Publications by authors named "Hong Liu"

4,265 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Prevalence of GII.4 Sydney Norovirus Strains and Associated Factors of Acute Gastroenteritis in Children: 2019/2020 Season in Guangzhou, China.

Food Environ Virol 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Medical Genetic Centre, Guangdong Women and Children's Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, 511442, People's Republic of China.

Norovirus, the leading cause of non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis (AGE) worldwide, is constantly mutating. Continuous monitoring of the evolution of epidemic genotypes and emergence of novel genotypes is, therefore, necessary. This study determined the prevalence and clinical characteristics of norovirus strains in AGE in Guangzhou, China in 2019/2020 season. This study included children aged 2-60 months diagnosed with AGE in Guangzhou Women and Children Hospital, from August 2019 to January 2020. Norovirus was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction and clinical data were obtained. Genotyping and phylogenetic analyses were performed with partial gene sequence fragments located within the open reading frames 1 and 2. During the study period, 168 children (61.3% males) were confirmed as norovirus infectious AGE. The main symptoms were diarrhoea and vomiting and 38 patients (22.6%) had seizures. Norovirus was mainly prevalent in October and November, and GII.4 Sydney[P31] was the major genotype circulating in Guangzhou. The phylogenetic tree showed that the Guangzhou strains had high homology with the strains circulating in 2017-2019 worldwide. GII.4 Sydney was the main prevalent norovirus genotype in Guangzhou from August 2019 to January 2020, which had more severe diarrhoea than those of other genotypes. These findings provide a valuable reference for the prevention, control, and treatment of norovirus in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12560-021-09482-0DOI Listing
June 2021

Graphene Nanostructure-Based Tactile Sensors for Electronic Skin Applications.

Nanomicro Lett 2019 Sep 4;11(1):71. Epub 2019 Sep 4.

Institute for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Collaborative Innovation Center of Technology and Equipment for Biological Diagnosis and Therapy in Universities of Shandong, University of Jinan, 336 Nanxinzhuang West Road, Jinan, 250011, People's Republic of China.

Skin is the largest organ of the human body and can perceive and respond to complex environmental stimulations. Recently, the development of electronic skin (E-skin) for the mimicry of the human sensory system has drawn great attention due to its potential applications in wearable human health monitoring and care systems, advanced robotics, artificial intelligence, and human-machine interfaces. Tactile sense is one of the most important senses of human skin that has attracted special attention. The ability to obtain unique functions using diverse assembly processible methods has rapidly advanced the use of graphene, the most celebrated two-dimensional material, in electronic tactile sensing devices. With a special emphasis on the works achieved since 2016, this review begins with the assembly and modification of graphene materials and then critically and comprehensively summarizes the most advanced material assembly methods, device construction technologies and signal characterization approaches in pressure and strain detection based on graphene and its derivative materials. This review emphasizes on: (1) the underlying working principles of these types of sensors and the unique roles and advantages of graphene materials; (2) state-of-the-art protocols recently developed for high-performance tactile sensing, including representative examples; and (3) perspectives and current challenges for graphene-based tactile sensors in E-skin applications. A summary of these cutting-edge developments intends to provide readers with a deep understanding of the future design of high-quality tactile sensing devices and paves a path for their future commercial applications in the field of E-skin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40820-019-0302-0DOI Listing
September 2019

5-Aminonaphthalene derivatives as selective nonnucleoside nuclear receptor binding SET domain-protein 2 (NSD2) inhibitors for the treatment of multiple myeloma.

Eur J Med Chem 2021 Jun 5;222:113592. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

State Key Laboratory of Drug Research and CAS Key Laboratory of Receptor Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 555 Zu Chong Zhi Road, Shanghai, 201203, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.19A Yuquan Road, Beijing, 100049, China; School of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Hangzhou Institute for Advanced Study, UCAS, Hangzhou, 310024, China. Electronic address:

Approximately 20% of multiple myeloma (MM) are caused by a chromosomal translocation t (4; 14) that leads to the overexpression of the nuclear receptor binding SET domain-protein 2 (NSD2) histone methyltransferase. NSD2 catalyzes the methylation of lysine 36 on histone H3 (H3K36me2) and is associated with transcriptionally active regions. Using high-throughput screening (HTS) with biological analyses, a series of 5-aminonaphthalene derivatives were designed and synthesized as novel NSD2 inhibitors. Among all the prepared compounds, 9c displayed a good NSD2 inhibitory activity (IC = 2.7 μM) and selectivity against both SET-domain-containing and non-SET-domain-containing methyltransferases. Preliminary research indicates the inhibition mechanism of compound 9c by significantly suppressed the methylation of H3K36me2. Compound 9c specifically inhibits the proliferation of the human B cell precursor leukemia cell line RS4:11 and the human myeloma cell line KMS11 by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis with little cytotoxicity. It has been reported that the anti-cancer effect of compound 9c is partly achieved by completely suppressing the transcriptional activation of NSD2-targeted genes. When administered intraperitoneally at 25 mg/kg, compound 9c suppressed the tumor growth of RS4:11 xenografts in vivo and no body weight loss was detected in the tested SCID mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2021.113592DOI Listing
June 2021

Downregulation of HERC5 E3 ligase attenuates the ubiquitination of CtBP1 to inhibit apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells.

Carcinogenesis 2021 Jun 19. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Department of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan, China.

