Publications by authors named "Hong Ju"

80 Publications

The elderly age criterion for increased in-hospital mortality in trauma patients: a retrospective cohort study.

Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 2021 Sep 10;29(1):133. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50-1 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 03722, Republic of Korea.

Background: With an aging population, the number of elderly individuals exposed to traumatic injuries is increasing. The elderly age criterion for traumatic injuries has been inconsistent in the literature. This study aimed at specifying the elderly age criterion when the traumatic mortality rate increases.

Methods: This is a multicenter retrospective cohort study that was conducted utilizing the data from the Emergency Department-based Injury In-depth Surveillance Registry of the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency, collected between January 2014 and December 2018 from 23 emergency departments. The outcome variable was in-hospital mortality. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the adjusted mortality rate for each age group. By using the shape-restricted regression splines method, the relationship between age and adjusted traumatic mortality was plotted and the point where the gradient of the graph had the greatest variation was calculated.

Results: A total of 637,491 adult trauma patients were included. The number of in-hospital deaths was 6504 (1.0%). The age at which mortality increased the most was 65.06 years old. The adjusted odds ratio for the in-hospital mortality rate with age in the ≤ 64-year-old subgroup was 1.038 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.032-1.044) and in the ≥ 65-year-old subgroup was 1.059 (95% CI 1.050-1.068). The adjusted odds ratio for in-hospital mortality in the ≥ 65-year-old compared to the ≤ 64-year-old subgroup was 4.585 (95% CI 4.158-5.055, p < 0.001).

Conclusions: This study found that the in-hospital mortality rate rose with increasing age and that the increase was the most rapid from the age of 65 years. We propose to define the elderly age criterion for traumatic injuries as ≥ 65 years of age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13049-021-00950-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8434699PMC
September 2021

Dysbiosis of Gut Microbiota in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction.

Front Microbiol 2021 5;12:680101. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Information Engineering, Heilongjiang Biological Science and Technology Career Academy, Harbin, China.

Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) continues as the main cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Interestingly, emerging evidence highlights the role of gut microbiota in regulating the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease, but few studies have systematically assessed the alterations and influence of gut microbiota in AMI patients. As one approach to address this deficiency, in this study the composition of fecal microflora was determined from Chinese AMI patients and links between gut microflora and clinical features and functional pathways of AMI were assessed. Fecal samples from 30 AMI patients and 30 healthy controls were collected to identify the gut microbiota composition and the alterations using bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We found that gut microflora in AMI patients contained a lower abundance of the phylum and a slightly higher abundance of the phylum compared to the healthy controls. Chao1 ( = 0.0472) and PD-whole-tree ( = 0.0426) indices were significantly lower in the AMI versus control group. The AMI group was characterized by higher levels of the genera , , , and , and lower levels of , , , , and as compared to that in the healthy controls ( < 0.05). The common metabolites of these genera are mostly short-chain fatty acids, which reveals that the gut flora is most likely to affect the occurrence and development of AMI through the short-chain fatty acid pathway. In addition, our results provide the first evidence revealing remarkable differences in fecal microflora among subgroups of AMI patients, including the STEMI vs. NSTEMI, IRA-LAD vs. IRA-Non-LAD and Multiple (≥2 coronary stenosis) vs. Single coronary stenosis groups. Several gut microflora were also correlated with clinically significant characteristics of AMI patients, including LVEDD, LVEF, serum TnI and NT-proBNP, Syntax score, counts of leukocytes, neutrophils and monocytes, and fasting serum glucose levels. Taken together, the data generated enables the prediction of several functional pathways as based on the fecal microfloral composition of AMI patients. Such information may enhance our comprehension of AMI pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.680101DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8290895PMC
July 2021

TRAIL-overexpressing Adipose Tissue-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Efficiently Inhibit Tumor Growth in an H460 Xenograft Model.

Cancer Genomics Proteomics 2021 Jul-Aug;18(4):569-578

Regeneration Medicine Research Center, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, Republic of Korea;

Background/aim: Mesenchymal stem cell-based tumor therapy is still limited due to the insufficient secretion of effectors and discrepancies between their in vitro and in vivo efficacy. We investigated whether genetically engineered adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) overexpressing tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) had inhibitory effects on H460 tumor growth both in vitro and in an H460 xenograft model.

Materials And Methods: Genetically engineered adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) overexpressing tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) were obtained from plasmid transfection with pCMV3-TRAIL and -interferon (IFN)-β (producing ASC-TRAIL and ASC-IFN-β, respectively). Death of H460 cells co-cultured with ASCs, ASC-TRAIL, and ASC-IFN-β or exposed to their conditioned medium was evaluated via apoptosis and cytotoxicity assays. In addition, in an H460 xenograft model (n=10 per group), the antitumor potential of TRAIL-overexpressing, and IFN-β-overexpressing ASCs was investigated.

Results: Conditioned medium obtained from ASC-IFN-β increased apoptosis of H460 cells more than did ASC-TRAIL. Additionally, in H460 xenograft models, while native ASCs promoted tumor growth, ASC-TRAIL and ASC-IFN-β both dramatically suppressed tumor growth. Interestingly, in the context of ASC-IFN-β, tumors were detected only in 20% of nude mice, with smaller sizes and lower weights than those of the control group.

Conclusion: TRAIL-overexpressing ASCs can be used to treat tumors; ASC-IFN-β in particular secrete a higher level of TRAIL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/cgp.20281DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8404734PMC
April 2021

Effects of photobiomodulation on bone remodeling in an osteoblast-osteoclast co-culture system.

Lasers Med Sci 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Dental Research Institute, and Dental and Life Science Institute, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yangsan, 50611, Korea.

