Publications by authors named "Hong Sun"

1,315 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the professional intention of medical and related students.

BMC Med Educ 2021 Sep 9;21(1):484. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Physiology, School of Basic Medicine, Xuzhou Medical University, No.209 of Tongshan Road, Xuzhou, 221004, Jiangsu, China.

Background: The outbreak of COVID-19 has led to increased workload and infection risks among medical staff. This situation may influence current medical and health-related students' decision on the choices of their future careers. Hence, this study investigated the impact of COVID-19 on their future career intentions.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional observational study that included medical and health-related students from three universities between October 2020 and January 2021. The study questionnaire was divided into two main sections: Section 1, which comprised students' basic information. And section 2 focused mainly on the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on students' professional intentions. The chi-squared χ test was used to compare the responses before and after the pandemic outbreak among Chinese and non-Chinese students.

Results: In overall, 1253 students completed the questionnaires. The responses showed that the number of students who preferred clinical medicine, public health, pharmacy and oral medicine increased significantly after the pandemic outbreak. In contrast, the number of students who chose nursing and medical technology decreased significantly. The change mainly occurred in Chinese students, predominantly females. Half of students (50.35%) were more willing to engage in medical and health work after completing their current program. Also, 36.39% of students felt that knowledge was too limited in the pandemic's face and would like to continue studying after graduation to gain more knowledge. Due to the pandemic, 34.18% of students would like a future workplace near their hometown, and 19.63% preferred to work in urban areas.

Conclusion: The COVID-19 outbreak impacted current medical and health-related students' career planning on their future workplaces and employment time choices. Additionally, the pandemic influenced the intention of Chinese students in choosing their future careers. This study provided the basis for the policymaking, specialty setting of colleges and supplied the medical health department's talent reserve information.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12909-021-02922-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8428501PMC
September 2021

Revealing modifier variations characterizations for elucidating the genetic basis of human phenotypic variations.

Hum Genet 2021 Sep 8. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Shanghai Children's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200062, China.

Epistatic interactions complicate the identification of variants involved in phenotypic effect. In-depth knowledge in modifiers and in pathogenic variants would benefit the mechanistic studies on the genetic basis of complex traits. We systematically compared the modifier variants which have evidence of modifier effect with the pathogenic variants from multiple angles. Our study found that genomic loci of modifier variations differ from pathogenic loci in many aspects, such as population genetics statistics, epigenetic features, evolutionary characteristics and functional properties of the variations. Genes containing modifier variation(s) exhibit higher probability of being haploinsufficient and higher probability of recessive disease causation, and they are relatively more important in network communication. Furthermore, we reinforced that co-expression analysis is an effective methodology to predict functional associations between modifier genes and their potential target genes. In many aspects, we detected statistically significant differences between modifier variants/genes and pathogenic variants/genes, and investigated relationships between modifiers and their potential targets. Our results offer some actionable insights that may provide appropriate guidelines to clinical genetics and researchers to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the human phenotypic variation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00439-021-02362-4DOI Listing
September 2021

Lipid Accumulation Product Combined With Urine Glucose Excretion Improves the Efficiency of Diabetes Screening in Chinese Adults.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 23;12:691849. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Department of Endocrinology, Zhongda Hospital, Institute of Diabetes, Medical School, Southeast University, Nanjing, China.

Background: To compare the efficacy of lipid accumulation product (LAP) and urine glucose excretion (UGE) in predicting diabetes and evaluate whether the combination of LAP and UGE would help to improve the efficacy of using LAP alone or UGE alone in identifying diabetes.

Methods: Data from 7485 individuals without prior history of diabetes who participated in a cross-sectional survey in Jiangsu, China, were analyzed. Each participant underwent an oral glucose-tolerance test. Operating characteristic curves (ROC) and logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the performance of LAP and UGE in identification of newly diagnosed diabetes (NDM) and prediabetes (PDM).

Results: For subjects with NDM, the area under the ROC curve was 0.72 for LAP and 0.85 for UGE, whereas for PDM, these values were 0.62 and 0.61, respectively. Furthermore, LAP exhibited a comparable sensitivity with UGE in detecting NDM (76.4% 76.2%, p = 0.31). In predicting PDM, LAP showed a higher sensitivity than UGE (66.4% 42.8%, p < 0.05). The combination of LAP and UGE demonstrated a significantly higher sensitivity than that of LAP alone and UGE alone for identification of NDM (93.6%) and PDM (80.1%). Moreover, individuals with both high LAP and high UGE had significantly increased risk of NDM and PDM than those with both low LAP and low UGE.

Conclusions: The combination of LAP and UGE substantially improved the efficacy of using LAP and using UGE alone in detecting diabetes, and may be a novel approach for mass screening in the general population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2021.691849DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8419462PMC
August 2021

On Preliminary Findings of mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine Safety in Pregnant Persons.

Authors:
Hong Sun

N Engl J Med 2021 Sep 8. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Dedalus Healthcare, Antwerp, Belgium.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc2113516DOI Listing
September 2021

Ccq1-Raf2 interaction mediates CLRC recruitment to establish heterochromatin at telomeres.

Life Sci Alliance 2021 11 7;4(11). Epub 2021 Sep 7.