The Homologous to E6AP C-terminus (HECT) domain and RCC1-like domain-containing (HERC) proteins can function as tumour suppressors and as oncogenes, depending on the cancer type. However, the expression patterns of HERCs in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells are unclear. Here, we show that only HERC1 and HERC5 are downregulated in CRC tumours, and we focus our study on revealing HERC5-mediating signalling because the change in downregulation is much more obvious for HERC5 than for HERC1. We demonstrate that HERC5 recruits an adaptor protein, CREB binding protein (CRB), to ubiquitinate C-terminal binding protein 1 (CtBP1) in noncancerous colon cells. The downregulation of HERC5 in CRC cells attenuates the ubiquitination of CtBP1, which then accumulates and assembles into a transcriptional complex with histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) and a transcription factor c-MYC. This transcriptional complex binds to the promoters of three proapoptotic genes, Bcl2 associated X (BAX), Bcl2 interacting killer (BIK) and p53upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), and inhibits their expression, thereby suppressing apoptotic signalling and promoting tumourigenesis. Overexpression of HERC5, downregulation of CtBP1 or blocking of the CtBP1 function with its inhibitors (NSC95397 and 4-methylthio-2-oxobutyric acid [MTOB]) significantly prevents CRC cell proliferation in vitro and tumour growth in vivo. Combining NSC95397 (or MTOB) with chemotherapeutic drugs (oxaliplatin or capecitabine) gives a much stronger inhibition of cell proliferation and tumour growth compared to their single treatments. Collectively, our results reveal that downregulation of HERC5 E3 ligase attenuates the ubiquitination of CtBP1 to inhibit apoptosis. Therefore, CtBP1 may be a promising target in CRC chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgab053DOI Listing
June 2021

Undifferentiated intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary artery: A case report.

World J Clin Cases 2021 Jun;9(16):3960-3965

Department of Ultrasonography, Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital-Sixth Medical Center, Beijing 100048, China.

Background: Since 1923, only a few hundred cases of pulmonary arterial sarcoma (PAS) have been reported. It is easy for PAS to be misdiagnosed as pulmonary thromboembolism, which makes treatment difficult. The median survival time without surgical treatment for PAS is only 1.5-3 mo. Echocardiography is widely used in screening for pulmonary artery space-occupying lesions in patients with chest pain, dyspnea, and cough; furthermore, it is typically considered the first imaging examination for patients with PAS.

Case Summary: In May 2017, a 39-year-old male patient experienced chest pain with no particular obvious cause. At that time, the cause was thought to be pulmonary embolism. In July 2017, positron emission tomography-computed tomography revealed space-occupying lesions in the right lung and multiple metastases in both lungs. The lesions of the right lung were biopsied, and pathology revealed undifferentiated sarcoma. Chemotherapy had been performed since July 2017 in another hospital. In December 2019, the patient was admitted to our hospital for the sake of CyberKnife treatment. Echocardiography suggested: (1) A right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) solid mass of the main pulmonary artery; and (2) mild pulmonary valve regurgitation. Ultrasonography showed the absence of a thrombus in the deep veins of either lower limb.

Conclusion: PAS is a single, central space-occupying lesion involving the RVOT and pulmonary valve. Echocardiography of PAS has its own characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v9.i16.3960DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8180227PMC
June 2021

Erythrocyte adenosine A2B receptor prevents cognitive and auditory dysfunction by promoting hypoxic and metabolic reprogramming.

PLoS Biol 2021 Jun 17;19(6):e3001239. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas McGovern Medical School, Houston, Texas, United States of America.

Hypoxia drives aging and promotes age-related cognition and hearing functional decline. Despite the role of erythrocytes in oxygen (O2) transport, their role in the onset of aging and age-related cognitive decline and hearing loss (HL) remains undetermined. Recent studies revealed that signaling through the erythrocyte adenosine A2B receptor (ADORA2B) promotes O2 release to counteract hypoxia at high altitude. However, nothing is known about a role for erythrocyte ADORA2B in age-related functional decline. Here, we report that loss of murine erythrocyte-specific ADORA2B (eAdora2b-/-) accelerates early onset of age-related impairments in spatial learning, memory, and hearing ability. eAdora2b-/- mice display the early aging-like cellular and molecular features including the proliferation and activation of microglia and macrophages, elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and attenuation of hypoxia-induced glycolytic gene expression to counteract hypoxia in the hippocampus (HIP), cortex, or cochlea. Hypoxia sufficiently accelerates early onset of cognitive and cochlear functional decline and inflammatory response in eAdora2b-/- mice. Mechanistically, erythrocyte ADORA2B-mediated activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and bisphosphoglycerate mutase (BPGM) promotes hypoxic and metabolic reprogramming to enhance production of 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate (2,3-BPG), an erythrocyte-specific metabolite triggering O2 delivery. Significantly, this finding led us to further discover that murine erythroblast ADORA2B and BPGM mRNA levels and erythrocyte BPGM activity are reduced during normal aging. Overall, we determined that erythrocyte ADORA2B-BPGM axis is a key component for anti-aging and anti-age-related functional decline.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3001239DOI Listing
June 2021

Applications of 2D-Layered Palladium Diselenide and Its van der Waals Heterostructures in Electronics and Optoelectronics.

Nanomicro Lett 2021 Jun 14;13(1):143. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Institute for Materials Science and Max Bergmann Center of Biomaterials, Technische Universität Dresden, 01069, Dresden, Germany.

The rapid development of two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal dichalcogenides has been possible owing to their special structures and remarkable properties. In particular, palladium diselenide (PdSe) with a novel pentagonal structure and unique physical characteristics have recently attracted extensive research interest. Consequently, tremendous research progress has been achieved regarding the physics, chemistry, and electronics of PdSe. Accordingly, in this review, we recapitulate and summarize the most recent research on PdSe, including its structure, properties, synthesis, and applications. First, a mechanical exfoliation method to obtain PdSe nanosheets is introduced, and large-area synthesis strategies are explained with respect to chemical vapor deposition and metal selenization. Next, the electronic and optoelectronic properties of PdSe and related heterostructures, such as field-effect transistors, photodetectors, sensors, and thermoelectric devices, are discussed. Subsequently, the integration of systems into infrared image sensors on the basis of PdSe van der Waals heterostructures is explored. Finally, future opportunities are highlighted to serve as a general guide for physicists, chemists, materials scientists, and engineers. Therefore, this comprehensive review may shed light on the research conducted by the 2D material community.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40820-021-00660-0DOI Listing
June 2021

Laser Synthesis and Microfabrication of Micro/Nanostructured Materials Toward Energy Conversion and Storage.