The general bone anabolic effect of photobiomodulation (PBM) is largely accepted. As a result, PBM therapy is expected to be beneficial in the medical fields of dentistry and bone healing. However, most of the previous in vitro studies on PBM and bone metabolism were performed with single-cell cultures of osteoclast-lineage cells or osteoblast-lineage cells. In the present study, the bone-modulating effects of PBM were evaluated in an in vitro osteoblast/osteoclast co-culture system. Mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) and mouse calvarial pre-osteoblasts cells were purified and used as precursor cells for osteoclasts and osteoblasts, respectively. The PBM effects on single-cell culture of osteoclasts or osteoblasts as well as co-culture were examined by 1.2 J/cm low-level Ga-Al-As laser (λ  = 808 ± 3 nm, 80 mW, and 80 mA; spot size, 1cm; NDLux, Seoul, Korea) irradiation for 30 s at daily intervals throughout culture period. At the end of culture, the osteoclast differentiation and osteoblast differentiation were assessed by TRAP staining and ALP staining, respectively. The expressions of osteoclastogenic cytokines were evaluated by RT-PCR and Western blot analyses. Under the single-cell culture condition, PBM enhanced osteoblast differentiation but had minor effects on osteoclast differentiation. However, in the co-culture condition, its osteoblastogenic effect was maintained, and osteoclast differentiation was substantially reduced. Subsequent RT-PCR analyses and western blot results revealed marked reduction in receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) expression and elevation in osteoprotegerin (OPG) expression by PBM in co-cultured cells. More importantly, these alterations in RANKL/OPG levels were not observed under the single-cell culture conditions. Our results highlight the different effects of PBM on bone cells based on culture conditions. Further, our findings suggest the indirect anti-osteoclastogenic effect of PBM, which is accompanied by a decrease in RANKL expression and an increase in OPG expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10103-021-03352-8DOI Listing
June 2021

Impact of deboronation on the electronic characteristics of closo-o-carborane: intriguing photophysical changes in triazole-appended carboranyl luminophores.

Dalton Trans 2021 Mar 12;50(9):3207-3215. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Department of Chemistry, Institute for Molecular Science and Fusion Technology, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon 24341, Republic of Korea.

5-Phenyl-1,2,4-triazole-appended closo- (CB1 and CB2) and nido-o-carboranyl (nido-CB1 and nido-CB2) compounds were prepared and fully characterized using multinuclear NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The solid-state molecular structures of both closo-compounds were analyzed by X-ray crystallography. Although the closo-compounds exhibited dual emissive patterns in the rigid state (in THF at 77 K), which were assignable to a π-π* local excitation (LE)-based emission (λ = ca. 380 nm) on the triazole moieties and to an intramolecular charge transfer (ICT)-based emission (ca. 460 nm) in which the o-carborane units acted as the acceptor (A), at 298 K in THF, the LE-based emission dominated. In contrast, the nido-compounds exhibited an intensive emission originating from ICT transitions in which the o-carborane units reversibly acted as the donor (D). In particular, the positive solvatochromic effects of both nido-compounds and the results of theoretical calculations for the o-carboranyl compounds supported the electronic role of the o-carboranyl unit in each compound. Investigation of the radiative decay mechanism of the closo- and nido-compounds using their quantum efficiency (Φ) and decay lifetime (τ) suggested that the ICT-based radiative decay of nido-compounds occurred more efficiently than the LE-based decay of closo-compounds. These results implied that emission from the closo-compounds was drastically enhanced by the deboronation reaction upon exposure to an increasing concentration of fluoride anions, and finally became similar to the emission color (sky-blue) of the nido-compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0dt04038jDOI Listing
March 2021

Synthesis and Photophysical Properties of a Series of Dimeric Indium Quinolinates.

Molecules 2020 Dec 23;26(1). Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Department of Chemistry Education, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 28644, Korea.

A novel class of quinolinol-based dimeric indium complexes (-) was synthesized and characterized using H and C(H) NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Compounds - exhibited typical low-energy absorption bands assignable to quinolinol-centered π-π* charge transfer (CT) transition. The emission spectra of - exhibited slight bathochromic shifts with increasing solvent polarity (-xylene < tetrahydrofuran (THF) < dichloromethane (DCM)). The emission bands also showed a gradual redshift, with an increase in the electron-donating effect of substituents at the C5 position of the quinoline groups. The absolute emission quantum yields (Φ) of compounds (11.2% in THF and 17.2% in film) and (17.8% in THF and 36.2% in film) with methyl substituents at the C5 position of the quinoline moieties were higher than those of the indium complexes with other substituents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26010034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7793487PMC
December 2020

Experiences of Women with Male Factor Infertility under In Vitro Fertilization.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 10 25;17(21). Epub 2020 Oct 25.

Department of Nursing, Dongyang University, Yeongju 36040, Korea.

This study attempts to explore the experiences of infertility among women with male factor infertility. From April to July 2018, nine women with experience of male factor infertility and assistant reproductive technology were interviewed. The transcribed data were qualitatively analyzed to identify major themes and sub-themes representing participants' experiences with male factor infertility. The analysis indicated that the women's infertility experiences were structured into five theme clusters: "Difficult to accept the situation", "Confused inside", "Destroyed relationships due to blaming and anger", "Desire social support", and "Embracing hurt feelings and regaining strength". Intervention programs are needed to closely investigate the psychological status of women with male factor infertility and help with their physical and psychological well-being. Efforts to address infertility through effective governmental support for infertility, a strategy for promoting the social recognition of infertility, and the health professional's persistent interest and collaboration, are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17217809DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7662865PMC
October 2020

Antifungal resistance-modifying multiplexing action of Momordica charantia protein and phosphorylated derivatives on the basis of growth-dependent gene coregulation in Candida albicans.

Med Mycol 2020 Sep 1. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Shanxi Key Laboratory of Innovative Drugs for the Treatment of Serious Diseases Basing on Chronic Inflammation, College of Traditional Chinese Medicines, Shanxi University of Chinese Medicine, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030619, P. R. China.

