Publications by authors named "Hong Gao"

873 Publications

The effect of Eurotium cristatum (MF800948) fermentation on the quality of autumn green tea.

Food Chem 2021 Apr 20;358:129848. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

College of Biomass Science and Engineering and Healthy Food Evaluation Research Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610065, China; Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology of Ministry of Education of Sichuan Province, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610065, China. Electronic address:

Autumn green tea (AT) has poor taste quality for its strong astringency. This study aims to improve the taste quality as well as the aroma of AT by Eurotium cristatum (MF800948) fermentation and to produce a fermented autumn green tea (FT). Results showed that the aroma quality of AT was improved, and the content of terpene alcohols that impart characteristic flowery aroma to FT significantly increased. The umami intensity of FT was comparable to that of AT while the astringency tasted much weaker mainly due to the oxidation of the catechins. The results also confirmed that theabrownins exhibited strong umami taste, not astringent taste. Finally, a metabolic map was analyzed to show the effect of E. cristatum (MF800948) on the quality of AT, and to visualize the changes of differential compounds in AT and FT. The work provides insights into the quality improvement of autumn green tea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129848DOI Listing
April 2021

Retraction notice to "Long non-coding RNA PVT1 promote LPS-induced septic acute kidney injury by regulating TNFα and JNK/NF-κB pathways in HK-2 cells" [Int. Immunopharmacol. 47 (2017) 134-140].

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Jun 23;95:107672. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Intensive Care Unit, The Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150081, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2021.107672DOI Listing
June 2021

Molecular Disorder Induces Unusual Phase Transition in a Potential 2D Chiral Ferroelectric Perovskite.

Chemistry 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Wuhan Institute of Technology: Wuhan Polytechnic, hubei key laboratory of optical information and pattern recognition, CHINA.

Two-dimensional (2D) hybrid halide perovskites with single chiral and ferroelectricity together with various structural phase transitions provide the possibility for them to have more diverse functional properties. Here, we present a 2D chiral hybrid halide perovskite ferroelectric, [C 6 H 5 (CH 2 ) 4 NH 3 ] 2 CdCl 4 ( 4PBA-CdCl 4 , 4PBA = 4-Phenylbutylamine), which experiences two continuous phase transitions from centrosymmetric triclinic P   to polar chiral monoclinic P 2 and then to another centrosymmetric tetragonal P 4 /mmm with increasing temperature, accompanied by symmetry breaking, due to the prominent octahedral distortion and disorder transformation of organic 4PBA cations. Under polar chiral phase, 4PBA-CdCl 4 exhibits a significant CD signal and a moderate ferroelectric polarization of 0.35 μC/cm 2 . In addition, 4PBA-CdCl 4 occupies a wide band gap of 4.376 eV and is chiefly contributed by inorganic CdCl 6 octahedron. This finding offers an alternative pathway for designing new phase transitions and related physical properties in hybrid halide perovskites and other hybrid crystals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.202100334DOI Listing
April 2021

Evaluation of In Vitro Antioxidant and Antihyperglycemic Activities of Extracts from the Lion's Mane Medicinal Mushroom, Hericium erinaceus (Agaricomycetes).

Int J Med Mushrooms 2021 ;23(3):55-66

Institute of Agro-Products Processing and Nuclear-Agricultural Technology, Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan 430064, People's Republic of China; National Research and Development Center for Edible Fungi Processing, Wuhan 430064, People's Republic of China.

To obtain activated fractions, the ethanol extract (EE) of Hericium erinaceus was fractionated to get petroleum ether fraction (PEF), chloroform fraction (CF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and n-butanol fraction (NF). Total phenol content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) in the fractions were determined, and the phenolic compounds were characterized and quantitated using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. Meanwhile, in vitro antioxidant and antihyperglycemic activities of extracts were evaluated respectively based on their 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging abilities as well as α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory abilities. Finally, the inhibition modes of extracts on α-amylase and α-glucosidase were detected by kinetic assay. The results showed that TPC, TFC, and the content of phenolic compounds in the extracts were different. EAF contained the highest contents of both TPC and TFC and exhibited strongest inhibitory effects on α-amylase and α-glucosidase, with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 0.47 ± 0.02 and 0.63 ± 0.01 mg/mL, respectively. However, CF showed the highest scavenging abilities on DPPH and ABTS radicals, with IC50 values of 2.30 ± 0.12 and 1.72 ± 0.06 mg/mL, respectively. Correlation analysis showed that the high antihyperglycemic ability of EAF may be related to ferulic acid, whereas cinnamic acid may be responsible for the high antioxidant ability of CF. Furthermore, all fractions were found to exert inhibition on α-amylase and α-glucosidase in mixed-type and competitive manners, respectively. Overall, these results suggest that H. erinaceus has a potential effect on antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.2021037646DOI Listing
January 2021

Chromogranin A regulates gut permeability via the antagonistic actions of its proteolytic peptides.

