Publications by authors named "Hong Yin"

786 Publications

MicroRNA-1 Expression and Function in (Acari: Ixodidae) Ticks.

Front Physiol 2021 8;12:596289. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, China.

MicroRNAs act as mRNA post-transcriptional regulators, playing important roles in cell differentiation, transcriptional regulation, growth, and development. In this study, microRNA expression profiles of ticks at different developmental stages were detected by high-throughput sequencing and functionally assessed. In total, 2,585,169, 1,252,678, 1,558,217, and 1,155,283 unique reads were obtained from eggs, larvae, nymphs, and adults, respectively, with 42, 46, 45, and 41 conserved microRNAs in these stages, respectively. Using eggs as a control, 48, 43, and 39 microRNAs were upregulated, and 3, 10, and 9 were downregulated in larvae, nymphs, and adults, respectively. MicroRNA-1 (miR-1) was expressed in high abundance throughout development, with an average of nearly one million transcripts, and it is highly conserved among tick species. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) showed that miR-1 expression gradually increased with tick development, reaching the highest level at engorgement. Differential tissue expression was detected, with significantly higher levels in the salivary glands and epidermis than in the midgut. Inhibition assays showed no significant change in body weight or spawning time or amount between experimental and control groups, but there was a significant difference ( < 0.01) in engorgement time. With miR-1 inhibition, ticks displayed obvious deformities during later development. To more fully explain the microRNA mechanism of action, the miR-1 cluster was analyzed according to the target gene; members that jointly act on Hsp60 include miR-5, miR-994, miR-969, and miR-1011. Therefore, microRNAs are critical for normal tick development, and the primary structure of the mature sequence of miR-1 is highly conserved. Nonetheless, different developmental stages and tissues show different expression patterns, with a certain role in prolonging feeding. miR-1, together with other cluster members, regulates mRNA function and may be used as a molecular marker for species origin, evolution analysis, and internal reference gene selection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.596289DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8061306PMC
April 2021

Functional connectivity of cerebellar dentate nucleus and cognitive impairments in patients with drug-naive and first-episode schizophrenia.

Psychiatry Res 2021 Apr 20;300:113937. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Radiology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China. Electronic address:

Cognitive impairments are the hallmark of schizophrenia and prominent in the early episode stage. However, the underlying pathological mechanisms of cognitive impairments are not fully understood. This study aimed to investigate the abnormal functional connectivity (FC) of the cerebellar dentate nucleus (DN) and its correlation with cognitive impairments in patients with drug-naive and first-episode schizophrenia. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired in 47 patients and 43 healthy controls. Cognitive functions were assessed by number sequence span, verbal category fluency, digit-symbol coding tests. The results showed that the patients had deficits in all three cognitive tests compared to the controls. Furthermore, the increased FC of DN with the bilateral postcentral gyrus and decreased FC of DN with the right inferior temporal gyrus and regional cerebellum (e.g., Vermis 4-5 and Crus I) were observed in the patient group compared to the control group. Importantly, these abnormal DN FC significantly correlated with cognitive tests (e.g., number sequence span and digit-symbol coding) and clinical symptoms (e.g., negative symptom) in the patient group. The results suggested that abnormal FC of DN with cortical and subcortical regions was associated with cognitive impairments and symptom severity and might be an underlying neural mechanism in schizophrenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2021.113937DOI Listing
April 2021

Cross-priming amplification targeting the 18S rRNA gene for the rapid diagnosis of Babesia bovis infection.

Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2021 Mar 23;12(4):101713. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Xujiaping 1, Lanzhou, Gansu, 730046, PR China; Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center for the Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Disease and Zoonosis, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, PR China. Electronic address:

Babesia bovis is a known causative agent of bovine babesiosis and is widely distributed across China. Rapid detection and accurate identification of B. bovis is essential for follow-up management and epidemiological investigations. In this study, a cross-priming amplification combined with vertical flow (CPA-VF) assay was developed. The detection limit of the CPA-VF assay targeting the 18S rRNA gene was 320 fg per reaction at 61 °C for 60 min. No cross-reactions were observed with other piroplasms infective to cattle. Furthermore, 36 blood samples from experimentally-infected animals were accurately assessed using the CPA-VF assay. The performance of the CPA-VF assay was compared with the results of conventional PCR for 219 blood samples from the field. Our results demonstrate that the CPA-VF assay is a practical and effective diagnostic tool for bovine babesiosis caused by B. bovis infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2021.101713DOI Listing
March 2021

Anti-HBV Activities of Polysaccharides from (Küster) by In Vitro and In Vivo Study.

Mar Drugs 2021 Mar 30;19(4). Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Engineering Research Center of Molecular Medicine, Ministry of Education, School of Medicine, Huaqiao University, Xiamen 361021, China.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a major global health problem. It is therefore imperative to develop drugs for anti-hepatitis B with high-efficiency and low toxicity. Attracted by the observations and evidence that the symptoms of some patients from the Southern Fujian, China, suffering from hepatitis B were alleviated after daily eating an edible marine mollusk, (Küster 1860) (TCK). Water-soluble polysaccharide from TCK (TCKP1) was isolated and characterized. The anti-HBV activity of TCKP1 and its regulatory pathway were investigated on both HepG2.2.15 cell line and HBV transgenic mice. The data obtained from in vitro studies showed that TCKP1 significantly enhanced the production of IFN-α, and reduced the level of HBV antigens and HBV DNA in the supernatants of HepG2.2.15 cells in a dose-dependent manner with low cytotoxicity. The result of the study on the HBV transgenic mice further revealed that TCKP1 significantly decreased the level of transaminases, HBsAg, HBeAg, and HBV DNA in the serum, as well as HBsAg, HBeAg, HBV DNA, and HBV RNA in the liver of HBV transgenic (HBV-Tg) mice. Furthermore, TCKP1 exhibited equivalent inhibitory effect with the positive control tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) on the markers above except for HBV DNA even in low dosage in a mouse model. However, the TCKP1 high-dose group displayed stronger inhibition of transaminases and liver HBsAg, HBeAg, and HBV RNA when compared with those of TAF. Meanwhile, inflammation of the liver was, by pathological observation, relieved in a dose-dependent manner after being treated with TCKP1. In addition, elevated levels of interleukin-12 (IL-12) and interferon γ (IFN-γ), and reduced level of interleukin-4 (IL-4) in the serum were observed, indicating that the anti-HBV effect of TCKP1 was achieved by potentiating immunocyte function and regulating the balance of Th1/Th2 cytokines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md19040195DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8066037PMC
March 2021