State Key Laboratory of Oncogenes and Related Genes, Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China

Telomeres, highly ordered DNA-protein complexes at eukaryotic linear chromosome ends, are specialized heterochromatin loci conserved among eukaryotes. In , the shelterin complex is important for subtelomeric heterochromatin establishment. Despite shelterin has been demonstrated to mediate the recruitment of the Snf2/histone deacetylase-containing repressor complex (SHREC) and the Clr4 methyltransferase complex (CLRC) to telomeres, the mechanism involved in telomeric heterochromatin assembly remains elusive due to the multiple functions of the shelterin complex. Here, we found that CLRC plays a dominant role in heterochromatin establishment at telomeres. In addition, we identified a series of amino acids in the shelterin subunit Ccq1 that are important for the specific interaction between Ccq1 and the CLRC subunit Raf2. Finally, we demonstrated that the Ccq1-Raf2 interaction is essential for the recruitment of CLRC to telomeres, that contributes to histone H3 lysine 9 methylation, nucleosome stability and the shelterin-chromatin association, promoting a positive feedback mechanism for the nucleation and spreading of heterochromatin at subtelomeres. Together, our findings provide a mechanistic understanding of subtelomeric heterochromatin assembly by shelterin-dependent CLRC recruitment to chromosomal ends.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.26508/lsa.202101106DOI Listing
November 2021

Identifying active xenobiotics in humans by use of a suspect screening technique coupled with lipidomic analysis.

Environ Int 2021 Aug 26;157:106844. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, 210094 Nanjing, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Lipidomic analysis has been proven to be a powerful technique to explore the underlying associations between xenobiotics and health status of organisms. Here, we established a strategy that combined the lipidomic analysis with high-throughput suspect contaminant screening technique with an aim to efficiently identify active xenobiotics in humans. Firstly, in the light of single liquid phase equilibrium of chloroform-methanol-water (15:14:2, v/v/v), we developed an efficient method that was able to simultaneously extract both polar and nonpolar lipids in serum samples. By use of this method, targeted and non-targeted lipid analyses were conducted for n = 120 serum samples collected from Wuxi city, China. Secondly, we established a suspect database containing 1450 contaminants that have been previously reported in human samples, and contaminants in this database were screened in the same batch of serum samples by use of high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS). Thirdly, the underlying associations between suspect contaminants and lipids were explored and discussed, and we observed that levels of some lipids were statistically correlated with concentrations of numerous contaminants. Among these active contaminants, 23 ones were identified on the basis of HR MS and MS characteristics, and these contaminants belonged to the classes of phthalates, phenols, parabens, or perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). Three active xenobiotics were fully validated by comparison with authentic standards, and they were perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and diethyl phthalate (DEP). There were statistically significant changes in levels of triglyceride (TG), lysophosphocholine (LPC), and sphingomyelin (SM) as peak areas of xenobiotics increase. We also observed that, among target lipid molecules, 18:0 lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE(18:0)) was very sensitive, and this lipid responded to exposure of various contaminants. Our present study provides novel knowledge on potential alteration of lipid metabolism in humans following exposure to xenobiotics, and provides an efficient strategy for efficiently identifying active xenobiotics in humans.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2021.106844DOI Listing
August 2021

Predicting Impacts of Climate Change on Northward Range Expansion of Invasive Weeds in South Korea.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Aug 5;10(8). Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Institute of Ecological Phytochemistry, Hankyong National University, Anseong-si 17579, Gyeonggi-do, Korea.

Predicting the distribution of invasive weeds under climate change is important for the early identification of areas that are susceptible to invasion and for the adoption of the best preventive measures. Here, we predicted the habitat suitability of 16 invasive weeds in response to climate change and land cover changes in South Korea using a maximum entropy modeling approach. Based on the predictions of the model, climate change is likely to increase habitat suitability. Currently, the area of moderately suitable and highly suitable habitats is estimated to be 8877.46 km, and 990.29 km, respectively, and these areas are expected to increase up to 496.52% by 2050 and 1439.65% by 2070 under the representative concentration pathways 4.5 scenario across the country. Although habitat suitability was estimated to be highest in the southern regions (<36° latitude), the central and northern regions are also predicted to have substantial increases in suitable habitat areas. Our study revealed that climate change would exacerbate the threat of northward weed invasions by shifting the climatic barriers of invasive weeds from the southern region. Thus, it is essential to initiate control and management strategies in the southern region to prevent further invasions into new areas.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10081604DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8401637PMC
August 2021

IP-10 Promotes Latent HIV Infection in Resting Memory CD4 T Cells LIMK-Cofilin Pathway.

Front Immunol 2021 10;12:656663. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

NHC Key Laboratory of AIDS Immunology (China Medical University), National Clinical Research Center for Laboratory Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

A major barrier to HIV eradication is the persistence of viral reservoirs. Resting CD4 T cells are thought to be one of the major viral reservoirs, However, the underlying mechanism regulating HIV infection and the establishment of viral reservoir in T cells remain poorly understood. We have investigated the role of IP-10 in the establishment of HIV reservoirs in CD4 T cells, and found that in HIV-infected individuals, plasma IP-10 was elevated, and positively correlated with HIV viral load and viral reservoir size. In addition, we found that binding of IP-10 to CXCR3 enhanced HIV latent infection of resting CD4 T cells Mechanistically, IP-10 stimulation promoted cofilin activity and actin dynamics, facilitating HIV entry and DNA integration. Moreover, treatment of resting CD4 T cells with a LIM kinase inhibitor R10015 blocked cofilin phosphorylation and abrogated IP-10-mediated enhancement of HIV latent infection. These results suggest that IP-10 is a critical factor involved in HIV latent infection, and that therapeutic targeting of IP-10 may be a potential strategy for inhibiting HIV latent infection.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.656663DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8383741PMC
August 2021

RIPK3 activation induces TRIM28 derepression in cancer cells and enhances the anti-tumor microenvironment.