Acta Physiol (Oxf) 2021 Mar 30:e13655. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, CA, USA.

Aim: A "leaky" gut barrier has been implicated in the initiation and progression of a multitude of diseases, for example, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), irritable bowel syndrome and celiac disease. Here we show how pro-hormone Chromogranin A (CgA), produced by the enteroendocrine cells, and Catestatin (CST: hCgA ), the most abundant CgA-derived proteolytic peptide, affect the gut barrier.

Methods: Colon tissues from region-specific CST-knockout (CST-KO) mice, CgA-knockout (CgA-KO) and WT mice were analysed by immunohistochemistry, western blot, ultrastructural and flowcytometry studies. FITC-dextran assays were used to measure intestinal barrier function. Mice were supplemented with CST or CgA fragment pancreastatin (PST: CgA ). The microbial composition of cecum was determined. CgA and CST levels were measured in blood of IBD patients.

Results: Plasma levels of CST were elevated in IBD patients. CST-KO mice displayed (a) elongated tight, adherens junctions and desmosomes similar to IBD patients, (b) elevated expression of Claudin 2, and (c) gut inflammation. Plasma FITC-dextran measurements showed increased intestinal paracellular permeability in the CST-KO mice. This correlated with a higher ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes, a dysbiotic pattern commonly encountered in various diseases. Supplementation of CST-KO mice with recombinant CST restored paracellular permeability and reversed inflammation, whereas CgA-KO mice supplementation with CST and/or PST in CgA-KO mice showed that intestinal paracellular permeability is regulated by the antagonistic roles of these two peptides: CST reduces and PST increases permeability.

Conclusion: The pro-hormone CgA regulates the intestinal paracellular permeability. CST is both necessary and sufficient to reduce permeability and primarily acts by antagonizing PST.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apha.13655DOI Listing
March 2021

LMNB2 promotes the progression of colorectal cancer by silencing p21 expression.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Mar 29;12(4):331. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of General Surgery, The Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, Jiangsu, 221002, Xuzhou, China.

Colorectal cancer is the second common cause of death worldwide. Lamin B2 (LMNB2) is involved in chromatin remodeling and the rupture and reorganization of nuclear membrane during mitosis, which is necessary for eukaryotic cell proliferation. However, the role of LMNB2 in colorectal cancer (CRC) is poorly understood. This study explored the biological functions of LMNB2 in the progression of colorectal cancer and explored the possible molecular mechanisms. We found that LMNB2 was significantly upregulated in primary colorectal cancer tissues and cell lines, compared with paired non-cancerous tissues and normal colorectal epithelium. The high expression of LMNB2 in colorectal cancer tissues is significantly related to the clinicopathological characteristics of the patients and the shorter overall and disease-free cumulative survival. Functional analysis, including CCK8 cell proliferation test, EdU proliferation test, colony formation analysis, nude mouse xenograft, cell cycle, and apoptosis analysis showed that LMNB2 significantly promotes cell proliferation by promoting cell cycle progression in vivo and in vitro. In addition, gene set enrichment analysis, luciferase report analysis, and CHIP analysis showed that LMNB2 promotes cell proliferation by regulating the p21 promoter, whereas LMNB2 has no effect on cell apoptosis. In summary, these findings not only indicate that LMNB2 promotes the proliferation of colorectal cancer by regulating p21-mediated cell cycle progression, but also suggest the potential value of LMNB2 as a clinical prognostic marker and molecular therapy target.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03602-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8007612PMC
March 2021

A fluorescent probe for bioimaging of Hexosaminidases activity and exploration of drug-induced kidney injury in living cell.

Talanta 2021 Jun 11;228:122189. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, 730000, China.

