China.

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a global public health concern, which is mainly caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). Cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF1) is a key UPEC toxin and regulates multiple host cellular processes through activating the Rho GTPases; however, the effect of CNF1 on macrophage polarization remains unknown. Here, we found that CNF1 promoted M1 macrophage polarization through regulating NF-κB and JAK-STAT1 signaling pathways in kidney at an early stage of acute UTIs. Notably, we identified CNF1 could directly interact with JAK1/2 through its domain without Rho GTPases activation, which induced JAK1/2 phosphorylation, subsequent STAT1 activation and M1 polarization. Moreover, CNF1 exhibited liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) to induce a CNF1-JAK1/2 complex, promoting macrophage reprogramming. These findings highlight the LLPS-dependent and Rho GTPase-independent effect of CNF1 as an adaptor on interfering with host cell signals. CNF1 is a key toxin secreted by UPEC, which induces inflammation during UPEC infections. CNF1 is well known to activate Rho GTPases to disturb host cell signaling pathways. Macrophage reprogramming plays important roles in inflammation; however, the effect of CNF1 on macrophage polarization is not reported. This study demonstrated the role and mechanism of CNF1 in promoting M1 macrophage polarization during UPEC-induced acute kidney infections. Importantly, we identified Rho GTPase-independent effect of CNF1 as an adaptor on interfering with host cell signals and demonstrated that CNF1 exhibited LLPS to drive its interaction with host proteins, which improve our understanding of the UPEC-host interactions and UTI pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mbio.01147-22DOI Listing
June 2022

Vacancy engineering of two-dimensional WN nanosheets for efficient CO hydrogenation.

Nanoscale 2022 Jun 29. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry (SKLAOC), Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalysis of Gansu Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Special Function Materials and Structure Design, Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, 730000, China.

Peaking carbon emissions and achieving carbon neutrality have become the consensus goal of the international community to solve the environmental problems threatening mankind caused by accumulative greenhouse gases like CO. Herein we proposed vacancy engineering of two-dimensional (2D) topological WN for efficient CO hydrogenation into high value-added chemicals and fuels. Spherical aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (Cs-corrected STEM) confirmed a large amount of N vacancies on the catalyst surface, which significantly reduced the energy barrier for the formation of the essential intermediates of *CO and *CHO as revealed by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Consequently, the highly stable catalyst exhibited efficient CO hydrogenation superior to many previous reports with a maximum CO conversion rate of 24% and a high selectivity of 23% for C hydrocarbons. This work provided not only insight into the vacancy-controlled CO hydrogenation mechanism, but also fresh ammunition to bring the remaining potential of 2D topological transition metal nitrides in the field of catalysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2nr02262aDOI Listing
June 2022

Atezolizumab With Neoadjuvant Anti-Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 Therapy and Chemotherapy in Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Positive Early Breast Cancer: Primary Results of the Randomized Phase III IMpassion050 Trial.

J Clin Oncol 2022 Jun 28:JCO2102772. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

Purpose: Combining standard of care (pertuzumab-trastuzumab [PH], chemotherapy) with cancer immunotherapy may potentiate antitumor immunity, cytotoxic activity, and patient outcomes in high-risk, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive early breast cancer. We report the phase III IMpassion050 primary analysis of neoadjuvant atezolizumab, PH, and chemotherapy in these patients.

Methods: Patients with a primary tumor of > 2 cm and histologically confirmed, positive lymph node status (T2-4, N1-3, M0) were randomly assigned 1:1 to atezolizumab/placebo with dose-dense doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide, followed by paclitaxel, and PH. After surgery, patients were to continue atezolizumab/placebo and PH (total: 1 year of HER2-targeted therapy); those with residual disease could switch to ado-trastuzumab emtansine with atezolizumab/placebo. Coprimary efficacy end points were pathologic complete response (pCR; ypT0/is ypN0) rates in intention-to-treat (ITT) and programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1)-positive populations.

Results: At clinical cutoff (February 5, 2021), pCR rates in the placebo and atezolizumab groups in the ITT populations were 62.7% (n = 143/228) and 62.4% (n = 141/226), respectively (difference -0.33%; 95% CI, -9.2 to 8.6; = .9551). The pCR rates in the placebo and atezolizumab groups in patients with PD-L1-positive tumors were 72.5% (n = 79/109) and 64.2% (n = 70/109), respectively (difference -8.26%; 95% CI, -20.6 to 4.0; = .1846). Grade 3-4 and serious adverse events were more frequent in the atezolizumab versus placebo group. Five grade 5 adverse events occurred (four neoadjuvant, one adjuvant; two assigned to study treatment), all with atezolizumab. Overall, the safety profile was consistent with that of atezolizumab in other combination studies.

Conclusion: Atezolizumab with neoadjuvant dose-dense doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide-paclitaxel and PH for high-risk, HER2-positive early breast cancer did not increase pCR rates versus placebo in the ITT or PD-L1-positive populations. PH and chemotherapy remains standard of care; longer follow-up may help to inform the long-term impact of atezolizumab.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.21.02772DOI Listing
June 2022

Adsorption behaviors of triclosan by non-biodegradable and biodegradable microplastics: Kinetics and mechanism.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Jun 24:156832. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150090, PR China; State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150090, PR China.