Fungal growth-dependent gene coregulation is strongly implicated in alteration of gene-encoding target proteases ruling with an antifungal resistance niche and biology of resistant mutants. On the basis of multi-alterative processes in this platform, the resistance-modifying strategy is designed in ketoconazole resistant Candida albicans and evaluated with less selective Momordica charantia protein and allosterically phosphorylated derivatives at the Thr102, Thr24 and Thr255 sites, respectively. We demonstrate absolutely chemo-sensitizing efficacy regarding stepwise-modifying resistance in sensitivity, by a load of only 26.23-40.00 μg/l agents in Sabouraud's dextrose broth. Five successive modifying-steps realize the decreasing of ketoconazole E-test MIC50 from 11.10 to a lower level than 0.10 mg/l. With the ketoconazole resistance-modifying, colony undergoes a high-frequency morphological switch between high ploidy (opaque) and small budding haploid (white). A cellular event in the first modifying-step associates with relatively slow exponential growth (ie, a 4-h delay)-dependent action, mediated by agents adsorption. Moreover, multiple molecular roles are coupled with intracellularly and extracellularly binding to ATP-dependent RNA helicase dbp6; the 0.08-2.45 fold upregulation of TATA-box-binding protein, rRNA-processing protein and translation initiation factor 5A; and the 7.52-55.33% decrease of cytochrome P450 lanosterol 14α-demethylase, glucan 1, 3-β glucosidase, candidapepsin-1 and 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase. Spatial and temporal gene coregulation, in the transcription and translation initiation stages with rRNA-processing, is a new coprocessing platform enabling target protease attenuations for resistance-impairing. An updated resistance-modifying measure of these agents in the low-dose antifungal strategic design may provide opportunities to a virtually safe therapy that is in high dose-dependency.

Lay Summary: A new platform to modify resistance is fungal growth-dependent gene coregulation. MAP30 and phosphorylated derivatives are candidate resistance-modifying agents. Low-dose stepwise treatment absolutely modifies azole resistance in model fungus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mmy/myaa070DOI Listing
September 2020

Towards greater impact in health technology assessment: horizon scanning for new and emerging technologies in Singapore.

Int J Technol Assess Health Care 2020 Jun 22:1-7. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Agency for Care Effectiveness, Ministry of Health, Singapore, College of Medicine Building, 16 College Road, Singapore169854, Singapore.

Objectives: To alert policy makers early about emerging health technologies that could significantly impact the healthcare system at the clinical, financial and organizational levels, the Agency for Care Effectiveness (ACE) in Singapore established a horizon scanning system (HSS) in 2019. This paper describes the development of the ACE HSS and showcases its application with cell and gene therapy products as the first example.

Methods: A literature review of existing HSS methods, including the processes of the EuroScan International Network and other overseas horizon scanning agencies, was done to inform the development of our horizon scanning framework. The framework was first applied to the new and emerging cell and gene therapies.

Results: Identification sources, filtration and prioritization criteria, and horizon scanning outputs for the HSS were developed in alignment to international best practices, with recommendations for technology uptake represented by a traffic light system. For the first horizon scanning exercise on cell and gene therapies, forty therapies passed the filtration step, of which eight were prioritized for further assessment. The few early reports developed were used to inform and prepare the healthcare system for their potential introduction, particularly in terms of the need to develop health and funding policies.

Conclusions: Early assessment of prioritized topics has provided support for strategic efforts within the Ministry of Health. Given that ACE's horizon scanning program is still in its infancy, the framework will continue to evolve to ensure relevance to our stakeholders so that it remains fit for purpose for our healthcare system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0266462320000343DOI Listing
June 2020

Effects of a Psychological Management Program on Subjective Happiness, Anger Control Ability, and Gratitude among Late Adolescent Males in Korea.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 04 14;17(8). Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Department of Nursing, College of Nursing, Dankook University, Cheonan 31116, Korea.

This study aimed to develop an emotion management program for late adolescent males, and investigate the effect of the program. This study is an experimental study using a pretest-posttest control group design. It was conducted from 14 May to 21 December, 2018 at a male high school in Korea. It analyzed 52 participants (26 in the experimental group and 26 in the control group.) Regarding subjective happiness, there was a significant difference between groups (t = 3.409, = 0.001). In anger control ability and gratitude, there was no significant difference between groups (t = 0.332, = 0.740/ z = 0.528, = 0.599). This program for emotion management, which is based on the broaden-and-build theory, can improve subjective happiness, anger control ability, and gratitude, by reinforcing appreciation skills and anger awareness and self-expression in male high school students.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17082683DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7215877PMC
April 2020

Analyzing the Satellite-Induced Code Bias Variation Characteristics for the BDS-3 Via a 40 m Dish Antenna.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Feb 29;20(5). Epub 2020 Feb 29.

National Time Service Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi'an 710600, China.

The satellite-induced code bias variation of geostationary satellite orbit satellites and medium earth orbit satellites of the second-generation BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS-2) exceeds 1 m, which severely affects the accuracy and stability of the ambiguity resolution and high-precision positioning. With the development of the third-generation BDS (BDS-3) with a new system design and new technology, analysis of the satellite-induced code variation characteristics of BDS-3 has become increasingly important. At present, many scholars have explored the satellite-induced code bias of BDS-3, but most of them focus on BDS-3 experimental satellites via normal geodetic antenna. Compared to normal geodetic antenna, the 40-m dish antenna from the National Time Service Center can accurately detect satellite-induced code variations with low noise and high gain. Thus, observational data from fifteen BDS-3 medium earth orbit satellites are collected with the B1I/B2b/B3I/B1C/B2a frequency bands on the day of year (DOY) 199-206 in 2019, the PRN numbers of which are C19/C20/C21/C22/C23/C24/C25/C26/C27/C28/C30/C32/C33 /C35/C37, via the 40 m dish antenna to analyze the code bias variation characteristics. The results show that the obvious satellite-induced elevation‑dependent code bias variations exist in the B1I/B2b/B3I/B1C/B2a frequency bands of C28, compared with other satellites. Similarly, the multipath (MP) combination of B3I has an obvious elevation‑dependent variation within a range of 0.1 m for C21/C24/C27/C28/C37 and elevation‑dependent variation of the B2a and B2b frequency bands also exists in most satellites with a range of 0.1 m. However, the MP combination values of some satellites are asymmetric with respect to elevation, which is different from BDS-2 satellites and especially obvious for BDS-3 satellites B1I and BIC frequency bands with elevation‑dependent variations of 0.2 m, indicating that the code bias variation is not uniquely related to elevation, especially for the B1I/BIC frequency bands. What's more, the satellite-induced code bias variation of the BDS-3 satellites is greatly reduced compared with that of the BDS-2 satellites. In addition, the similar code bias variation appears at the Xia1 station with a normal geodetic antenna of B1I/B1C/B3I/B2a/B2b of C21, B3I/B2a/B2b of C24 and B2b of C28 among B1I/B1C/B3I/B2a/B2b of C21/C24/C27/C28/C37. The influence of the BDS-3 satellite-induced elevation‑dependent code bias on precision positioning and ambiguity fixing is worth further study using different antennas or receivers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20051339DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7085661PMC
February 2020

