Publications by authors named "Hong Yul An"

11 Publications

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Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis associated with parvovirus B19-induced aplastic crisis in a hereditary spherocytosis patient: A case report and literature review.

Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2021 Aug 9:1-8. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a syndrome of pathologic immune activation. It occurs because of severe inflammation due to uncontrolled proliferation of activated lymphocytes and histiocytes, characterized by the production of excessive levels of cytokines. Virus-associated HLH is a well-known entity, and parvovirus B19 is one of the common causes. Parvovirus B19 can also affect blood cell lineages. Therefore, HLH may be accompanied by several diseases such as cytopenia, aplastic anemia, and myelodysplastic syndrome. Herein, we report the case of a patient with hereditary spherocytosis who was diagnosed with parvovirus B19-induced HLH and aplastic crisis. A 7-year-old girl presented to our hospital with fever, pleural effusion, pancytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly, and hypotension. A bone marrow biopsy was performed under the suspicion of HLH, which revealed hemophagocytes. The diagnostic criteria for HLH were met, and prompt chemoimmunotherapy was initiated considering the clinically unstable situation. Her health improved rapidly after initiating treatment. Further study revealed that she had hereditary spherocytosis, and parvovirus B19 had caused aplastic crisis and HLH. The patient's clinical progress was excellent, and chemoimmunotherapy was reduced and discontinued at an early stage. This case shows that aplastic crisis and HLH can coexist with parvovirus B19 infection in patients with hereditary spherocytosis. Although the prognosis was good in this case of HLH caused by parvovirus B19, early detection and active treatment are essential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08880018.2021.1949082DOI Listing
August 2021

Open-Label, Multicenter Phase II Study of Combination Therapy of Imatinib Mesylate and Mycophenolate Mofetil in Pediatric Patients with Steroid-Refractory Sclerotic/Fibrotic Type Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Jul 24. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Cancer Research Institute, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Wide River Institute of Immunology, Seoul National University, Gangwon, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Steroid-refractory chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is associated with high morbidity. To date, there is no standard therapy for patients who fail to respond to steroids. In this nonrandomized, open-label, single-arm, multicenter prospective phase II study, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of imatinib mesylate and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) to treat sclerotic/fibrotic type cGVHD. The primary endpoint was the overall response rate (ORR) to imatinib mesylate plus MMF in 1 year, and the secondary endpoints included safety, quality of life, discontinuation of steroids, and overall survival (OS) rate. A total of 13 patients were enrolled, with a median age of 10.4 years (range, 5.0 to 20.1 years). All patients received a myeloablative conditioning regimen. Specifically, 6 of these patients had previously experienced acute GVHD. The most frequently affected organs were the eyes, lungs, skin, and liver. There were 2 premature deaths. One patient died of pulmonary infection and progression of cGVHD, and the other patient died from neuroblastoma progression and septic shock. The ORR was 76.9% (10 of 13 patients), and the median steroid dose was decreased from 1.0 mg/kg/day to 0.21 mg/kg/day. One-year OS was 84.6% (n = 13), and common adverse events included elevated liver enzyme and serum creatinine levels and fever. Although our sample size was limited, treatment of cGVHD with imatinib mesylate plus MMF shows promising results with acceptable toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.07.019DOI Listing
July 2021

Outcomes of infants with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia in the pediatric intensive care unit.

Pediatr Int 2021 May 10;63(5):529-535. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Some infants with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (sBPD) are referred to higher-level centers for multidisciplinary care, including the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). However, information regarding these infants is limited in PICUs.

Methods: We investigated the characteristics and outcomes of preterm infants with sBPD referred to the PICU of a tertiary hospital. This retrospective cohort study included 14 preterm infants with sBPD who were transferred to the PICU beyond 40 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA) because of weaning failure, from January 1, 2014, to September 30, 2018.

Results: The median age at referral was 47.1 weeks (range, 43.6-55.9 weeks), and the median length of stay in the previous neonatal intensive care unit was 154 days (range, 105.8-202.3 days) after birth. After referral the following major comorbidities were found in the patients: large airway malacia, n = 7 (50.0%); significant upper airway obstruction, n = 3 (21.4%); and pulmonary arterial hypertension, n = 8 patients (57.1%). Finally, eight patients (57.1%) were successfully extubated without tracheostomy. Final respiratory support of the patients was determined at a median PMA of 56 weeks (range, 48-63 weeks). Age at referral (P = 0.023) and large airway obstruction (P = 0.028) were significantly related to a decrease in successful extubation.

Conclusion: Based on a timely and individualized multidisciplinary approach, some of the prolonged ventilator-dependent infants, even those beyond term age, could be successfully extubated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ped.14546DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8252616PMC
May 2021

Treatment outcome and long-term follow-up of central nervous system germ cell tumor using upfront chemotherapy with subsequent photon or proton radiation therapy: a single tertiary center experience of 127 patients.