Nanomicro Lett 2021 Jan 4;13(1):49. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Collaborative Innovation Center of Technology and Equipment for Biological Diagnosis and Therapy in Universities of Shandong, Institute for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research (iAIR), University of Jinan, Jinan, 250022, People's Republic of China.

Nanomaterials are known to exhibit a number of interesting physical and chemical properties for various applications, including energy conversion and storage, nanoscale electronics, sensors and actuators, photonics devices and even for biomedical purposes. In the past decade, laser as a synthetic technique and laser as a microfabrication technique facilitated nanomaterial preparation and nanostructure construction, including the laser processing-induced carbon and non-carbon nanomaterials, hierarchical structure construction, patterning, heteroatom doping, sputtering etching, and so on. The laser-induced nanomaterials and nanostructures have extended broad applications in electronic devices, such as light-thermal conversion, batteries, supercapacitors, sensor devices, actuators and electrocatalytic electrodes. Here, the recent developments in the laser synthesis of carbon-based and non-carbon-based nanomaterials are comprehensively summarized. An extensive overview on laser-enabled electronic devices for various applications is depicted. With the rapid progress made in the research on nanomaterial preparation through laser synthesis and laser microfabrication technologies, laser synthesis and microfabrication toward energy conversion and storage will undergo fast development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40820-020-00577-0DOI Listing
January 2021

Water Splitting: From Electrode to Green Energy System.

Nanomicro Lett 2020 Jun 17;12(1):131. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Collaborative Innovation Center of Technology and Equipment for Biological Diagnosis and Therapy in Universities of Shandong, Institute for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research (iAIR), University of Jinan, Jinan, 250022, People's Republic of China.

Hydrogen (H) production is a latent feasibility of renewable clean energy. The industrial H production is obtained from reforming of natural gas, which consumes a large amount of nonrenewable energy and simultaneously produces greenhouse gas carbon dioxide. Electrochemical water splitting is a promising approach for the H production, which is sustainable and pollution-free. Therefore, developing efficient and economic technologies for electrochemical water splitting has been an important goal for researchers around the world. The utilization of green energy systems to reduce overall energy consumption is more important for H production. Harvesting and converting energy from the environment by different green energy systems for water splitting can efficiently decrease the external power consumption. A variety of green energy systems for efficient producing H, such as two-electrode electrolysis of water, water splitting driven by photoelectrode devices, solar cells, thermoelectric devices, triboelectric nanogenerator, pyroelectric device or electrochemical water-gas shift device, have been developed recently. In this review, some notable progress made in the different green energy cells for water splitting is discussed in detail. We hoped this review can guide people to pay more attention to the development of green energy system to generate pollution-free H energy, which will realize the whole process of H production with low cost, pollution-free and energy sustainability conversion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40820-020-00469-3DOI Listing
June 2020

Structures of G-bound metabotropic glutamate receptors mGlu2 and mGlu4.

Nature 2021 Jun 16. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

CAS Key Laboratory of Receptor Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.

The metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlus) have key roles in modulating cell excitability and synaptic transmission in response to glutamate (the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system). It has previously been suggested that only one receptor subunit within an mGlu homodimer is responsible for coupling to G protein during receptor activation. However, the molecular mechanism that underlies the asymmetric signalling of mGlus remains unknown. Here we report two cryo-electron microscopy structures of human mGlu2 and mGlu4 bound to heterotrimeric G protein. The structures reveal a G-protein-binding site formed by three intracellular loops and helices III and IV that is distinct from the corresponding binding site in all of the other G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) structures. Furthermore, we observed an asymmetric dimer interface of the transmembrane domain of the receptor in the two mGlu-G structures. We confirmed that the asymmetric dimerization is crucial for receptor activation, which was supported by functional data; this dimerization may provide a molecular basis for the asymmetric signal transduction of mGlus. These findings offer insights into receptor signalling of class C GPCRs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03495-2DOI Listing
June 2021

Structures of human mGlu2 and mGlu7 homo- and heterodimers.

Nature 2021 Jun 16. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.

The metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlus) are involved in the modulation of synaptic transmission and neuronal excitability in the central nervous system. These receptors probably exist as both homo- and heterodimers that have unique pharmacological and functional properties. Here we report four cryo-electron microscopy structures of the human mGlu subtypes mGlu2 and mGlu7, including inactive mGlu2 and mGlu7 homodimers; mGlu2 homodimer bound to an agonist and a positive allosteric modulator; and inactive mGlu2-mGlu7 heterodimer. We observed a subtype-dependent dimerization mode for these mGlus, as a unique dimer interface that is mediated by helix IV (and that is important for limiting receptor activity) exists only in the inactive mGlu2 structure. The structures provide molecular details of the inter- and intra-subunit conformational changes that are required for receptor activation, which distinguish class C G-protein-coupled receptors from those in classes A and B. Furthermore, our structure and functional studies of the mGlu2-mGlu7 heterodimer suggest that the mGlu7 subunit has a dominant role in controlling dimeric association and G-protein activation in the heterodimer. These insights into mGlu homo- and heterodimers highlight the complex landscape of mGlu dimerization and activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03641-wDOI Listing
June 2021

Performances and mechanisms of simultaneous nitrate and phosphate removal in sponge iron biofilter.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Jun 9;337:125390. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

National Engineering Laboratory for Advanced Municipal Wastewater Treatment and Reuse Technology, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124, China.