Mol Cancer 2021 08 21;20(1):107. Epub 2021 Aug 21.

Department of Biochemistry, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, 16499, South Korea.

Background: Necroptosis is emerging as a new target for cancer immunotherapy as it is now recognized as a form of cell death that increases tumor immunogenicity, which would be especially helpful in treating immune-desert tumors. De novo synthesis of inflammatory proteins during necroptosis appears especially important in facilitating increased anti-tumor immune responses. While late-stage transcription mediated by NF-κB during cell death is believed to play a role in this process, it is otherwise unclear what cell signaling events initiate this transactivation of inflammatory genes.

Methods: We employed tandem-affinity purification linked to mass spectrometry (TAP-MS), in combination with the analysis of RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) datasets to identify the Tripartite Motif Protein 28 (TRIM28) as a candidate co-repressor. Comprehensive biochemical and molecular biology techniques were used to characterize the role of TRIM28 in RIPK3 activation-induced transcriptional and immunomodulatory events. The cell composition estimation module was used to evaluate the correlation between RIPK3/TRIM28 levels and CD8 T cells or dendritic cells (DC) in all TCGA tumors.

Results: We identified TRIM28 as a co-repressor that regulates transcriptional activity during necroptosis. Activated RIPK3 phosphorylates TRIM28 on serine 473, inhibiting its chromatin binding activity, thereby contributing to the transactivation of NF-κB and other transcription factors, such as SOX9. This leads to elevated cytokine expression, which then potentiates immunoregulatory processes, such as DC maturation. The expression of RIPK3 has a significant positive association with the tumor-infiltrating immune cells populations in various tumor type, thereby activating anti-cancer responses.

Conclusion: Our data suggest that RIPK3 activation-dependent derepression of TRIM28 in cancer cells leads to increased immunostimulatory cytokine production in the tumor microenvironment, which then contributes to robust cytotoxic anti-tumor immunity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12943-021-01399-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8379748PMC
August 2021

Enhanced Bioreduction of Radionuclides by Driving Microbial Extracellular Electron Pumping with an Engineered CRISPR Platform.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 09 11;55(17):11997-12008. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

CAS Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Department of Environmental Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China.

Dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria (DMRB) with extracellular electron transfer (EET) capability show great potential in bioremediating the subsurface environments contaminated by uranium through bioreduction and precipitation of hexavalent uranium [U(VI)]. However, the low EET efficiency of DMRB remains a bottleneck for their applications. Herein, we develop an engineered CRISPR platform to drive the extracellular electron pumping of , a representative DMRB species widely present in aquatic environments. The CRISPR platform allows for highly efficient and multiplex genome editing and rapid platform elimination post-editing in . Enabled by such a platform, a genomic promoter engineering strategy (GPS) for genome-widely engineering the EET-encoding gene network was established. The production of electron conductive Mtr complex, synthesis of electron shuttle flavin, and generation of NADH as intracellular electron carrier are globally optimized and promoted, leading to a significantly enhanced EET ability. Applied to U(VI) bioreduction, the edited strains achieve up to 3.62-fold higher reduction capacity over the control. Our work endows DMRB with an enhanced ability to remediate the radionuclides-contaminated environments and provides a gene editing approach to handle the growing environmental challenges of radionuclide contaminations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c03713DOI Listing
September 2021

Adjustment is required to calculate the risk of early pregnancy loss with COVID-19 infection or vaccination.

Authors:
Hong Sun

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Division of Clinical Analytics, Dedalus HealthCare, Roderveldlaan 2, Antwerp 2600, Belgium. Electronic address:

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2021.08.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8330150PMC
August 2021

Validation of a redesigned pan-poliovirus assay and real-time PCR platforms for the global poliovirus laboratory network.

PLoS One 2021 6;16(8):e0255795. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.

Surveillance and detection of polioviruses (PV) remain crucial to monitoring eradication progress. Intratypic differentiation (ITD) using the real-time RT-PCR kit is key to the surveillance workflow, where viruses are screened after cell culture isolation before a subset are verified by sequencing. The ITD kit is a series of real-time RT-PCR assays that screens cytopathic effect (CPE)-positive cell cultures using the standard WHO method for virus isolation. Because ITD screening is a critical procedure in the poliovirus identification workflow, validation of performance of real-time PCR platforms is a core requirement for the detection of poliovirus using the ITD kit. In addition, the continual update and improvement of the ITD assays to simplify interpretation in all platforms is necessary to ensure that all real-time machines are capable of detecting positive real-time signals. Four platforms (ABI7500 real-time systems, Bio-Rad CFX96, Stratagene MX3000P, and the Qiagen Rotor-Gene Q) were validated with the ITD kit and a redesigned poliovirus probe. The poliovirus probe in the real-time RT-PCR pan-poliovirus (PanPV) assay was re-designed with a double-quencher (Zen™) to reduce background fluorescence and potential false negatives. The updated PanPV probe was evaluated with a panel consisting of 184 polioviruses and non-polio enteroviruses. To further validate the updated PanPV probe, the new assay was pilot tested in five Global Polio Laboratory Network (GPLN) laboratories (Madagascar, India, Philippines, Pakistan, and Democratic Republic of Congo). The updated PanPV probe performance was shown to reduce background fluorescence and decrease the number of false positives compared to the standard PanPV probe.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0255795PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8345876PMC
August 2021

TUG1 knockdown suppresses cardiac fibrosis after myocardial infarction.

