Publications by authors named "Hong He"

626 Publications

Ozone and SOA formation potential based on photochemical loss of VOCs during the Beijing summer.

Environ Pollut 2021 May 31;285:117444. Epub 2021 May 31.

Aerosol and Haze Laboratory, Advanced Innovation Center for Soft Matter Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, 100029, China. Electronic address:

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are easily degraded by oxidants during atmospheric transport. Therefore, the contribution of VOCs to ozone (O) and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation at a receptor site is different from that in a source area. In this study, hourly concentrations of VOCs and other pollutants, such as O, NOx, HONO, CO, and PM, were measured in the suburbs (Daxing district) of Beijing in August 2019. The photochemical initial concentrations (PICs), in which the photochemical losses of VOCs were accounted for, were calculated to evaluate the contribution of the VOCs to O and SOA formation. The mean (±standard deviation) measured VOC concentrations and the PICs were 11.2 ± 5.7 and 14.6 ± 8.4 ppbv, respectively, which correspond to O formation potentials (OFP) of 57.8 ± 26.3 and 103.9 ± 109.4 ppbv and SOA formation potentials (SOAP) of 8.4 ± 4.1 and 10.3 ± 7.4 μg m, respectively. Alkenes contributed 80.5% of the consumed VOCs, followed by aromatics (13.3%) and alkanes (6.2%). The contributions of the alkenes and aromatics to the OFP were 56.8% and 30.3%, respectively; while their corresponding contributions to the SOAP were 1.9% and 97.3%, respectively. The OFP was linearly correlated with the observed O concentrations (OFP = 41.5 + 1.40 × c, R = 0.87). The O formation was associated with a VOC-limited regime at the receptor site based on the measured VOCs and changed to a transition regime and a NOx sensitive regime based on the PIC. Our results suggest that more attention should be paid to biogenic VOCs when studying O formation in summer in Beijing, while the control of anthropogenic aromatic compounds should be given priority in terms of SOA formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117444DOI Listing
May 2021

Terminal Hydroxyl Groups on AlO Supports Influence the Valence State and Dispersity of Ag Nanoparticles: Implications for Ozone Decomposition.

ACS Omega 2021 Apr 31;6(16):10715-10722. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.

Ozone is a poisonous gas, so it is necessary to remove excessive ozone in the environment. Catalytic decomposition is an effective way to remove ozone at room temperature. In this work, 10%Ag/nano-AlO and 10%Ag/AlOOH-900 catalysts were synthesized by the impregnation method. The 10%Ag/nano-AlO catalyst showed 89% ozone conversion for 40 ppm O for 6 h under a space velocity of 840 000 h and a relative humidity of 65%, which is superior to 10%Ag/AlOOH-900 (45% conversion). The characterization results showed Ag nanoparticles to be the active sites for ozone decomposition, which were more highly dispersed on nano-AlO as a result of the greater density of terminal hydroxyl groups. The understanding of the dispersion and valence of silver species gained in this study will be beneficial to the design of more efficient supported silver catalysts for ozone decomposition in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.1c00220DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8153745PMC
April 2021

A Mutation in Familial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy as a Possible Pathogenic Variant.

Front Genet 2021 10;12:596709. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Neurology, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), the most common form of medically refractory focal epilepsy in adults, often requires surgery to alleviate seizures. By using next-generation sequencing, we identified a mutation (NM_005027.4: c.265C > T; NP_005018.2: p.Arg89Cys) in a family with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. encodes p85β, the regulatory subunit of Class IA phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and the mutation we identified in seems to function unexpectedly as a possible pathogenic variant. The mutation is predicted to be potentially pathogenic by multiple bioinformatics tools. Through a functional assay, we verified that the mutation enhances the function of PI3K in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of the proband. Finally, pathological testing of the resected temporal lobe cortex showed that the expression of was significantly higher in patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy than in those of non-epileptic diseases as a control group. It can be inferred that might play an important role in the development of TLE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.596709DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8141861PMC
May 2021

The influence of mood on the effort in trying to shift one's attention from a mind wandering phase to focusing on ongoing activities in a laboratory and in daily life.

Cogn Emot 2021 May 19:1-14. Epub 2021 May 19.

State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning & IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China.

This research investigated the effect of mood on self-reported effort in trying to focus back from mind wandering to ongoing things. We conducted three studies (one correlational and two experimental studies). Study 1 served as a correlational demonstration (questionnaires) of the negative relations between focus back effort and negative mood and between mind wandering and focus back effort at the trait level. Furthermore, a self-reported measure of focus back effort was developed to examine the effect of mood inductions on the ratings of focus back effort in the laboratory (Study 2) and daily life (Study 3). The findings of Studies 2 and 3 revealed that both in the laboratory and in daily life, participants in a negative mood reported lower levels of focus back effort rating than those in a positive mood. Thus, moods modulated mind wandering and an individual's effort in trying to focus back to some extent. Future work should account for the role of moods in mind wandering or focus back episodes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02699931.2021.1929854DOI Listing
May 2021

Investigation of suitable precursors for manganese oxide catalysts in ethyl acetate oxidation.

J Environ Sci (China) 2021 Jun 9;104:17-26. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Center for Excellence in Regional Atmospheric Environment and Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021, China; State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.

