Publications by authors named "Hong Nguyen"

425 Publications

Susceptibility of Multidrug-Resistant following Treatment-emergent Resistance to Ceftolozane-tazobactam.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

We compared the susceptibility of multidrug-resistant isolates collected before and after treatment-emergent resistance to ceftolozane-tazobactam. Median baseline and post-exposure ceftolozane-tazobactam MICs were 2 and 64 μg/mL, respectively. Whole-genome sequencing identified treatment-emergent mutations in among 79% (11/14) of paired isolates. mutations were associated with cross-resistance to ceftazidime-avibactam, but increased susceptibility to piperacillin-tazobactam and imipenem. Eighty-one percent (12/16) of ceftolozane-tazobactam resistant isolates with mutations were susceptible to imipenem-relebactam.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00084-21DOI Listing
April 2021

: High Prevalence and Possibly Chronic Shedding in Human Respiratory Tract, But No Zoonotic Transmission.

Viruses 2021 Mar 24;13(4). Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Emerging Infection Group, Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Ho Chi Minh City 7000, Vietnam.

is a recently discovered DNA virus family consisting of two species, and . Here we used PCR amplification and sequencing to characterize redondoviruses in nasal/throat swabs collected longitudinally from a cohort of 58 individuals working with animals in Vietnam. We additionally analyzed samples from animals to which redondovirus DNA-positive participants were exposed. Redondoviruses were detected in approximately 60% of study participants, including 33% (30/91) of samples collected during episodes of acute respiratory disease and in 50% (29/58) of baseline samples (with no respiratory symptoms). Vientovirus (73%; 24/33) was detected more frequently in samples than brisaviruses (27%; 9/33). In the 23 participants with at least 2 redondovirus-positive samples among their longitudinal samples, 10 (43.5%) had identical redondovirus replication-gene sequences detected (sampling duration: 35-132 days). We found no identical redondovirus replication genes in samples from different participants, and no redondoviruses were detected in 53 pooled nasal/throat swabs collected from domestic animals. Phylogenetic analysis described no large-scale geographical clustering between viruses from Vietnam, the US, Spain, and China, indicating that redondoviruses are highly genetically diverse and have a wide geographical distribution. Collectively, our study provides novel insights into the family in humans, describing a high prevalence, potentially associated with chronic shedding in the respiratory tract with lack of evidence of zoonotic transmission from close animal contacts. The tropism and potential pathogenicity of this viral family remain to be determined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v13040533DOI Listing
March 2021

EGFRvIII Promotes Cell Survival during Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress through a Reticulocalbin 1-Dependent Mechanism.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Mar 10;13(6). Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Surgery, The University of Melbourne, The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, VIC 3050, Australia.

Reticulocalbin 1 (RCN1) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-residing protein, involved in promoting cell survival during pathophysiological conditions that lead to ER stress. However, the key upstream receptor tyrosine kinase that regulates RCN1 expression and its potential role in cell survival in the glioblastoma setting have not been determined. Here, we demonstrate that RCN1 expression significantly correlates with poor glioblastoma patient survival. We also demonstrate that glioblastoma cells with expression of EGFRvIII receptor also have high RCN1 expression. Over-expression of wildtype EGFR also correlated with high RCN1 expression, suggesting that EGFR and EGFRvIII regulate RCN1 expression. Importantly, cells that expressed EGFRvIII and subsequently showed high RCN1 expression displayed greater cell viability under ER stress compared to EGFRvIII negative glioblastoma cells. Consistently, we also demonstrated that RCN1 knockdown reduced cell viability and exogenous introduction of RCN1 enhanced cell viability following induction of ER stress. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that the EGFRvIII-RCN1-driven increase in cell survival is due to the inactivation of the ER stress markers ATF4 and ATF6, maintained expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and reduced activity of caspase 3/7. Our current findings identify that EGFRvIII regulates RCN1 expression and that this novel association promotes cell survival in glioblastoma cells during ER stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13061198DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7999088PMC
March 2021

A Cross-Sectional Study of Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Towards Face Mask Use Amid the COVID-19 Pandemic Amongst University Students in Vietnam.