Expression pattern of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 and regulation to antibacterial factor ABF-1/2 in response to bacterial challenge from Artemia parthenogenetica.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2021 Mar 27. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

The International Centre for Precision Environmental Health and Governance, College of Life Sciences, Hebei University, 071002, Baoding, PRChin. Electronic address:

Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4, MKK4, is a key upstream kinase in the JNK/p38 MAPK pathway that has been reported to participate in multiple immune responses. In this study, the gene that encodes ApMKK4 was isolated and identified from Artemia parthenogenetica. It was found to contain a 1134 bp open reading frame encoding 378 amino acids. The predicted protein contains D domain, DVD domain and kinase domain. Homology analysis revealed that ApMKK4 shares 38-69% identity with MKK4 homologs from other species. Results revealed that ApMKK4 was mainly expressed during early development of which highest at the gastrula stage. After challenged by Vibrio harveyi and Micrococcus lysodeikticus, ApMKK4 was remarkably upregulated at 10 and 10 cfu/mL bacterial concentrations, respectively. Through siRNAi, the transcript level of ApMKK4 was significantly decreased by 46-67%. Intriguingly, when the ApMKK4-knockdown nauplii faced with bacterial stimulation, the expression of ApMKK4 was completely restored in a short time. Moreover, this phenomenon also occurred in related antimicrobial peptide genes, ABF-1 and ABF-2. Our research reveals that ApMKK4 plays a pivotal role during early development and immune responses against bacterial infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2021.03.008DOI Listing
March 2021

Prevalence and risk factors associated with osteoporosis among residents aged above 20 years old in Chongqing, China.

Arch Osteoporos 2021 03 23;16(1):57. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Chongqing Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Chongqing, 400042, China.

Standardized prevalence of osteoporosis was 19.90% in the whole subjects aged between 50 and 87, 5.87% in men and 30.23% in women respectively. Risk factors associated with osteoporosis were analyzed. It is the first time to estimate the prevalence and characterize the epidemiology of osteoporosis in Chongqing, China.

Purpose: To investigate bone mineral density (BMD) profiles, osteoporosis prevalence, and its risk factors among residents aged above 20 years old in Chongqing Municipality, China.

Methods: The study population consisted of 770 men and 1085 women aged 20 years and older with BMD measurements using central dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Information on sociodemographic characteristics and the potential risk factors associated with osteoporosis were collected by a standardized interviewer-administered questionnaire.

Results: Crude prevalence of osteoporosis was 12.99% in the whole subjects, 4.42% for men, and 19.08% for women by WHO criteria at various skeletal regions (among lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip). Standardized prevalence of osteoporosis was 19.90% in the whole subjects aged between 50 and 87, 5.87% in men and 30.23% in women respectively. Prevalence of osteoporosis increased with age, and the prevalence of osteoporosis in women was 6.10 times higher than it in men. The prevalence of osteoporosis was significantly associated with the past medical history of fracture (OR = 1.794, P = 0.007); overweight and obesity were considered to be protective factors for osteoporosis with OR of 0.514 and 0.300, respectively; high school graduate (OR = 0.399, P = 0.000 ) and milk intake (OR = 0.648, P = 0.008) were also protective factors for osteoporosis in men and women considered together; menopause was an independent risk factor of osteoporosis in females (OR = 1.782, P = 0.029); current smoking was an independent risk factor of osteoporosis in males (OR = 2.437, P = 0.046).

Conclusion: The prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia was high among residents in Chongqing, China. Health education and behavior intervention should be focused on the elderly or female residents to promote the formulation of healthy lifestyle. Necessary steps are needed for more public education and a wider dissemination of information about osteoporosis and its prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11657-021-00910-zDOI Listing
March 2021

Novel Long Noncoding RNA 005620 Induces Epirubicin Resistance in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer by Regulating ITGB1 Expression.

Front Oncol 2021 4;11:592215. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Division of Geriatric Endocrinology, Department of Geriatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is often treated with anthracyclines (e.g., epirubicin or doxorubicin), but very little is known about anthracycline resistance, especially epirubicin resistance in TNBC. To identify novel long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) involved in epirubicin resistance in TNBC, we established a new TNBC MDA-MB-231 cell line that was resistant to epirubicin (Epi-R). A total of 12 differentially expressed lncRNAs were identified using RNA sequencing analysis of Epi-R cells. Among these lncRNAs, we found a novel intronic lncRNA, lnc005620, was highly expressed in Epi-R cells and human TNBC tissues. Further gain- and loss-of-function studies demonstrated that lnc005620 played an oncogenic role and partially abrogated the effects of epirubicin on TNBC cells. Using iTRAQ proteomics analysis, we found that three members of the integrin family, integrin β4, integrin β1 and integrin α6, were all upregulated in Epi-R MDA-MB-231 cells. Integrin β1, encoded by the ITGB1 gene, was validated to be a downstream target of lnc005620 in Epi-R MDA-MB-231 cells. Our study demonstrates that novel lnc005620 promotes TNBC progression and chemoresistance to epirubicin integrin β1 both and and provides a promising therapeutic target for TNBC patients in terms of enhancing the benefits of epirubicin treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.592215DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7970185PMC
March 2021

Subtelomere-Encoded Variable Secreted Protein-TA05575 Binds to Bovine RBMX2.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 26;11:644983. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science, Lanzhou, China.