The control of ethyl acetate emissions from fermentation and extraction processes in the pharmaceutical industry is of great importance to the environment. We have developed three MnO catalysts by using different Mn precursors (MnCl, Mn(CHCOO), MnSO), named as MnO-Cl, -Ac, -SO. The tested catalytic activity results showed a sequence with Mn precursors as: MnO-Cl > MnO-Ac > MnO-SO. The MnO-Cl catalyst reached a complete ethyl acetate conversion at 212℃ (75℃ lower than that of MnO-SO), and this high activity 100% could be maintained high at 212℃ for at least 100 hr. The characterization data about the physical properties of catalysts did not show an obvious correlation between the structure and morphology of MnO catalysts and catalytic performance, neither was the surface area the determining factor for catalytic activity in the ethyl acetate oxidation. Here we firstly found there is a close linear relationship between the catalytic activity and the amount of lattice oxygen species in the ethyl acetate oxidation, indicating that lattice oxygen species were essential for excellent catalytic activity. Through H temperature-programmed reduction (H-TPR) results, we found that the lowest initial reduction temperature over the MnO-Cl had stronger oxygen mobility, thus more oxygen species participated in the oxidation reaction, resulting in the highest catalytic performance. With convenient preparation, high efficiency, and stability, MnO prepared with MnCl will be a promising catalyst for removing ethyl acetate in practical application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2020.11.025DOI Listing
June 2021

Significant contribution of spring northwest transport to volatile organic compounds in Beijing.

J Environ Sci (China) 2021 Jun 18;104:169-181. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Center for Excellence in Regional Atmospheric Environment, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021, China; State Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Physics and Atmospheric Chemistry, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address:

High values of ozone (O) occur frequently in the dry spring season; thus, understanding the evolution characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in spring is of great significance for preventing O pollution. In this study, a total of 101 VOCs from April 16 to May 21, 2019, were quantified using an online gas chromatography mass spectrometer/flame ionization detector (GCMS/FID). The results indicated that the observed concentration of total VOCs (TVOCs) was 30.4 ± 17.0 ppbv, and it was dominated by alkanes (44.3%), followed by oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) (17.4%), halocarbons (12.7%), aromatics (9.5%), alkenes (8.2%), acetylene (5.3%) and carbon disulfide (2.5%). The average mixing ratio of VOCs showed obvious diurnal variation (high at night, low during daytime). We conducted a source apportionment study based on 32 major VOCs using positive matrix factorization (PMF), and coal + biomass burning (25.2%), diesel exhaust (16.0%), gasoline exhaust + evaporation (17.4%), secondary + long-lived species (16.7%), biogenic sources (4.3%), industrial emissions (9.3%) and solvent use (11.2%) were identified as major sources of VOCs. In addition to local emissions, most of the atmospheric VOCs were derived from long-distance air masses (65.7%), and the average mixing ratio of VOCs in the northwest direction was 29.4 ppbv. Combined with the results of the potential source contribution function (PSCF) indicate that research should focus on the local emissions of combustion, transportation sources and solvents usage to control atmospheric VOCs. Additionally, transmission of the northwest air mass is an important component that cannot be ignored during spring in Beijing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2020.11.023DOI Listing
June 2021

Microdroplet extraction assisted ultrasensitive Raman detection in complex oil.

Lab Chip 2021 Jun;21(11):2217-2222

State Key Laboratory of Power Transmission Equipment & System Security and New Technology, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China.

The Raman detection of trace substances in complex oil is still a great challenge at present because of the strong disturbance of background activity and the suppression of intensity in spectra caused by complicated components. In this work, a simple and robust approach based on microdroplet liquid-liquid extraction for the real-time Raman spectroscopy monitoring of trace substances in complex oil is reported. Based on unbalanced chemical potentials between water and oil on a microfluidic chip, a target trace molecule is extracted from complex mineral oil to a water microdroplet. Benefiting from the real-time fluorescence intensities of fluorescein in a water microdroplet, the extraction performance is investigated and optimized. The optimal water microdroplet is implemented for the Raman detection of furfural in a complex mineral oil, a typical trace performance marker in electric power equipment, and this exhibits excellent sensitivity with a limit of detection (LOD) of 26 ppb. Compared to traditional detection technology for trace substances in complex oil (high performance liquid chromatography, HPLC), this method greatly simplified the process of measurement, reduced the volume of sample required, had a fast measurement time, and exhibited the prospect of real-time monitoring applications with high sensitivity, which not only promotes the development of oil quality but also enlarges existing knowledge related to using Raman spectroscopy in chem-/bio-sensing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1lc00169hDOI Listing
June 2021

Pleasantness of mind wandering is positively associated with focus back effort in daily life: Evidence from resting state fMRI.

Brain Cogn 2021 06 15;150:105731. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Key Laboratory of Cognition and Personality (SWU), Ministry of Education, Chongqing, China; Department of Psychology, Southwest University, Chongqing, China; Southwest University Branch, Collaborative Innovation Center of Assessment Toward Basic Education Quality at Beijing Normal University. Electronic address:

Despite the dynamic property of consciousness, little research has explored the characteristic of the effort in trying to focus back, in which attention is shifted from mind wandering to ongoing activities. In the current study, we assessed the frequency of daily mind wandering, the pleasantness of daily mind wandering content, and the daily focus back effort of 69 participants, and then collected their resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) scans. Our results revealed that (1) participants who experienced more daily pleasant mind wandering tended to have higher effort in trying to focus back than individuals with less pleasant mind wandering whereas there were no significant relations between pleasantness of mind wandering and mind wandering frequency or between focus back effort and mind wandering frequency in everyday life; (2) the pleasantness of mind wandering and focus back effort were associated with two functional connectivity that related to focus back episodes (right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex-right middle frontal gyrus, right inferior parietal - right middle frontal gyrus). The nodes forming these functional connections belonged to the executive network. Taken together, these findings support the content regulation hypothesis that humans maintain their minds wandering away from unpleasant topics by engaging in executive control processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2021.105731DOI Listing
June 2021

Potentiation of the Anticancer Effects by Combining Docetaxel with Ku-0063794 Against Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells.

Cancer Res Treat 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Surgery, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: mTORC1 and mTORC2 inhibition by Ku-0063794 could confer profound anticancer effects against cancer cells because it eliminates feedback activation of Akt. Herein, we aimed to determine anticancer effects of docetaxel and Ku-0063794, individually or in combination, against breast cancer cells, especially triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells.