Microplastics (MPs) pollution has been becoming serious and widespread in the global environment. Although MPs have been identified as vectors for contaminants, adsorption and desorption behaviors of chemicals with non-biodegradable and biodegradable MPs during the aging process is limited. In this work, the adsorption behaviors of triclosan (TCS) by non-biodegradable polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP), and biodegradable polylactic acid (PLA) were investigated. The differences in morphology, chemical structures, crystallization, and hydrophilicity were investigated after the ultraviolet aging process and compared with the virgin MPs. The results show that the water contact angles of the aged MPs were slightly reduced compared with the virgin MPs. The aged MPs exhibited a stronger adsorption capacity for TCS because of the physical and chemical changes in MPs. The virgin biodegradable PLA had a larger adsorption capacity than the non-biodegradable PE and PP. The adsorption capacity presented the opposite trend after aging. The main adsorption mechanism of MPs relied on hydrophobicity interaction, hydrogen bonding, and electrostatic interaction. The work provides new insights into TCS as hazardous environmental contaminants, which will enhance the vector potential of non-biodegradable and biodegradable MPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.156832DOI Listing
June 2022

Integrated Design and Development of Intelligent Scenic Area Rural Tourism Information Service Based on Hybrid Cloud.

Comput Math Methods Med 2022 16;2022:5316304. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Business School, Dalian University of Foreign Languages, Dalian 116044, China.

Although the "Internet+" technologies (big data and cloud computing) have been implemented in many industries, each industry involved in rural tourism economic information services has its own database, and there are still vast economic information resources that have not been exploited. Z travel agency through rural tourism enterprise third-party information services and mobile context-awareness-based Z travel has achieved good economic and social benefits by deep value mining and innovative application of the existing data of the enterprise through the third-party information service of rural tourism enterprises and mobile context-aware travel recommendation service. It clearly demonstrates that, in order to maximise the benefits of economic data, rural tourist businesses should focus not only on the application of new technologies and methodologies but also on the core of demand and data-driven and thoroughly investigate the potential value of current data. This paper mainly analyzes the problems related to how rural tourism can be upgraded under the smart tourism platform, with the aim of improving the development of China's rural tourism industry with the help of an integrated smart tourism platform, and proposes a hybrid cloud-based integrated system of smart scenic rural tourism information services, which can meet the actual use needs of rural tourism, with good shared service effect and platform application performance, and promote the development of rural tourism and resource utilization rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/5316304DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9225890PMC
June 2022

F-FDG PET/CT findings of mesenchymal hamartoma of the liver in an adolescent.

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2022 Jun 25. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Center, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00259-022-05874-xDOI Listing
June 2022

Translated Mutant mRNA Expression Level Impacts the Severity of Dentin Defects.

J Pers Med 2022 Jun 19;12(6). Epub 2022 Jun 19.

Department of Pediatric Dentistry & DRI, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul 03080, Korea.

Hereditary dentin defects are conventionally classified into three types of dentinogenesis imperfecta (DGI) and two types of dentin dysplasia (DD). Mutations in the dentin sialophosphoprotein () gene have been identified to cause DGI type II and III and DD type II; therefore, these are not three different conditions, but rather allelic disorders. In this study, we recruited three families with varying clinical phenotypes from DGI-III to DD-II and performed mutational analysis by candidate gene analysis or whole-exome sequencing. Three novel mutations including a silent mutation (NM_014208.3: c.52-2del, c.135+1G>C, and c.135G>A; p.(Gln45=)) were identified, all of which affected pre-mRNA splicing. Comparison of the splicing assay results revealed that the expression level of the exon 3 deletion transcript correlated with the severity of the dentin defects. This study did not only expand the mutational spectrum of gene, but also advanced our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis impacting the severity of hereditary dentin defects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jpm12061002DOI Listing
June 2022

Sea spray aerosols intervening phospholipids ozonolysis at the air-water interface.

J Hazard Mater 2022 05 10;430:128466. Epub 2022 Feb 10.

State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150090, PR China; School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150090, PR China. Electronic address:

With more than half of the world's population lives along the coast and in its vicinity, the sea spray aerosols (SSAs) with respect to respiratory system impact has attracted increasing attention. In this paper, ozonolysis of model lung phospholipids intervened by salt cations in SSAs at air-water interface was investigated using acoustic levitation-nano-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (AL-nano-ESI-MS). The cation species facilitated the interfacial ozonolysis of phospholipids, and this increased ozonolysis showed a dependence on the concentration of salt cations. The charge number and ion radius of salt cations were also investigated, and the times of increased efficiency for phospholipids ozonolysis at the air-water interface were higher with more charge numbers or lower ion radius. The mechanism study revealed that the electrostatic interaction between the electronegative headgroup of phospholipids and the cations disturbed the packing of phospholipids, and resulted in oleyl chains more vulnerable with ozone. Finally, aerosolization of the salt-dominated artificial seawater and real seawater revealed a significant increase on ozonolysis of phospholipid intervened by salt cations. These results reveal SSAs intervening phospholipids interfacial reaction at the molecule level, which will be beneficial to gain the knowledge of the negative health effect concerning the components involved in SSAs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2022.128466DOI Listing
May 2022

Gray matter microstructural alterations in manganese-exposed welders: a preliminary neuroimaging study.