Mamm Genome 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Emergency, The Affiliated Huaian No.1 People's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, No.1, Huanghe West Road, Huaiyin District, Huai'an, 223300, Jiangsu, China.

Cardiac fibrosis is involved in myocardial remodeling following acute myocardial infarction (AMI), which can result in heart failure, arrhythmias and even sudden cardiac death. Investigating the molecular mechanisms of cardiac fibrosis in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is essential for better understanding this pathology. The current study aims to investigate the effect of TUG1 on cardiac fibrosis after AMI and elucidated the underlying molecular mechanism of AMI. Rats were randomly divided into four groups (sham-operation group, myocardial infarction group (AMI group), si-NC treated group and si-TUG1 treated group). The biological behavior of cardiac fibroblasts treated with TGF-β1after being transfected by si-TUG1 or miR-590 mimic or miR-590 inhibitor or FGF1 mimic or a combination was evaluated using the cell counting kit-8 (CCK8) and Transwell assays. SatarBase v2.0 was used to predict the target microRNAs binding site candidates with TUG1 and FGF1. Western blot and recovery experiments were used to explore the potential mechanism. TUG1 expression was up-regulated and knockdown of TUG1 improved cardiac function in AMI rats. Knockdown of TUG1 suppressed cell viability and migration and improved collagen production of TGF-β1 treated cardiac fibroblasts. SatarBase v2.0 showed TUG1 served as a sponge for miR-590 and FGF1 is a direct target of miR-590. TUG1 expression was increased in AMI tissue and cardiac fibroblasts treated with TGF-β1. TUG1 knockdown suppressed the biological process of cardiac fibroblasts treated with TGF-β1 by sponging miR-590.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00335-021-09895-zDOI Listing
August 2021

Artificial intelligence predicts delirium following cardiac surgery: A case study.

J Clin Anesth 2021 Jul 29;75:110473. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Institute of Anesthesiology and Pain Therapy, Heart and Diabetes Center Bad Oeynhausen, NRW, Ruhr-University Bochum, Georgstraße 11, 32545, NRW, Germany. Electronic address:

Delirium is a highly relevant complication of surgical interventions. Current research indicates that despite increased awareness for delirium, it is often overlooked. We implemented an AI-based tool to monitor delirium in cardiac surgery patients in our specialist clinic. This appears to be a promising approach to improve detection of delirium, especially for underrecognized forms and in peripheral wards without intensive screening. We present a case in which the AI identified delirium, confirmed by our routine screening and specialist evaluation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinane.2021.110473DOI Listing
July 2021

/ depletion in β cells alleviates ER stress and corrects hepatic steatosis in mice.

Sci Transl Med 2021 07;13(604)

Degenerative Diseases Program, Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute, 10901 N. Torrey Pines Rd., La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance (IR). During the early phase of T2D, insulin synthesis and secretion by pancreatic β cells is enhanced, which can lead to proinsulin misfolding that aggravates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein homeostasis in β cells. Moreover, increased circulating insulin may contribute to fatty liver disease. Medical interventions aimed at alleviating ER stress in β cells while maintaining optimal insulin secretion are therefore an attractive therapeutic strategy for T2D. Previously, we demonstrated that germline gene deletion preserved β cells in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice and in leptin receptor-deficient mice. In the current study, we further investigated whether targeting specifically in murine β cells conferred therapeutic benefits. First, we showed that deletion in β cells alleviated β cell ER stress and delayed glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in HFD-fed mice. Second, β cell-specific deletion prevented liver steatosis and hepatomegaly in aged HFD-fed mice without affecting basal glucose homeostasis. Third, we provide mechanistic evidence that depletion reduces ER Ca buffering capacity and modulates glucose-induced islet Ca oscillations, leading to transcriptional changes of ER chaperone profile ("ER remodeling"). Last, we demonstrated that a GLP1-conjugated antisense oligonucleotide strategy recapitulated the reduction in liver triglycerides and pancreatic insulin content. In summary, our results demonstrate that depletion in β cells provides a therapeutic strategy to alleviate dysregulated insulin secretion and consequent fatty liver disease in T2D.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.aba9796DOI Listing
July 2021

High-entropy RO-YO-TiO-ZrO-AlO glasses with ultrahigh hardness, Young's modulus, and indentation fracture toughness.

iScience 2021 Jul 17;24(7):102735. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

CAS Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, National Engineering Laboratory for Hydrometallurgical Cleaner Production Technology, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, P. R. China.

Glasses with high hardness, high Young's modulus, and high fracture toughness become crucial materials which are urgently needed in the protective covers for various electronic displays. Here, a paradigm is presented that the conceptual design of high-entropy materials is adaptable to high performance oxide glasses. We designed the multi-component glass compositions of 18.77RO-4.83YO-28.22TiO-8.75ZrO-39.43AlO (R = La, Sm, Gd) and elaborated successfully the glassy samples through a containerless solidification process. The as-prepared samples demonstrated the outstanding mechanical and optical properties. The measured hardness, Young's modulus, and indentation fracture toughness of the high-entropy (R = Gd) glass are 12.58 GPa, 177.9 GPa, and 1.52 MPa·m, respectively, in which the hardness and Young's modulus exhibit the highest value among the reported oxide glasses. Structural analysis revealed that the excellent mechanical properties are attributed to the large dissociation energies and the high field strength of AlO, TiO, and ZrO and the complex interaction between atoms caused by high entropy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2021.102735DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8258677PMC
July 2021

Risk factors of pregnancy failure in elderly infertility patients undergoing human assisted reproductive technology.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(6):7306-7311. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Reproductive Medicine, Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Hubei Province Wuhan, Hubei Province, China.