J Community Health 2021 Mar 27. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Ho Chi Minh City, 700000, Vietnam.

Although Vietnam has been successful in the fight against the first wave of COVID-19, domestic outbreaks have continued to occur. Given university students constitute a significant proportion of the population in Vietnam, to improve the prevention and control of COVID-19 in Vietnam and comparable countries, we examined their knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) towards face mask use which is an important preventive measure and the association between the levels of COVID-19 knowledge and KAP towards face mask use. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on all students studying at Phenikaa University, Hanoi, using a self-developed questionnaire consisted of 42 questions regarding KAP towards face mask use as well as reuse of cloth mask, and COVID-19 knowledge. Among 728 participants, 40.9% (298/728) were male, 63.2% (460/728) were from health-related faculties, 46% (335/728) lived in urban areas, and 51.9% (378) had good levels of COVID-19 knowledge. Regarding face mask, most (89.7%, 653/728) participants had good knowledge scores, 72.8% (530/728) had positive attitudes, and 76.5% (557/728) had good practice scores. The most common types of masks used were surgical mask (57.6%, 419/728), followed by non-antibacterial cloth mask (23.1%, 168/728). Among 168 participants using non-antibacterial cloth mask, 43.5% reused masks (73/168), of whom 6.8% (5/73) did not wash their masks at least daily. Face mask use knowledge was statistically associated with COVID-19 knowledge (P < 0.001). Face mask use attitudes were statistically associated with education levels (P = 0.02), and COVID-19 knowledge (P < 0.001). Practice of face mask use was statistically associated with gender (P = 0.03), geographical distribution (P = 0.04), academic majors (P = 0.02), and COVID-19 knowledge (P = 0.01). The levels of KAP towards face mask use among Vietnamese university students are high. It is important to continue to enforce the mass masking policy, together with the ongoing community education with an emphasis on the route of COVID-19 transmission and how correct face mask use can stop the spread. To ensure the effectiveness of face masks, there is an urgent need to educate the community regarding the procedures for cloth masks re-use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10900-021-00981-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8000688PMC
March 2021

Bacterial Superinfections Among Persons With Coronavirus Disease 2019: A Comprehensive Review of Data From Postmortem Studies.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2021 Mar 4;8(3):ofab065. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Background: Limited clinical data suggest a ~16% prevalence of bacterial superinfections among critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Methods: We reviewed postmortem studies of patients with COVID-19 published in English through September 26, 2020, for histopathologic findings consistent with bacterial lung infections.

Results: Worldwide, 621 patients from 75 studies were included. The quality of data was uneven, likely because identifying superinfections was not a major objective in 96% (72/75) of studies. Histopathology consistent with a potential lung superinfection was reported in 32% (200/621) of patients (22-96 years old; 66% men). Types of infections were pneumonia (95%), abscesses or empyema (3.5%), and septic emboli (1.5%). Seventy-three percent of pneumonias were focal rather than diffuse. The predominant histopathologic findings were intra-alveolar neutrophilic infiltrations that were distinct from those typical of COVID-19-associated diffuse alveolar damage. In studies with available data, 79% of patients received antimicrobial treatment; the most common agents were beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitors (48%), macrolides (16%), cephalosoprins (12%), and carbapenems (6%). Superinfections were proven by direct visualization or recovery of bacteria in 25.5% (51/200) of potential cases and 8% of all patients in postmortem studies. In rank order, pathogens included and . Lung superinfections were the cause of death in 16% of potential cases and 3% of all patients with COVID-19.

Conclusions: Potential bacterial lung superinfections were evident at postmortem examination in 32% of persons who died with COVID-19 (proven, 8%; possible, 24%), but they were uncommonly the cause of death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofab065DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7928570PMC
March 2021

Graph analysis of proton conduction pathways in scandium-doped barium zirconate.

J Chem Phys 2021 Feb;154(7):074711

Department of Chemistry, Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley, Massachusetts 01075, USA.