LDL-C plays a causal role on T2DM: a Mendelian randomization analysis.

Aging (Albany NY) 2020 02 10;12(3):2584-2594. Epub 2020 Feb 10.

Cardiovascular Department, The Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China.

Diabetic dyslipidemia is a common condition in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, with the increasing application of statins which mainly decrease low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, clinical trials and meta-analysis showed a clearly increase of the incidence of new-onset DMs, partly due to genetic factors. To determine whether a causal relationship exists between LDL-C and T2DM, we conducted a two-sample Mendelian Randomization (MR) analysis using genetic variations as instrumental variables (IVs). Initially, 29 SNPs significantly related to LDL-C (P≤ 5.0×10) were selected as based on results from the study of Henry et al, which processed loci data influencing lipids identified by the Global Lipids Genetics Consortium (GLGC) from 188,577 individuals of European ancestry. While 6 SNPs related to T2DM (P value < 5×10) were deleted, with the remaining 23 SNPs without LD eventually being deemed as IVs. The combined effect of all these 23 SNPs on T2DM, as generated with use of the penalized robust inverse-variance weighted (IVW) method (Beta value 0.24, 95%CI 0.087~0.393, P-value=0.002) demonstrated that elevated LDL-C levels significantly increased the risk of T2DM. The relationship between LDL-C and Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) with this analysis producing negative pooled results (Beta value -0.202, 95%CI -2.888~2.484, P-value=0.883).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.102763DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7041740PMC
February 2020

Integrating Multi-Omics Data to Identify Novel Disease Genes and Single-Neucleotide Polymorphisms.

Front Genet 2019 24;10:1336. Epub 2020 Jan 24.

Department of Information Engineering, Heilongjiang Biological Science and Technology Career Academy, Harbin, China.

Stroke ranks the second leading cause of death among people over the age of 60 in the world. Stroke is widely regarded as a complex disease that is affected by genetic and environmental factors. Evidence from twin and family studies suggests that genetic factors may play an important role in its pathogenesis. Therefore, research on the genetic association of susceptibility genes can help understand the mechanism of stroke. Genome-wide association study (GWAS) has found a large number of stroke-related loci, but their mechanism is unknown. In order to explore the function of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the molecular level, in this paper, we integrated 8 GWAS datasets with brain expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) dataset to identify SNPs and genes which are related to four types of stroke (ischemic stroke, large artery stroke, cardioembolic stroke, small vessel stroke). Thirty-eight SNPs which can affect 14 genes expression are found to be associated with stroke. Among these 14 genes, 10 genes expression are associated with ischemic stroke, one gene for large artery stroke, six genes for cardioembolic stroke and eight genes for small vessel stroke. To explore the effects of environmental factors on stroke, we identified methylation susceptibility loci associated with stroke using methylation quantitative trait loci (MQTL). Thirty-one of these 38 SNPs are at greater risk of methylation and can significantly change gene expression level. Overall, the genetic pathogenesis of stroke is explored from locus to gene, gene to gene expression and gene expression to phenotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2019.01336DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6993083PMC
January 2020

Protective Effects of Zerumbone on Colonic Tumorigenesis in Enterotoxigenic (ETBF)-Colonized AOM/DSS BALB/c Mice.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Jan 29;21(3). Epub 2020 Jan 29.

Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, College of Health Sciences, MIRAE Campus, Yonsei University, Wonju, Gangwon-do 26493, Korea.

Chronic inflammation has been linked to colitis-associated colorectal cancer in humans. The human symbiont enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF), a pro-carcinogenic bacterium, has the potential to initiate and/or promote colorectal cancer. Antibiotic treatment of ETBF has shown promise in decreasing colonic polyp formation in murine models of colon cancer. However, there are no reported natural products that have shown efficacy in decreasing polyp burden. In this study, we investigated the chemopreventive effects of oral administration of zerumbone in ETBF-colonized mice with azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced tumorigenesis. Zerumbone significantly reduced the severity of disease activity index (DAI) scores as well as several parameters of colonic inflammation (i.e., colon weight, colon length, cecum weight and spleen weight). In addition, inflammation of the colon and cecum as well as hyperplasia was reduced. Zerumbone treatment significantly inhibited colonic polyp numbers and prevented macroadenoma progression. Taken together, these findings suggest that oral treatment with zerumbone inhibited ETBF-promoted colon carcinogenesis in mice indicating that zerumbone could be employed as a promising protective agent against ETBF-mediated colorectal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21030857DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7036928PMC
January 2020

Exploring Pharmacological Mechanisms of Xiang Ju Tablets in the Treatment of Allergic Rhinitis via a Network Pharmacology Approach.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2019 12;2019:6272073. Epub 2019 Sep 12.

College of Pharmacy, Shaanxi University of Chinese Medicine, Xianyang, Shaanxi 712046, China.

