Publications by authors named "Hong Seng Gan"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Effects of badminton insole design on stress distribution, displacement and bone rotation of ankle joint during single-leg landing: a finite element analysis.

Sports Biomech 2022 Jun 20:1-22. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Bioinspired Devices and Tissue Engineering (BIOINSPIRA) Research Group, School of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Malaysia.

Previous research has reported that up to 92% of injuries amongst badminton players consist of lower limb, whereby 35% of foot fractures occurred at the metatarsal bone. In sports, insoles are widely used to increase athletes' performance and prevent many injuries. However, there is still a lack of badminton insole analysis and improvements. Therefore, this study aimed to biomechanically analyse three different insole designs. A validated and converged three-dimensional (3D) finite element model of ankle-foot complex was developed, which consisted of the skin, talus, calcaneus, navicular, three cuneiform, cuboid, five metatarsals and five phalanges. Three existing insoles from the market, (1) Yonex Active Pro Truactive, (2) Victor VT-XD 8 and (3) Li-Ning L6200LA, were scanned using a 3D scanner. For the analysis, single-leg landing was simulated. On the superior surface of the skin, 2.57 times of the bodyweight was axially applied, and the inferior surface of the outsole was fixed. The results showed that Insole 3 was the most optimum design to reduce peak stress on the metatarsals (3.807 MPa). In conclusion, the optimum design of Insole 3, based on the finite element analysis, could be a justification of athletes' choices to prevent injury and other complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14763141.2022.2086168DOI Listing
June 2022

Biomechanical effects of cross-pin's diameter in reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament - A specific case study via finite element analysis.

Injury 2022 Jul 19;53(7):2424-2436. Epub 2022 May 19.

Bioinspired Devices and Tissue Engineering (BIOINSPIRA) Research Group, School of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia; Sports Innovation and Technology Centre (SITC), Institute of Human Centered Engineering (iHumEn), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia.

For anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL-R), one of the crucial aspects of treatment is the fixator selection that could provide initial graft fixation post-operatively. Literature on biomechanical stabilities of different sizes of fixators as femoral graft fixation is limited. Therefore, this study aims to analyse the influence of different diameters of cross-pins on the stability of graft fixations after ACL-R via finite element analysis (FEA). In the methodology, three-dimensional (3D) models of three different diameters of cross-pins were developed, of which anterior tibial loads (ATL) were applied onto the tibia. From the findings, the cross-pin with a smaller diameter (4 mm) provided optimum stability than larger diameter cross-pins, whereby it demonstrated acceptable stresses at the fixators (both cross-pin and interference screw) with a different percentage of 28%, while the stresses at the corresponding bones were favourable for osseointegration to occur. Besides, the strains of the knee joint with 4 mm diameter cross-pin were also superior in providing a good biomechanical environment for bone healing, while the recorded strain values at fixators were comparable with a larger diameter of cross-pins without being inferior in terms of deformation. To conclude, the cross-pin with 4 mm diameter depicted the best biomechanical aspects in graft fixation for ACL-R since it allows better assistance for the osseointegration process and can minimise the possibility of the breakage and migration of fixators. This study is not only useful for medical surgeons to justify their choices of pin diameter to treat patients, but also for researchers to conduct future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.injury.2022.05.021DOI Listing
July 2022

Stress Distributions and Micromovement of Fragment Bone of Pilon Fracture Treated With External Fixator: A Finite Element Analysis.

J Foot Ankle Surg 2020 Jul - Aug;59(4):664-672

Professor, Sports Innovation and Technology Centre (SITC), Institute of Human Centered Engineering (iHumEn), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, Malaysia.