Tropical theileriosis is the disease caused by tick-transmitted apicomplexan parasite , which has ability to transform bovine leukocytes, including B cells, macrophage cells, and dendritic cells. The transformed cells are characterized as uncontrolled proliferation and shared some cancer-like phenotypes. The mechanism of the transformation by is still not understood well. In previous reports, the subtelomere-encoded variable secreted proteins (SVSP) of were considered to contribute to phenotypic changes of the host cell, but the role of SVSP of in host-pathogen relationship remains unknown. In the present study, a member of SVSP family, TA05575 of was selected as the target molecule to analyze its expression profiles in different life cycle stages of by qPCR and investigate its subcellular distribution of different passages of transformed cells using confocal experiments. From the results, the transcription level of TA05575 at schizont stage was significantly higher than the other two life stages of , and the protein of TA05575 was mainly distributed in nucleus of infected cells. In addition, the potential proteins of host cells interacting with TA05575 were screened by Yeast-two hybrid system. The results of Co-IP experiment confirmed that TA05575 interacted with RBMX2-like protein that participated in transcription regulation of cells. In addition, a novel BiFC assay and flow cytometry were carried out, and the results further revealed that TA05575-RBMX2-like pair was directly interacted in cell context. Moreover, this interacting pair was found to distribute in intracellular compartments of HEK293T cells by using confocal microscopy. The results of the present study suggest that TA05575 may contribute for cells transformation due its distribution. According to the function of RBMX2, the interaction of TA05575 and RMMX2-like will provide a new information to further understand the mechanisms of cells transformation by .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2021.644983DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7952517PMC
February 2021

pZL8a: a potential probiotic isolated from pig feces for further research.

3 Biotech 2021 Mar 19;11(3):132. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Xujiaping 1, Yanchangbu, Lanzhou, 730046 Gansu China.

This study aimed to screen a potential anti-diarrheal probiotic for pigs to meet the growing demand for antibiotic alternatives in livestock. Six intestinal pathogens, (O157: H7) ATCC 43888, ATCC 6538, ATCC 19115, ATCC 14028, ATCC 9207, and ZSY2 were employed as indicator bacteria. Our result showed that pZL8a isolated from pig feces had extensive and higher antibacterial activity against indicator pathogens among 9 tested strains. In addition, valuable attributes of pZL8a such as great tolerance of low pH (3.0) and bile salts (0.3%), high-level adhesion to Caco-2 cells, and similar susceptibility to the reference strain GG (LGG) were observed. Compared with control, pZL8a supplement significantly improved the level of immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin M (IgM), and interleukin-2 (IL-2) in mouse serum. Therefore, pZL8a was proposed as a potential probiotic for further research and hope to reduce or replace the application of antibiotics in animal production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13205-021-02681-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7895895PMC
March 2021

The transcription factor of the Hippo signaling pathway, LmSd, regulates wing development in Locusta migratoria.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 May 2;179:136-143. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Key Laboratory of zoological Systematics and Application of Hebei Province, College of Life Sciences, Hebei University, Baoding, China; The International Centre for Precision Environmental Health and Governance, College of Life Sciences, Hebei University, Baoding, China. Electronic address:

Scalloped (Sd) is transcription factor that regulates cell proliferation and organ growth in the Hippo pathway. In the present research, LmSd was identified and characterized, and found to encode an N-terminal TEA domain and a C-terminal YBD domain. qRT-PCR showed that the LmSd transcription level was highest in the fifth-instar nymphs and very little was expressed in embryos. Tissue-specific analyses showed that LmSd was highly expressed in the wing. Immunohistochemistry indicated that LmSd was highly abundant in the head, prothorax, and legs during embryonic development. LmSd dsRNA injection resulted in significantly down-regulated transcription and protein expression levels compared with dsGFP injection. Gene silencing of LmSd resulted in deformed wings that were curved, wrinkled, and failed to fully expand. Approximately 40% of the nymphs had wing pads that were not able to close normally during molting from fifth-instar nymphs into adults. After silencing of LmSd, the transcription levels of cell division genes were suppressed and the expression levels of apoptosis genes were significantly up-regulated. Our results reveal that LmSd plays an important role in wing formation and development by controlling cell proliferation and inhibiting apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.02.174DOI Listing
May 2021

Blinatumomab-induced T cell activation at single cell transcriptome resolution.

BMC Genomics 2021 Mar 1;22(1):145. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Shanghai Institute of Hematology, State Key Laboratory for Medical Genomics, National Research Center for Translational Medicine, Collaborative Innovation Center of Hematology, RuiJin Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Building 11, No. 197, Ruijin No.2 Rd, Shanghai, 200025, P.R. China.

Background: Bi-specific T-cell engager (BiTE) antibody is a class of bispecific antibodies designed for cancer immunotherapy. Blinatumomab is the first approved BiTE to treat acute B cell lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). It brings killer T and target B cells into close proximity, activating patient's autologous T cells to kill malignant B cells via mechanisms such as cytolytic immune synapse formation and inflammatory cytokine production. However, the activated T-cell subtypes and the target cell-dependent T cell responses induced by blinatumomab, as well as the mechanisms of resistance to blinatumomab therapy are largely unknown.