Sponge iron is a potential material for nitrogen and phosphate removal. To explore the performances and mechanisms of nitrogen and phosphate removal by sponge iron, a sponge iron biofilter was established. The results showed that nitrate was completely removed at HRT of 48 h without external carbon source and at HRT of 3 h with C/N ratio of 5. Furthermore, it was easy to achieve partial denitrification at HRT of 1 h with C/N ratio of 3. The mechanisms of nitrate removal were chemical reduction and nitrate dependent ferrous oxidation without external carbon source and heterotrophic denitrification with external carbon source. XPS result indicated that phosphate was removed by the formation of ferric phosphate precipitation. High throughput sequencing showed that iron-oxidizing bacteria Gallionellaceae was highly enriched in biofilter, accounting for 17.83%, which indicated that it was feasible to achieve autotrophic nitrate removal by sponge iron biofilter.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125390DOI Listing
June 2021

Correlation Between Lung Density Changes Under Different Dose Gradients and Radiation Pneumonitis-Based on an Analysis of Computed Tomography Scans During Esophageal Cancer Radiotherapy.

Front Oncol 2021 26;11:650764. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, Shandong Cancer Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Shandong First Medical University and Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, China.

Purpose: To assess the relationship between different doses of radiation and lung density changes and to determine the ability of this correlation to identify esophageal cancer (EC) patients who develop radiation pneumonitis (RP) and the occurrence time of RP.

Methods: A planning computed tomography (CT) scan and a re-planning CT scan were retrospectively collected under institutional review board approval for each of 103 thoracic segment EC patients who underwent radiotherapy (RT). The isodose curve was established on the planning CT with an interval of 5 Gy, which was used as the standard for dividing different gradient doses. Planning CT and re-planning CT scans were matched and the mean lung CT value (HU) between different doses gradients was automatically obtained by the software system. The density change value (ΔHU) was the difference of CT value between each dose gradient before and after treatment. The correlation between ΔHU and the corresponding dose was calculated, as well as the regression coefficients. Additionally the correlation between ΔHU and the occurrence and time of RP (< 4 weeks, 4-12 weeks, > 12 weeks) was calculated.

Results: The radiation dose and ΔHU was positively correlated, but the correlation coefficient and regression coefficient were lower, 0.261 (P <0.001) and 0.127 (P <0.001), respectively. With the increase of radiation dose gradient, ΔHU in RP≥2 group was higher than that in RP<2 group, and there was significant difference between two groups in ΔHU, ΔHU, ΔHU, ΔHU, ΔHU, ΔHU (p<0.05). The occurrence time of RP was negatively correlated with the degree of ΔHU (P<0.05), with a high correlation coefficient (Y = week actual value -0.521, P < 0.001) (Y = week grade value -0.381, P = 0.004) and regression coefficient (Y = week actual value -0.503, P<0.001) (Y = week rating value -0.401, P=0.002).

Conclusions: A relationship between radiation dose and lung density changes was observed. For most dose intervals, there was an increase of ΔHU with an increased radiation dose, although low correlation coefficient. ΔHU were obvious after irradiation with dose ≥20 Gy which was closely related to the occurrence of RP. For patients with RP, the more obvious ΔHU, the earlier the occurrence of RP, there was a significant negative correlation between them.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.650764DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8187904PMC
May 2021

Systemic Characterization of Novel Immune Cell Phenotypes in Recurrent Pregnancy Loss.

Front Immunol 2021 28;12:657552. Epub 2021 May 28.

Institute of Reproductive Health, Center for Reproductive Medicine, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is a disturbing disease in women, and 50% of RPL is reported to be associated with immune dysfunction. Most previous studies of RPL focused mainly on the relationship between RPL and either T cells or natural killer (NK) cells in peripheral blood and the decidua; few studies presented the systemic profiles of the peripheral immune cell subsets in RPL women. Herein, we simultaneously detected 63 immune cell phenotypes in the peripheral blood from nonpregnant women (NPW), women with a history of normal pregnancy (NP) and women with a history of RPL (RPL) by multi-parameter flow cytometry. The results demonstrated that the percentages of naïve CD4 T cells, central memory CD4 T cells, naïve CD8 T cells, mature NK cells, Vδ1 T cells and the ratio of Vδ1 T cells/Vδ2 T cells were significantly higher in the RPL group than those in the NPW and NP groups, whereas the percentages of terminal differentiated CD4 T cells, effective memory CD4 T cells, immature NK cells and Vδ2 T cells were significantly lower in the RPL group than those in the NPW and NP groups. Interestingly, we found that peripheral T helper (T) cells were more abundant in the NPW group than in the NP and RPL groups. Moreover, the percentage of Vδ2PD-1 gamma-delta (γδ) T cells was extremely high, above the 95 percentile limit, in the NP group compared with the NPW and RPL groups, which has never been reported before. In addition, we also determined the 5 percentile lower limit and 95 percentile upper limit of the significantly changed immunological parameters based on the files of the NPW group. Taken together, this is the first study to simultaneously characterize the multiple immune cell subsets in the peripheral blood at a relatively large scale in RPL, which might provide a global readout of the immune status for clinicians to identify clinically-relevant immune disorders and guide them to make clear and individualized advice and treatment plans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.657552DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8195235PMC
May 2021

miR‑483 promotes the development of colorectal cancer by inhibiting the expression level of EI24.

Mol Med Rep 2021 Aug 10;24(2). Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Xijing Hospital of Digestive Diseases, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710032, P.R. China.

MicroRNAs (miRs) serve an important role in cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis by negatively regulating gene expression at the transcriptional or post‑transcriptional level. EI24 autophagy associated transmembrane protein (EI24) is a tumor suppressor gene that serves an important role in the occurrence and development of digestive system tumors. However, little is known regarding the relationship between EI24 and the prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Our previous study confirmed EI24 as the target molecule of miR‑483, using reporter gene detection. Thus, the aim of the present study was to elucidate the effect of the abnormal expression of miR‑483 on the malignant phenotype of CRC through a series of cell function experiments and nude mice tumorigenicity experiments, and to determine the expression level of EI24, a downstream target gene of miR‑483, in CRC and its relationship with patient prognosis. In CRC tissues and cells, the expression level of miR‑483 was upregulated, while the expression level of EI24 was downregulated. Cell function tests such as MTT assay, cell cycle assay, colony formation assay, Migration and invasion assays and nude mice tumorigenicity experiments demonstrated that the overexpression of miR‑483 promoted the proliferation, invasion and metastasis of CRC. Moreover, the reverse transcription‑quantitative PCR results indicated that overexpression of miR‑483 inhibited the expression level of EI24. The relationship between the clinical data and immunohistochemical results from 183 patients with CRC and survival was examined. It was found that the expression level of EI24 was positively associated with the prognosis of patients. As a cancer‑promoting factor, miR‑483 enhances the proliferation, migration and invasion of CRC cells by reducing the expression level of EI24.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2021.12206DOI Listing
August 2021

High-dose vitamin C intravenous infusion in the treatment of patients with COVID-19: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 May;100(19):e25876

Integrated TCM & Western Medicine Department, Zhuzhou Central Hospital, Zhuzhou, Hunan province, China.