In this study, allergic rhinitis (AR) disease targets and Xiang Ju tablet-associated targets were determined through the use of databases for the identification of putative therapeutic targets and then combined. After the production of a putative therapeutic target interaction network for Xiang Ju tablets against AR, topological analysis was used to determine the core targets of Xiang Ju tablets in AR treatment. For all putative therapeutic targets, analyses of biological function and pathway enrichment were performed to optimize the biological processes and key signaling pathways of Xiang Ju tablets in AR treatment. The top 5 therapeutic targets of Xiang Ju tablets in AR treatment were identified and included CXCL8, IL1B, IL6, IL10, and TNF. The biological processes, molecular functions, and cell composition related to the use of Xiang Ju tablets in AR treatment were predominantly associated with cytokine production, regulation of protein secretion, and regulation of peptide secretion; cytokine activity, cytokine receptor binding, and receptor ligand activity; and platelet alpha granule lumen, collagen-containing extracellular matrix, and platelet alpha granule. In addition, the top 64 key signaling pathways were identified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/6272073DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6757243PMC
September 2019

Zerumbone Suppresses Enterotoxigenic Infection-Induced Colonic Inflammation through Inhibition of NF-κΒ.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Sep 14;20(18). Epub 2019 Sep 14.

Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, College of Health Sciences, Yonsei University at Wonju, Wonju, Gangwon-do 26493, Korea.

Enterotoxigenic (ETBF) is human intestinal commensal bacterium and a potent initiator of colitis through secretion of the metalloprotease toxin (BFT). BFT induces cleavage of E-cadherin in colon cells, which subsequently leads to NF-κB activation. Zerumbone is a key component of the (L.) Smith plant and can exhibit anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory effects. However, whether zerumbone has anti-inflammatory effects in ETBF-induced colitis remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the anti-inflammatory effect of orally administered zerumbone in a murine model of ETBF infection. Wild-type C57BL/6 mice were infected with ETBF and orally administered zerumbone (30 or 60 mg/kg) once a day for 7 days. Treatment of ETBF-infected mice with zerumbone prevented weight loss and splenomegaly and reduced colonic inflammation with decreased macrophage infiltration. Zerumbone treatment significantly decreased expression of IL-17A, TNF-α, KC, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in colonic tissues of ETBF-infected mice. In addition, serum levels of KC and nitrite was also diminished. Zerumbone-treated ETBF-infected mice also showed decreased NF-κB signaling in the colon. HT29/C1 colonic epithelial cells treated with zerumbone suppressed BFT-induced NF-κB signaling and IL-8 secretion. However, BFT-mediated E-cadherin cleavage was unaffected. Furthermore, zerumbone did not affect ETBF colonization in mice. In conclusion, zerumbone decreased ETBF-induced colitis through inhibition of NF-κB signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20184560DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6770904PMC
September 2019

Cost-effectiveness analysis of bilateral cochlear implants for children with severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss in both ears in Singapore.

PLoS One 2019 15;14(8):e0220439. Epub 2019 Aug 15.

Agency for Care Effectiveness, Ministry of Health, Singapore, Singapore.

A cochlear implant is a small electronic device that provides a sense of sound for the user, which can be used unilaterally or bilaterally. Although there is advocacy for the benefits of binaural hearing, the high cost of cochlear implant raises the question of whether its additional benefits over the use of an acoustic hearing aid in the contralateral ear outweigh its costs. This cost-effectiveness analysis aimed to separately assess the cost-effectiveness of simultaneous and sequential bilateral cochlear implantations compared to bimodal hearing (use of unilateral cochlear implant combined with an acoustic hearing aid in the contralateral ear) in children with severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss in both ears from the Singapore healthcare payer perspective. Incremental quality-adjusted life year (QALYs) gained and costs associated with bilateral cochlear implants over the lifetime horizon were estimated based on a four-state Markov model. The analysis results showed that, at the 2017 mean cost, compared to bimodal hearing, patients receiving bilateral cochlear implants experienced more QALYs but incurred higher costs, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of USD$60,607 per QALY gained for simultaneous bilateral cochlear implantation, and USD$81,782 per QALY gained for sequential bilateral cochlear implantation. The cost-effectiveness of bilateral cochlear implants is most sensitive to utility gain associated with second cochlear implant, and cost of bilateral cochlear implants. ICERs increased when the utility gain from bilateral cochlear implants decreased; ICERs exceeded USD$120,000 per QALY gained when the utility gain was halved from 0.03 to 0.015 in both simultaneous and sequential bilateral cochlear implantations. The choice of incremental utility gain associated with the second cochlear implant is an area of considerable uncertainty.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0220439PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6695111PMC
March 2020

Characteristics, trend, and methodological quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses in nuclear medicine: A bibliometric analysis of studies published between 2005 and 2016.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2019 May;98(21):e15785

Department of Radiology.

To evaluate the characteristics, trend, and quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses in nuclear medicine.We performed a PubMed search to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses published between 2005 and 2016 in the field of nuclear medicine. The following data were extracted: journal name, impact factor, type of study, topics with cancer type, imaging modalities, authors (number, country, affiliation, presence of nuclear medicine specialists and statisticians, discordance between the first and corresponding authors), funding, methodological quality, methods used for quality assessment, and statistical methods.We included 185 nuclear medicine articles. Meta-analyses (n = 164; 88.6%) were published about 7 times more frequently than systematic reviews. Oncology was the most commonly studied topic (n = 125, 67.6%). The first authors were most frequently located in China (n = 73; 39.5%). PET was the most commonly used modality (n = 150; 81.1%). Both the number of authors and the ratio of discordance between the first and corresponding authors tended to progressively increase over time.The mean AMSTAR score increased over time (5.77 in 2005-2008, 6.71 in 2009-2012, and 7.44 in 2013-2016). The proportion of articles with quality assessment increased significantly (20/26 in 2005-2008, 54/65 in 2009-2012, and 79/94 in 2013-2016). The most commonly used assessment tool was quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies (n = 85; 54.9%).The number and quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses in nuclear medicine have significantly increased over the review period; however, the quality of these articles varies. Efforts to overcome specific weaknesses of the methodologies can provide opportunities for quality improvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000015785DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6571355PMC
May 2019

Exposing the Causal Effect of Body Mass Index on the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Mendelian Randomization Study.