Results: In this study, we performed single-cell sequencing analysis to identify transcriptional changes in T cells following blinatumomab-induced T cell activation using single cells from both, a human cell line model and a patient-derived model of blinatumomab-mediated cytotoxicity. In total, the transcriptome of 17,920 single T cells from the cell line model and 2271 single T cells from patient samples were analyzed. We found that CD8+ effector memory T cells, CD4+ central memory T cells, naïve T cells, and regulatory T cells were activated after blinatumomab treatment. Here, blinatumomab-induced transcriptional changes reflected the functional immune activity of the blinatumomab-activated T cells, including the upregulation of pathways such as the immune system, glycolysis, IFNA signaling, gap junctions, and IFNG signaling. Co-stimulatory (TNFRSF4 and TNFRSF18) and co-inhibitory (LAG3) receptors were similarly upregulated in blinatumomab-activated T cells, indicating ligand-dependent T cell functions. Particularly, B-ALL cell expression of TNFSF4, which encodes the ligand of T cell co-stimulatory receptor TNFRSF4, was found positively correlated with the response to blinatumomab treatment. Furthermore, recombinant human TNFSF4 protein enhanced the cytotoxic activity of blinatumomab against B-ALL cells.

Conclusion: These results reveal a target cell-dependent mechanism of T-cell activation by blinatumomab and suggest that TNFSF4 may be responsible for the resistant mechanism and a potential target for combination therapy with blinatumomab, to treat B-ALL or other B-cell malignancies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-021-07435-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7923532PMC
March 2021

Timosaponin AIII Induces G2/M Arrest and Apoptosis in Breast Cancer by Activating the ATM/Chk2 and p38 MAPK Signaling Pathways.

Front Pharmacol 2020 15;11:601468. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Department of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, School of Chinese Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, China.

Timosaponin AIII (TAIII), a steroidal saponin, exerts potent anti-tumor activity in various cancers, especially breast cancer. However, the concrete molecular mechanisms of TAIII against breast cancer are still unclear. Here, we find that TAIII triggers DNA damage, leads to G2/M arrest, and ultimately induces apoptosis in breast cancer both and . TAIII induced G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 cells accompanied with down-regulation of CyclinB1, Cdc2 and Cdc25C. Further data showed that the ATM/Chk2 and p38 pathways were activated representing by up-regulated levels of p-H2A.X and p-p38, which indicated an induction of DNA damage by TAIII, leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The effects of TAIII were further confirmed by employing inhibitors of ATM and p38 pathways. , TAIII suppressed the growth of subcutaneous xenograft tumor without obvious toxicity, which indicated by Ki67 and TUNEL analysis. Data also showed that TAIII stimulated the ATM/Chk2 and p38 MAPK pathways , which in consistent with the effects . Hence, our data demonstrate that TAIII triggers DNA damage and activates ATM/Chk2 and p38 MAPK pathways, and then induces G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis in breast cancer, which provide theoretical evidence for TAIII utilized as drug against breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.601468DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7898553PMC
January 2021

EGFR-specific single-chain variable fragment antibody-conjugated FeO/Au nanoparticles as an active MRI contrast agent for NSCLC.

MAGMA 2021 Feb 24. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Respiratory, Shenzhen University General Hospital, Shenzhen University, Xueyuan Ave. 1098, Shenzhen, 518055, Guangdong, China.

Overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is closely associated with a poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), thus making it a promising biomarker for NSCLC diagnosis. Here, we conjugated a single-chain antibody (scFv) targeting EGFR with FeO/Au nanoparticles to form an EGFR-specific molecular MRI bioprobe (scFv@FeO/Au) to better detect EGFR-positive NSCLC tumors in vivo. In vitro, we demonstrated that the EGFR-specific scFv could specifically deliver FeO/Au to EGFR-positive NSCLC cells. In vivo experiments showed that the accumulation of scFv@FeO/Au in tumor tissue was detectable by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at the indicated time points after systemic injection. The T2W signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of EGFR-positive SPC-A1 tumors was significantly decreased after scFv@FeO/Au injection, which was not observed in the tumors of mice injected with BSA@FeO/Au. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis showed the specific localization of scFv@FeO/Au in the SPC-A1 tumor cell cytoplasm. Collectively, the results of our study demonstrated that scFv@FeO/Au might be a useful probe for the noninvasive diagnosis of EGFP-positive NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10334-021-00916-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7902179PMC
February 2021

Thrombopoietin Promotes Cell Proliferation and Attenuates Apoptosis of Aplastic Anemia Serum-Treated 32D Cells via Activating STAT3/STAT5 Signaling Pathway and Modulating Apoptosis-Related Mediators.

Cell Transplant 2021 Jan-Dec;30:963689720980367

Department of Hematology, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu, China.

The present study aimed to investigate the effect and possible mechanism of recombinant human thrombopoietin (rhTPO) on mouse 32D cells (a mouse myeloid progenitor cell line) treated with serum from patients with aplastic anemia and to elucidate the potential mechanism of rhTPO in the treatment of aplastic anemia. After treatment with aplastic anemia serum, the apoptotic rate of 32D cells was increased and the proliferation of 32D cells was significantly inhibited. rhTPO reduced the apoptotic rate and promoted the proliferation of 32D cells, while rhTPO failed to restore the cell proliferation of 32D cells from aplastic anemia serum group to the normal level as compared to that from the normal serum group. The phosphorylation level of STAT3 protein was higher, and the phosphorylation level of STAT5 protein was lower in 32D cells from aplastic anemia serum group than that in normal serum group. After rhTPO treatment, the phosphorylation level of STAT3 protein in aplastic anemia serum group was decreased and the phosphorylation level of STAT5 protein was increased. The expression levels of Survivin and Bcl-2 were significantly decreased in 32D cells from aplastic anemia serum group, which were significantly increased after rhTPO treatment. The expression level of Bax protein in 32D cells from the normal serum group after rhTPO treatment was significantly decreased; while the mRNA expression level of Bax was not affected by rhTPO. The expression levels of Bax mRNA and protein were significantly up-regulated in 32D cells from aplastic anemia serum group, which was significantly decreased by rhTPO treatment. In conclusion, our results indicated that aplastic anemia serum impaired proliferative potential and enhanced apoptosis of 32D cells. Further mechanistic studies revealed that rhTPO promoted cell proliferation and attenuated apoptosis of aplastic anemia serum-treated 32D cells via activating STAT3/STAT5 signaling pathway and modulating apoptosis-related mediators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0963689720980367DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7890722PMC
February 2021

Identification and evaluation of midgut protein RL12 of Dermacentor silvarum interacting with Anaplasma ovis VirD4.

Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2021 05 27;12(3):101677. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Xujiaping 1, Lanzhou, Gansu, 730046, PR China; Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou, 225009, PR China. Electronic address:

Anaplasma ovis, a tick-borne intra-erythrocytic Gram-negative bacterium, is a causative agent of ovine anaplasmosis. It is known that Dermacentor ticks act as biological vectors for A. ovis. VirD4 is the machine component of Type IV Secretion System of A. ovis. To better understand the pathogen-vector interaction, VirD4 was used as a bait protein for screening midgut proteins of Dermacentor silvarum via yeast two-hybrid mating assay. As a result, a ribosomal protein RL12 was identified from the midgut cDNA library of D. silvarum. For further validation, using in vitro Glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down assay, interaction between the proteins, GST-RL12 and HIS-VirD4, was observed in Western blot analysis. The study is first of its kind reporting a D. silvarum midgut protein interaction with VirD4 from A. ovis. Functional annotations showed some important cellular processes are attributed to the protein, particularly in the stringent response and biogenesis. The results of the study suggest the involvement of the VirD4-RL12 interaction in the regulation of signaling pathways, which is a tool for understanding the pathogen-vector interaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2021.101677DOI Listing
May 2021

Absent pulmonary valve syndrome with tetralogy of fallot and patent ductus arteriosus at 14 weeks of gestation and follow-up 2 weeks later: Case report and review of literature.

Echocardiography 2021 Mar 5;38(3):484-487. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Department of Ultrasound, Shandong Provincial Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Jinan, China.

Classical absent pulmonary valve syndrome (APVS) with tetralogy of fallot (TOF) is a rare congenital cardiac anomaly commonly associated with the absence of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), which is mostly diagnosed after 20 weeks of gestation by fetal echocardiography. This case of APVS with TOF was suspected at 13 weeks of gestation and diagnosed at 14 weeks of gestation with an obvious PDA. The pulmonary arterial trunk and the branches did not dilate obviously. Fifteen days later, the PDA narrowed down with the discovery of pulmonary artery ectasia at the same time. This progress indicated that the absence of PDA is not necessary for the survival of APVS with TOF in utero, in contrast, the absence or restriction of PDA may be nothing less than adaptation to the disease. Fetal autopsy confirmed the accuracy of fetal echocardiography. Chromosome microarray analysis (CMA) showed 20p12 deletion in this fetus, which is rare among TOF cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/echo.14936DOI Listing
March 2021

Deletion of MicroRNA-144/451 Cluster Aggravated Brain Injury in Intracerebral Hemorrhage Mice by Targeting 14-3-3ζ.

Front Neurol 2020 12;11:551411. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Neurology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

This study aims at evaluating the importance and its underlying mechanism of the cluster of microRNA-144/451 (miR-144/451) in the models with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). A model of collagenase-induced mice with ICH and a model of mice with simple miR-144/451 gene knockout (KO) were used in this study. Neurodeficits and the water content of the brain of the mice in each group were detected 3 days after collagenase injection. The secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 1β (IL-1β), as well as certain biomarkers of oxidative stress, was determined in this study. The results revealed that the expression of miR-451 significantly decreased in the mice with ICH, whereas miR-144 showed no significant changes. KO of the cluster of miR-144/451 exacerbated the neurological deficits and brain edema in the mice with ICH. Further analyses demonstrated that the KO of the cluster of miR-144/451 significantly promoted the secretion of TNF-α and IL-1β and the oxidative stress in the perihematomal region of the mice with ICH. In addition, the miR-144/451's depletion inhibited the regulatory axis' activities of miR-451-14-3-3ζ-FoxO3 in the mice with ICH. In conclusion, these data demonstrated that miR-144/451 might protect the mice with ICH against neuroinflammation and oxidative stress by targeting the pathway of miR-451-14-3-3ζ-FoxO3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.551411DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7835478PMC
January 2021

[Comparison of the antigenicity of African swine fever virus p35 protein as diagnostic antigen].

Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao 2021 Jan;37(1):187-195

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology/Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou 730046, Gansu, China.

In order to screen African swine fever virus (ASFV) diagnostic antigen with the best enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) reactivity. By establishing the ELISA method, the diagnostic antigen of ASFV p30 protein expressed by baculovirus-insect cell expression system as reference, we explored the antigenic properties and diagnostic potential of ASFV p35 protein expressed by prokaryotic expression system as a diagnostic antigen. The results of Western blotting and immunofluorescence show that the molecular weight of the recombinant p35 protein and p30 protein obtained was 40 kDa and 30 kDa, respectively, and these two proteins had good immuno-reactivity with ASFV positive serum. Recombinant p30 and p35 proteins were used as diagnostic antigens to establish ELISA, and the sensitivity and repeatability of these methods were tested. The results show that although the detection sensitivity of the p30-ELISA established in this study was higher than that of the p35-ELISA, the sensitivity of p35-ELISA was 95.8%, and variations in intra- and inter-assay repeatability of the two methods were less than 10%. The coincidence rate between the p35-ELISA and the imported kit was 97.2%. Results show that p35-ELISA was sensitive and stable, and could detect specific antibodies against ASFV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13345/j.cjb.200359DOI Listing
January 2021

PD-L1 expression in angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 26;11(1):2183. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, MS 43, 4650 Sunset Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA, 90027, USA.

Angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma (AFH) is a rare tumor of intermediate malignancy. Treatment options for unresectable and/or metastatic tumors are very limited. Immunotherapy with PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors may be worth exploring. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of PD-L1 in AFHs. PD-L1 expression was assessed on 36 AFHs from 36 pediatric patients by immunohistochemical staining of PD-L1 (clone 22C3). Positivity was defined as membranous expression in ≥ 1% of either tumor or immune cells. The correlations between PD-L1 expression and clinicopathologic features were assessed. Two patients had lymph node metastasis. All patients underwent surgical resection; three of them also had systemic chemotherapy. Three patients had recurrence after initial resection; all patients were alive with a median follow-up of 2.5 years. Overall, twenty-two (61%) tumors were positively stained for PD-L1 and positivity was seen on both tumor and immune cells in eighteen of the 22 tumors. A positive correlation was found between tumor cell PD-L1 expression and CD8+ T-cell infiltration. There were no statistically significant differences between the status of PD-L1 expression and the clinicopathological features assessed. PD-L1 expression was identified in 61% of AFHs with a predominantly adaptive pattern. Our findings provide a rationale for future studies evaluating the potential of checkpoint immunotherapy for patients with unresectable and/or metastatic tumor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-81746-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7838166PMC
January 2021

Diosgenin Derivatives as Potential Antitumor Agents: Synthesis, Cytotoxicity, and Mechanism of Action.

J Nat Prod 2021 03 31;84(3):616-629. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Department of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, School of Chinese Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, People's Republic of China.

Thirty-two new diosgenin derivatives were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their cytotoxic activities in three human cancer cell lines (A549, MCF-7, and HepG2) and normal human liver cells (L02) using an MTT assay in vitro. Most compounds, especially , , , and , were more potent when compared with diosgenin. The structure-activity relationship results suggested that the presence of a succinic acid or glutaric acid linker, a piperazinyl amide terminus, and lipophilic cations are all beneficial for promoting cytotoxic activity. Notably, compound displayed excellent cytotoxic activity against HepG2 cells (IC = 1.9 μM) and showed relatively low toxicity against L02 cells (IC = 18.6 μM), showing some selectivity between normal and tumor cells. Studies on its cellular mechanism of action showed that compound induces G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Predictive studies indicated that p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is the optimum target of based on its 3D molecular similarity, and docking studies showed that compound fits well into the active site of p38α-MAPK and forms relatively strong interactions with the surrounding amino acid residues. Accordingly, compound may be used as a promising lead compound for the development of new antitumor agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jnatprod.0c00698DOI Listing
March 2021

Functional Connectivity Combined With a Machine Learning Algorithm Can Classify High-Risk First-Degree Relatives of Patients With Schizophrenia and Identify Correlates of Cognitive Impairments.

Front Neurosci 2020 23;14:577568. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Department of Psychiatry, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China.

Schizophrenia (SCZ) is an inherited disease, with the familial risk being among the most important factors when evaluating an individual's risk for SCZ. However, robust imaging biomarkers for the disease that can be used for diagnosis and determination of the prognosis are lacking. Here, we explore the potential of functional connectivity (FC) for use as a biomarker for the early detection of high-risk first-degree relatives (FDRs). Thirty-eight first-episode SCZ patients, 38 healthy controls (HCs), and 33 FDRs were scanned using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. The subjects' brains were parcellated into 200 regions using the Craddock atlas, and the FC between each pair of regions was used as a classification feature. Multivariate pattern analysis using leave-one-out cross-validation achieved a correct classification rate of 88.15% [sensitivity 84.06%, specificity 92.18%, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) 0.93] for differentiating SCZ patients from HCs. FC located within the default mode, frontal-parietal, auditory, and sensorimotor networks contributed mostly to the accurate classification. The FC patterns of each FDR were input into each classification model as test data to obtain a corresponding prediction label (a total of 76 individual classification scores), and the averaged individual classification score was then used as a robust measure to characterize whether each FDR showed an SCZ-type or HC-type FC pattern. A significant negative correlation was found between the average classification scores of the FDRs and their semantic fluency scores. These findings suggest that FC combined with a machine learning algorithm could help to predict whether FDRs are likely to show an SCZ-specific or HC-specific FC pattern.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2020.577568DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7725002PMC
November 2020

Piezoelectric potential enhanced photocatalytic performance based on ZnO with different nanostructures.

Nanotechnology 2021 Mar;32(13):135703

School of Geography Science and Geomatics Engineering, Su Zhou University of Science and Technology, No.99 Xuefu Road, SuZhou 215009, People's Republic of China.

In this paper, two novel nanostructures with ZnO nanowire and nanosheet arrays vertically growing on the FTO and Al foil have been synthesized by a hydrothermal method, which exhibit both the piezoelectric and photocatalytic properties. These nanostructures have typical wurtzite structures based on the XRD results. From the SEM results, the average diameter and length of nanowire have been measured to be about 150 nm and 4.5 μm, the thickness of ZnO nanosheet is about 50 nm and the width is about 5 μm. In the photocatalytic test, the photodegradation of RhB under 365 nm illumination for nanowire and nanosheet is about 25% and 37% in 80 min reaction. With stirring, the degradation rate is increased to 61% and 85%. Finally, the photocurrent test and finite element method were used to analyze the piezo-photodegradation mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/abd1abDOI Listing
March 2021

Subtle relationships between and fungi in patients with cystic fibrosis.

Acta Clin Belg 2020 Nov 26:1-11. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Department of Pharmacy, MedicalSupplies Center of Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China.

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the most common hereditary lung diseases. (PA), (AF) and (CA) are the principal bacterial and fungal pathogens in the airways of CF patients. The interactions of coexisting bacterial-fungal pathogens are of great interest. In the present work, we reviewed the literature of available and studies, whereas most of the reports have shown that PA inhibits the growth of fungi through restriction of iron uptake and secretion of toxic substances. Fungi may also affect the growth or virulence of PA through their secreted molecules. To clarify the bacterial-fungal interaction, more in-depth and detailed studies are still needed, which will provide a better understanding of species, microbial population dynamics, and related mechanisms in CF patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17843286.2020.1852850DOI Listing
November 2020

Baseline structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging predicts early treatment response in schizophrenia with radiomics strategy.