BMC Cancer 2020 Oct 9;20(1):979. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Departments of Pediatrics, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Central nervous system germ cell tumors (CNS GCTs) are a heterogeneous group of brain tumors, which are more common in Asian countries. There have been different therapeutic strategies in treating germinoma and non-germinomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCT), depending on prognosis. Moreover, long-term follow up should be emphasized due to higher late complication rates. Here, we investigated long-term outcomes and complication profiles of 127 CNS GCT patients who received uniform upfront chemotherapy.

Methods: We retrospectively evaluated outcomes of CNS GCT patients treated in Seoul National University Children's Hospital from August 2004 to April 2019. Patients were classified as low risk (LR) or high risk (HR) based on pathologic diagnosis and tumor markers. Most patients received upfront systemic chemotherapy with carboplatin, cyclophosphamide, etoposide, and/or bleomycin, followed by either proton or photon radiation therapy according to patients' choice.

Results: The median age at diagnosis was 11.9 (range, 3.8-25.1) years, and 54.3% of patients were LR. Photon and proton radiation therapy were administered to 73.2 and 25.2% of patients, respectively. In both LR and HR groups, there were no significant differences in survival between photon and proton radiation therapy. The 10-year relapse incidences were 9.3 and 5.6% in the LR and HR groups, respectively. All recurrences, except one, were local relapse. Six secondary malignancies occurred; the 10-year incidences of secondary malignancy were 2.2 and 7.6% in the LR and HR groups, respectively. The 10-year overall survival rates were 98.3 ± 1.7 and 91.8 ± 3.9% in the LR and HR groups, respectively. In a subgroup analysis of HR group, pathologically diagnosed NGGCT patients (n = 20) showed worse 10-year EFS (65.9 ± 11.9%, p < 0.001) and OS (77.9 ± 9.8%, p = 0.024) rates compared to other HR patients who were not pathologically diagnosed or were confirmed as germinoma with elevated tumor markers. All mortalities were related to disease progression or secondary malignancy.

Conclusion: The strategy of treating CNS GCTs with upfront chemotherapy according to risk groups resulted in good clinical outcomes and acceptable relapse incidence. However, further modification in the definition of the HR group is needed to reduce long-term complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-020-07484-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7547441PMC
October 2020

Combination Therapy With Chemotherapy, Donor Lymphocyte Infusion With Concurrent Blinatumomab in Relapsed/Refractory Acute Precursor B-Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2021 03;43(2):e280-e283

Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University College of Medicine.

The therapeutic approach for relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) remains to be a challenge. The patient was diagnosed as B-cell ALL at 6 months of age and relapsed for the second time following repeat allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (one after first complete remission [CR1] and the other after CR2). During blinatumomab monotherapy, he developed an extramedullary relapse. Finally, the combined therapy with clofarabine, donor lymphocyte infusion, and blinatumomab induced CR of the bone marrow and extramedullary relapse. Unfortunately, the patient developed central nervous system relapse, however, this case showed a promising potential for combination therapy with clofarabine, donor lymphocyte infusion, and blinatumomab in relapsed/refractory B-cell ALL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPH.0000000000001789DOI Listing
March 2021

Nitrosourea, etoposide and cyclophosphamide followed by autologous stem cell transplantation for pediatric lymphoma patients.

Int J Hematol 2020 Jun 26;111(6):877-887. Epub 2020 Mar 26.

Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 101, Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 03080, Republic of Korea.

Treatment outcomes in pediatric lymphoma have improved substantially over the past 2 decades; however, the prognosis for patients with high risk or relapsed disease remains poor. We evaluated outcomes of high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) and autologous stem cell transplantation (auto-SCT) in 56 pediatric lymphoma patients. Patients received nitrosourea (51 BCNU; 5 ACNU), etoposide, and cyclophosphamide (BEC; AEC). Median age at HDC/auto-SCT was 12 years (range 2-17 years). Forty-four patients underwent HDC/auto-SCT because they did not achieve complete remission after induction chemotherapy. Eight patients showed relapse and four NK/T-cell lymphoma patients also underwent HDC/auto-SCT. BCNU pneumonitis was diagnosed in nine (16.0%) patients. Eight (14.3%) relapsed after HDC/auto-SCT. Treatment-related mortality occurred in three cases. Five-year event-free survival and overall survival rates were 74.8% [72.7% non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL); 83.3% Hodgkin's disease (HD); 72.7%] and 83.6% (81.6% NHL; 91.7% HD), respectively. HDC/auto-SCT with BEC or AEC regimen for pediatric high-risk lymphoma patients showed feasible outcomes. However, treatment modifications are warranted to reduce relapse and toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-020-02863-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7222091PMC
June 2020

Successful preemptive therapy with single-dose rituximab for Epstein-Barr virus infection to prevent post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease after pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Transpl Infect Dis 2019 Dec 15;21(6):e13182. Epub 2019 Oct 15.

Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: The efficacy of preemptive treatment containing rituximab to prevent post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) in children has not yet been fully elucidated.

Methods: We analyzed 19 pediatric patients who developed high Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNAemia (EBV viral load of greater than 40 000 copies/mL) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and were preemptively administered rituximab. Rituximab was intravenously injected at a dose of 375 mg/m once the EBV viral load was greater than 40 000 copies/mL.