Front Genet 2019 14;10:94. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

School of Life Sciences and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China.

High body mass index (BMI) is a positive associated phenotype of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Abundant studies have observed this from a clinical perspective. Since the rapid increase in a large number of genetic variants from the genome-wide association studies (GWAS), common SNPs of BMI and T2DM were identified as the genetic basis for understanding their associations. Currently, their causality is beginning to blur. To classify it, a Mendelian randomisation (MR), using genetic instrumental variables (IVs) to explore the causality of intermediate phenotype and disease, was utilized here to test the effect of BMI on the risk of T2DM. In this article, MR was carried out on GWAS data using 52 independent BMI SNPs as IVs. The pooled odds ratio (OR) of these SNPs was calculated using inverse-variance weighted method for the assessment of higher BMI on the risk of T2DM. The leave-one-out validation was conducted to identify the effect of individual SNPs. MR-Egger regression was utilized to detect potential pleiotropic bias of variants. We obtained the high OR (1.470; 95% CI 1.170 to 1.847; = 0.001), low intercept (0.004, = 0.661), and small fluctuation of ORs {from -0.039 [(1.412 - 1.470) / 1.470)] to 0.075 [(1.568- 1.470) / 1.470)] in leave-one-out validation. We validate the causal effect of high BMI on the risk of T2DM. The low intercept shows no pleiotropic bias of IVs. The small alterations of ORs activated by removing individual SNPs showed no single SNP drives our estimate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2019.00094DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6413727PMC
February 2019

Development and external validation of new nomograms by adding ECG changes (ST depression or tall T wave) and age to conventional scoring systems to improve the predictive capacity in patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage: a retrospective, observational study in Korea.

BMJ Open 2019 02 20;9(2):e024007. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Emergency Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Objectives: To develop new nomograms by adding ECG changes (ST depression or tall T wave) and age to three conventional scoring systems, namely, World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) scale, Hunt and Hess (HH) system and Fisher scale, that can predict prognosis in patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) using our preliminary research results and to perform external validation of the three new nomograms.

Design: Retrospective, observational study SETTING: Emergency departments (ED) of two university-affiliated tertiary hospital between January 2009 and March 2015.

Participants: Adult patients with SAH were enrolled. Exclusion criteria were age <19 years, no baseline ECG, cardiac arrest on arrival, traumatic SAH, referral from other hospital and referral to other hospitals from the ED.

Primary Outcome Measures: The 6 month prognosis was assessed using the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS). We defined a poor outcome as a GOS score of 1, 2 or 3.

Results: A total of 202 patients were included for analysis. From the preliminary study, age, ECG changes (ST depression or tall T wave), and three conventional scoring systems were selected to predict prognosis in patients with SAH using multi-variable logistic regression. We developed simplified nomograms using these variables. Discrimination of the developed nomograms including WFNS scale, HH system and Fisher scale was superior to those of WFNS scale, HH system and Fisher scale (0.912 vs 0.813; p<0.001, 0.913 vs 0.826; p<0.001, and 0.885 vs 0.746; p<0.001, respectively). The calibration plots showed excellent agreement. In the external validation, the discrimination of the newly developed nomograms incorporating the three scoring systems was also good, with an area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve value of 0.809, 0.812 and 0.772, respectively.

Conclusions: We developed and externally validated new nomograms using only three independent variables. Our new nomograms were superior to the WFNS scale, HH systems, and Fisher scale in predicting prognosis and are readily available.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-024007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6398783PMC
February 2019

Combined effect of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 and low level laser irradiation on bisphosphonate-treated osteoblasts.

J Korean Assoc Oral Maxillofac Surg 2018 Dec 28;44(6):259-268. Epub 2018 Dec 28.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yangsan, Korea.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the synergic effect of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) and low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on bisphosphonate-treated osteoblasts.

Materials And Methods: Human fetal osteoblast cells (hFOB 1.19) were cultured with 100 µM alendronate. Low-level Ga-Al-As laser alone or with 100 ng/mL rhBMP-2 was then applied. Cell viability was measured with MTT assay. The expression levels of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), and osteoprotegerin (OPG) were analyzed for osteoblastic activity inducing osteoclastic activity. Collagen type and transforming growth factor beta-1 were also evaluated for bone matrix formation.

Results: The results showed that rhBMP-2 and LLLT had a synergic effect on alendronate-treated osteoblasts for enhancing osteoblastic activity and bone matrix formation. Between rhBMP-2 and LLLT, rhBMP-2 exhibited a greater effect, but did not show a significant difference.

Conclusion: rhBMP-2 and LLLT have synergic effects on bisphosphonate-treated osteoblasts through enhancement of osteoblastic activity and bone formation activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5125/jkaoms.2018.44.6.259DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6327014PMC
December 2018

Anti-inflammatory and Osteogenic Effects of Calcium Silicate-based Root Canal Sealers.

J Endod 2019 Jan;45(1):73-78

Department of Conservative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Dental Science Research Institute, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Korea. Electronic address:

Introduction: An ideal root canal sealer creates a bacteria-resistant seal and exhibits antimicrobial activity, biocompatibility, and osteoconductivity. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of 3 root canal sealers on cell viability, inflammatory response, and osteogenic potential in MC3T3-E1 cells.

Methods: AH Plus (Dentsply Caulk, Milford, DE), MTA Fillapex (Angelus Solucxoes Odontologicas, Londrina, Brazil), and EndoSequence BC (Brasseler, Savannah, GA) were mixed according to the manufacturer's instructions, and samples were prepared as extraction media (final dilution: 1/10). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (100 ng/mL) treatment was used to induce an inflammatory response in this study. Cell viability was evaluated using the Water soluble tetrazolium-1 (WST-1) assay. The levels of inflammatory mediators (interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha) and osteogenic marker genes (ALP and OCN) were measured by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Osteogenic potential was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase staining and alizarin red staining.