Eur Radiol 2022 Jun 23. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Department of Radiology, The Affiliated Xi'an Central Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

Objectives: Chronic occupational manganese (Mn) exposure is characterized by motor and cognitive dysfunction. This study aimed to investigate structural abnormalities in Mn-exposed welders compared to healthy controls (HCs).

Methods: Thirty-five HCs and forty Mn-exposed welders underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans in this study. Based on T1-weighted MRI, the voxel-based morphometry (VBM), structural covariance, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were applied to examine whole-brain structural changes in Mn-exposed welders.

Results: Compared to HCs, Mn-exposed welders had altered gray matter volume (GMV) mainly in the medial prefrontal cortex, lentiform nucleus, hippocampus, and parahippocampus. ROC analysis indicated the potential highest classification power of the hippocampus/parahippocampus. Moreover, distinct structural covariance patterns in the two groups were associated with regions, mainly including the thalamus, insula, amygdala, sensorimotor area, and middle temporal gyrus. No significant relationships were found between the findings and clinical characteristics.

Conclusions: Our findings showed Mn-exposed welders had changed GMV and structural covariance patterns in some regions, which implicated in motivative response, cognitive control, and emotional regulation. These results might provide preliminary evidence for understanding the pathophysiology of Mn overexposure.

Key Points: • Chronic Mn exposure might be related to abnormal brain structural neural mechanisms. • Mn-exposed welders had morphological changes in brain regions implicated in emotional modulation, cognitive control, and motor-related response. • Altered gray matter volume in the hippocampus/parahippocampus and putamen might serve as potential biomarkers for Mn overexposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-022-08908-yDOI Listing
June 2022

CATCH: high specific transcriptome-focused fusion gene variants discrimination.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2022 Jun 22. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Center of Smart Laboratory and Molecular Medicine, School of Medicine, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, P. R. China.

We develop a CRISPR-Cas13a triggered catalytic hairpin assembly (CATCH) approach for accurate and impartial identification of variants by integrating the fusion gene-selected recognition of CRISPR-Cas13a with collateral cleavage-assisted catalytic hairpin assembly amplification. This approach achieved an accuracy of 100% in a pilot experiment involving 34 clinical samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2cc02660kDOI Listing
June 2022

Reaction-driven selective CO hydrogenation to formic acid on Pd(111).

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2022 Jun 22. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Department of Chemistry, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA.

Conversion of CO to useful fuels and chemicals has gained great attention in the past decades; yet the challenge persists due to the inert nature of CO and the wide range of products formed. Pd-based catalysts are extensively studied to facilitate CO hydrogenation to methanol a reverse water gas shift (rWGS) pathway or formate pathway where formic acid may serve as an intermediate species. Here, we report the selective production of formic acid on the stable Pd(111) surface phase under CO hydrogenation conditions, which is fully covered by chemisorbed hydrogen, using combined Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations. The results show that with the full coverage of hydrogen, instead of producing methanol as reported for Pd(111), the CO activation is highly selective to formic acid a multi-step process involving the carboxyl intermediate. The high formic acid selectivity is associated with surface hydrogen species on Pd(111), which not only acts as a hydrogen reservoir to facilitate the hydrogenation steps, but also enables the formation of confined vacancy sites to facilitate the production and removal of formic acid. Our study highlights the importance of reactive environments, which can transform the surface structures and thus tune the activity/selectivity of catalysts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2cp01971jDOI Listing
June 2022

The Function and the Affecting Factors of the Zebrafish Gut Microbiota.

Front Microbiol 2022 2;13:903471. Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, China.

Gut microbiota has become a topical issue in unraveling the research mechanisms underlying disease onset and progression. As an important and potential "organ," gut microbiota plays an important role in regulating intestinal epithelial cell differentiation, proliferation, metabolic function and immune response, angiogenesis and host growth. More recently, zebrafish models have been used to study the interactions between gut microbiota and hosts. It has several advantages, such as short reproductive cycle, low rearing cost, transparent larvae, high genomic similarity to humans, and easy construction of germ-free (GF) and transgenic zebrafish. In our review, we reviewed a large amount of data focusing on the close relationship between gut microbiota and host health. Moreover, we outlined the functions of gut microbiota in regulating intestinal epithelial cell differentiation, intestinal epithelial cell proliferation, metabolic function, and immune response. More, we summarized major factors that can influence the composition, abundance, and diversity of gut microbiota, which will help us to understand the significance of gut microbiota in regulating host biological functions and provide options for maintaining the balance of host health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2022.903471DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9201518PMC
June 2022

Tumor and peritumor radiomics analysis based on contrast-enhanced CT for predicting early and late recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma after liver resection.

BMC Cancer 2022 Jun 17;22(1):664. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Department of Interventional Radiology, The First Hospital of China Medical University, No.155 Nanjing Road, Heping District, Shenyang, 110000, Liaoning, China.