Understanding the relationship between the acceptor dopant size and proton conductivity in barium zirconate, BaZrO, is important for maximizing efficiency in this promising fuel cell material. While proton conduction pathways with larger Y and smaller Al defects have been explored, proton pathways with Sc, a defect of comparable size to the replaced ion, have not been investigated using centrality measures, periodic pathway searches, and kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC). Centrality measures in BaScZrO highlight a trapping region by Sc and scattered high centrality regions on undoped planes. Connected long-range high centrality regions are found mainly in undoped planes for BaAlZrO and in the dopant planes for BaYZrO. The best long-range proton conduction periodic pathways in Al and Sc systems travel between dopant planes, while those for yttrium-doped BaZrO remained on dopant planes. KMC trajectories at 1000 K show long-range proton conduction barriers of 0.86 eV, 0.52 eV, and 0.25 eV for Al, Sc, and Y systems, respectively. Long-range periodic conduction highway limiting barrier averages correlate well with the connectivity of the most central regions in each system but ignore diffusion around the dopant and through other high centrality regions. BaScZrO shows an intermediate overall conduction barrier limited by trapping, which earlier experiments and simulations suggest that it can be mitigated with increased oxygen vacancy concentration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0039103DOI Listing
February 2021

Population genetic structure and demographic history of the dipterocarp species Anisoptera costata Korth revealed by microsatellite analysis.

Planta 2021 Feb 13;253(3):66. Epub 2021 Feb 13.

Faculty of Biotechnology, Graduate University of Science and Technology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Cau Giay, Hanoi, 100000, Vietnam.

Main Conclusion: Moderate levels of genetic diversity and differentiation of Anisoptera costata were determined. A population divergence occurred during Younger Dryas. The anthropogenic disturbance had significantly affected the genetic diversity of the species in low tropical forests. Anisoptera costata Korth, an endangered species, is mainly distributed in the lowland tropical forests of the Southeast region in Vietnam, which has not been explored for genetic diversity and demographic history. In this study, eight polymorphic microsatellite markers were used to analyze 232 wild trees of A. costata at nine different populations, representing the natural distribution range of the species in Vietnam. Genetic diversity within the populations was determined with mean values of 0.284 and 0.327 observed and expected heterozygosity, respectively, while genetic differentiation among populations was found with Weir and Cockerham index of 0.12 and Hedrick index of 1.38. These results indicated that habitat fragmentation by the anthropogenic disturbance may be the major factor for the low heterozygosity values and affected the number of alleles in all the targeted populations of A. costata in lowland tropical forests. Populations in the Central Southeast area had a higher level of genetic diversity than the populations in the Coastal and Western Southeast areas. The analysis of molecular variance showed that high genetic variation existed within populations (86.15%) compared to the variation among populations. A reduction in the population size of A. costata was determined by BOTTLENECK. Different clustering methods (Bayesian analysis, the neighbor-joining tree, and principal coordinate analysis) suggested optimal genetic clusters related to gene flow among different areas. Approximate Bayesian computation suggested that population divergence occurred during Younger Dryas. We also discussed the measures for species conservation based on these results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00425-021-03584-6DOI Listing
February 2021

A First Draft of the History of Treating Coronavirus Disease 2019: Use of Repurposed Medications in United States Hospitals.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2021 Feb 15;8(2):ofaa617. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofaa617DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7798557PMC
February 2021

The Application of Sample Pooling for Mass Screening of SARS-CoV-2 in an Outbreak of COVID-19 in Vietnam.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 Jan 22. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

8Department of Health, Da Nang, Vietnam.

We sampled nasal-pharyngeal throat swabs from 96,123 asymptomatic individuals at risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and generated 22,290 pools at collection, each containing samples from two to seven individuals. We detected SARS-CoV-2 in 24 pools, and confirmed the infection in 32 individuals after resampling and testing of 104 samples from positive pools. We completed the testing within 14 days. We would have required 64 days to complete the screening for the same number of individuals if we had based our testing strategy on individual testing. There was no difference in cycle threshold (Ct) values of pooled and individual samples. Thus, compared with individual sample testing, our approach did not compromise PCR sensitivity, but saved 77% of the resources. The present strategy might be applicable in settings, where there are shortages of reagents and the disease prevalence is low, but the demand for testing is high.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-1583DOI Listing
January 2021

Structural and H₂S Sensing Properties of Copper Ferrite Nanoparticles Prepared Through Hydrothermal Method.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2021 Apr;21(4):2641-2646

International Training Institute for Materials Science, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, Hanoi, 100000, Vietnam.