Material And Methods: MCF-7 breast cancer and MDA-MB-231 TNBC cell lines for in vitro studies and mouse xenograft model for in vivo studies were used to investigate the effect of docetaxel, Ku-0063794, or their combination.

Results: In the in vitro experiments, combination therapy synergistically reduced cell viability and induced higher apoptotic cell death in breast cancer cells than the individual monotherapies (p<0.05). Western blot analysis and flow cytometric analysis showed that the combination therapy induced higher apoptotic cell death than the individual monotherapies (p<0.05). In the in vivo experiment, docetaxel and Ku-0063794 combination therapy reduced the growth of MDA-MB-231 cells xenografted in the nude mice better than in the individual monotherapies (p<0.05). Immunohistochemistry showed that the combination therapy induced the highest expression of cleaved caspase-3 and the lowest expression of Bcl-xL in the MDA-MB-231 cells xenografted in the nude mice (p<0.05). Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence, incorporating both in vitro and in vivo experiments, consistently validated that unlike individual monotherapies, docetaxel and Ku-0063794 combination therapy significantly inhibited epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and autophagy (p<0.05).

Conclusion: These data suggest that docetaxel and Ku-0063794 combination therapy has higher anticancer activities over individual monotherapies against MDA-MB-231 TNBC cells through a greater inhibition of autophagy and EMT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4143/crt.2020.1063DOI Listing
April 2021

Combining Everolimus and Ku0063794 Promotes Apoptosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells via Reduced Autophagy Resulting from Diminished Expression of miR-4790-3p.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 11;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Surgery, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Korea.

It is challenging to overcome the low response rate of everolimus in the treatment of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To overcome this challenge, we combined everolimus with Ku0063794, the inhibitor of mTORC1 and mTORC2, to achieve higher anticancer effects. However, the precise mechanism for the synergistic effects is not clearly understood yet. To achieve this aim, the miRNAs were selected that showed the most significant variation in expression according to the mono- and combination therapy of everolimus and Ku0063794. Subsequently, the roles of specific miRNAs were determined in the processes of the treatment modalities. Compared to individual monotherapies, the combination therapy significantly reduced viability, increased apoptosis, and reduced autophagy in HepG2 cells. The combination therapy led to significantly lower expression of miR-4790-3p and higher expression of zinc finger protein225 (ZNF225)-the predicted target of miR-4790-3p. The functional study of miR-4790-3p and ZNF225 revealed that regarding autophagy, miR-4790-3p promoted it, while ZNF225 inhibited it. In addition, regarding apoptosis, miR-4790-3p inhibited it, while ZNF225 promoted it. It was also found that HCC tissues were characterized by higher expression of miR-4790-3p and lower expression of ZNF225; HCC tissues were also characterized by higher autophagic flux. We, thus, conclude that the potentiated anticancer effect of the everolimus and Ku0063794 combination therapy is strongly associated with reduced autophagy resulting from diminished expression of miR-4790-3p, as well as higher expression of ZNF225.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22062859DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7998287PMC
March 2021

Chemical formation and source apportionment of PM at an urban site at the southern foot of the Taihang mountains.

J Environ Sci (China) 2021 May 24;103:20-32. Epub 2020 Oct 24.

Center for Excellence in Regional Atmospheric Environment, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021, China; Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.

The region along the Taihang Mountains in the North China Plain (NCP) is characterized by serious fine particle pollution. To clarify the formation mechanism and controlling factors, an observational study was conducted to investigate the physical and chemical properties of the fine particulate matter in Jiaozuo city, China. Mass concentrations of the water-soluble ions (WSIs) in PM and gaseous pollutant precursors were measured on an hourly basis from December 1, 2017, to February 27, 2018. The positive matrix factorization (PMF) method and the FLEXible PARTicle (FLEXPART) model were employed to identify the sources of PM. The results showed that the average mass concentration of PM was 111 μg/m during the observation period. Among the major WSIs, sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium (SNA) constituted 62% of the total PM mass, and NO ranked the highest with an average contribution of 24.6%. NH was abundant in most cases in Jiaozuo. According to chemical balance analysis, SO, NO, and Cl might be present in the form of (NH)SO, NHNO, NHCl, and KCl. The liquid-phase oxidation of SO and NO was severe during the haze period. The relative humidity and pH were the key factors influencing SO formation. We found that NO mainly stemmed from homogeneous gas-phase reactions in the daytime and originated from the hydrolysis of NO in the nighttime, which was inconsistent with previous studies. The PMF model identified five sources of PM: secondary origin (37.8%), vehicular emissions (34.7%), biomass burning (11.5%), coal combustion (9.4%), and crustal dust (6.6%).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2020.10.004DOI Listing
May 2021

microRNA-29b prevents renal fibrosis by attenuating renal tubular epithelial cell-mesenchymal transition through targeting the PI3K/AKT pathway.

Int Urol Nephrol 2021 Mar 19. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Nephrology, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, No.169, Road East lake, Wuhan, 430071, Hubei, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the effects of miR-29b on renal interstitial fibrosis in the obstructed kidney of mouse with unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) via inhibiting phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinaseB (PI3K/AKT) signaling pathway.

Methods: Adult male CD-1 mice were intraperitoneally injected with vehicle or PI3K inhibitor LY294002 (3 mg/kg, 30 mg/kg) daily for 1 or 2 weeks after performing UUO or sham operation. The mice were sacrificed on days 7 and 14 after surgery. The rat proximal tubular epithelial cell (TEC) line NRK-52E was cultured in DMEM and treated with various concentrations angiotensin II (AngII). Obstructed and sham mouse kidneys were analyzed via HE, Masson and immunohistochemistry to assess the degree of renal fibrosis. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays (RT-PCR) were performed to investigate changes in the levels of expression of miR-29b and Western blot was used to analyze the activation of PI3K/AKT signaling and expression of E-cadherin, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA).