Objective: To investigate the risk factors of pregnancy failure in elderly infertile patients undergoing human assisted reproductive technology (ART).

Methods: A total of 565 infertile patients undergoing ART were selected and divided into failed pregnancy group (127 cases) and continued pregnancy group (438 cases). Their clinical data were collected, and the influencing factors of pregnancy failure were assessed and compared by univariate and multivariate analysis.

Results: The success and failure rates of in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) in pregnant women were 79.44% and 20.56%, while those of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) were 75.96% and 24.04%, respectively. There was no remarkable difference between them (all P>0.05). Women's age, numbers of embryos transferred and previous abortion history in the failed pregnancy group were higher than those in the continued pregnancy group, while the number of high-quality embryos, BMI and endometrial thickness (EMT) on human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) day in the former were lower (all P<0.05).

Conclusion: The risk factors of ART pregnancy failure in elderly infertility patients are related to woman's age, numbers of embryos transferred, previous pregnancy abortion history, numbers of high-quality embryos and EMT on hCG day.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8290767PMC
June 2021

Cumulative effects of ambient particulate matter pollution on deaths: A multicity analysis of mortality displacement.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 20;286(Pt 1):131615. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Jiangsu Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Jiangsu Road 172, 210009, Nanjing, PR China. Electronic address:

Background: Systematic evaluations of the cumulative effects and mortality displacement of ambient particulate matter (PM) pollution on deaths are lacking. We aimed to discern the cumulative effect profile of PM exposure, and investigate the presence of mortality displacement in a large-scale population.

Methods: We conducted a time-series analysis with different exposure-lag models on 13 cities in Jiangsu, China, to estimate the effects of PM pollution on non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality (2015-2019). Over-dispersed Poisson generalized additive models were integrated with distributed lag models to estimate cumulative exposure effects, and assess mortality displacement.

Results: Pooled cumulative effect estimates with lags of 0-7 and 0-14 days were substantially larger than those with single-day and 2-day moving average lags. For each 10 μg/m increment in PM concentration with a cumulative lag of 0-7 days, we estimated an increase of 0.50 % (95 % CI: 0.29, 0.72), 0.63 % (95 % CI: 0.38, 0.88), and 0.50 % (95 % CI: 0.01, 1.01) in pooled estimates of non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality, respectively. Both PM and PM were associated with significant increases in non-accidental and cardiovascular mortality with a cumulative lag of 0-14 days. We observed mortality displacement within 30 days for non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory deaths.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that risk assessment based on single-day or 2-day moving average lag structures may underestimate the adverse effects of PM pollution. The cumulative effects of PM exposure on non-accidental and cardiovascular mortality can last up to 14 days. Evidence of mortality displacement for non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory deaths was found.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131615DOI Listing
July 2021

Dynorphin A (1-8) inhibits oxidative stress and apoptosis in MCAO rats, affording neuroprotection through NMDA receptor and κ-opioid receptor channels.

Neuropeptides 2021 Oct 16;89:102182. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Neurology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710004, China. Electronic address:

The contents of Dynorphin A(1-8) decreased gradually in ischemic cortices in rats and an intracerebroventricular administration of synthetic Dynorphin A(1-8) reduced the volume of cerebral infarction in our previous research. However, the specific protective mechanism is unclear and Dynorphin A(1-8) is unlikely to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) by noninvasive oral or intravenous administration as a macromolecule neuropeptide. In this study, intranasal administration was used to middle cerebral artery occlusion(MCAO) rats to assessed the therapeutic effects of Dynorphin A(1-8) by evaluating behavior, volume of cerebral infarct, cerebral edema ratio, histological observation. Then apoptosis neuron rate was detected by TUNEL staining. Immunohistochemical staining was carried out to explore the alteration of Bcl-2, Bax and Caspase-3. Finally, κ-opioid receptor antagonist and N-methyl-d-aspartate(NMDA) receptor antagonist were used to explore its possible mechanism. We found that MCAO rats under intranasal administration of Dynorphin A(1-8) showed better behavioral improvement, higher extent of Bcl-2, activity of SOD along with much lower level of infarction volume, brain water content, number of cell apoptosis, extent of Bax and Caspase-3, and concentration of MDA compared with those in MCAO model group and intravenous Dynorphin A(1-8) group. Administration of nor-BNI or MK-801 reversed these neuroprotective effects of intranasal Dynorphin A(1-8). In summary, Dynorphin A(1-8), with advantages of intranasal administration, could be effectively delivered to central nervous system(CNS). Dynorphin A(1-8) inhibited oxidative stress and apoptosis against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, affording neuroprotection through NMDA receptor and κ-opioid receptor channels.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.npep.2021.102182DOI Listing
October 2021

Physical multimorbidity and incident urinary incontinence among community-dwelling adults aged ≥50 years: findings from a prospective analysis of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing.

Age Ageing 2021 Jul 17. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Research and Development Unit, Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, CIBERSAM, 08830 Barcelona, Spain.