In this paper, we report the H₂S sensing properties of partially inverse copper ferrite (CuFe₂O₄) nanoparticles with sizes ranging from 16 nm to few hundreds of nanometers prepared through hydrothermal method. Effects of annealing temperature on the particle size, microstructure and gas-sensing properties of spinel ferrite were studied through scanning electron microscopy, synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction and resistance measurement. Electrical conduction mechanism is discussed based on the cation distribution in the lattice and resistance contribution from the grain boundaries. Gas sensing ability of the samples was recognized for H₂S concentrations from 5 down to 0.5 ppm and in working temperature range from 50 to 250 °C.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2021.19095DOI Listing
April 2021

Harmonized assessment of nutrient pollution from urban systems including losses from sewer exfiltration: a case study in Germany.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jan 26. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Ecohydrology, Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, 12489, Berlin, Germany.

A growing literature indicates that untreated wastewater from leaky sewers stands among major sources of pollution to water resources of urban systems. Despite that, the quantification and allocation of sewer exfiltration are often restricted to major pipe areas where inspection data are available. In large-scale urban models, the emission from sewer exfiltration is either neglected (particularly from private sewers) or represented by simplified fixed values, and as such its contribution to the overall urban emission remains questionable. This study proposes an extended model framework which incorporates sewer exfiltration pathway in the catchment model for a better justified pollution control and management of urban systems at a nationwide scale. Nutrient emission from urban areas is quantified by means of the Modelling of Nutrient Emissions in River Systems (MONERIS) model. Exfiltration is estimated for public and private sewers of different age groups in Germany using the verified methods at local to city scales, upscaling techniques, and expert knowledge. Results of this study suggest that the average exfiltration rate is likely to be less than 0.01 L/s per km, corresponding to approximately 1 mm/m/year of wastewater discharge to groundwater. Considering the source and age factors, the highest rate of exfiltration is defined in regions with significant proportions of public sewers older than 40 years. In regions where public sewers are mostly built after 1981, the leakage from private sewers can be up two times higher than such from public sewers. Overall, sewer exfiltration accounts for 9.8% and 17.2% of nitrate and phosphate loads from urban systems emitted to the environment, which increases to 11.2% and 19.5% in the case of no remediation scenario of projected defective sewer increases due to ageing effects. Our results provide a first harmonized quantification of potential leakage losses in urban wastewater systems at the nationwide scale and reveal the importance of rehabilitation planning of ageing sewer pipes in public and private sewer systems. The proposed model framework, which incorporates important factors for urban sewer managers, will allow further targeting the important data need for validating the approach at the regional and local scales in order to support better strategies for the long-term nutrient pollution control of large urban wastewater systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12440-9DOI Listing
January 2021

Simple design of efficient broadband multifunctional polarization converter for X-band applications.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 21;11(1):2032. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

School of Engineering and Technology, Vinh University, 182 Le Duan, Vinh City, 460000, Vietnam.

A simple design of a broadband multifunctional polarization converter using an anisotropic metasurface for X-band application is proposed. The proposed polarization converter consists of a periodic array of the two-corner-cut square patch resonators based on the FR-4 substrate that achieves both cross-polarization and linear-to-circular polarization conversions. The simulated results show that the polarization converter displays the linear cross-polarization conversion in the frequency range from 8 to 12 GHz with the polarization conversion efficiency above 90%. The efficiency is kept higher than 80% with wide incident angle up to 45°. Moreover, the proposed design achieves the linear-to-circular polarization conversion at two frequency bands of 7.42-7.6 GHz and 13-13.56 GHz. A prototype of the proposed polarization converter is fabricated and measured, showing a good agreement between the measured and simulated results. The proposed polarization converter exhibits excellent performances such as simple structure, multifunctional property, and large cost-efficient bandwidth and wide incident angle insensitivity in the linear cross polarization conversion, which can be useful for X-band applications. Furthermore, this structure can be extended to design broadband polarization converters in other frequency bands.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-81586-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7820250PMC
January 2021