Background: In China, liver resection has been proven to be one of the most important strategies for hepatocellular carcinoma patients, but the recurrence rate is high. This study sought to investigate the prognostic value of pretreatment tumor and peritumor contrast-enhanced CT radiomics features for early and late recurrence of BCLC stage 0-B hepatocellular carcinoma after liver resection.

Methods: This study involved 329 hepatocellular carcinoma patients after liver resection. A radiomics model was built by using Lasso-Cox regression model. Association between radiomics model and recurrence-free survival was explored by using Harrell's concordance index (C-Index) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Then, we combined the radiomics model and clinical factors to establish a nomogram whose calibration and discriminatory ability were revealed.

Results: Ten significant tumor and peritumor features were screened to build the radiomics model whose C-indices were 0.743 [95% CI, 0.707 to 0.778] and 0.69 [95% CI, 0.629 to 0.751] in the training and validation cohorts. Moreover, the discriminative accuracy of the radiomics model improved with peritumor features entry. The C-indices of the combined model were 0.773 [95% CI, 0.739 to 0.806] and 0.727 [95% CI, 0.667 to 0.787] in the training and validation cohorts, outperforming the radiomics model.

Conclusions: The tumor and peritumor contrast-enhanced CT radiomic signature is a quantitative imaging biomarker that could improve the prediction of early and late recurrence after liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma patients when used in addition to clinical predictors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-022-09743-6DOI Listing
June 2022

Correlation Analysis of DNA Methylation in the von Willebrand Factor Promoter Region and the Risk of Unexplained Recurrent Hemophilia: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Contrast Media Mol Imaging 2022 3;2022:3977289. Epub 2022 Jun 3.

The Second Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University, No. 366 Taishan Street, Tai'an, Shandong 271000, China.

This study systematically reviewed the effect of DNA methylation in the promoter region of the coagulation factor vWF gene on the risk of unexplained recurrent hemophilia. PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, and other computers were used to search the database, and the statistical randomized controlled trials of coagulation factor vWF in the risk analysis of unknown recurrent hemophilia were collected. The Cochrane systematic evaluation method was used to evaluate the quality of the included kinds of literature, and Revman5 software was used to sort out and analyze the kinds of literature. Meta-analysis showed that there was a statistical difference between the experimental group and the control group in case fatality rate (OR = 1.76, 95% CI (1.29, 2.39), =0.0003,  = 0%,  = 3.58), adverse events (OR = 2.38, 95% CI (1.65, 3.45), < 0.00001,  = 0%,  = 4.60), incidence of joint hemorrhage (OR = 2.52, 95% CI (1.62, 3.91), < 0.00001,  = 0%,  = 4.12), incidence of subcutaneous stasis (OR = 1.76, 95% CI (1.26, 2.45), =0.0009,  = 5%,  = 3.33), and hematoma volume (OR = 1.78, 95% CI (1.32, 2.40), =0.0001,  = 23%,  = 3.80). DNA methylation in the promoter region of the coagulation factor vWF gene was significantly associated with the risk of unexplained recurrent hemophilia. Whether demethylation can improve the bleeding index of patients with recurrent hemophilia remains to be further explored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/3977289DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9187466PMC
June 2022

Morin Inhibits Dox-Induced Vascular Inflammation By Regulating PTEN/AKT/NF-κB Pathway.

Inflammation 2022 Jun 15. Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Department of Hematology, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, 215 Heping W Rd, Shijiazhuang, 050004, China.

The side effects of doxorubicin (Dox) may influence the long-term survival of patients with malignancies. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify the mechanisms generating these side effects induced by Dox and identify effective therapeutic strategies. Here, we found that interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels were significantly increased in vascular tissues of Dox-treated mice and Dox-treated vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Furthermore, we revealed that Dox downregulated the phosphatase and tension homology deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) level while upregulated p-AKT and p65 level in VSMCs in vitro. Overexpression of PTEN in VSMCs partly reversed Dox-induced inflammation. Importantly, we demonstrated that Morin could inhibit Dox-induced inflammation by facilitating an increase of PTEN, thus inhibiting the activation of protein kinase B (AKT)/nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)/pathway. Additionally, we showed that Morin could reduce the miR-188-5p level, which was increased in Dox-treated VSMCs. Inhibition of miR-188-5p suppressed Dox-induced vascular inflammation in vitro. In conclusion, Morin reduced the Dox-induced vascular inflammatory by moderating the miR-188-5p/PTEN/AKT/NF-κB pathway, indicating that Morin might be a therapeutic agent for overcoming the Dox-induced vascular inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10753-022-01701-5DOI Listing
June 2022

[Retracted] microRNA‑485 inhibits the malignant behaviors of retinoblastoma by directly targeting Wnt3a.

Oncol Rep 2022 Aug 15;48(2). Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Department of Ophthalmology, China‑Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130033, P.R. China.