Results: Histologic analyses of obstructed kidney revealed that LY294002 attenuated the degree of renal fibrosis. In this study, loss of miR-29b accompanied with increased epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was observed in renal tubules of mice after UUO and cultured NRK-52E cells exposed to AngII. LY294002 also prominently decreased phosphorylation of AKT in vivo and vitro. By RT-PCR and Western blot analysis, LY294002 blocked the PI3K/AKT-induced loss of E-cadherin expression and de novo increase of the expression of α-SMA in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The overexpression of miR-29b markedly reversed the phenotype induced by AngII in NRK-52E cells and the downregulation miR-29b expression with an miR-29b inhibitor resulted in enhanced EMT. In addition, the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway was found to be suppressed in the presence of overexpression of miR-29b by direct hybridization with 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of PIK3R2.

Conclusion: Our findings suggested that miR-29b significantly prevented tubulointerstitial injury in mouse model of UUO by attenuating renal tubular epithelial cell-mesenchymal transition via repressing PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11255-021-02836-4DOI Listing
March 2021

Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation Potential from Ambient Air in Beijing: Effects of Atmospheric Oxidation Capacity at Different Pollution Levels.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 04 18;55(8):4565-4572. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.

Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) plays a critical role in sustained haze pollution in megacities. Traditional observation of atmospheric aerosols usually analyzes the ambient organic aerosol (OA) but neglects the SOA formation potential (SOAFP) of precursors remaining in ambient air. Knowledge on SOAFP is still limited, especially in megacities suffering from frequent haze. In this study, the SOAFP of ambient air in urban Beijing was characterized at different pollution levels based on a two-year field observation using an oxidation flow reactor (OFR) system. Both OA and SOAFP increased as a function of ambient pollution level, in which increasing concentrations of precursor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and decreasing atmospheric oxidation capacity were found to be the two main influencing factors. To address the role of the atmospheric oxidation capacity in SOAFP, a relative OA enhancement ratio (ER = 1 + SOAFP/OA) and the elemental composition of the OA were investigated in this study. The results indicated that the atmospheric oxidation capacity was weakened and resulted in higher SOAFP on more polluted days. The relationship found between SOAFP and the atmospheric oxidation capacity could be helpful in understanding changes in SOA pollution with improving air quality in the megacities of developing countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c00890DOI Listing
April 2021

Feasibility and safety of both His bundle pacing and left bundle branch area pacing in atrial fibrillation patients: intermediate term follow-up.

J Interv Card Electrophysiol 2021 Mar 15. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Cardiology, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Intervention and Regenerative Medicine, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, No. 3 Qingchun East Road, Hangzhou, 310016, Zhejiang, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: His bundle pacing (HBP) improves heart failure (HF) in atrial fibrillation (AF) pacing-dependent patients with a potential for a progressively increased threshold. HBP with right ventricular pacing (RVP) as a backup is always the preferred choice; however, RVP may induce HF. His Purkinje system pacing (HPSP) includes HBP and left bundle branch area pacing (LBBAP). LBBAP maintains left ventricular synchrony but has not been proven to be safe over the long term. We assessed the feasibility and safety of both HBP and LBBAP in AF pacing-dependent patients and compared the parameters of both leads at baseline and at the 6-month follow-up.

Methods: A total of 16 AF patients in our center, who successfully attempted both HBP and LBBAP, were prospectively enrolled unless only one of these treatment statuses was attained. The electrocardiogram characteristics, leading parameters, echocardiography results, and clinical outcomes were assessed.

Results: Thirteen out of 16 patients achieved both HBP and LBBAP successfully in the same AF pacing-dependent patients. In symptomatic HF patients with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (n = 10), the left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) was reduced from 51.8 ± 4.4 to 48.3 ± 3.1 mm (p = 0.01) with the use of diuretics, either reduced or stopped (n = 7). During the follow-up, one patient in the group without HF had an increased HBP threshold and developed HF symptoms. His HF symptoms disappeared when switched into LBBAP mode. Another patient in the group with HF got his LVEF elevated by HBP for 3 months by utilizing left bundle branch block(LBBB)correction and continued to increase when switched into LBBAP for another 3 months due to an increased HBP correction threshold. The average unipolar pacing threshold of LBBAP was lower than that of HBP. No perforation or dislodgement occurred in our study.

Conclusion: Both HBP and LBBAP could be attempted successfully in the same AF patients when one of the two modes could be adopted and switched according to the clinical feasibility. Compared with HBP, LBBAP yielded better and more stable parameters but showed comparable effects during the 6-month follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10840-021-00964-6DOI Listing
March 2021

Superior Oxidative Dehydrogenation Performance toward NH Determines the Excellent Low-Temperature NH-SCR Activity of Mn-Based Catalysts.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 May 8;55(10):6995-7003. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.

Mn-based oxides exhibit outstanding low-temperature activity for the selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH (NH-SCR) compared with other catalysts. However, the underlying principle responsible for the excellent low-temperature activity is not yet clear. Here, the atomic-level mechanism and activity-limiting factor in the NH-SCR process over Mn-, Fe-, and Ce-based oxide catalysts are elucidated by a combination of first-principles calculations and experimental measurements. We found that the superior oxidative dehydrogenation performance toward NH of Mn-based catalysts reduces the energy barriers for the activation of NH and the formation of the key intermediate NHNO, which is the rate-determining step in NH-SCR over these oxide catalysts. The findings of this study advance the understanding of the working principle of Mn-based SCR catalysts and provide a fundamental basis for the development of future generation SCR catalysts with excellent low-temperature activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c08214DOI Listing
May 2021

Bacterial Composition and Diversity of the Digestive Tract of Emery and Mayr.