Background: There are no prospective studies on the association between multimorbidity and urinary incontinence (UI), while mediators in this association are unknown. Thus, we aimed to (i) investigate the longitudinal association between multimorbidity and UI in a large sample of Irish adults aged ≥50 years and (ii) investigate to what extent physical activity, polypharmacy, cognitive function, sleep problems, handgrip strength and disability mediate the association.

Methods: Data on 5,946 adults aged ≥50 years old from the Irish Longitudinal Study on Aging were analysed. The baseline survey was conducted between 2009 and 2011 and follow-up after 2 years was conducted. Information on self-reported occurrence of UI in the past 12 months and lifetime diagnosis of 14 chronic conditions were obtained. Multivariable logistic regression and mediation analysis were conducted.

Results: After adjustment for potential confounders, compared to having no chronic conditions at baseline, having three (odds ratio [OR] = 1.79; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.30-2.48) and four or more (OR = 1.86; 95% CI = 1.32-2.60), chronic conditions were significantly associated with incident UI. Mediation analysis showed that polypharmacy, sleep problems and disability explained 22.7, 17.8 and 14.7% of the association between multimorbidity (i.e. two or more chronic conditions) and incident UI, respectively.

Conclusion: A greater number of chronic conditions at baseline were associated with a higher risk for incident UI at 2-year follow-up among adults aged ≥50 years in Ireland. Considering the effects of different medications on UI and improving sleep quality and disability among people aged ≥50 years with multimorbidity may reduce the incidence of UI.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afab151DOI Listing
July 2021

Effectiveness of collateral arteries embolization before endovascular aneurysm repair to prevent type II endoleaks: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Vascular 2021 Jul 15:17085381211032764. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Vascular Surgery, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, 12517Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of preventive collateral arteries embolization before endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) to reduce type II endoleaks (T2EL), aneurysm enlargement, and re-interventions.

Methods: A comprehensive search of PubMed, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Embase was conducted to identify articles in English, related to preventive collateral arteries embolization before EVAR, published until October 2020.

Results: A total of 12 relevant studies, including 11 retrospective studies and one randomized controlled trial, were identified and fulfilled the specified inclusion criteria. A total of 1706 patients in 11 studies were involved in the meta-analysis. The overall incidence of T2EL was 17.3% in the embolization group vs. 34.5% in the control group (OR 0.36, < 0.01). The incidence of persistent T2EL was 15.3% vs. 30.0% (OR 0.37, < 0.01). Five studies reported the incidence of sac enlargement, with the rate 10.2% vs. 24.9% (OR 0.25, < 0.01). Nine studies reported T2EL related re-interventions, and it was 1.3% in the embolization group and 10.4% in control (OR 0.14, < 0.01). The technical success of collateral arteries embolization was 92.1% (455/494) in the 12 studies. 1.2% (10/829) patients suffered a mild complication of collateral arteries embolization, and 2/829 patients died because of the embolization.

Conclusion: Collateral arteries embolization is a promising measure to prevent the occurrence of T2EL, sac enlargement, and re-intervention. High-quality studies need to be conducted to provide stronger evidence-based medical suggestions about the embolize operation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/17085381211032764DOI Listing
July 2021

Exosome-transported circRNA_0001236 enhances chondrogenesis and suppress cartilage degradation via the miR-3677-3p/Sox9 axis.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 07 13;12(1):389. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Joint Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, #58 Zhongshan 2nd Road, Guangzhou, 510080, Guangdong, China.

Objectives: Aberrations in exosomal circular RNA (circRNA) expression have been identified in various human diseases. In this study, we investigated whether exosomal circRNAs could act as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) to regulate the pathological process of osteoarthritis (OA). This study aimed to elucidate the specific MSC-derived exosomal circRNAs responsible for MSC-mediated chondrogenic differentiation using human bone marrow-derived MSCs (hMSCs) and a destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) mouse model of OA.

Methods: Exosomal circRNA deep sequencing was performed to evaluate the expression of circRNAs in human bone marrow-derived MSCs (hMSCs) induced to undergo chondrogenesis from day 0 to day 21. The regulatory and functional roles of exosomal circRNA_0001236 were examined on day 21 after inducing chondrogenesis in hMSCs and were validated in vitro and in vivo. The downstream target of circRNA_0001236 was also explored in vitro and in vivo using bioinformatics analyses. A luciferase reporter assay was used to evaluate the interaction between circRNA_0001236 and miR-3677-3p as well as the target gene sex-determining region Y-box 9 (Sox9). The function and mechanism of exosomal circRNA_0001236 in OA were explored in the DMM mouse model.

Results: Upregulation of exosomal circRNA_0001236 enhanced the expression of Col2a1 and Sox9 but inhibited that of MMP13 in hMSCs induced to undergo chondrogenesis. Moreover, circRNA_0001236 acted as an miR-3677-3p sponge and functioned in human chondrocytes via targeting miR-3677-3p and Sox9. Intra-articular injection of exosomal circRNA_0001236 attenuated OA in the DMM mouse model.