Osteoporosis and osteoarthritis are common pathological problems of the human bone tissue. There are some cases of pilon fractures associated with these 2 pathological conditions. In terms of treatment, for a normal and healthy bone with pilon fracture, the use of the Delta external fixator is a favorable option because it can allow early mobilization for patients and provide stability for the healing process. However, the stability of the external fixator differs when there is low bone stiffness, which has not been previously investigated. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the stability of the external fixator to treat pilon fracture associated with osteoporosis and osteoarthritis, particularly to differentiate the stress distribution and micromovement of fracture fragment. Three-dimensional finite element models of the ankle and foot bones were reconstructed based on the computed tomography datasets. The bones consisted of 5 metatarsal, 3 cuneiform, and 1 each of cuboid, navicular, calcaneus, talus, fibula, and tibia bones. They were assigned with linear isotropic behavior. The ankle joint consisted of ligament and cartilage, and they were assigned with the use of linear links and the Mooney-Rivlin model, respectively. During simulation of the gait cycle, 70 N and 350 N were applied axially to the tibia bone to represent the swing and stance phases, respectively. The metatarsal and calcaneus bones were fixed to prevent any movement of the rigid body. The study found that the greatest von Mises stress value was observed at the pin-bone interface for the osteoporosis (108 MPa) model, followed by the osteoarthritis (87 MPa) and normal (44 MPa) models, during the stance phase. For micromovement, the osteoporosis model had the largest value at 0.26 mm, followed by the osteoarthritis (0.09 mm) and normal (0.03 mm) models. In conclusion, the greatest magnitudes of stress and micromovement were observed for the osteoporosis bone and extra care should be taken to treat pilon fracture associated with this pathological condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jfas.2019.09.006DOI Listing
June 2021

Unifying the seeds auto-generation (SAGE) with knee cartilage segmentation framework: data from the osteoarthritis initiative.

Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg 2019 May 11;14(5):755-762. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Diagnostic Imaging Services, KPJ Ipoh Specialist Hospital, 30350, Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia.

Purpose: Manual segmentation is sensitive to operator bias, while semiautomatic random walks segmentation offers an intuitive approach to understand the user knowledge at the expense of large amount of user input. In this paper, we propose a novel random walks seed auto-generation (SAGE) hybrid model that is robust to interobserver error and intensive user intervention.

Methods: Knee image is first oversegmented to produce homogeneous superpixels. Then, a ranking model is developed to rank the superpixels according to their affinities to standard priors, wherein background superpixels would have lower ranking values. Finally, seed labels are generated on the background superpixel using Fuzzy C-Means method.

Results: SAGE has achieved better interobserver DSCs of 0.94 ± 0.029 and 0.93 ± 0.035 in healthy and OA knee segmentation, respectively. Good segmentation performance has been reported in femoral (Healthy: 0.94 ± 0.036 and OA: 0.93 ± 0.034), tibial (Healthy: 0.91 ± 0.079 and OA: 0.88 ± 0.095) and patellar (Healthy: 0.88 ± 0.10 and OA: 0.84 ± 0.094) cartilage segmentation. Besides, SAGE has demonstrated greater mean readers' time of 80 ± 19 s and 80 ± 27 s in healthy and OA knee segmentation, respectively.

Conclusions: SAGE enhances the efficiency of segmentation process and attains satisfactory segmentation performance compared to manual and random walks segmentation. Future works should validate SAGE on progressive image data cohort using OA biomarkers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11548-019-01936-yDOI Listing
May 2019

Augmented reality experimentation on oxygen gas generation from hydrogen peroxide and bleach reaction.

Biochem Mol Biol Educ 2018 05 28;46(3):245-252. Epub 2018 Feb 28.

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Laboratory for Optics and Applied Mechanics, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800, Australia.

The appreciation and understanding of gas generation through processes is vital in biochemical education. In this work, an augmented reality tool is reported to depict the redox reaction between hydrogen peroxide and sodium hypochlorite solutions, two ubiquitous oxidizing agents, to create oxygen, a combustible gas. As it operates out of smartphones or tablets, students are able to conduct the exercise collaboratively, respond in a manner similar to an actual physical experiment, and able to depict the oxygen volume changes in relation to the volume of hydrogen peroxide of different concentrations used. The tool offers to help students acquire bench skills by limiting handing risks and to mitigate possible student anxiety on handling chemical materials and implements in the laboratory. The feedback received from Year 11 and 12 high school student participants in an outreach exercise indicate the overall effectiveness of this tool. © 2018 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 46(3):245-252, 2018.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bmb.21117DOI Listing
May 2018

Investigation of random walks knee cartilage segmentation model using inter-observer reproducibility: Data from the osteoarthritis initiative.