Discordance Among Antibiotic Prescription Guidelines Reflects a Lack of Clear Best Practices.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2021 Jan 22;8(1):ofaa571. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Department of Biomedical Informatics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Background: Antibiotics are among the most frequently administered drugs globally, yet they are often prescribed inappropriately. Guidelines for prescribing are developed by expert committees at international and national levels to form regional standards and by local experts to form hospital guidance documents. Our aim was to assess variability in antibiotic prescription guidelines for both regional standards and individual hospitals.

Methods: A search through 3 publicly accessible databases from February to June 2018 led to a corpus of English language guidance documents from 70 hospitals in 12 countries and regional standards from 7 academic societies.

Results: Guidelines varied markedly in content and structure, reflecting a paucity of rules governing their format. We compared recommendations for 3 common bacterial infections: community-acquired pneumonia, urinary tract infection, and cellulitis. Hospital guidance documents and regional standards frequently disagreed on preferable antibiotic classes for common infections. Where agreement was observed, guidance documents appeared to inherit recommendations from their respective regional standards. Several regional prescribing patterns were identified, including a greater reliance on penicillins over cephalosporins in the United Kingdom and fluoroquinolones in the United States. Regional prescribing patterns could not be explained by antibiotic resistance or costs. Additionally, literature that cited underlying recommendations did not support the magnitude of recommendation differences observed.

Conclusions: The observed discordance among prescription recommendations highlights a lack of evidence for superior treatments, likely resulting from a preponderance of noninferiority trials comparing antibiotics. In response, we make several suggestions for developing guidelines that support best practices of antibiotic stewardship.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofaa571DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7793464PMC
January 2021

Circulating Biomarkers for Glioma: A Review.

Neurosurgery 2021 02;88(3):E221-E230

Department of Surgery, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.

Accurate circulating biomarkers have potential clinical applications in population screening, tumor subclassification, monitoring tumor status, and the delivery of individualized treatments resulting from tumor genotyping. Recently, significant progress has been made within this field in several cancer types, but despite the many potential benefits, currently there is no validated circulating biomarker test for patients with glioma. A number of circulating factors have been examined, including circulating tumor cells, cell-free DNA, microRNA, exosomes, and proteins from both peripheral blood and cerebrospinal fluid with variable results. In the following article, we provide a narrative review of the current evidence pertaining to circulating biomarkers in patients with glioma, including discussion of the advantages and challenges encountered with the current methods used for discovery. Additionally, the potential clinical applications are described with reference to the literature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyaa540DOI Listing
February 2021

Impact of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic on Outpatient Antibiotic Prescriptions in the United States.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2020 Dec 22;7(12):ofaa575. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

In April 2020, there were significant reductions in prescription fills of each of the 10 most prescribed outpatient antibiotics in the United States. Monthly azithromycin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, and levofloxacin fills did not rebound significantly from April through July 2020. Coronavirus disease 2019 had an immediate and sustained impact on US outpatient antibiotic prescribing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofaa575DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7765437PMC
December 2020

Identification of Skin Lesions by Using Single-Step Multiframe Detector.

J Clin Med 2021 Jan 4;10(1). Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Department of Mechanical Engineering and Center for Innovative Research on Aging Society (CIRAS), National Chung Cheng University, 168, University Rd., Min Hsiung, Chia Yi 62102, Taiwan.

An artificial intelligence algorithm to detect mycosis fungoides (MF), psoriasis (PSO), and atopic dermatitis (AD) is demonstrated. Results showed that 10 s was consumed by the single shot multibox detector (SSD) model to analyze 292 test images, among which 273 images were correctly detected. Verification of ground truth samples of this research come from pathological tissue slices and OCT analysis. The SSD diagnosis accuracy rate was 93%. The sensitivity values of the SSD model in diagnosing the skin lesions according to the symptoms of PSO, AD, MF, and normal were 96%, 80%, 94%, and 95%, and the corresponding precision were 96%, 86%, 98%, and 90%. The highest sensitivity rate was found in MF probably because of the spread of cancer cells in the skin and relatively large lesions of MF. Many differences were found in the accuracy between AD and the other diseases. The collected AD images were all in the elbow or arm and other joints, the area with AD was small, and the features were not obvious. Hence, the proposed SSD could be used to identify the four diseases by using skin image detection, but the diagnosis of AD was relatively poor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10010144DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7796252PMC
January 2021

The impact of boron atoms on clathrate-I silicides: composition range of the borosilicide KBSi.