Background: Patients infected with a virus usually lack vitamin C. High-dose vitamin C has an antiviral effect, and has been used by several researchers to treat COVID-19 by intravenous infusion, achieving good results. However, the efficacy and safety of vitamin C in the treatment of patients with COVID-19 remain unclear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of high-dose vitamin C infusion in the treatment of patients with COVID-19.

Methods: Electronic databases were searched, including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure database, Chinese Wanfang database, and Chinese Biomedical Literature database. The aim was to collect randomized controlled trials of high-dose vitamin C infusion in the treatment of patients with COVID-19, with the retrieval time being from the establishment of the database to March 2021. In accordance with the pre-designed inclusion/exclusion criteria, all data were extracted independently by 2 researchers. To assess the risk bias in the studies, the Cochrane collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias was used to assess the risk bias in the studies, while meta-analysis was performed using Revman 5.3 software.

Results: In the present study, a high-quality comprehensive evaluation is provided of high-dose vitamin C infusion in the treatment of patients with COVID-19.

Conclusion: Further convincing evidence for the clinical treatment of COVID-19 is provided, in addition to evidence-based guidance for clinical practice.

Prospero Registration Number: CRD42021246342.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000025876DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8133047PMC
May 2021

[The Expression of WTAP Gene in Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Its Clinical Significance].

Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi 2021 Jun;29(3):653-660

National Clinical Research Center for Hematologic Diseases, Jiangsu Institute of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Key Laboratory of Thrombosis and Hemostasis of Ministry of Health, Suzhou 215006, Jiangsu Province, China,E-mail:

Objective: To investigate the expression of WTAP gene in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and its clinical significance.

Methods: 74 acute myeloid leukemia patients with non-M3 type and 19 normal donors were selected, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the mRNA expression level of WTAP gene in their bone marrow cells. The relationship between the mRNA expression level of WTAP gene and the clinical characteristics was analyzed.

Results: The relative mRNA expression of WTAP gene in the non-M3 AML group was significantly higher than that in the healthy control group, and the difference showed statistically significant (P<0.01). There showed no statistically significant difference in WTAP gene expression among each subtypes (all P>0.05) according to the classification of FAB. The mRNA expression level of WTAP gene in FLT3-ITD mutated AML patients was higher than that in FLT3-ITD unmutated group (P=0.016), and the mRNA expression level of WTAP gene in AML patients with CEBPα mutation was lower than that in CEBPα unmutated group (P=0.016). The expression level of WTAP mRNA was positively correlated with WT1 expression (r=0.6866, P<0.01). There was no relationship between WTAP mRNA expression level and other clinical parameters, such as age, gender, white blood cell count, hemoglobin level, platelet count, bone marrow original proportion of immature cells, chromosome karyotype, and NPM1, DNMT3A, ASXL1, NRAS, TET2 genes mutation status (P>0.05). The expression level of WTAP mRNA showed no obvious effect on the complete remission of patients after first treatment. The different expression level of WTAP gene at initial diagnosis showed also no effect on the overall survival time of patients.

Conclusion: The expression level of WTAP gene is increasing in new diagnosed non-M3 acute myeloid leukemia. There is a positive correlation between the expression level of WTAP gene and the expression level of WT1 fusion gene. WTAP mRNA always shows higher expression in patients with FLT3-ITD mutation than that in patients without FLT3-ITD mutation, and shows lower expression in patients with CEBPα mutation than that in unmutated group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19746/j.cnki.issn.1009-2137.2021.03.001DOI Listing
June 2021

Delayed diagnosis of Peutz-Jeghers syndrome due to pathological information loss or mistake in family/personal history.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2021 Jun 8;16(1):261. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Gastroenterology, Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Capital Medical University, 10 Tieyi Rd., Beijing, 100038, China.

Objective: To report Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) cases with non-definitive clues in the family or personal history and finally diagnosed through pathological examination and STK11 gene mutation test.

Clinical Presentation And Intervention: PJS was suspected in 3 families with tortuous medical courses. Two of them had relatives departed due to polyposis or colon cancer without pathological results, and the other one had been diagnosed as hyperplastic polyposis before. Diagnosis of PJS was confirmed by endoscopy and repeated pathological examinations, and the STK11 mutation test finally confirmed the diagnosis at genetic level, during which 3 novel mutation were detected (536C > A, 373_374insA, 454_455insGGAGAAGCGTTTCCCAGTGTGCC).

Conclusion: Early diagnosis of PJS is important and may be based on a family history with selective features among family members, and the pathological information is the key. The novel mutations also expand the STK11 variant spectrum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13023-021-01900-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8186215PMC
June 2021

Hydrophilic porous materials provide efficient gas-liquid separation to advance hydrogen production in microbial electrolysis cells.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Jun 2;337:125352. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Biological and Ecological Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97333, USA.