Following the publication of the above paper, the authors submitted a request to the Editorial Office to retract the article on account of the fact that the ethical approval for the tumor xenograft experiments performed in mice, as shown in Fig. 7, had not been obtained from their hospital; consequently, all authors were in agreement that the article should be retracted to ensure the integrity of the scholarly record. Independently of this request, it was also drawn to the Editor's attention by a concerned reader that data in several of the figures were strikingly similar to data appearing in different form in other articles by different authors. Owing to the fact that there were contentious data in the above article that had already been published prior to its submission to , and after assessing the authors' request, the Editor concurs that this paper should be retracted from the Journal. The Editor apologizes to the readership for any inconvenience caused. [Oncology Reports 41: 3137-3147, 2019; DOI: 10.3892/or.2019.7061].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/or.2022.8347DOI Listing
August 2022

IL-21/IL-21R Regulates the Neutrophil-Mediated Pathologic Immune Response during Chlamydial Respiratory Infection.

Mediators Inflamm 2022 1;2022:4322092. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Department of Immunology, Key Laboratory of Immune Microenvironment and Disease of the Educational Ministry of China, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.

IL-21/IL-21R was documented to participate in the regulation of multiple infection and inflammation. During () respiratory infection, our previous study had revealed that the absence of this signal induced enhanced resistance to infection with higher protective Th1/Th17 immune responses. Here, we use the murine model of respiratory infection and IL-21R deficient mice to further identify a novel role of IL-21/IL-21R in neutrophilic inflammation. Resistant IL-21R mice showed impaired neutrophil recruitment to the site of infection. In the absence of IL-21/IL-21R, pulmonary neutrophils also exhibited reduced activation status, including lower CD64 expression, MPO activity, and neutrophil-produced protein production. These results correlated well with the decrease of neutrophil-related chemokines (KC and MIP-2), inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1, and TNF-), and TLR/MyD88 pathway mediators (TLR2, TLR4, and MyD88) in infected lungs of IL-21R mice than normal mice. Complementarily, decreased pulmonary neutrophil infiltration, activity, and levels of neutrophilic chemotactic factors and TLR/MyD88 signal in infected lungs can be corrected by rIL-21 administration. These results revealed that IL-21/IL-21R may aggravate the neutrophil inflammation through regulating TLR/MyD88 signal pathway during chlamydial respiratory infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/4322092DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9177341PMC
June 2022

MSLN Correlates With Immune Infiltration and Chemoresistance as a Prognostic Biomarker in Ovarian Cancer.

Front Oncol 2022 25;12:830570. Epub 2022 May 25.

Department of Gynecology, First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Mesothelin (MSLN) is a glycoprotein with various expression degrees in different tumors including mesothelioma, ovarian cancer, pancreatic cancer, etc. MSLN is considered to play an important role in cell survival, proliferation, and tumor progression. Although the expression of MSLN in tumors makes it a potential therapeutic target, its mechanism of action is still unclear, especially its correlation with immune cells infiltration in the tumor microenvironment has not been investigated. In this study, we detected the overexpression of MSLN in ovarian cancer using database analysis and tissue-array staining. We further evaluated the diagnostic value of MSLN and found it was associated with poor overall survival in ovarian cancer. In addition, the high expression of MSLN was significantly related to the immune-related genes and chemoresistant genes. We confirmed the overexpression of MSLN in the chemoresistant ovarian cancer cell lines. Our research suggests that MSLN participates in a variety of pathways related to the suppression of immune activation and promotion of chemoresistance, leading to a poor prognosis in ovarian cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2022.830570DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9174524PMC
May 2022

Complete mitochondrial genome of (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) and phylogenetic analysis.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2022 1;7(6):908-910. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Anhui Provincial Key Lab. of the Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources, College of Life Sciences, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu, Anhui, China.

In this study, we sequenced the complete mitogenome of (Staudinger, 1880). The complete mitogenome sequence of is circular, 15,253 bp in size and contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and a control region (CR). Nucleotide composition was A + T biased, and all the PCGs exhibited a positive AT-skew, which was reflected in the nucleotide composition, codon, and amino acid usage. Most PCGs start with ATG or ATT and stop with TAA. However, gene starts with CGA and three genes (, , ) use the incomplete stop codon T. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the relationship (+((+)+(+(+)))).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2022.2078238DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9176332PMC
June 2022

Synergistic antitumor effects of compound-composed optimal formula from Aidi injection on hepatocellular carcinoma and colorectal cancer.

Phytomedicine 2022 Aug 2;103:154231. Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Shanghai Frontiers Science Center of TCM Chemical Biology, Institute of Interdisciplinary Integrative Medicine Research, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, No. 1200, Cailun Road, Pudong New Area, Shanghai 201203, China. Electronic address:

Background: Traditional Chinese medicine formula (TCMF) possesses unique advantages in the prevention and treatment of malignant tumors such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the unclear chemical composition and mechanism lead to its unstable efficacy and adverse reactions occurring frequently, especially injection. We previously proposed the research idea and strategy for compound-composed Chinese medicine formula (CCMF).

Purpose: A demonstration study was performed through screening of the compound-composed optimal formula (COF) from Aidi injection, confirmation of the synergistic effect, and exploration of the related mechanism in the treatment of HCC and CRC.

Method: The feedback system control (FSC) technique was applied to screening of COF. CCK-8 and calcein-AM/PI assays were performed to evaluate cell proliferation. Cell apoptosis was assessed using flow cytometry and DAPI staining. JC-1 probe and mitochondrial staining were employed to detect mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and the release of cytochrome c into cytoplasm, respective. Quantitative proteomics, drug affinity responsive target stability (DARTS) assay, bioinformatics, and molecular docking were carried out to explore the targets of the compounds and the synergistic mechanism involved.