Dalton Trans 2021 Feb 4;50(4):1274-1282. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Max-Planck-Institut für Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Nöthnitzer Straße 40, 01187 Dresden, Germany.

The clathrate-I borosilicide KBSi (0.8 ≤x≤ 1.2 and 6.4 ≤y≤ 7.2; space group Pm3[combining macron]n) was prepared in sealed tantalum ampoules between 900 °C and 1000 °C. By high-pressure preparation at 8 GPa and 1000 °C, a higher boron content is achieved (x = 0.2, y = 7.8). Crystal structure and composition were established from X-ray diffraction data, chemical analysis, WDX spectroscopy, and confirmed by B and Si NMR, and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The compositions are electron-balanced according to the Zintl rule within one estimated standard deviation. The lattice parameter varies with composition from a = 9.905 Å for KBSi to a = 9.968(1) Å for KBSi.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0dt03339aDOI Listing
February 2021

Viral Metagenomic Analysis of Cerebrospinal Fluid from Patients with Acute Central Nervous System Infections of Unknown Origin, Vietnam.

Emerg Infect Dis 2021 Jan;27(1):205-213

Central nervous system (CNS) infection is a serious neurologic condition, although the etiology remains unknown in >50% of patients. We used metagenomic next-generation sequencing to detect viruses in 204 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with acute CNS infection who were enrolled from Vietnam hospitals during 2012-2016. We detected 8 viral species in 107/204 (52.4%) of CSF samples. After virus-specific PCR confirmation, the detection rate was lowered to 30/204 (14.7%). Enteroviruses were the most common viruses detected (n = 23), followed by hepatitis B virus (3), HIV (2), molluscum contagiosum virus (1), and gemycircularvirus (1). Analysis of enterovirus sequences revealed the predominance of echovirus 30 (9). Phylogenetically, the echovirus 30 strains belonged to genogroup V and VIIb. Our results expanded knowledge about the clinical burden of enterovirus in Vietnam and underscore the challenges of identifying a plausible viral pathogen in CSF of patients with CNS infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2701.202723DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7774551PMC
January 2021

Indigenous knowledge in relation to climate change: adaptation practices used by the Xo Dang people of central Vietnam.

Heliyon 2020 Dec 4;6(12):e05656. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Faculty of Land Resources and Agricultural Environment, University of Agriculture and Forestry, Hue University, 102 Phung Hung Street, Hue, Viet Nam.

Even though indigenous knowledge (IK) is considered as one of the most effective strategies in response to climate change issues, this form is not being sufficiently integrated into the climate change planning and policy at both local and national levels in Vietnam. This study investigates the role of the traditional agricultural practices of the Xo Dang ethnic minority groups in Central Vietnam and provides insights into the factors that influence farmers to adopt these practices in response to climate change. Primary data was obtained through three focus group discussions and 87 household surveys involving the Xo Dang people through face-to-face semi-structured interviews in the Tra Doc commune, Bac Tra My district, Quang Nam province, Central Vietnam. The binary logistic regression model was used to examine the factors which have influenced the choices made by this community in response to climate change. The results showed that Xo Dang people were highly aware of climate change risks and had, in response, employed their current adaptation practices. The major adaptation strategies implemented by the Xo Dang people included the use of flora and fauna indicators, native plant varieties, the adjustment of planting calendars, irrigation practices, and the application of intercropping. The results indicated that the living years, their monthly farm incomes, and farmer's perceptions of ongoing climate change effects on their environment were the factors that significantly affected farmers' adaptation decisions. Understanding indigenous knowledge plays a fundamental role in the processes of deciding the appropriate adaptation techniques more effectively and making use of human resources. Therefore, policy makers should pay much attention to indigenous knowledge to combat climate change in future national policies and projects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e05656DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7721618PMC
December 2020

Genetic diversity of clinical and environmental Mucorales isolates obtained from an investigation of mucormycosis cases among solid organ transplant recipients.