Preventing methane evolution is a key issue to guarantee stable hydrogen production in microbial electrolysis cell (MEC). In this study, low-cost hydrophilic porous materials, such as non-woven cloth (NWC) and polyvinylidenedifluoride (PVDF), were investigated as alternatives to proton exchange membrane (PEM) in MEC. The MEC with a NWC (NWC-MEC) improved the current density and hydrogen production rate (HPR) of 262.5±10 A m and 2.5±0.2 m m d, respectively, due to its lower pH gradient (0.37) and ion transport resistance (0.9±0.1 mΩ m). Hydrogen production in NWC-MEC (from 2.5 to 2.1 m m d) and PVDF-MEC (from 2.2 to 2.0 m m d) showed more stable performance compared to PEM-MECs (from 2.2 to 1.6 m m d) during 30 days of operation. Moreover, results of anodic microbial community analysis indicate that the growth of methanogens of NWC-MEC and PVDF-MEC was effectively inhibited in 30 days.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125352DOI Listing
June 2021

Corrigendum to "Molecular imaging-guided photothermal/photodynamic therapy against tumor by iRGD-modified indocyanine green nanoparticles" [Journal of Controlled Release 224 (2016) 217-228].

J Control Release 2021 Jun 4;335:420-421. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Ultrasonography, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Southern Medical University (Academy of Orthopedics Guangdong Province), Guangzhou 510630, China; Paul C. Lauterbur Research Center for Biomedical Imaging, Institute of Biomedical and Health Engineering, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 518055, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2021.05.037DOI Listing
June 2021

Magnesium Deficiency Causes a Reversible, Metabolic, Diastolic Cardiomyopathy.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Jun 5;10(12):e020205. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Division of Cardiology Department of Medicine The Lillehei Heart InstituteUniversity of Minnesota at Twin Cities Minneapolis MN.

Background Dietary Mg intake is associated with a decreased risk of developing heart failure, whereas low circulating Mg level is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. We investigated whether Mg deficiency alone could cause cardiomyopathy. Methods and Results C57BL/6J mice were fed with a low Mg (low-Mg, 15-30 mg/kg Mg) or a normal Mg (nl-Mg, 600 mg/kg Mg) diet for 6 weeks. To test reversibility, half of the low-Mg mice were fed then with nl-Mg diet for another 6 weeks. Low-Mg diet significantly decreased mouse serum Mg (0.38±0.03 versus 1.14±0.03 mmol/L for nl-Mg; <0.0001) with a reciprocal increase in serum Ca, K, and Na. Low-Mg mice exhibited impaired cardiac relaxation (ratio between mitral peak early filling velocity E and longitudinal tissue velocity of the mitral anterior annulus e, 21.1±1.1 versus 15.4±0.4 for nl-Mg; =0.011). Cellular ATP was decreased significantly in low-Mg hearts. The changes were accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction with mitochondrial reactive oxygen species overproduction and membrane depolarization. cMyBPC (cardiac myosin-binding protein C) was -glutathionylated in low-Mg mouse hearts. All these changes were normalized with Mg repletion. In vivo (2-(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl-4-ylamino)-2-oxoethyl)triphenylphosphonium chloride treatment during low-Mg diet improved cardiac relaxation, increased ATP levels, and reduced -glutathionylated cMyBPC. Conclusions Mg deficiency caused a reversible diastolic cardiomyopathy associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative modification of cMyBPC. In deficiency states, Mg supplementation may represent a novel treatment for diastolic heart failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.020205DOI Listing
June 2021

Pinocembrin Promotes OPC Differentiation and Remyelination via the mTOR Signaling Pathway.

Neurosci Bull 2021 Jun 6. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Institute of Neuroscience, Key Laboratory of Molecular Neurobiology of the Ministry of Education and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Naval Medical University, Shanghai, 200433, China.

The exacerbation of progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) is closely associated with obstruction of the differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). To discover novel therapeutic compounds for enhancing remyelination by endogenous OPCs, we screened for myelin basic protein expression using cultured rat OPCs and a library of small-molecule compounds. One of the most effective drugs was pinocembrin, which remarkably promoted OPC differentiation and maturation without affecting cell proliferation and survival. Based on these in vitro effects, we further assessed the therapeutic effects of pinocembrin in animal models of demyelinating diseases. We demonstrated that pinocembrin significantly ameliorated the progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and enhanced the repair of demyelination in lysolectin-induced lesions. Further studies indicated that pinocembrin increased the phosphorylation level of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Taken together, our results demonstrated that pinocembrin promotes OPC differentiation and remyelination through the phosphorylated mTOR pathway, and suggest a novel therapeutic prospect for this natural flavonoid product in treating demyelinating diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12264-021-00696-7DOI Listing
June 2021

Enhanced photocatalytic performance of PdO-loaded heterostructured nanobelts to degrade phenol.

Chemosphere 2021 Aug 14;276:130266. Epub 2021 Mar 14.

State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100, China. Electronic address:

Heterostructured catalysts play a significant role in the photodegradation of pollutants in wastewater. Combining the large surface of nanobelts with the high photocatalytic property of titanium dioxide (TiO) nanoparticles is a promising method for preparing photocatalysts, which have an advanced photocatalytic activity and are easy to precipitate. In this work, titanium dioxide nanobelts (NB) and acid corroded titanium dioxide nanobelts (C-NB) were synthesized via a hydrothermal process under alkaline conditions. Their surfaces were then loaded with palladium oxide (PdO) nanoparticles to prepare heterostructured photocatalysts (PdO-NB and PdO-C-NB) by a well-designed chemical precipitation method. The photodegradation efficiencies of the four catalysts for phenol, as well as for methyl orange, were tested and the order of degradation efficiency was found to be PdO-C-NB > PdO-NB > C-NB > NB. A degradation efficiency of 61% for phenol was achieved within 90 min using PdO-C-NB, which was nearly twice as much as using NB. The enhanced photocatalytic property of PdO-C-NB was due to the large specific surface area, abundant photocatalytic active sites and the low recombination rate of electron-hole pairs. Therefore, the degradation of phenol and methyl orange was speeded up considerably. Considering the high catalytic activity of PdO-C-NB, the heterostructure catalyst is of great significance to the degradation of organic wastewater, and has an important impact on our ecological environment and human health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130266DOI Listing
August 2021

A panel of 8-lncRNA predicts prognosis of breast cancer patients and migration of breast cancer cells.