Results: COF was obtained from Aidi injection, which comprises cantharidin (CAN): calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside (CAG): ginsenoside Rc: ginsenoside Rd = 1:12:12:8 (molar ratio). The monarch drug CAN in combination with minister medicines consisting of CAG, Rc and Rd (abbr. TD) displayed evidently synergistic effect, which inhibited cell viability, increased dead cell number, induced apoptosis, reduced MMP, promoted cytochrome c leakage of HCC and CRC cells, and suppressed the increases of tumor volume and weight in HCC and CRC bearing nude mice. TD probably antagonized CAN enhanced activity of the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) to depress the degradation of cytotoxic proteins through binding to ubiquitin proteasome, thus exerting the synergistic effect with CAN activated protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) to activate the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. In addition, the CAN enhanced protein expression of UPS was also observed for the first time.

Conclusion: CAN and TD exert synergism through activation of PP2A and inhibition of UPS. It makes sense to elucidate the scientific nature of the compatibility theory of TCMF based on CCMF, which will be an important research direction of the modernization of traditional Chinese medicines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2022.154231DOI Listing
August 2022

The Role of Complement in Microangiopathic Lesions of IgA Nephropathy.

Kidney Int Rep 2022 Jun 4;7(6):1219-1228. Epub 2022 Apr 4.

Renal Division, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China.

Introduction: Arteriolar microangiopathic (MA) lesions are independent risk factors for IgA nephropathy (IgAN) patient prognosis, and the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. The complement plays an important role in IgAN and thrombotic microangiopathy; however, its role in MA lesions in IgAN remains unclear.

Methods: Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect arteriolar complement deposition. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and whole-exome sequencing were performed to explore possible mechanism.

Results: In this study, we found that patients with IgAN with MA lesions have more complement deposition, especially C4d, on renal arterioles than those in patients with arteriolosclerosis (AS) and patients with no vascular lesions (100% vs. 53% vs 14%,  < 0.05). Furthermore, our large prospective cohort demonstrated that patients with IgAN with MA lesions had higher levels of Gd-IgA1 (median: 326.98 U/ml, interquartile range 303.46-370.5 vs. 319.22, 292.01-347.3 vs. 321.95, 291.68-350.68,  = 0.014) and C3a (122.57 ± 42.07 vs. 93.79 ± 29.49 vs. 93.51 ± 45.87 ng/ml,  = 0.01) than those in patients with AS and those with no vascular lesions. However, serum IgA1 and C3 levels were not significantly different. Finally, through whole-exome sequencing, we found that nearly half of the patients with MA lesions had rare genetic variations in complement-related genes.

Conclusion: Our results indicate that the complement is involved in the development of MA lesions in IgAN, which might be associated with the circulating complex containing Gd-IgA1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ekir.2022.03.028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9171706PMC
June 2022

Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes in Resistant Tetraploid Wheat () under (F.) Infestation.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 May 27;23(11). Epub 2022 May 27.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A&F University, Xianyang 712100, China.

The grain aphid (Fabricius) is one of the most destructive pests of wheat (). Deployment of resistant wheat germplasm appears as an excellent solution for this problem. Elite bread wheat cultivars only have limited resistance to this pest. The present study was carried out to investigate the potential of the tetraploid wheat () variety Lanmai, which showed high resistance to at both seedling and adult plant stages, as a source of resistance genes. Based on apterous adult aphids' fecundity tests and choice bioassays, Lanmai has been shown to display antixenosis and antibiosis. Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was employed to identify and isolate the putative candidate defense genes in Lanmai against infestation. A total of 134 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified and categorized based on their putative functions. RT-qPCR analysis of 30 selected genes confirmed their differential expression over time between the resistant wheat variety Lanmai and susceptible wheat variety Polan305 during infestation. There were 11 genes related to the photosynthesis process, and only 3 genes showed higher expression in Lanmai than in Polan305 after infestation. Gene expression analysis also revealed that Lanmai played a critical role in salicylic acid and jasmonic acid pathways after infestation. This study provided further insights into the role of defense signaling networks in wheat resistance to and indicates that the resistant tetraploid wheat variety Lanmai may provide a valuable resource for aphid tolerance improvement in wheat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms23116012DOI Listing
May 2022

Association between Meteorological Factors and Mumps and Models for Prediction in Chongqing, China.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 May 29;19(11). Epub 2022 May 29.

School of Public Health and Management, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China.