Insects 2021 Feb 17;12(2). Epub 2021 Feb 17.

College of Forestry, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China.

Ponerine ants are generalist predators feeding on a variety of small arthropods, annelids, and isopods; however, knowledge of their bacterial communities is rather limited. This study investigated the bacterial composition and diversity in the digestive tract (different gut sections and the infrabuccal pockets (IBPs)) of two ponerine ant species ( Emery and Mayr) distributed in northwestern China using high-throughput sequencing. We found that several dominant bacteria that exist in other predatory ants were also detected in these two ponerine ant species, including , , and . Bacterial communities of these two ant species were differed significantly from each other, and significant differences were also observed across their colonies, showing distinctive inter-colony characteristics. Moreover, bacterial communities between the gut sections (crops, midguts, and hindguts) of workers were highly similar within colony, but they were clearly different from those in IBPs. Further, bacterial communities in the larvae of were similar to those in the IBPs of workers, but significantly different from those in gut sections. We presume that the bacterial composition and diversity in ponerine ants are related to their social behavior and feeding habits, and bacterial communities in the IBPs may play a potential role in their social life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/insects12020176DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7922086PMC
February 2021

Comparison of early changes in ocular surface markers and tear inflammatory mediators after femtosecond lenticule extraction and FS-LASIK.

Int J Ophthalmol 2021 18;14(2):283-291. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center and State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510000, Guangdong Province, China.

Aim: To compare the short-term impacts of femtosecond lenticule extraction (FLEx) and femtosecond laser-assisted laser keratomileusis (FS-LASIK) on ocular surface measures and tear inflammatory mediators.

Methods: This prospective comparative nonrandomized clinical study comprised 75 eyes (75 patients). Totally 20 male and 15 female patients (age 21.62±3.25y) with 35 eyes underwent FLEx, and 26 male and 14 female patients (age 20.18±3.59y) with 40 eyes underwent FS-LASIK. Central corneal sensitivity, noninvasive tear breakup time, corneal fluorescein staining, Schirmer I test, tear meniscus height, and ocular surface disease index were evaluated in all patients. Tear concentrations of nerve growth factor (NGF), interleukin-1α (IL-1α), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) were assessed by multiplex antibody microarray. All measurements were performed preoperatively, and 1d, 1wk, and 1mo postoperatively.

Results: Patients who underwent FLEx exhibited a more moderate reduction in central corneal sensation and less corneal fluorescein staining than those in the FS-LASIK group 1wk after the procedure (<0.01). NGF was significantly higher 1d and 1wk after surgery in the FS-LASIK group than in the FLEx group (<0.01). By contrast, compared to those in the FLEx group, higher postoperative values and slower recovery of tear TGF-β1, IL-1α, and TNF-α concentrations were observed in the FS-LASIK group (<0.01). Tear concentrations of NGF, TGF-β1, TNF-α, and IL-1α were correlated with ocular surface changes after FLEx or FS-LASIK surgery.

Conclusion: There is less early ocular surface disruption and a reduced inflammatory response after FLEx than after FS-LASIK. NGF, TGF-β1, TNF-α, and IL-1α may contribute to the process of ocular surface recovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18240/ijo.2021.02.16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7840371PMC
February 2021

Three-dimensional morphological and positional analysis of the temporomandibular joint in adults with posterior crossbite: A cross-sectional comparative study.

J Oral Rehabil 2021 Jun 2;48(6):666-677. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Orthodontics, Hubei-MOST KLOS & KLOBM, School & Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to three-dimensionally (3D) evaluate the morphological and positional features of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in adults with unilateral and bilateral posterior crossbite compared with aligned control subjects.

Materials And Methods: This cross-sectional comparative study analysed cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of 90 adult subjects' divided into three equal groups: bilateral posterior crossbite (BCG), unilateral posterior crossbite (UCG) and control group (CG). 3D measurements of the TMJ included the following: (a) position, angulation and inclination of the mandibular condyles; (b) centralisation of the condyles in their respective mandibular fossae; and (c) volumetric measurements of the TMJ spaces. Intra- and intergroup differences were identified using the paired Student's t test and an analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's post hoc test, respectively.

Results: Regarding the intra-group side-based comparisons, there were significant differences in the anterior and superior joint spaces and the anteroposterior condylar joint position in the UCG. Intergroup comparisons revealed significant differences in the vertical condylar inclination, medial condylar position, condylar width and height, and volumetric joint space between the unaffected side of the UCG and left sides of the other groups. There were significant differences in the anteroposterior condylar inclination, medial condylar position, condylar width and height, anterior, posterior, superior and volumetric joint spaces, and anteroposterior condylar joint position between the crossbite side of the UCG and the right sides of the other groups.

Conclusion: Skeletal crossbite accompanied with characteristic morphological and positional TMJ features associated with unilateral posterior crossbite and are associated with side-specific TMJ asymmetry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/joor.13156DOI Listing
June 2021

Effect of relative humidity on SOA formation from aromatic hydrocarbons: Implications from the evolution of gas- and particle-phase species.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 3;773:145015. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China; Center for Excellence in Regional Atmospheric Environment, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address:

Relative humidity (RH) plays a significant role in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, but the mechanisms remain uncertain. Using a 30 m indoor smog chamber, the influences of RH on SOA formation from two conventional anthropogenic aromatics (toluene and m-xylene) were investigated from the perspective of both the gas- and particle- phases based on the analysis of multi-generation gas-phase products and the chemical composition of SOA, which clearly distinguishes from many previous works mainly focused on the particle-phase. Compared to experiments with RH of 2.0%, SOA yields increased by 11.1%-133.4% and 4.0%-64.5% with higher RH (30.0%-90.0%) for toluene and m-xylene, respectively. The maximum SOA concentration always appeared at 50.0% RH, which is consistent with the change trend of SOA concentration with RH in the summertime field observation. The most plausible reason is that the highest gas-phase OH concentration was observed at 50.0% RH, when the increases in gas-phase OH formation and OH uptake to aerosols and chamber walls with increasing RH reached a balance. The maximum OH concentration was accompanied by a notable decay of second-generation products and formation of third-generation products at 50.0% RH. With further increasing RH, more second-generation products with insufficient oxidation degree will be partitioned into the aerosol phase, and the aqueous-phase oxidation process will also be promoted due to the enhanced uptake of OH. These processes concurrently caused the O/C and oxidation state of carbon (OSc) to first increase and then slightly decrease. This work revealed the complex influence of RH on SOA formation from aromatic VOCs through affecting the OH concentration, partitioning of advanced gas-phase oxidation products as well as aqueous-phase oxidation processes. Quantitative studies to elucidate the role of RH in the partitioning of oxidation products should be conducted to further clarify the mechanism of the influence of RH on SOA formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145015DOI Listing
June 2021

The reporting quality of split-mouth trials in orthodontics according to CONSORT guidelines: 2015-19.

Eur J Orthod 2021 Feb 8. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Hubei-MOST KLOS & KLOBM, Wuhan University, China.

Objectives: To assess the reporting quality of split-mouth trials (SMTs) in orthodontic journals, and to identify factors associated with better reporting.

Materials And Methods: Seven leading orthodontic journals were hand searched for SMTs published during 2015-19. The CONSORT 2010 guideline and CONSORT for within-person trial (WPT) extension were used to assess the trial reporting quality (TRQ) and WPT-specific reporting quality (WRQ) of included SMTs, respectively. A binary score (0 or 1) was given to each item of the guidelines, and total scores were calculated for TRQ (score range, 0-32) and WRQ (score range, 0-15). Univariable and multivariable linear regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with TRQ and WRQ.

Results: A total of 42 SMTs were included. The mean overall scores for TRQ and WRQ were 16.8 [standard deviation (SD) 7.1] and 5.6 (SD 2.3), respectively. Only 11 SMTs (26.2%) presented the rationale for using a split-mouth design. Key methodological items including random sequence generation (22/42, 52.4%), allocation concealment (9/42, 21.4%), and blinding (20/42, 47.6%) were poorly reported. Only six SMTs (14.3%) used a paired method for sample size calculation, and half (21/42, 50.0%) considered the dependent nature of data in statistical analysis. In multivariable analyses, higher TRQ and WRQ were both significantly associated with journal, reported use of CONSORT and funding status.

Conclusions: The reporting quality of SMTs in orthodontics has much room for improvement. Joint efforts from relevant stakeholders are needed to improve the reporting quality of SMTs and reduce relevant avoidable research waste.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ejo/cjaa085DOI Listing
February 2021

Sept8/SEPTIN8 involvement in cellular structure and kidney damage is identified by genetic mapping and a novel human tubule hypoxic model.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 22;11(1):2071. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Department of Internal Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD), which can ultimately progress to kidney failure, is influenced by genetics and the environment. Genes identified in human genome wide association studies (GWAS) explain only a small proportion of the heritable variation and lack functional validation, indicating the need for additional model systems. Outbred heterogeneous stock (HS) rats have been used for genetic fine-mapping of complex traits, but have not previously been used for CKD traits. We performed GWAS for urinary protein excretion (UPE) and CKD related serum biochemistries in 245 male HS rats. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified using a linear mixed effect model that tested for association with imputed genotypes. Candidate genes were identified using bioinformatics tools and targeted RNAseq followed by testing in a novel in vitro model of human tubule, hypoxia-induced damage. We identified two QTL for UPE and five for serum biochemistries. Protein modeling identified a missense variant within Septin 8 (Sept8) as a candidate for UPE. Sept8/SEPTIN8 expression increased in HS rats with elevated UPE and tubulointerstitial injury and in the in vitro hypoxia model. SEPTIN8 is detected within proximal tubule cells in human kidney samples and localizes with acetyl-alpha tubulin in the culture system. After hypoxia, SEPTIN8 staining becomes diffuse and appears to relocalize with actin. These data suggest a role of SEPTIN8 in cellular organization and structure in response to environmental stress. This study demonstrates that integration of a rat genetic model with an environmentally induced tubule damage system identifies Sept8/SEPTIN8 and informs novel aspects of the complex gene by environmental interactions contributing to CKD risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-81550-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7822875PMC
January 2021

A novel rabbit fixator made of a thermoplastic mask for awake imaging experiments.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 15;11(1):1546. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

PET-CT Center, the First People's Hospital of Yunnan Province, Kunming, 650032, Yunnan Province, China.

This study aimed to develop and validate a novel rabbit fixator made from a thermoplastic mask for awake imaging experiments. When heated in a hot-water bath at 65-70 °C for 2-5 min, the thermoplastic mask became soft and could be molded to fit over the entire body of an anesthetized rabbit (4 ml of 3% pentobarbital sodium solution by intramuscular injection). Twenty rabbits were randomly divided into fixator (n = 10) and anesthesia (n = 10) groups. The animals' vital signs, stress hormones (cortisol and adrenaline), and subjective image quality scores for the computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning were measured and compared. Phantom CT, MRI and PET studies were performed to assess the performance with and without the thermoplastic mask by using image agents at different concentrations or with different radioactivity. The respiration rate (RR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), peripheral capillary oxygen saturation (SpO) and body temperature (T) decreased after anesthesia (all P < 0.05) but did not significantly decrease after fixation (all P > 0.05). The heart rate (HR), cortisol and adrenaline did not significantly decrease after either anesthesia or fixation (all P > 0.05). The subjective image quality scores for the CT and MRI images of the head, thorax, liver, kidney, intestines and pelvis and the subjective image quality scores for the PET images did not significantly differ between the two groups (all P > 0.05). For all examined organs except the muscle, F-FDG metabolism was lower after fixation than after anesthesia, and was almost identical of liver between two groups. The phantom study showed that the CT values, standard uptake values and MR T2 signal values did not differ significantly with or without the mask (all P > 0.05). A novel rabbit fixator created using a thermoplastic mask could be used to obtain high-quality images for different imaging modalities in an awake and near-physiological state.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-81358-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7810717PMC
January 2021

Harnessing adipose‑derived stem cells to release specialized secretome for the treatment of hepatitis B.