PLoS One 2021 4;16(6):e0249174. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Oncology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Background: Breast cancer (BCa) is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among females around the world. Recent studies have indicated that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) can serve as an independent biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis in many types of cancer, including pancreatic adenocarcinoma, gastric cancer, liver cancer, and lung cancer. Previous studies have shown that many lncRNAs are associated with the occurrence and development of BCa. However, few studies have combined multiple lncRNAs to predict the prognosis of early-stage BCa patients.

Methods: Systematic and comprehensive analysis of data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) was conducted to identify lncRNA signatures with prognostic value in BCa. Additionally, the relative expression levels of the 8 lncRNA of several BCa cell lines were detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and the results were substituted into a risk score formula. Finally, migration assays were used to verify the result from prognostic analysis according to the risk scores among cell lines with different risk scores.

Results: Our study included 808 BCa patients with complete clinical data. A panel of 8 lncRNAs was identified using Wilcox tests as different between normal and tumor tissue of the BCa patients. This panel was used to analyze the survival of BCa patients. Patients with low risk scores had greater overall survival (OS) than those with high risk scores. Multivariate Cox regression analyses demonstrated that the lncRNA signature was an independent prognostic factor. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) suggested that the lncRNAs might be involved in several molecular signaling pathways implicated in BCa such as the DNA replication pathway, the cell cycle pathway, and the pentose phosphate pathway. Validation experiments in breast cancer cells to test cell migration by using wound-healing assays supported the results of the model.

Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that a panel of 8 lncRNAs has the potential to be used as an independent prognostic biomarker of BCa.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0249174PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8177463PMC
June 2021

Pembrolizumab Plus Concurrent Chemoradiation Therapy in Patients With Unresectable, Locally Advanced, Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: The Phase 2 KEYNOTE-799 Nonrandomized Trial.

JAMA Oncol 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

LungenClinic, Airway Research Center North, German Center for Lung Research, Grosshansdorf, Germany.

Importance: Administration of pembrolizumab plus concurrent chemoradiation therapy (cCRT) may provide treatment benefit to patients with locally advanced, stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Objective: To evaluate treatment outcomes and safety of pembrolizumab plus cCRT in stage III NSCLC.

Design, Setting, And Participants: The phase 2, nonrandomized, 2-cohort, open-label KEYNOTE-799 study enrolled patients between November 5, 2018, and July 31, 2020, from 52 academic facilities and community-based institutions across 10 countries. As of October 28, 2020, median (range) follow-up was 18.5 (13.6-23.8) months in cohort A and 13.7 (2.9-23.5) months in cohort B. Of 301 patients screened, 216 eligible patients with previously untreated, unresectable, and pathologically/radiologically confirmed stage IIIA/IIIB/IIIC NSCLC with measurable disease per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, version 1.1 (RECIST v1.1) were enrolled.

Interventions: Patients in cohort A (squamous/nonsquamous) received 1 cycle (3 weeks) of carboplatin (area under the curve [AUC] 6 mg/mL/min), paclitaxel (200 mg/m2), and pembrolizumab (200 mg), followed by carboplatin (AUC 2 mg/mL/min) and paclitaxel (45 mg/m2) once weekly for 6 weeks and 2 cycles of pembrolizumab plus standard thoracic radiotherapy. Patients in cohort B (nonsquamous) received 3 cycles of cisplatin (75 mg/m2), pemetrexed (500 mg/m2), and pembrolizumab (200 mg) every 3 weeks and thoracic radiotherapy in cycles 2 and 3. Patients received 14 additional cycles of pembrolizumab.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Coprimary end points were objective response rate per RECIST v1.1 by blinded independent central review and incidence of grade 3 to 5 pneumonitis.

Results: A total of 112 patients received treatment in cohort A (76 men [67.9%]; median [range] age, 66.0 [46-90] years; 66 patients [58.9%] with programmed cell death ligand 1 [PD-L1] tumor proportion score ≥1%) and 102 patients received treatment in cohort B (62 men [60.8%]; median [range] age, 64.0 [35-81] years; 40 patients [39.2%] with PD-L1 tumor proportion score ≥1%). Objective response rate was 70.5% (79 of 112; 95% CI, 61.2%-78.8%) in cohort A and 70.6% (72 of 102; 95% CI, 60.7%-79.2%) in cohort B. Median duration of response was not reached, but 79.7% and 75.6%, respectively, had response duration of 12 months or longer. Grade 3 or higher pneumonitis occurred in 9 of 112 patients (8.0%) in cohort A and 7 of 102 (6.9%) in cohort B. Grade 3 to 5 treatment-related adverse events occurred in 72 of 112 (64.3%) and 51 of 102 (50.0%) patients, respectively.

Conclusions And Relevance: The findings of this phase 2, nonrandomized, 2-cohort study suggest promising antitumor activity of pembrolizumab plus cCRT and manageable safety in patients with previously untreated, locally advanced, stage III NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2021.2301DOI Listing
June 2021

Construction and performance evaluation of a sustained release implant material polyetheretherketone with antibacterial properties.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 Jul 17;126:112109. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of General Dentistry, Hospital of Stomatology, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, PR China. Electronic address:

Objective: This study aimed to construct a tightly binding antibiotic sustained release system on the polyetheretherketone (PEEK) surface and investigate the cellular activity and antibacterial properties of the new oral implant materials.

Methods: Low-temperature argon plasma under certain parameters was used to prepare P-PEEK with nano-topology, and chemical deposition technology was adopted to form a polydopamine (PDA) coating on the PEEK surface to build a biological binding platform, PDA/P-PEEK. Subsequently, vancomycin gelatin nanoparticles (Van-GNPs) were prepared by two-step desolvation method. Finally, Van-GNPs were combined with PEEK implant material surface to form a new composite material, Van-GNPs/PEEK. scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), and contact angle tester were used to comprehensively characterize the materials. The in vitro release test of Van was performed by dynamic dialysis with ultraviolet spectrophotometer. The cell cytotoxicity and adhesion tests were studied by mouse embryonic osteoblasts. The antibacterial properties were evaluated by bacterial adhesion test, plate colony counting, and antimicrobial ring test with Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans.