Hexosaminidases (Hexs) as an exoglycosidase participates in the catalytic hydrolysis of non-reducing end of glycoconjugates in the biological system. The fluctuation of Hexs level could cause many hereditary neurodegenerative diseases such as Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff. The Hexs activity is significantly up-regulated in colorectal cancer and kidney injury tissue so that it is particularly important to construct a fluorescent probe with significant signal change to understand its physiological role. In this work, DyOH was selected as fluorophore scaffolds to synthesize probe Hex-1 for detection of Hexs with good water solubility, high specificity, large stokes shift and quick response. Hex-1 can sensitively detect Hexs with the low detection limit (0.025 mU mL) in vitro by "naked eye" due to superior spectral properties of DyOH. Furthermore, Hex-1 was not only employed for imaging Hexs in living cells with low toxicity, but also successfully applied to evaluate the fluctuation of Hexs activity during drug induced kindey injury in living HK-2 cells. These results indicated that Hex-1 could be used as a potential image tool to further explore the pathogenesis of kidney disease and cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2021.122189DOI Listing
June 2021

Query the trajectory based on the precise track: a Bloom filter-based approach.

Geoinformatica 2021 Mar 15:1-20. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Virtual Geographic Environment (Nanjing Normal University), Nanjing, China.

Fast and precise querying in a given set of trajectory points is an important issue of trajectory query. Typically, there are massive trajectory data in the database, yet the query sets only have a few points, which is a challenge for the superior performance of trajectory querying. The current trajectory query methods commonly use the tree-based index structure and the signature-based method to classify, simplify, and filter the trajectory to improve the performance. However, the unstructured essence and the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of the trajectory-sequence lead these methods to a high degree of spatial overlap, frequent I/O, and high memory occupation. Thus, they are not suitable for the time-critical tasks of trajectory big data. In this paper, a query method of trajectory is developed on the Bloom Filter. Based on the gridded space and geocoding, the spatial trajectory sequences (tracks) query is transformed into the query of the text string. The geospace was regularly divided by the geographic grid, and each cell was assigned an independent geocode, converting the high-dimensional irregular space trajectory query into a one-dimensional string query. The point in each cell is regarded as a signature, which forms a mapping to the bit-array of the Bloom Filter. This conversion effectively eliminates the high degree of overlap and instability of query performance. Meanwhile, the independent coding ensures the uniqueness of the whole tracks. In this method, there is no need for additional I/O on the raw trajectory data when the track is queried. Compared to the original data, the memory occupied by this method is negligible. Based on Beijing Taxi and Shenzhen bus trajectory data, an experiment using this method was constructed, and random queries under a variety of conditions boundaries were constructed. The results verified that the performance and stability of our method, compared to R*tree index, have been improved by 2000 to 4000 times, based on one million to tens of millions of trajectory data. And the Bloom Filter-based query method is hardly affected by grid size, original data size, and length of tracks. With such a time advantage, our method is suitable for time-critical spatial computation tasks, such as anti-terrorism, public safety, epidemic prevention, and control, etc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10707-021-00433-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7957281PMC
March 2021

[Gridded Emission Inventories of Major Criteria Air Pollutants and Source Contributions in Lan-Bai Metropolitan Area, Northwest China].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2021 Mar;42(3):1315-1327

College of Urban and Environmental Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.