Conclusions: Our results reveal an important role for a novel exosomal circRNA_0001236 in chondrogenic differentiation. Overexpression of exosomal circRNA_0001236 promoted cartilage-specific gene and protein expression through the miR-3677-3p/Sox9 axis. Thus, circRNA_0001236-overexpressing exosomes may alleviate cartilage degradation, suppressing OA progression and enhancing cartilage repair. Our findings provide a potentially effective therapeutic strategy for treating OA.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13287-021-02431-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8278601PMC
July 2021

Golgi-58K can re-localize to late endosomes upon cellular uptake of PS-ASOs and facilitates endosomal release of ASOs.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 Aug;49(14):8277-8293

Core Antisense Research, Carlsbad, CA 92010, USA.

Phosphorothioate (PS) modified antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) drugs can trigger RNase H1 cleavage of cellular target RNAs to modulate gene expression. Internalized PS-ASOs must be released from membraned endosomal organelles, a rate limiting step that is not well understood. Recently we found that M6PR transport between Golgi and late endosomes facilitates productive release of PS-ASOs, raising the possibility that Golgi-mediated transport may play important roles in PS-ASO activity. Here we further evaluated the involvement of Golgi in PS-ASO activity by examining additional Golgi proteins. Reduction of certain Golgi proteins, including Golgi-58K, GCC1 and TGN46, decreased PS-ASO activity, without substantial effects on Golgi integrity. Upon PS-ASO cellular uptake, Golgi-58K was recruited to late endosomes where it colocalized with PS-ASOs. Reduction of Golgi-58K caused slower PS-ASO release from late endosomes, decreased GCC2 late endosome relocalization, and led to slower retrograde transport of M6PR from late endosomes to trans-Golgi. Late endosome relocalization of Golgi-58K requires Hsc70, and is most likely mediated by PS-ASO-protein interactions. Together, these results suggest a novel function of Golgi-58K in mediating Golgi-endosome transport and indicate that the Golgi apparatus plays an important role in endosomal release of PS-ASO, ensuring antisense activity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkab599DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8373082PMC
August 2021

A physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling approach for drug-drug interaction evaluation of warfarin enantiomers with sorafenib.

Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2021 Aug 9;39:100362. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai, 201203, China. Electronic address:

Sorafenib was suggested to cause drug-drug interaction (DDI) with the common anticoagulant, warfarin based on published studies. The inhibition on CYP2C9 enzyme was thought to be the mechanism, but further studies are warranted. Thus, a mechanistic PBPK/PD model for warfarin enantiomers was developed to predict DDI potential with sorafenib, aiming at providing reference for the rational use of both drugs. PBPK models of warfarin enantiomers were constructed by Simcyp software. A mechanistic PK/PD model was built in NONMEM software. PBPK model of sorafenib was fitted via a top-down method. The final PBPK/PD model of warfarin enantiomers was verified and validated by different dosing regimens, ethnicities and genetic polymorphisms, and used to perform DDI simulations between warfarin racemate and sorafenib among general populations and sub-populations with various CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes. Results suggested low DDI risk between warfarin and sorafenib for general populations. Potentially serious consequence was seen for those carrying both CYP2C9 ∗2 and ∗3 and VKORC1 A/A genotypes. This PBPK/PD modeling approach for warfarin enantiomers enabled DDI evaluation with sorafenib. Close monitoring and warfarin dosage adjustment were recommended for patients carrying mutant genotypes. The novel model could be applied to investigate other drugs that may interact with warfarin.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dmpk.2020.10.001DOI Listing
August 2021

Estrogen Protects Vasomotor Functions in Rats During Catecholamine Stress.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 16;8:679240. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Physiology, Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, China.

The incidence of dysfunctional vasomotor diseases has mostly occurred in postmenopausal women but not in premenopausal women. Hence, this study sought to investigate the impact of estrogen deficiency during catecholamine stress on vasomotor function. Also, attempts were made to utilize estrogen replacement therapy to mitigate the adverse effects (pathological remodeling) of stress on the aortic vessels to preserve vasomotor functions. To do this, female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were ovariectomized (OVX) along with sham operations (Sham). Day 14 after OVX operation, 17-estradiol (E) was subcutaneously implanted (OVX+E). Day 35 after operation, stress was induced by isoproterenol (ISO) subcutaneous injections. Clinically relevant blood pressure indexes (systolic, diastolic, and mean atrial blood pressures) were assessed in the rats. Aortic vascular ring tensions were assessed to ascertain the impact of E on their vasomotor function. Aortic vascular rings (AVRs) from OVX+ISO exhibited a significant increase in contractility in response to phenylephrine than AVRs isolated from Sham+ISO rats. Also, sera levels of nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) and the expression of p-eNOS/eNOS from vascular tissues were ascertained. We demonstrate that, during stress, E prevented excessive weight gain and OVX rats had higher blood pressures than those in the Sham group. Further, we showed that E decreases ET-1 expressions during stress while upregulating NO expressions via enhancing eNOS activities to facilitate vasomotor functions. Finally, histological assessment revealed the E treatments during stress preserved vasomotor functions by preventing excessive intima-media thickening and collagen depositions in the aortic vascular walls.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.679240DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8241912PMC
June 2021

Hydration Kinetics for Alkaline Activation of Slag from Color Variation Data.

Molecules 2021 Jun 21;26(12). Epub 2021 Jun 21.

School of Material Science and Engineering, Shenyang Jianzhu University, Shenyang 110168, China.