Biomed Mater Eng 2017 ;28(2):75-85

Diagnostic Imaging Service, KPJ Ipoh Specialist Hospital, 30350 Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia.

Background: Existing knee cartilage segmentation methods have reported several technical drawbacks. In essence, graph cuts remains highly susceptible to image noise despite extended research interest; active shape model is often constraint by the selection of training data while shortest path have demonstrated shortcut problem in the presence of weak boundary, which is a common problem in medical images.

Objectives: The aims of this study is to investigate the capability of random walks as knee cartilage segmentation method.

Methods: Experts would scribble on knee cartilage image to initialize random walks segmentation. Then, reproducibility of the method is assessed against manual segmentation by using Dice Similarity Index. The evaluation consists of normal cartilage and diseased cartilage sections which is divided into whole and single cartilage categories.

Results: A total of 15 normal images and 10 osteoarthritic images were included. The results showed that random walks method has demonstrated high reproducibility in both normal cartilage (observer 1: 0.83±0.028 and observer 2: 0.82±0.026) and osteoarthritic cartilage (observer 1: 0.80±0.069 and observer 2: 0.83±0.029). Besides, results from both experts were found to be consistent with each other, suggesting the inter-observer variation is insignificant (Normal: P=0.21; Diseased: P=0.15).

Conclusion: The proposed segmentation model has overcame technical problems reported by existing semi-automated techniques and demonstrated highly reproducible and consistent results against manual segmentation method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/BME-171658DOI Listing
July 2017

Interactive knee cartilage extraction using efficient segmentation software: data from the osteoarthritis initiative.

Biomed Mater Eng 2014 ;24(6):3145-57

Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia.

In medical image segmentation, manual segmentation is considered both labor- and time-intensive while automated segmentation often fails to segment anatomically intricate structure accordingly. Interactive segmentation can tackle shortcomings reported by previous segmentation approaches through user intervention. To better reflect user intention, development of suitable editing functions is critical. In this paper, we propose an interactive knee cartilage extraction software that covers three important features: intuitiveness, speed, and convenience. The segmentation is performed using multi-label random walks algorithm. Our segmentation software is simple to use, intuitive to normal and osteoarthritic image segmentation and efficient using only two third of manual segmentation's time. Future works will extend this software to three dimensional segmentation and quantitative analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/BME-141137DOI Listing
June 2015

Medical image visual appearance improvement using bihistogram Bezier curve contrast enhancement: data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative.

ScientificWorldJournal 2014 20;2014:294104. Epub 2014 May 20.

Department of Physics, Advanced Studies Center, Faculty of Science, King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520, Thailand.

Well-defined image can assist user to identify region of interest during segmentation. However, complex medical image is usually characterized by poor tissue contrast and low background luminance. The contrast improvement can lift image visual quality, but the fundamental contrast enhancement methods often overlook the sudden jump problem. In this work, the proposed bihistogram Bezier curve contrast enhancement introduces the concept of "adequate contrast enhancement" to overcome sudden jump problem in knee magnetic resonance image. Since every image produces its own intensity distribution, the adequate contrast enhancement checks on the image's maximum intensity distortion and uses intensity discrepancy reduction to generate Bezier transform curve. The proposed method improves tissue contrast and preserves pertinent knee features without compromising natural image appearance. Besides, statistical results from Fisher's Least Significant Difference test and the Duncan test have consistently indicated that the proposed method outperforms fundamental contrast enhancement methods to exalt image visual quality. As the study is limited to relatively small image database, future works will include a larger dataset with osteoarthritic images to assess the clinical effectiveness of the proposed method to facilitate the image inspection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/294104DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4054963PMC
June 2015
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