Results: In all 19 patients, EBV DNAemia was eradicated after a median of 9 days (range, 3-20 days), and PTLD did not occur. One patient had transient fever, and four patients did not fully recover B cell counts after transplantation. We suggested that delayed B cell recovery was caused by chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) related drugs, not rituximab administration. And there were no other infection-related side effects.

Conclusions: In conclusion, preemptive therapy containing rituximab is expected to reduce the incidence of PTLD after HSCT and improve post-transplantation outcomes in children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tid.13182DOI Listing
December 2019

Successful Treatment of Pediatric Epstein-Barr Virus-positive Aggressive Natural Killer-Cell Leukemia.

J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2019 07;41(5):e336-e337

Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Cancer Research Institute.

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive aggressive natural killer-cell leukemia (ANKL) is a rare malignancy of mature natural killer cells, with a very poor survival rate. Patients have a rapidly declining clinical course and a poor prognosis, with a median survival of only a few months. Herein, we describe a 16-year-old boy who was diagnosed with EBV-positive ANKL and successfully treated using combination chemotherapy and a subsequent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT). The patient is disease free 4 years and 9 months after alloHSCT. Thus, combination chemotherapy followed by alloHSCT seems to be a promising therapeutic option for EBV-positive ANKL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPH.0000000000001237DOI Listing
July 2019

Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor in children: A single-institute retrospective analysis.

Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2017 Nov 29;34(8):468-477. Epub 2017 Dec 29.

a Department of Pediatrics , Seoul National University College of Medicine , Seoul , Korea.

Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors are rare tumors that originate from Schwann cells. Patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 are prone to develop these tumors. Due to their rarity and lack of established treatment, the prognosis of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors is poor. A retrospective study was conducted on children treated for malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors at the Seoul National University Children's Hospital between 2007 and 2016. Eleven patients were diagnosed with malignant nerve sheath tumors at a median age of 12 years, eight of whom had neurofibromatosis type 1. All the patients underwent chemotherapy and received surgical resection, and 5 patients relapsed. The 2-year overall survival rate was 72.7%, and the 2-year event-free survival rate was 58.2%. Univariate analysis was performed to assess the correlations between the clinical factors. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall survival rate according to the patients' clinical factors. However, there was a decreasing trend in the relationship between the event-free survival rate and the prevalence of neurofibromatosis type 1. Regular follow up of neurofibromatosis type 1. Regular follow-up of neurofibromatosis type 1 patients may identify detection of early relapse of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Genetic studies of these patients and tumors may identify opportunities for targeted therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08880018.2017.1408730DOI Listing
November 2017

Early predictors of mortality in children with pulmonary complications after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Pediatr Transplant 2017 Dec 12;21(8). Epub 2017 Oct 12.

Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

PC are a main cause of death following HSCT in children. We aimed to evaluate early predictors of mortality in paediatric recipients with PCs. A retrospective observational study of 35 patients with 49 episodes of PI on chest radiography (of 124 patients) who had undergone HSCT at a tertiary university hospital between January 2011 and December 2012 was performed. During follow-up (median 26.1 months), 15 episodes led to death (30.6%). An aetiologic diagnosis was made by non-invasive tests in 24 episodes (49.0%) and by adding bronchoalveolar lavage and/or lung biopsy in 7 episodes with diagnostic yield (77.8%, P = .001). Thus, a specific diagnosis was obtained in 63.3% of the episodes. Aetiology identification and treatment modification after diagnosis did not decrease mortality (P = .057, P = .481). However, the number of organ dysfunctions at the beginning of PI was higher in the mortality group, compared to the survivor group (1.7 ± 1.2 vs 0.32 ± 0.59; P = .001). Hepatic dysfunction (OR, 11.145; 95% CI, 1.23 to 101.29; P = .032) and neutropaenia (OR, 10.558; 95% CI, 1.07 to 104.65; P = .044) were independently associated with risk of mortality. Therefore, hepatic dysfunction and neutropaenia are independent early predictors of mortality in HSCT recipients with PCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/petr.13062DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7167723PMC
December 2017

Extensive and Progressive Cerebral Infarction after Infection.

Korean J Crit Care Med 2017 May 29;32(2):211-217. Epub 2016 Dec 29.

Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Acute cerebral infarctions are rare in children, however they can occur as a complication of a (MP) infection due to direct invasion, vasculitis, or a hypercoagulable state. We report on the case of a 5-year-old boy who had an extensive stroke in multiple cerebrovascular territories 10 days after the diagnosis of MP infection. Based on the suspicion that the cerebral infarction was associated with a macrolide-resistant MP infection, the patient was treated with levofloxacin, methyl-prednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulin, and enoxaparin. Despite this medical management, cerebral vascular narrowing progressed and a decompressive craniectomy became necessary for the patient's survival. According to laboratory tests, brain magnetic resonance imaging, and clinical manifestations, the cerebral infarction in this case appeared to be due to the combined effects of hypercoagulability and cytokine-induced vascular inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2016.00283DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6786714PMC
May 2017
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