Int J Mol Med 2021 03 15;47(3). Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Department of Surgery, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Republic of Korea.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the function of repairing damaged tissue, which is known to be mediated by the secretome, the collection of secretory materials shed from MSCs. Adjusting the culture conditions of MSCs can lead to a significant difference in the composition of the secretome. It was hypothesized that pre‑sensitization of MSCs with specific disease‑causing agents could harness MSCs to release the therapeutic materials specialized for the disease. To validate this hypothesis, the present study aimed to generate a 'disease‑specific secretome' for hepatitis caused by hepatitis B virus using hepatitis BX antigen (HBx) as a disease‑causing material. Secretary materials (HBx‑IS) were collected following the stimulation of adipose‑derived stem cells (ASCs) with 100‑fold diluted culture media of AML12 hepatocytes that had been transfected with pcDNA‑HBx for 24 h. An animal model of hepatitis B was generated by injecting HBx into mice, and the mice were subsequently intravenously administered a control secretome (CS) or HBx‑IS. Compared with the CS injection, the HBx‑IS injection significantly reduced the serum levels of interleukin‑6 and tumor necrosis factor‑α (pro‑inflammatory cytokines). Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry of the liver specimens revealed that the HBx‑IS injection led to a higher expression of liver regeneration‑related markers, including hepatocyte growth factor and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, a lower expression of pro‑apoptotic markers, such as cleaved caspase 3 and Bim in mouse livers, and a lower expression of pro‑inflammatory markers (F4/80 and CD68) compared to the CS injection. HBx‑IS exhibited higher liver regenerative, anti‑inflammatory and anti‑apoptotic properties, particularly in the mouse model of hepatitis B compared to CS. This suggests that the secretome obtained by stimulating ASCs with disease‑causing agents may have a more prominent therapeutic effect on the specific disease than the naïve secretome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2021.4848DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7834954PMC
March 2021

Application of self-assembly peptides targeting the mitochondria as a novel treatment for sorafenib-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 13;11(1):874. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Surgery, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 222, Banpo-daero, Seocho-gu, Seoul, 06591, Republic of Korea.

Currently, there is no appropriate treatment option for patients with sorafenib-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Meanwhile, pronounced anticancer activities of newly-developed mitochondria-accumulating self-assembly peptides (Mito-FF) have been demonstrated. This study intended to determine the anticancer effects of Mito-FF against sorafenib-resistant Huh7 (Huh7-R) cells. Compared to sorafenib, Mito-FF led to the generation of relatively higher amounts of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as the greater reduction in the expression of antioxidant enzymes (P < 0.05). Mito-FF was found to significantly promote cell apoptosis while inhibiting cell proliferation of Huh7-R cells. Mito-FF also reduces the expression of antioxidant enzymes while significantly increasing mitochondrial ROS in Huh7-R cells. The pro-apoptotic effect of Mito-FFs for Huh7-R cells is possibly caused by their up-regulation of mitochondrial ROS, which is caused by the destruction of the mitochondria of HCC cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79536-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7806888PMC
January 2021

The Impact of the COVID-19 Epidemic on Orthodontic Patients in China: An Analysis of Posts on Weibo.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2020 8;7:577468. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Department of Orthodontics, Hubei-MOST KLOS & KLOBM, School & Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

During the COVID-19 pandemic, many dental care services including orthodontic practice were suspended. Orthodontic patients turned to social media platforms to communicate, share experiences, and look for solutions. Our study aimed to investigate the attitudes and perspectives of orthodontic patients during the COVID-19 epidemic in China by analyzing orthodontics-related posts on Sina Weibo (a Chinese counterpart of Twitter). Potentially eligible posts on Sina Weibo platform were collected between December 30, 2019, and April 18, 2020. Posts related to both orthodontics and COVID-19 were included and then coded and classified into specific appliances and themes. Geographic and temporal distributions of the included posts were analyzed. In addition, time-lagged cross correlation was performed to explore the association between the number of daily posts and daily new COVID-19 cases/deaths in China. Chi-square tests were employed to compare the differences between fixed appliances and aligners in and during the epidemic. Of the 28,911 posts identified, 4,484 were included in the analysis. The most frequently mentioned themes were ( = 2,621, 58.5%), ( = 2,189, 48.8%), and ( = 1,155, 25.8%). A majority of posts were tweeted in regions with high levels of economic development and population density in eastern China and from February to March. The number of daily posts had a significantly positive correlation with daily new COVID-19 cases/deaths in China ( < 0.05). Compared with clear aligners, patients with fixed appliances reported more ( < 0.001) and ( < 0.001), but fewer ( < 0.001). The analysis of Weibo posts provided a timely understanding of the impact of COVID-19 on orthodontic patients. Delayed appointments were their greatest concern, and negative feelings and untreated orthodontic problems increased during the suspension of dental care services. However, patients with clear aligners reported fewer negative feelings and problems than those with fixed appliances. The findings highlighted the need to consider both treatment- and psychology-related issues of orthodontic patients and how to handle them appropriately during the epidemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2020.577468DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7753180PMC
December 2020

Synergistic Effects of Multicomponents Produce Outstanding Soot Oxidation Activity in a Cs/Co/MnO Catalyst.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 01 18;55(1):240-248. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Center for Excellence in Regional Atmospheric Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021, China.