(1) Background: To explore whether meteorological factors have an impact on the prevalence of mumps, and to make a short-term prediction of the case number of mumps in Chongqing. (2) Methods: K-means clustering algorithm was used to divide the monthly mumps cases of each year into the high and low case number clusters, and Student -test was applied for difference analysis. The cross-correlation function (CCF) was used to evaluate the correlation between the meteorological factors and mumps, and an ARIMAX model was constructed by additionally incorporating meteorological factors as exogenous variables in the ARIMA model, and a short-term prediction was conducted for mumps in Chongqing, evaluated by MAE, RMSE. (3) Results: All the meteorological factors were significantly different ( < 0.05), except for the relative humidity between the high and low case number clusters. The CCF and ARIMAX model showed that monthly precipitation, temperature, relative humidity and wind velocity were associated with mumps, and there were significant lag effects. The ARIMAX model could accurately predict mumps in the short term, and the prediction errors (MAE, RMSE) were lower than those of the ARIMA model. (4) Conclusions: Meteorological factors can affect the occurrence of mumps, and the ARIMAX model can effectively predict the incidence trend of mumps in Chongqing, which can provide an early warning for relevant departments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19116625DOI Listing
May 2022

Loss of CHGA Protein as a Potential Biomarker for Colon Cancer Diagnosis: A Study on Biomarker Discovery by Machine Learning and Confirmation by Immunohistochemistry in Colorectal Cancer Tissue Microarrays.

Cancers (Basel) 2022 May 27;14(11). Epub 2022 May 27.

Department of Oncology and Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Linköping University, 581 83 Linköping, Sweden.

Background: The incidence of colorectal cancers has been constantly increasing. Although the mortality has slightly decreased, it is far from satisfaction. Precise early diagnosis for colorectal cancer has been a great challenge in order to improve patient survival.

Patients And Methods: We started with searching for protein biomarkers based on our colorectal cancer biomarker database (CBD), finding differential expressed genes (GEGs) and non-DEGs from RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data, and further predicted new biomarkers of protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks by machine learning (ML) methods. The best-selected biomarker was further verified by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) test from microarray and RNA-seq data, biological network, and functional analysis, and immunohistochemistry in the tissue arrays from 198 specimens.

Results: There were twelve proteins (MYO5A, CHGA, MAPK13, VDAC1, CCNA2, YWHAZ, CDK5, GNB3, CAMK2G, MAPK10, SDC2, and ADCY5) which were predicted by ML as colon cancer candidate diagnosis biomarkers. These predicted biomarkers showed close relationships with reported biomarkers of the PPI network and shared some pathways. An ROC test showed the CHGA protein with the best diagnostic accuracy (AUC = 0.9 in microarray data and 0.995 in RNA-seq data) among these candidate protein biomarkers. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry examination on our colon cancer tissue microarray samples further confirmed our bioinformatical prediction, indicating that CHGA may be used as a potential biomarker for early diagnosis of colon cancer patients.

Conclusions: CHGA could be a potential candidate biomarker for diagnosing earlier colon cancer in the patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers14112664DOI Listing
May 2022

A statistical perspective on baseline adjustment in pharmacogenomic genome-wide association studies of quantitative change.

NPJ Genom Med 2022 Jun 9;7(1):33. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Biostatistics and Research Decision Sciences, Merck & Co., Inc., Rahway, NJ, 07065, USA.

In pharmacogenetic (PGx) studies, drug response phenotypes are often measured in the form of change in a quantitative trait before and after treatment. There is some debate in recent literature regarding baseline adjustment, or inclusion of pre-treatment or baseline value as a covariate, in PGx genome-wide association studies (GWAS) analysis. Here, we provide a clear statistical perspective on this baseline adjustment issue by running extensive simulations based on nine statistical models to evaluate the influence of baseline adjustment on type I error and power. We then apply these nine models to analyzing the change in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels with ezetimibe + simvastatin combination therapy compared with simvastatin monotherapy therapy in the 5661 participants of the IMPROVE-IT (IMProved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytroin Efficacy International Trial) PGx GWAS, supporting the conclusions drawn from our simulations. Both simulations and GWAS analyses consistently show that baseline-unadjusted models inflate type I error for the variants associated with baseline value if the baseline value is also associated with change from baseline (e.g., when baseline value is a mediator between a variant and change from baseline), while baseline-adjusted models can control type I error in various scenarios. We thus recommend performing baseline-adjusted analyses in PGx GWASs of quantitative change.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41525-022-00303-2DOI Listing
June 2022

The Genetics of Autophagy in Multicellular Organisms.

Authors:
Hong Zhang

Annu Rev Genet 2022 Jun 9. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; email:

Autophagy, a lysosome-mediated degradation process evolutionarily conserved from yeast to mammals, is essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and combating diverse cellular stresses. Autophagy involves de novo synthesis of a double-membrane autophagosome, sequestration of selected cellular contents, and subsequent delivery of sequestrated contents to the vacuole (in yeasts and plants) or to lysosomes (in animal cells) for degradation and recycling. Genetic studies in unicellular and multicellular model organisms have systematically revealed the molecular machinery, regulation, and function of autophagy in physiological settings. I review genetic studies in model organisms-from yeast to worm to fly-that enable us to not only identify autophagy genes, including genes and the metazoan-specific genes, but also uncover variants of autophagy in developmental contexts, novel regulatory mechanisms, and signaling events involved in mediating systemic autophagy response. Genetic analysis also helps us understand the liquid-liquid phase separation and transition that control autophagic degradation of protein aggregates. The emerging role of autophagy in zebrafish tissue regeneration is also discussed. Expected final online publication date for the , Volume 56 is November 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-022422-095608DOI Listing
June 2022

Risk Factors for Fracture in Patients with Coexisting Chronic Kidney Disease and Type 2 Diabetes: An Observational Analysis from the CREDENCE Trial.