Microb Genom 2020 12 27;6(12). Epub 2020 Nov 27.

J. Craig Venter Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Mucormycoses are invasive infections by species and other Mucorales. Over 10 months, four solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients at our centre developed mucormycosis due to (=2), (=1) or (=1), at a median 31.5 days (range: 13-34) post-admission. We performed whole genome sequencing (WGS) on 72 Mucorales isolates (45 . , 19 . , six . , two species) from these patients, from five patients with community-acquired mucormycosis, and from hospital and regional environments. Isolates were compared by core protein phylogeny and global genomic features, including genome size, guanine-cytosine percentages, shared protein families and paralogue expansions. Patient isolates fell into six core phylogenetic lineages (clades). Phylogenetic and genomic similarities of isolates recovered 7 months apart from two SOT recipients in adjoining hospitals suggested a potential common source exposure. However, isolates from other patients and environmental sites had unique genomes. Many isolates that were indistinguishable by core phylogeny were distinct by one or more global genomic comparisons. Certain clades were recovered throughout the study period, whereas others were found at particular time points. In conclusion, mucormycosis cases could not be genetically linked to a definitive environmental source. Comprehensive genomic analyses eliminated false associations between Mucorales isolates that would have been assigned using core phylogenetic or less extensive genomic comparisons. The genomic diversity of Mucorales mandates that multiple isolates from individual patients and environmental sites undergo WGS during epidemiological investigations. However, exhaustive surveillance of fungal populations in a hospital and surrounding community is probably infeasible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/mgen.0.000473DOI Listing
December 2020

SCRINSHOT enables spatial mapping of cell states in tissue sections with single-cell resolution.

PLoS Biol 2020 11 20;18(11):e3000675. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Science for Life Laboratory, Solna, Sweden.

Changes in cell identities and positions underlie tissue development and disease progression. Although single-cell mRNA sequencing (scRNA-Seq) methods rapidly generate extensive lists of cell states, spatially resolved single-cell mapping presents a challenging task. We developed SCRINSHOT (Single-Cell Resolution IN Situ Hybridization On Tissues), a sensitive, multiplex RNA mapping approach. Direct hybridization of padlock probes on mRNA is followed by circularization with SplintR ligase and rolling circle amplification (RCA) of the hybridized padlock probes. Sequential detection of RCA-products using fluorophore-labeled oligonucleotides profiles thousands of cells in tissue sections. We evaluated SCRINSHOT specificity and sensitivity on murine and human organs. SCRINSHOT quantification of marker gene expression shows high correlation with published scRNA-Seq data over a broad range of gene expression levels. We demonstrate the utility of SCRINSHOT by mapping the locations of abundant and rare cell types along the murine airways. The amenability, multiplexity, and quantitative qualities of SCRINSHOT facilitate single-cell mRNA profiling of cell-state alterations in tissues under a variety of native and experimental conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000675DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7717588PMC
November 2020

Buying Time: The AMR Action Fund and the State of Antibiotic Development in the United States 2020.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2020 Nov 30;7(11):ofaa464. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

University of Pittsburgh, Department of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Antimicrobial resistance is a pressing global threat, but companies developing antibiotics are failing. Large pharmaceutical companies recently created the AMR Action Fund, which will invest $1 billion in small antibiotic development companies. To understand the state of antibiotic development in the United States, we conducted a case study of new agents against carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Factors contributing to market failures were slow clinical uptake of drugs despite their effectiveness and safety, relatively small numbers of target infections that are insufficient to support existing drugs economically, and an excess of recently approved and pipeline agents with redundant spectra of activity. The AMR Action Fund will provide an immediate lifeline to companies in danger of failing due to an inability to secure investment, but it will not address issues identified in the case study or fix the antibiotic development model or marketplace. The Fund buys time for reforms to salvage antibiotic development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofaa464DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7652093PMC
November 2020

Reduced EGFR and increased miR-221 is associated with increased resistance to temozolomide and radiotherapy in glioblastoma.