The control of soot emission from diesel vehicles is of extraordinary importance to the environment, and catalytic removal of soot is a highly effective and clean method. Here, we report a novel, non-noble metal catalyst for application in the catalytic combustion of soot with superb activity and resistance to HO and SO. MnO oxide was prepared a hydrothermal method, and then, Cs and Co were loaded on MnO by impregnation. The 5%Cs/1%Co/MnO catalyst displayed excellent catalytic activity with values of (332 °C), (371 °C), and (415 °C) under loose contact. The as-prepared catalysts were investigated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), H temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), O temperature-programmed desorption (TPD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). The results suggest that, after the introduction of Cs and Co into the MnO oxide, more NO molecules take part in soot oxidation, exhibiting higher NO utilization efficiency; this is due to the synergistic effects of multiple components (Cs, Co, and Mn) promoting the generation of more surface-active oxygen and then accelerating the reaction between NO and soot. This study provides significant insights into the development of high-efficiency catalysts for soot oxidation, and the developed 5%Cs/1%Co/MnO catalyst is a promising candidate for application in diesel particulate filters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c06082DOI Listing
January 2021

Significant promotion effect of the rutile phase on VO/TiO catalysts for NH-SCR.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Jan;57(3):355-358

Center for Excellence in Regional Atmospheric Environment and Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021, China.

A large amount of polymeric vanadyl species owing to higher interaction energy between vanadia and anatase than rutile and the synergistic effect of vanadium oxides, anatase and rutile TiO2 contributes to an excellent NH3-SCR activity of the vanadia-based catalysts with high rutile content and low specific surface area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cc05938bDOI Listing
January 2021

Weighted gene co-expression network analysis identified underlying hub genes and mechanisms in the occurrence and development of viral myocarditis.

Ann Transl Med 2020 Nov;8(21):1348

Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Intervention and Regenerative Medicine of Zhejiang Province, Department of Cardiology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Background: Myocarditis is an inflammatory myocardial disease, which may lead to heart failure and sudden death. Despite extensive research into the pathogenesis of myocarditis, effective treatments for this condition remain elusive. This study aimed to explore the potential pathogenesis and hub genes for viral myocarditis.

Methods: A weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was performed based on the gene expression profiles derived from mouse models at different stages of viral myocarditis (GSE35182). Functional annotation was executed within the key modules. Potential hub genes were predicted based on the intramodular connectivity (IC). Finally, potential microRNAs that regulate gene expression were predicted by miRNet analysis.

Results: Three gene co-expression modules showed the strongest correlation with the acute or chronic disease stage. A significant positive correlation was detected between the acute disease stage and the turquoise module, the genes of which were mainly enriched in antiviral response and immune-inflammatory activation. Furthermore, a significant positive correlation and a negative correlation were identified between the chronic disease stage and the brown and yellow modules, respectively. These modules were mainly associated with the cytoskeleton, phosphorylation, cellular catabolic process, and autophagy. Subsequently, we predicted the underlying hub genes and microRNAs in the three modules.

Conclusions: This study revealed the main biological processes in different stages of viral myocarditis and predicted hub genes in both the acute and chronic disease stages. Our results may be helpful for developing new therapeutic targets for viral myocarditis in future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-20-3337DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7723587PMC
November 2020

Inhibiting roles of farnesol and HOG in morphological switching of .

Am J Transl Res 2020 15;12(11):6988-7001. Epub 2020 Nov 15.

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, School of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University Hangzhou 310012, Zhejiang, China.

is a major opportunistic fungal pathogen of humans, especially in the oral cavity it involves in precancerous lesions. Numerous transcriptional regulators and hypha-specific genes involved in the morphogenesis mechanisms have been identified. Its virulence is predominantly attributed to the potentiality of morphological switching from yeast and pseudohyphae to hyphal growth. Giving attention in farnesol for prevention or intervention of its virulence sense and possible etiologic role in some uncovered premalignant diseases, in addition, to be a quorum-sensing signal molecule and relationship with HOG pathway, although its morphological switching inhibiting function has attracted high attention and got great progress in being elucidated, their exact mode of action is not completely understood. This report provides a review of characteristic aspects of farnesol signaling and HOG pathway during hyphal development. It also includes other associated pathways, molecules, and novel drug development based on the latest researches over the last decade. Furthermore, farnesol as immunomodulatory to host is an important inferring.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7724324PMC
November 2020

Is reducing new particle formation a plausible solution to mitigate particulate air pollution in Beijing and other Chinese megacities?

Faraday Discuss 2021 Mar 8;226:334-347. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Aerosol and Haze Laboratory, Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Soft Matter Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, China.

Atmospheric gas-to-particle conversion is a crucial or even dominant contributor to haze formation in Chinese megacities in terms of aerosol number, surface area and mass. Based on our comprehensive observations in Beijing during 15 January 2018-31 March 2019, we are able to show that 80-90% of the aerosol mass (PM) was formed via atmospheric reactions during the haze days and over 65% of the number concentration of haze particles resulted from new particle formation (NPF). Furthermore, the haze formation was faster when the subsequent growth of newly formed particles was enhanced. Our findings suggest that in practice almost all present-day haze episodes originate from NPF, mainly since the direct emission of primary particles in Beijing has considerably decreased during recent years. We also show that reducing the subsequent growth rate of freshly formed particles by a factor of 3-5 would delay the buildup of haze episodes by 1-3 days. Actually, this delay would decrease the length of each haze episode, so that the number of annual haze days could be approximately halved. Such improvement in air quality can be achieved with targeted reduction of gas-phase precursors for NPF, mainly dimethyl amine and ammonia, and further reductions of SO emissions. Furthermore, reduction of anthropogenic organic and inorganic precursor emissions would slow down the growth rate of newly-formed particles and consequently reduce the haze formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0fd00078gDOI Listing
March 2021