Lan-Bai Metropolitan Area in Gansu province is an important heavy-industry base with the highest level of total air pollutant emissions in Northwest China. It is significant to study the high-resolution pollutant emission inventory to forecast regional air quality and to simulate pollutant emission reduction, as well as provide early warnings and forecasts, and to control air pollution. Taking Lanzhou and Baiyin as the main research areas, this study established the gridded emission inventories of seven major criteria air pollutants in the Lan-Bai Metropolitan Area based on emission data and statistical yearbooks of 2015-2016. The spatial pollution characteristics and emission source contributions were also studied. The results showed that the total annual emissions of seven major criteria air pollutants in the Lan-Bai Metropolitan Area were as followings:NO 2.22×10 t, NH 4.53×10t, VOCs 7.74×10t, CO 5.62×10 t, PM 4.95×10 t, PM 1.91×10 t, and SO 1.37×10 t. Among them, annual CO emissions were the highest, while the annual emissions of NH were the lowest. The comparison of this gridded emission inventories with the Peking and Tsinghua University's MEIC inventories, found that the consistency of the three inventories for traffic source was relatively high, but for the total emissions and industrial source emissions of CO, a 30%-40% difference was found when compared with emissions in the Peking and Tsinghua University's inventories. The main differences were from the collected emission factors and the different resolution and years for collected data. The industrial non-combustion process sources, accounting for the largest proportion, were mainly concentrated in urban areas for the other six major criteria air pollutants except for NH. The main contributing sources of NH were from the use of nitrogen fertilizers and livestock emissions, so its spatial pollution distribution was mainly affected by farmland distribution and other factors. It can be concluded that countermeasures, such as controlling industrial non-combustion process sources, integrating high-quality and high-efficiency power supply, using clean energy, strict dust emission control on construction sites and industrial production facilities, as well as urban greening could effectively reduce the emissions of six major criteria air pollutants including NO, VOCs, CO, PM, PM, and SO in the Lan-Bai Metropolitan Area. The reduction of NH emission mainly depends on reducing the use of nitrogen fertilizer and controlling livestock emissions in the rural regions of Lan-Bai Metropolitan Area. This paper also used Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis to evaluate uncertainty in the gridded emission inventories, in which the maximum uncertainty was -31%-30% for NH, the uncertainty of CO at -18%-16% was minimal. Therefore, the overall credibility was high for the established gridded emission inventories in this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13227/j.hjkx.202007131DOI Listing
March 2021

GmBTB/POZ promotes the ubiquitination and degradation of LHP1 to regulate the response of soybean to Phytophthora sojae.

Commun Biol 2021 Mar 19;4(1):372. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Soybean Research Institute, Northeast Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Soybean Biology of Chinese Education Ministry, Harbin, China.

Phytophthora sojae is a pathogen that causes stem and root rot in soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.). We previously demonstrated that GmBTB/POZ, a BTB/POZ domain-containing nuclear protein, enhances resistance to P. sojae in soybean, via a process that depends on salicylic acid (SA). Here, we demonstrate that GmBTB/POZ associates directly with soybean LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN1 (GmLHP1) in vitro and in vivo and promotes its ubiquitination and degradation. Both overexpression and RNA interference analysis of transgenic lines demonstrate that GmLHP1 negatively regulates the response of soybean to P. sojae by reducing SA levels and repressing GmPR1 expression. The WRKY transcription factor gene, GmWRKY40, a SA-induced gene in the SA signaling pathway, is targeted by GmLHP1, which represses its expression via at least two mechanisms (directly binding to its promoter and impairing SA accumulation). Furthermore, the nuclear localization of GmLHP1 is required for the GmLHP1-mediated negative regulation of immunity, SA levels and the suppression of GmWRKY40 expression. Finally, GmBTB/POZ releases GmLHP1-regulated GmWRKY40 suppression and increases resistance to P. sojae in GmLHP1-OE hairy roots. These findings uncover a regulatory mechanism by which GmBTB/POZ-GmLHP1 modulates resistance to P. sojae in soybean, likely by regulating the expression of downstream target gene GmWRKY40.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-021-01907-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7979691PMC
March 2021

SARS-CoV-2 infection aggravates chronic comorbidities of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes in mice.

Animal Model Exp Med 2021 03 6;4(1):2-15. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Key Laboratory of Human Disease Comparative Medicine National Health Commission of China (NHC) Institute of Laboratory Animal Science Peking Union Medicine College Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Beijing China.

Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are top two chronic comorbidities that increase the severity and mortality of COVID-19. However, how SARS-CoV-2 alters the progression of chronic diseases remain unclear.

Methods: We used adenovirus to deliver h-ACE2 to lung to enable SARS-CoV-2 infection in mice. SARS-CoV-2's impacts on pathogenesis of chronic diseases were studied through histopathological, virologic and molecular biology analysis.

Results: Pre-existing CVDs resulted in viral invasion, ROS elevation and activation of apoptosis pathways contribute myocardial injury during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Viral infection increased fasting blood glucose and reduced insulin response in DM model. Bone mineral density decreased shortly after infection, which associated with impaired PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling.