Eur J Neurosci 2021 Mar 24;53(6):1961-1975. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Department of Radiology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China.

Multimodal neuroimaging features provide opportunities for accurate classification and personalized treatment options in the psychiatric domain. This study aimed to investigate whether brain features predict responses to the overall treatment of schizophrenia at the end of the first or a single hospitalization. Structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data from two independent samples (N = 85 and 63, separately) of schizophrenia patients at baseline were included. After treatment, patients were classified as responders and non-responders. Radiomics features of gray matter morphology and functional connectivity were extracted using Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator. Support vector machine was used to explore the predictive performance. Prediction models were based on structural features (cortical thickness, surface area, gray matter regional volume, mean curvature, metric distortion, and sulcal depth), functional features (functional connectivity), and combined features. There were 12 features after dimensionality reduction. The structural features involved the right precuneus, cuneus, and inferior parietal lobule. The functional features predominately included inter-hemispheric connectivity. We observed a prediction accuracy of 80.38% (sensitivity: 87.28%; specificity 82.47%) for the model using functional features, and 69.68% (sensitivity: 83.96%; specificity: 72.41%) for the one using structural features. Our model combining both structural and functional features achieved a higher accuracy of 85.03%, with 92.04% responder and 80.23% non-responders to the overall treatment to be correctly predicted. These results highlight the power of structural and functional MRI-derived radiomics features to predict early response to treatment in schizophrenia. Prediction models of the very early treatment response in schizophrenia could augment effective therapeutic strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.15046DOI Listing
March 2021

Disrupted structural covariance network in first episode schizophrenia patients: Evidence from a large sample MRI-based morphometric study.

Schizophr Res 2020 10 14;224:24-32. Epub 2020 Nov 14.

Department of Radiology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China. Electronic address:

Background: Recent progress in neuroscience research has provided evidence that schizophrenia is a disease that involves dysconnectivity of brain networks. Widespread gray matter loss was commonly observed but how these gray matter abnormalities are characterized at the large-scale network-level in schizophrenia, especially patients with first-episode (FE-SCZ) remains unclear.

Methods: In this study, gray matter structural network aberrations were investigated by applying structural covariance network analysis to 193 first episode schizophrenia patients and 178 age and gender-matched healthy controls (HCs). The mean gray matter volume in seed regions relating to eight specific networks (visual, auditory, sensorimotor, speech, semantic, default-mode, executive control, and salience) were extracted, and voxel-wise analyses of covariance were conducted to compare the association between whole-brain gray matter volume and each seed region for FE-SCZ and HCs.

Results: The auditory network was less extended in FE-SCZ compared with HCs, with a significant decrease in the structural association between the Hesch's gyrus and the middle frontal gyrus and the superior frontal gyrus. Hyperconnectivity was observed in executive control network with a significant increase in the structural association between the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex and the superior frontal gyrus and supplementary motor area.

Conclusion: Our research shows that seed based structural covariance analysis can well characterize multiple large-scale networks, the observed changes might underly the hallucinations and cognitive impairments observed in FE-SCZ. Given that these patients were experiencing their first episode of schizophrenia, our findings suggest that such structural network deficits are present at an early stage in this disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2020.11.004DOI Listing
October 2020

Prognostic value of tumoral and peritumoral magnetic resonance parameters in osteosarcoma patients for monitoring chemotherapy response.

Eur Radiol 2021 May 4;31(5):3518-3529. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Department of Radiology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.

Objectives: To evaluate parameters of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) as early imaging indicators of tumor histologic response to pre-operative neoadjuvant chemotherapy and as probable prognostic factors for event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival in osteosarcoma (OS) in both tumoral and peritumoral areas.

Methods: Thirty-four OS patients who received three courses of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery during 2014-2018 were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent baseline and post-chemotherapy DWI and DCE-MRI. Lesion region was defined as the tumoral area and peritumoral area. Parameters of apparent diffusion coefficient, capacity transfer constant (Ktrans), elimination rate constant, extravascular extracellular space volume ratio (Ve), and initial area under the curve as well as corresponding differences between pre- and post-chemotherapy in lesion regions were evaluated. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to evaluate the diagnostic performance of these parameters. The associations of all parameters with tumor histologic response, EFS, and overall survival were also calculated.

Results: In the tumor area, moderate evidence was found that post-Ktrans was lower in responders as compared with that in poor responders (p = 0.04, false discovery rate [FDR] corrected), and ΔKtrans exhibited significant between-groups differences (p = 0.04, Bonferroni corrected; or p = 0.006, FDR corrected). Weak evidence for the between-groups difference was found in the Ve in the peritumoral area (p = 0.025 before treatment and p = 0.021 after treatment, uncorrected). Furthermore, lower post-Ktrans in the tumoral area and lower pre-Ve in the peritumoral area were significant prognostic indicators for longer EFS (p = 0.002, p = 0.026) and overall survival (p = 0.003, p = 0.023).

Conclusions: In OS, DWI and DCE-MRI parameters in both tumoral and peritumoral areas can reflect the chemotherapy response and prognosticate EFS and overall survival.

Key Points: • Peritumoral MRI parameters can reflect the chemotherapy response in OS patients. • Peritumoral MRI parameters can predict EFS and overall survival in OS patients. • MRI parameters may be predictive factors for evaluating chemotherapy efficacy and EFS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-020-07338-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8043923PMC
May 2021

Comparing cell-free circulating tumor DNA mutational profiles of disease-free and nonresponders patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

Laryngoscope Investig Otolaryngol 2020 Oct 1;5(5):868-878. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery LSU-Health Shreveport Shreveport Louisiana USA.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether somatic nonsynonymous variants in tumor tissue can potentially be identified in circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) of head and neck oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) patients using next-generation sequencing and can predict recurrence or persistence disease.