Results: Calcium silicate-based sealers such as MTA Fillapex and EndoSequence BC showed strong cell viability compared with AH Plus. AH Plus, MTA Fillapex, and EndoSequence BC decreased the levels of LPS-induced inflammatory mediators (P < .05). The expression of osteogenic marker genes, alkaline phosphatase activity, and mineralized nodule formation decreased with LPS treatment. However, AH Plus and calcium silicate-based sealers increased the osteogenic potential reduced by LPS treatment (P < .05).

Conclusions: Calcium silicate-based sealers exhibit anti-inflammatory effects and induce osteogenic differentiation in MC3T3-E1 cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2018.09.006DOI Listing
January 2019

Lipase mediated functionalization of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) with ascorbic acid into an antioxidant active biomaterial.

Int J Biol Macromol 2019 Feb 11;123:117-123. Epub 2018 Nov 11.

Department of Biological Engineering, College of Engineering, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, South Korea; Institute for Ubiquitous Information Technology and Applications (CBRU), Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, South Korea. Electronic address:

Naturally produced polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) biopolymers have limited medical applications due to their brittle and hydrophobic nature. In this study poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) P(3HB-co-3HV) copolymer was produced using engineered Escherichia coli YJ101, and further functionalized with ascorbic acid using Candida antarctica lipase B mediated esterification. Copolymer P(3HB-co-3HV)-ascorbic acid showed lower degree of crystallinity (9.96%), higher thermal degradation temperature (294.97 °C) and hydrophilicity (68°) as compared to P(3HB-co-3HV). Further, P(3HB-co-3HV)-ascorbic acid biomaterial showed 14% scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), and 1.6 fold increase in biodegradability as compared to P(3HB-co-3HV). Improvement of PHAs polymer properties by adding functional groups could be a good approach to increase their biodegradability, economic value and important applications in the medical field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.11.052DOI Listing
February 2019

Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) for health technology assessment: the Queensland Health experience.

Aust Health Rev 2019 Oct;43(5):591-599

Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, Qld 4111, Australia. Email.

Objectives In determining whether new health technologies should be funded, health technology assessment (HTA) committees prefer explicit to implicit methods of analysis in enhancing transparency and consistency of decision making. The aim of this study was to develop and pilot a multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) framework for the Queensland Department of Health HTA program committee, which weighted decision making criteria according to their perceived importance as determined by group consensus. Methods The criteria used in the MCDA framework were identified by reviewing the five unweighted criteria used in the existing process, consultation with committee members and literature review. Criteria were clearly defined and ordinal categories of lowest to highest preferred were assigned against which technology submissions would be rated. Criteria weights were determined through a discrete choice experiment (DCE) survey of committee members using validated software. Mean weighted technology scores were then used to guide deliberative discussions in determining final funding decisions. Results The MCDA framework created one additional criterion to the previous five. The criteria and their mean weights identified through the DCE survey were clinical benefit and safety (27.2%), quality of evidence (19.2%), implementation capacity (16.9%), innovation (15.4%), burden of disease and clinical need (13.3%) and societal and ethical values (8.0%). Criterion weights varied considerably between individual committee members, with one criterion having a difference of 36.9% between the highest and lowest preference weights. Following deliberative discussions, all but one of 10 submissions were awarded funding. The submission not supported received the third lowest score through the MCDA model. Conclusions This pilot application of an MCDA framework, as a complement to committee deliberation, conferred greater transparency and objectivity on HTA assessment of technologies. The framework converted an implicit, unweighted review process to one that is more explicit, flexible in weighting importance and pragmatic. What is known about the topic? HTA programs involve complex decision-making processes requiring the consideration of multiple criteria. Explicit methods of analysis that use weighted criteria according to their relative importance enhance transparency and consistency of decision making by HTA committees, and are preferred to implicit reviews using unweighted criteria. What does this paper add? This article describes the development and piloting of an MCDA framework that aims to improve transparency, objectivity and consistency of funding decisions of the Queensland HTA committee. Criteria were identified through a review of current processes, committee discussions and a literature review, and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) quality of evidence system. Criteria were weighted using a discrete choice experiment involving committee members. Using weighted criteria, mean technology scores were calculated and incorporated into deliberative discussions to determine funding decisions. What are the implications for practitioners? The MCDA framework described here converted a more implicit, unweighted process to one that was more pragmatic, explicit and flexible in scoring HTA submissions. This framework may be useful to other HTA programs and could be expanded to resource allocation decision making in many other healthcare settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/AH18042DOI Listing
October 2019

Differential effects of size-specific particulate matter on emergency department visits for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases in Guangzhou, China.

Environ Pollut 2018 Dec 27;243(Pt A):336-345. Epub 2018 Aug 27.

Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Health, Guangdong Province, China. Electronic address:

Background: Studies differentiating the cardiorespiratory morbidity effects of PM, PM, and PM (i.e. coarse PM or PMc) are still limited and inconsistent.

Objective: To estimate the acute, cumulative, and harvesting effects of exposure to the three size-specific PM on cardiorespiratory morbidity, and their concentration-response relations.

Methods: A total of 6,727,439 emergency department (ED) visits were collected from 16 public teaching hospitals in Guangzhou, from January 1st 2012 to December 31st 2015, among which over 2.1 million were asthma, COPD, pneumonia, respiratory tract infection (RTI), hypertension, stroke, and coronary heart disease (CHD). Distributed lag non-linear models (DLNM) was used to estimate the associations between the three size-specific PM and ED visits for the cardiovascular diseases. Long-term trends, seasonality, influenza epidemics, meteorological factors, and other gas pollutants, including SO2, NO, and O, were adjusted. We stratified the analyses by gender and age.

Results: Elevated PM and PM were significantly associated with increased ED visits for pneumonia, RTI, and CHD at both lag and lag. A 10 μg/m increment of PMc (at lag) was estimated to increase ED visits for pneumonia by 6.32% (95% CI, 4.19, 8.49) and for RTI by 4.72% (95% CI, 3.81, 5.63), respectively. PMc showed stronger cumulative effects on asthma in children than elderly. We observed significant harvesting effects (i.e. morbidity displacements) of the three size-specific PM on respiratory but very little on cardiovascular ED visits. The concentration-response curves suggested non-linear relations between exposures to the three different sizes of PM and respiratory morbidity.