Conclusion: We established mouse models mimicked the complex pathological symptoms of COVID-19 patients with chronic diseases. Pre-existing diseases could impair the inflammatory responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection, which further aggravated the pre-existing diseases. This work provided valuable information to better understand the interplay between the primary diseases and SARS-CoV-2 infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ame2.12155DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7954823PMC
March 2021

Experimentally measuring the mode indices of Laguerre-Gaussian beams by weak measurement.

Opt Express 2021 Feb;29(4):5419-5426

As a special experimental technique, weak measurements extract very little information from the measured system and does not cause the measured state to collapse. When coupling the Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) state with a well-defined pre- and post-selected system of a weak measurement process, there will be an indirect interconnection between the expected value of coordinate operators of the final state and the mode indices of the measured LG state. The mode of the light is impacted very slightly after the weak measurement. Based on this we propose an experiment scheme and have managed to experimentally measure the mode indices of LG beams spanning from l = -6 to l = +6, p = 0 to p = +8 accurately with the final intensity distributions approximatly at their origin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.416671DOI Listing
February 2021

Sequential Release of Small Extracellular Vesicles from Bilayered Thiolated Alginate/Polyethylene Glycol Diacrylate Hydrogels for Scarless Wound Healing.

ACS Nano 2021 04 16;15(4):6352-6368. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai 200233, China.

Excessive scar formation has adverse physiological and psychological effects on patients; therefore, a therapeutic strategy for rapid wound healing and reduced scar formation is urgently needed. Herein, bilayered thiolated alginate/PEG diacrylate (BSSPD) hydrogels were fabricated for sequential release of small extracellular vesicles (sEVs), which acted in different wound healing phases, to achieve rapid and scarless wound healing. The sEVs secreted by bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (B-sEVs) were released from the lower layer of the hydrogels to promote angiogenesis and collagen deposition by accelerating fibroblast and endothelial cell proliferation and migration during the early inflammation and proliferation phases, while sEVs secreted by miR-29b-3p-enriched bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells were released from the upper layer of the hydrogels and suppressed excessive capillary proliferation and collagen deposition during the late proliferation and maturation phases. In a full-thickness skin defect model of rats and rabbit ears, the wound repair rate, angiogenesis, and collagen deposition were evaluated at different time points after treatment with BSSPD loaded with B-sEVs. Interestingly, during the end of the maturation phase in the model, tissues in the groups treated with BSSPD loaded with sEVs for sequential release (SR-sEVs@BSSPD) exhibited a more uniform vascular structure distribution, more regular collagen arrangement, and lower volume of hyperplastic scar tissue than tissues in the other groups. Hence, SR-sEVs@BSSPD based on skin repair phases was successfully designed and has considerable potential as a cell-free therapy for scarless wound healing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.0c07714DOI Listing
April 2021

Irradiation with red light-emitting diode enhances proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells.

Lasers Med Sci 2021 Mar 15. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Hospital of Stomatology, Southwest Medical University, Lu Zhou, 646000, China.

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of low-energy red light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs). PDLSCs were derived from human periodontal ligament tissues of premolars and were irradiated with 0 (control group), 1, 3, or 5 J/cm red LED in osteogenic induction medium. Cell proliferation was analyzed using the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Osteogenic differentiation activity was evaluated by monitoring alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, alizarin red staining, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results. Osteoblast-associated proteins (Runx2, OCN, OPN, and BSP) were detected using western blotting. The results of the MTT assay indicated that PDLSCs in the irradiation groups exhibited a higher proliferation rate than those in the control group (P < 0.05). ALP results showed that after 7 days of illumination, only 5 J/cm promoted the expression of ALP of PDLSCs. However, after 14 days of illumination, the irradiation treatments did not increase ALP activity. The results of alizarin red staining showed that red LED promoted osteogenic differentiation of the PDLSCs. The real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results demonstrated that red LED upregulated the expression levels of osteogenic genes. Expression of the proteins BSP, OPN, OCN, and Runx2 in the irradiation groups was higher than that in the control group. Our results confirmed that low-energy red LED at 1, 3, and 5 J/cm promotes proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10103-021-03278-1DOI Listing
March 2021

Clinical effects of cisplatin plus recombinant human endostatin (rh-endostatin) intratumoral injection on malignant central airway obstruction: a retrospective analysis of 319 cases.