Methods: A total of 22 OPSCC patients with tumor tissue and respective plasma samples were included in this study. Matching cfDNA and tumor tissues were processed, and DNA sequencing was conducted using the MiSeq platform. Variants were identified using Biomedical Genomic Workbench and Genialis's online data analysis platform for Swift Biosciences' Accel-amplicon panels.

Results: Among 11 nonresponders, 6 matched mutations were detected in 5 patients suggesting a predictive factor for patients with likelihood of recurrence. The matched variants and their allele frequencies identified in the nonresponder group were (tumor DNA/cfDNA in %): TP53 G325fs (27/0.62), TP53 R282W (48/1.74), TP53 R273C (39/2.17), FBXW7 R505G (30/0.6), FBXW7 R505L (31/0.65), and TP53 Q331H (56.5/0.52). Interestingly, the matched somatic mutations were only detected in patients who did not respond to therapy or had persistent disease.

Conclusions: Somatic nonsynonymous variants in tumor tissue can potentially be identified in cfDNA of OPSCC patients using NGS. The likelihood of variant detection in cfDNA is greater in nonresponders, especially in human papillomavirus-negative nonresponders, rendering it beneficial as a less invasive detection method for disease persistence/recurrence and prognosis.

Level Of Evidence: Cohort study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lio2.447DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7585239PMC
October 2020

Impact of cap-assisted colonoscopy during transendoscopic enteral tubing: A randomized controlled trial.

World J Gastroenterol 2020 Oct;26(39):6098-6110

Medical Center for Digestive Diseases, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210011, Jiangsu Province, China.

Background: Colonic transendoscopic enteral tubing (TET) requires double cecal intubation, raising a common concern of how to save cecal intubation time and make the tube stable. We hypothesized that cap-assisted colonoscopy (CC) might reduce the second cecal intubation time and bring potential benefits during the TET procedure.

Aim: To investigate if CC can decrease the second cecal intubation time compared with regular colonoscopy (RC).

Methods: This prospective multicenter, randomized controlled trial was performed at four centers. Subjects ≥ 7 years needing colonic TET were recruited from August 2018 to January 2020. All subjects were randomly assigned to two groups. The primary outcome was the second cecal intubation time. Secondary outcomes included success rate, insertion pain score, single clip fixation time, purpose and retention time of TET tube, length of TET tube inserted into the colon, and all procedure-related (serious) adverse events.

Results: A total of 331 subjects were randomized to the RC ( = 165) or CC ( = 166) group. The median time of the second cecal intubation was significantly shorter for CC than RC (2.2 min 2.8 min, < 0.001). In patients with constipation, the median time of second cecal intubation in the CC group ( = 50) was shorter than that in the RC group ( = 43) (2.6 min 3.8 min, = 0.004). However, no difference was observed in the CC ( = 42) and RC ( = 46) groups of ulcerative colitis patients (2.0 min 2.5 min, = 0.152). The insertion pain score during the procedure in CC ( = 14) was lower than that in RC ( = 19) in unsedated colonoscopy (3.8 ± 1.7 5.4 ± 1.9; = 0.015). Multivariate analysis revealed that only CC (odds ratio [OR]: 2.250, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.161-4.360; = 0.016) was an independent factor affecting the second cecal intubation time in difficult colonoscopy. CC did not affect the colonic TET tube's retention time and length of the tube inserted into the colon. Moreover, multivariate analysis found that only endoscopic clip number (OR: 2.201, 95%CI: 1.541-3.143; < 0.001) was an independent factor affecting the retention time. Multiple regression analysis showed that height (OR: 1.144, 95%CI: 1.027-1.275; = 0.014) was the only independent factor influencing the length of TET tube inserted into the colon in adults.

Conclusion: CC for colonic TET procedure is a safe and less painful technique, which can reduce cecal intubation time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v26.i39.6098DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7584059PMC
October 2020

Graphene-facilitated synthesized vertically aligned hexagonal boron nitride nanowalls and their gas adsorption properties.

Nanotechnology 2021 Feb;32(6):065601

State Key Lab of Superhard Materials, College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, People's Republic of China.

The capability of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) to adsorb gas atoms may stimulate various promising applications in environment remediation and energy storage, while the interactivity with gas molecules yet remains challenging due to its inherent chemical inertness. In this article, we report a feasible and effective route for the scalable synthesis of vertically aligned h-BN nanowalls assisted by reduced graphene oxide (rGO) without metallic catalysts. The average thickness of the fine h-BN nanowalls is few-atomic layers about 3.7 nm, that grow on the large substrate-like flakes transformed from the pristine rGO. The hierarchical h-BN nanowalls exhibit an enhanced gas adsorption performance, not only through physisorption owing to the synergistic combination of different porous geometries, but also through chemisorption via the open edge groups. Moreover, it demonstrates a significantly enhanced adsorption of CO over CH as compared to the h-BN nanosheets with similar sizes. Density functional theory calculations reveal that the -OH edge groups can effectively increase the adsorption capability towards CO, accompanied by a shortened adsorption distance when the gas molecule is energetically stabilized. The wetting characteristics of h-BN nanowalls was further examined by contact angle goniometry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/abc387DOI Listing
February 2021

Four new pyrrole alkaloids from the rhizomes of Amomum koenigii.

J Nat Med 2021 Jan 21;75(1):173-177. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Natural Products & Chemical Biology, College of Chemistry & Pharmacy, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, 712100, China.

Four new pyrrole alkaloids, named amokoens A-D (1-4), together with three known compounds (5-7) were isolated from the rhizomes of Amomum koenigii. Their structures and absolute configurations were established by spectroscopic data, including 1D and 2D NMR, and the optical rotation calculations. All the isolates were evaluated for their effects on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW264.7 macrophages. Compounds 1-7 inhibited NO production ranging from 27.1 to 82.4% at a concentration of 100 μM, and compounds 5 and 6 showed efficacious inhibitory activities with IC values of 42.2 and 69.3 µM, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11418-020-01461-2DOI Listing
January 2021