In this study, we explore a new method based on color variation data to derive the kinetics of the entire process of the hydration of alkali-activated slag (AAS). Using this image analysis technique, we can monitor the induction period that cannot be observed using conventional microcalorimetry techniques. Color variation was recorded across a sequence of 9999 images, which were processed via MATLAB software package. Further, an average pixel value (APV) was determined to represent the color in each image. Reaction parameters, such as color variation velocity , reaction speed () and hydration degree (), that govern the entire hydration process were determined. On the basis of the reaction parameters and a Krstulovic-Dabic kinetic model, integral and differential equations were derived to simulate the three basic processes of AAS hydration. Equations describing the reaction kinetics of AAS with solutions of three different concentrations of NaOH were extracted using this method.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26123764DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8233837PMC
June 2021

The Synergy of ADAM17-Induced Myocardial Inflammation and Metabolic Lipids Dysregulation During Acute Stress: New Pathophysiologic Insights Into Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 4;8:696413. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Physiology, Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, China.

Due to its reversible nature, Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) is considered an intriguing and fascinating cardiovascular disease characterized by a transient wall motion abnormality of the left ventricle, affecting more than one coronary artery territory, often in a circumferential apical distribution. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy was discovered by a Japanese cardiovascular expert and classified as acquired primary cardiomyopathy by the American Heart Association (AHA) in 1990 and 2006, respectively. Regardless of the extensive research efforts, its pathophysiology is still unclear; therefore, there are no well-established guidelines specifically for treating and managing TTC patients. Increasing evidence suggests that sympatho-adrenergic stimulation is strongly associated with the pathogenesis of this disease. Under acute stressful conditions, the hyperstimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs) resulting from excessive release of catecholamines induces intracellular kinases capable of phosphorylating and activating "A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease 17" (ADAM17), a type-I transmembrane protease that plays a central role in acute myocardial inflammation and metabolic lipids dysregulation which are the main hallmarks of TTC. However, our understanding of this is limited; hence this concise review provides a comprehensive insight into the key role of ADAM17 in acute myocardial inflammation and metabolic lipids dysregulation during acute stress. Also, how the synergy of ADAM17-induced acute inflammation and lipids dysregulation causes TTC is explained. Finally, potential therapeutic targets for TTC are also discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.696413DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8212952PMC
June 2021

ERCC1 rs11615 polymorphism and chemosensitivity to platinum drugs in patients with ovarian cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Ovarian Res 2021 Jun 21;14(1):80. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Nursing, Haikou Maternal and Child Health Hospital, No. 6 Wentan Road, Haikou, 570203, Hainan, China.

Objective: To explore the relationship between ERCC1 rs11615 polymorphism and chemosensitivity to platinum drugs in ovarian cancer by the method of meta-analysis.

Methods: Pubmed, Web of Science, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and China Wanfang databases were comprehensively searched up to September 2020, to identify the relationship between ERCC1 rs11615 polymorphism and chemosensitivity of ovarian cancer. The data was analyzed by Stata 15.0 statistic software.

Results: A total of 10 published papers were included, including 1866 patients with ovarian cancer. The results showed that compared allele C at ERCC1 rs11615 locus with allele T, the pooled OR was 0.92 (95%CI:0.68 ~ 1.24, P > 0.05). There were no significant differences in recessive, dominant, homozygous, and heterozygous models. In accordance with a subgroup analysis of Ethnicity, all genotypes were statistically significant in the Asian population. In the allelic, dominant, recessive, homozygous and heterozygous models, the OR was 0.70 (95%CI:0.51 ~ 0.95), 0.20 (95%CI:0.07 ~ 0.56), 0.79 (95%CI:0.63 ~ 1.00), 0.21 (95%CI:0.07 ~ 0.59), 0.19 (95%CI:0.07 ~ 0.54), respectively, while in the Caucasian population, no statistically significant genotype was found.

Conclusion: The ERCC1 rs11615 polymorphism is associated with chemosensitivity in patients with ovarian cancer, especially in the Asian population, but not in the Caucasian population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13048-021-00831-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8215742PMC
June 2021

Risk factors for isolation of multi-drug resistant organisms in coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia: A multicenter study.

Am J Infect Control 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Objectives: Superimposed multi-drug resistant organisms (MDROs) co-infection can be associated with worse outcomes in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), even if these patients were managed with strict airborne and contact precautions. Identifying risk factors for isolation of MDROs is critical to COVID-19 treatment.

Methods: All eligible adult patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia from 10 hospitals in the Republic of Korea between February 2020 and May 2020 were retrospectively enrolled. Using this cohort, epidemiology and risk factors for isolation of MDROs were evaluated.

Results: Of 152 patients, 47 with microbial culture results were included. Twenty isolates of MDROs from 13 (28%) patients were cultured. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (5 isolates) was the most common MDRO, followed by methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (4 isolates). MDROs were mostly isolated from sputum samples (80%, 16/20). The median time from hospitalization to MDRO isolation was 28 days (interquartile range, 18-38 days). In-hospital mortality was higher in patients with MDRO isolation (62% vs 15%; P = .001). Use of systemic corticosteroids after diagnosis of COVID-19 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 15.07; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.34-97.01; P = .004) and long-term care facility (LTCF) stay before diagnosis of COVID-19 (aOR: 6.09; 95% CI: 1.02-36.49; P = .048) were associated with MDRO isolation.

Conclusions: MDROs were isolated from 28% of COVID-19 pneumonia patients with culture data and 8.6% of the entire cohort. Previous LTCF stay and adjunctive corticosteroid use were risk factors for the isolation of MDROs. Strict infection prevention strategies may be needed in these COVID-19 patients with risk factors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2021.06.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8251653PMC
June 2021
-->