Sci Rep 2020 10 20;10(1):17768. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Level 5, Clinical Sciences Building, Department of Surgery, The University of Melbourne, The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, VIC, 3050, Australia.

Despite aggressive treatment with temozolomide and radiotherapy and extensive research into alternative therapies there has been little improvement in Glioblastoma patient survival. Median survival time remains between 12 and 15 months mainly due to treatment resistance and tumor recurrence. In this study, we aimed to explore the underlying mechanisms behind treatment resistance and the lack of success with anti-EGFR therapy in the clinic. After generating a number of treatment resistant Glioblastoma cell lines we observed that resistant cell lines lacked EGFR activation and expression. Furthermore, cell viability assays showed resistant cells were significantly less sensitive to the anti-EGFR agents when compared to parental cell lines. To further characterise the resistance mechanism in our cells microRNA prediction software identified miR-221 as a negative regulator of EGFR expression. miR-221 was up-regulated in our resistant cell lines, and this up-regulation led to a significant reduction in EGFR expression in both our cultured cell lines and a large cohort of glioblastoma patient tumor tissue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-74746-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7576591PMC
October 2020

Epidemiologic and Microbiologic Characteristics of Hospitalized Patients Co-colonized With Multiple Species of Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae in the United States.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2020 Oct 27;7(10):ofaa386. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

We describe the epidemiologic and microbiologic characteristics of patients co-colonized with different species of carbapenem-resistant (CRE) from 5 hospitals in 4 states. Twenty-eight of 313 patients (8.9%) were co-colonized with at least 2 different CRE species. Different species within the same patient showed identical mechanism resistance in 18/28 (64%) cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofaa386DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7539689PMC
October 2020

Superspreading Event of SARS-CoV-2 Infection at a Bar, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

Emerg Infect Dis 2021 01 16;27(1). Epub 2020 Oct 16.

We report a superspreading event of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection initiated at a bar in Vietnam with evidence of symptomatic and asymptomatic transmission, based on ministry of health reports, patient interviews, and whole-genome sequence analysis. Crowds in enclosed indoor settings with poor ventilation may be considered at high risk for transmission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2701.203480DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7774544PMC
January 2021

COVID-19-Associated Candidiasis (CAC): An Underestimated Complication in the Absence of Immunological Predispositions?

J Fungi (Basel) 2020 Oct 8;6(4). Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Clinical and Translational Fungal-Working Group, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.

The recent global pandemic of COVID-19 has predisposed a relatively high number of patients to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which carries a risk of developing super-infections. species are major constituents of the human mycobiome and the main cause of invasive fungal infections, with a high mortality rate. Invasive yeast infections (IYIs) are increasingly recognized as s complication of severe COVID-19. Despite the marked immune dysregulation in COVID-19, no prominent defects have been reported in immune cells that are critically required for immunity to . This suggests that relevant clinical factors, including prolonged ICU stays, central venous catheters, and broad-spectrum antibiotic use, may be key factors causing COVID-19 patients to develop IYIs. Although data on the comparative performance of diagnostic tools are often lacking in COVID-19 patients, a combination of serological and molecular techniques may present a promising option for the identification of IYIs. Clinical awareness and screening are needed, as IYIs are difficult to diagnose, particularly in the setting of severe COVID-19. Echinocandins and azoles are the primary antifungal used to treat IYIs, yet the therapeutic failures exerted by multidrug-resistant spp. such as and call for the development of new antifungal drugs with novel mechanisms of action.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jof6040211DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7712987PMC
October 2020

Correction to: Serum microRNA is a biomarker for post-operative monitoring in glioma.

J Neurooncol 2020 Sep;149(3):401

Department of Surgery, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia.

For the reference citation '[57]' in the second paragraph of the Results section of the original article there was no corresponding entry in the References section. It should have referred to the below mentioned article by Ebrahimkhani et al. (2018).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11060-020-03630-5DOI Listing
September 2020