Conclusions: Overall, the three size-specific PM demonstrated distinct acute and cumulative effects on the cardiorespiratory diseases. PM and PMc would have significant effects on pneumonia and RTI. Strategies should be considered to further reduce levels of ambient PM and PMc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.08.068DOI Listing
December 2018

Butyrate-based n-butanol production from an engineered Shewanella oneidensis MR-1.

Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 2018 Aug 8;41(8):1195-1204. Epub 2018 May 8.

Department of Biological Engineering, College of Engineering, Konkuk University, Seoul, 05029, South Korea.

n-Butanol is considered as the next-generation biofuel, because its physiochemical properties are very similar to fossil fuels and it could be produced by Clostridia under anaerobic culture. Due to the difficulties of strict anaerobic culture, a host which can be used with facultative environment was being searched for n-butanol production. As an alternative, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, which is known as facultative bacteria, was selected as a host and studied. A plasmid containing adhE2 encoding alcohol dehydrogenase, various CoA transferases (ctfAB, atoAD, pct, and ACT), and acs encoding acetyl-CoA synthetase were introduced and examined to S. oneidensis MR-1 to produce n-butanol. As a result, ctfAB, acs, and adhE2 overexpression in S. oneidensis-pJM102 showed the highest n-butanol production in the presence of 2% of N-acetylglucosamine (NAG), 0.3% of butyrate, and 0.1 mM of IPTG for 96 h under microaerobic condition. When more NAG and butyrate were fed, n-butanol production was enhanced, producing up to 160 mg/L of n-butanol. When metal ions or extra electrons were added to S. oneidensis-pJM102 for n-butanol production, metal ion as electron acceptor or supply of extra electron showed no significant effect on n-butanol production. Overall, we made a newly engineered S. oneidensis that could utilize NAG and butyrate to produce n-butanol. It could be used in further microaerobic condition and electricity supply studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00449-018-1948-6DOI Listing
August 2018

Mapping the Galvanic Corrosion of Three Coupled Metal Alloys Using Coupled Multielectrode Array: Influence of Chloride Ion Concentration.

Materials (Basel) 2018 Apr 20;11(4). Epub 2018 Apr 20.

College of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266580, China.

The galvanic corrosion behavior of three metal alloys commonly used in water desalination plants was investigated using coupled multielectrode arrays consisting of aluminum-brass (HAl77-2), titanium alloy (TA2), and 316L stainless steel (316L SS). The three electrode types were coupled galvanically and arranged in different geometric configurations. Their corrosion behavior was characterized as a function of the chloride concentration. The potential and current distributions of the three-electrode coupling systems display electrochemical inhomogeneity. Generally, the aluminum-brass wires are anodic versus the titanium alloy and stainless steel. The titanium alloy acts as a primary cathode, and the 316L SS acts as a secondary cathode. The corrosion rate of aluminum-brass depends on the concentration of chloride ion, with a maximum corrosion rate at a chloride concentration of 2.3 wt %. In terms of geometrical arrangements, when the anodic HAl77-2 wires are located on the edge and are connected to the 316L SS wires in the coupling system, the main anodic area enlarges, especially in the area adjacent to the 316L SS wires. When the HAl77-2 wires are located between (in the middle of) the two other types of wires, the corrosion rates are higher than the corrosion rates observed from the other two geometrical arrangements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma11040634DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5951518PMC
April 2018

Enhanced isobutanol production from acetate by combinatorial overexpression of acetyl-CoA synthetase and anaplerotic enzymes in engineered Escherichia coli.

Biotechnol Bioeng 2018 08 2;115(8):1971-1978. Epub 2018 May 2.

Department of Biological Engineering, College of Engineering, Konkuk University, Seoul, Korea.

Acetic acid is an abundant material that can be used as a carbon source by microorganisms. Despite its abundance, its toxicity and low energy content make it hard to utilize as a sole carbon source for biochemical production. To increase acetate utilization and isobutanol production with engineered Escherichia coli, the feasibility of utilizing acetate and metabolic engineering was investigated. The expression of acs, pckA, and maeB increased isobutanol production by up to 26%, and the addition of TCA cycle intermediates indicated that the intermediates can enhance isobutanol production. For isobutanol production from acetate, acetate uptake rates and the NADPH pool were not limiting factors compared to glucose as a carbon source. This work represents the first approach to produce isobutanol from acetate with pyruvate flux optimization to extend the applicability of acetate. This technique suggests a strategy for biochemical production utilizing acetate as the sole carbon source.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bit.26710DOI Listing
August 2018

Synthesis and Characterization of Sulfonated Graphene Oxide Reinforced Sulfonated Poly (Ether Ether Ketone) (SPEEK) Composites for Proton Exchange Membrane Materials.

Materials (Basel) 2018 Mar 28;11(4). Epub 2018 Mar 28.

College of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580, China.

As a clean energy utilization device, full cell is gaining more and more attention. Proton exchange membrane (PEM) is a key component of the full cell. The commercial-sulfonated, tetrafluoroethylene-based fluoropolymer-copolymer (Nafion) membrane exhibits excellent proton conductivity under a fully humidified environment. However, it also has some disadvantages in practice, such as high fuel permeability, a complex synthesis process, and high cost. To overcome these disadvantages, a low-cost and novel membrane was developed. The sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) was selected as the base material of the proton exchange membrane. Sulfonated graphene (SG) was cross-linked with SPEEK through the elimination reaction of hydrogen bonds. It was found that the sulfonic acid groups and hydrophilic oxygen groups increased obviously in the resultant membrane. Compared with the pure SPEEK membrane, the SG-reinforced membrane exhibited better proton conductivity and methanol permeability prevention. The results indicate that the SG/SPEEK could be applied as a new proton exchange membrane in fuel cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma11040516DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5951362PMC
March 2018
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