Results: PEEK was treated with low-temperature argon plasma and attached to PDA to form a biological binding platform. The synthesized Van-GNPs were smooth, round, with uniform particle size distribution, and bound to PEEK to form a new composite material, which can release Van constantly. Cell experiments showed that Van-GNPs/PEEK had no cytotoxicity and had good interaction with osteoblasts. Bacterial experiments showed that surface conjugation with Van-GNPs could significantly improve the antibacterial performance of PEEK against S. aureus and S. mutans.

Significance: This study demonstrated that Van-GNPs/PEEK have good cellular compatibility and autonomous antibacterial properties, which provide a theoretical basis for the wide application of PEEK in the field of stomatology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2021.112109DOI Listing
July 2021

Perioperative dexmedetomidine and 5-year survival in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

Br J Anaesth 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Anaesthesiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, China. Electronic address:

Background: Dexmedetomidine sedation has been associated with favourable outcomes after surgery. We aimed to assess whether perioperative dexmedetomidine use is associated with improved survival after cardiac surgery.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 2068 patients undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting and/or valve surgery. Among them, 1029 patients received dexmedetomidine, and 1039 patients did not. Intravenous dexmedetomidine infusion of 0.007 μg kg min was initiated before or immediately after cardiopulmonary bypass and lasted for < 24 h. The primary outcome was 5-year survival after cardiac surgery. The propensity scores matching (PSM), inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW), and overlap weighting approaches were used to minimise bias. Survival analyses were performed with Cox proportional-hazard models.

Results: The median age was 63 yr old and the male to female ratio was 71:29 in both groups. Baseline covariates were balanced between groups after adjustment using PSM, IPTW, or overlap weighting. Patients receiving dexmedetomidine in cardiac surgical procedures had higher survival during postoperative 5 yr in unadjusted analysis (hazard ratio [HR]=0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51-0.78; P<0.001), and after adjustment with PSM (HR=0.63; 95% CI, 0.45-0.89; P=0.009), IPTW (HR=0.70; 95% CI, 0.51-0.95; P=0.023), or overlap weighting (HR=0.67; 95% CI, 0.51-0.89; P=0.006). The 5-yr mortality rate after cardiac surgery was 13% and 20% in the dexmedetomidine and non-dexmedetomidine groups, respectively (PSM adjusted odds ratio=0.61; 95% CI, 0.42-0.89; P=0.010).

Conclusion: Perioperative dexmedetomidine infusion was associated with improved 5-yr survival in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bja.2021.03.040DOI Listing
May 2021

polysaccharides alleviate cognitive decline in aging model mice by restoring the gut microbiota-brain axis.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 Jun 3;13(11):15320-15335. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Inner Mongolia Medical University, Hohhot 010110, China.

Recent evidence suggests alterations in the gut microbiota-brain axis may drive cognitive impairment with aging. In the present study, we observed that prolonged administration of D-galactose to mice induced cognitive decline, gut microbial dysbiosis, peripheral inflammation, and oxidative stress. In this model of age-related cognitive decline, polysaccharides (CDPS) improved cognitive function in D-galactose-treated mice by restoring gut microbial homeostasis, thereby reducing oxidative stress and peripheral inflammation. The beneficial effects of CDPS in these aging model mice were abolished through ablation of gut microbiota with antibiotics or immunosuppression with cyclophosphamide. Serum metabolomic profiling showed that levels of creatinine, valine, L-methionine, o-Toluidine, N-ethylaniline, uric acid and proline were all altered in the aging model mice, but were restored by CDPS. These findings demonstrated that CDPS improves cognitive function in a D-galactose-induced aging model in mice by restoring homeostasis of the gut microbiota-brain axis, which alleviated an amino acid imbalance, peripheral inflammation, and oxidative stress. CDPS thus shows therapeutic potential for patients with memory and learning disorders, especially those related to gut microbial dysbiosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.203090DOI Listing
June 2021

Iterative reconstruction for low-dose cerebral perfusion computed tomography using prior image induced diffusion tensor.

Phys Med Biol 2021 Jun 3;66(11). Epub 2021 Jun 3.

School of Biomedical Engineering, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515, People's Republic of China.

Cerebral perfusion computed tomography (CPCT) can depict the functional status of cerebral circulation at the tissue level; hence, it has been increasingly used to diagnose patients with cerebrovascular disease. However, there is a significant concern that CPCT scanning protocol could expose patients to excessive radiation doses. Although reducing the x-ray tube current when acquiring CPCT projection data is an effective method for reducing radiation dose, this technique usually results in degraded image quality. To enhance the image quality of low-dose CPCT, we present a prior image induced diffusion tensor (PIDT) for statistical iterative reconstruction, based on the penalized weighted least-squares (PWLS) criterion, which we referred to as PWLS-PIDT, for simplicity. Specifically, PIDT utilizes the geometric features of pre-contrast scanned high-quality CT image as a structure prior for PWLS reconstruction; therefore, the low-dose CPCT images are enhanced while preserving important features in the target image. An effective alternating minimization algorithm is developed to solve the associated objective function in the PWLS-PIDT reconstruction. We conduct qualitative and quantitative studies to evaluate the PWLS-PIDT reconstruction with a digital brain perfusion phantom and patient data. With this method, the noise in the reconstructed CPCT images is more substantially reduced than that of other competing methods, without sacrificing structural details significantly. Furthermore, the CPCT sequential images reconstructed via the PWLS-PIDT method can derive more accurate hemodynamic parameter maps than those of other competing methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6560/ac0290DOI Listing
June 2021