J Diabetes Res 2022 27;2022:9998891. Epub 2022 May 27.

The George Institute for Global Health, UNSW, Sydney, Australia.

Background: The fracture pathophysiology associated with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD) is incompletely understood. We examined individual fracture predictors and prediction sets based on different pathophysiological hypotheses, testing whether any of the sets improved prediction beyond that based on traditional osteoporotic risk factors.

Methods: Within the CREDENCE cohort with adjudicated fracture outcomes, we assessed the association of individual factors with fracture using Cox regression models. We used the Akaike information criteria (AIC) and Schwartz Bayes Criterion (SBC) to assess six separate variable sets based on hypothesized associations with fracture, namely, traditional osteoporosis, exploratory general population findings, cardiovascular risk, CKD-mineral and bone disorder, diabetic osteodystrophy, and an all-inclusive set containing all variables.

Results: Fracture occurred in 135 (3.1%) participants over a median 2.35 [1.88-2.93] years. Independent fracture predictors were older age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.04, confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.06), female sex (HR 2.49, CI 1.70-3.65), previous fracture (HR 2.30, CI 1.58-3.34), Asian race (HR 1.74, CI 1.09-2.78), vitamin D therapy requirement (HR 2.05, CI 1.31-3.21), HbA1c (HR 1.14, CI 1.00-1.32), prior cardiovascular event (HR 1.60, CI 1.10-2.33), and serum albumin (HR 0.41, CI 0.23-0.74) (lower albumin associated with greater risk). The goodness of fit of the various hypothesis sets was similar (AIC range 1870.92-1849.51, SBC range 1875.60-1948.04).

Conclusion: Independent predictors of fracture were identified in the CREDENCE participants with type 2 diabetes and CKD. Fracture prediction was not improved by models built on alternative pathophysiology hypotheses compared with traditional osteoporosis predictors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/9998891DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9168808PMC
June 2022

Serum Level of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Associated with Depression in Patients with Rosacea: A Candidate Predictive Biomarker.

Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol 2022 2;15:1029-1036. Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Department of Pediatrics, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, 250012, People's Republic of China.

Background: The biomarker to predict the depression in patients with rosacea was absent.

Objective: We aimed to explore the potential association between BDNF and depression in patients with rosacea, and also to determine whether serum BDNF level is a potential biomarker for identifying depression in patients with rosacea.

Methods: The patients with rosacea, rosacea with depression and healthy control were included, clinical evaluation (DLQI, RSSs, BDI-II) and serum BDNF levels detection were performed on subjects, the comparisons and correlation analysis of the obtained data were performed.

Results: In clinical evaluation, whether DLQI or RSSs, rosacea with depression group was significantly higher compared to rosacea group. Besides, we found the serum BDNF levels were lower in patients with rosacea and rosacea with depression compared to healthy controls, also in the rosacea with depression group, serum BDNF levels were lower than in rosacea patients. Whatever in rosacea or rosacea with depression group, the statistical significance of serum BDNF levels between the different subtypes like the ETR and PPR was not found. In further correlation analysis, we found no correlation between serum BDNF and RSSs in patients with rosacea whatever the subtype of ETR or PPR. Interestingly, we found a negative correlation between serum BDNF levels and BDI-II in rosacea with depression group, the decreased serum BDNF levels were associated with the increased BDI-II, also the ROC confirmed it can evaluate the depression in patients with rosacea.

Conclusion: Serum BDNF level is a potential biomarker for identifying depression in patients with rosacea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CCID.S367545DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9170175PMC
June 2022

Secondary metabolite pathway of SDG (secoisolariciresinol) was observed to trigger ROS scavenging system in response to Ca stress in cotton.

Genomics 2022 Jun 5;114(4):110398. Epub 2022 Jun 5.

Institute of Cotton Research of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences / Zhengzhou Research Base, State Key Laboratory of Cotton Biology, School of Agricultural Sciences, Zhengzhou University, Anyang, Henan 455000, China. Electronic address:

Ca is an essential nutrient for plants and animals which plays an important role in plant signal transduction. Although the function and regulation of mechanism of Ca in alleviating various biotic and abiotic stresses in plants have been studied deeply, the molecular mechanism to adapt high Ca stress is still unclear in cotton. In this study, 103 cotton accessions were germinated under 200 mM CaCl stress, and two extremely Ca-resistant (Zhong 9807, R) and Ca-sensitive (CRI 50, S) genotypes were selected from 103 cotton accessions. The two accessions were then germinated for 5 days in 0 mM CaCl and 200 mM CaCl respectively, after which they were sampled for transcriptome sequencing. Morphological and physiological analyses suggested that PLR2 specifically expressed in R may enhance the ability of cotton to scavenge ROS by promoting the synthesis of SDG. In conclusion, this study proposed the adaptation mechanisms to response to the high Ca stress in cotton which can contribute to improve the stress resistance of cotton.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygeno.2022.110398DOI Listing
June 2022
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