J Thorac Dis 2021 Feb;13(2):1100-1105

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Emergency General Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: Primary lung cancer with severe central airway obstruction (CAO) is often life-threatening. In this study, we investigated the clinical efficacy and safety of cisplatin plus recombinant human endostatin (rh-endostatin) intratumoral injection in treatment of malignant central airway obstruction (MCAO) caused by primary squamous cell lung cancer.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed patients with MCAO caused by primary squamous cell lung cancer treated with and without bronchoscopic intratumoral injection of cisplatin plus rh-endostatin between January 2007 and June 2016.

Results: A total of 206 patients received cisplatin plus rh-endostatin intratumoral injection, and 113 without injection. Dyspnea grade, degree of stenosis, quality of life and lung function of all patients were significantly improved at 1 week after treatment compared with baseline. Both groups achieved good airway patency (97.1% . 93.8%, P=0.156). Followed up at 2 months, all parameters were improved in the injection group compared with baseline, while no statistical differences were observed in the non-injection group (P>0.05). The injection group achieved airway patency in 155 (75.2%) of 206 patients, which was significantly superior to the non-injection group [20 (17.7%) of 113, P<0.001]. In addition, the restenosis rate of the injection group was lower compared with the non-injection group (22.5% . 81.1%, P<0.001, respectively). No serious complications were observed in two groups.

Conclusions: Cisplatin plus rh-endostatin intratumoral injection is effective and safe for the therapy of MCAO caused by primary squamous cell lung cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd-20-1493DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7947508PMC
February 2021

Tailoring multi-singularity structure induced by a focused radially polarized beam.

J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis 2021 Mar;38(3):419-425

A structured optical field with controllable three-dimensional intensity and multiple polarization singularities is demonstrated by utilizing a combination of a radially polarized (RP) beam, a designed phase mask, and a high numerical aperture lens. Owing to the tight focusing property of RP beams as well as the interference of multiple linearly polarized non-coplanar plane waves, various lattice-like optical structures can emerge at the focal plane with multiple structured singularities in the transverse plane and optical needle array along with propagation. Compared with recently proposed phase and polarization engineering methods with spatial light modulators, the method presented here is convenient and flexible, and can easily realize the generation of V-point and C-point lattices. More importantly, a structured longitudinal field, namely, an optical needle array, with steerable positive and reverse energy flows may be extensively applied in multi-particle acceleration and trapping, optical microscopes, and second-harmonic generation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.415551DOI Listing
March 2021

Induction of macrophage pyroptosis-related factors by pathogenic E. coli high pathogenicity island (HPI) in Yunnan Saba pigs.

BMC Vet Res 2021 Mar 7;17(1):114. Epub 2021 Mar 7.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming, 650201, China.

Background: Pyroptosis plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases. The molecular mechanism by which pyroptosis is induced in macrophages following infection with pathogenic E. coli high pathogenicity island (HPI) will be evaluated in our study.

Results: After infection with the HPI/HPI strains and LPS, decreased macrophage cell membrane permeability and integrity were demonstrated with propidium iodide (PI) staining and the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. HPI/HPI-infection was accompanied by upregulated expression levels of NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, IL-1β, IL-18 and GSDMD, with significantly higher levels detected in the HPI group compared to those in the HPI group (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). HPI strain is more pathogenic than HPI strain.

Conclusion: Our findings indicate that pathogenic E. coli HPI infection of Saba pigs causes pyroptosis of macrophages characterized by upregulated expression of pyroptosis key factors in the NLRP3/ASC/caspase-1 signaling pathway, direct cell membrane pore formation, and secretion of the inflammatory factor IL-1β and IL-18 downstream of NLRP3 and caspase-1 activation to enhance the inflammatory response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-021-02824-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7938518PMC
March 2021

Preparation of 6-amino-6-deoxy cellulose and its derivatives used as chiral separation materials.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 May 4;259:117756. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

School of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan 430205, PR China. Electronic address:

In order to find a facile and practical method to synthesize amino cellulose in bulk with high regional selectivity and high degree of substitution, the reaction conditions to brominate cellulose and to reduce azido group were carefully studied and some interesting phenomena were observed. With the optimized method, 6-amino-6-deoxy cellulose could be easily prepared with very simple separation techniques. The degree of substitution of the amino group amounted to 0.97 which was determined by H NMR spectrum of 6-benzamido-6-deoxy cellulose. Moreover, the amino group was evidenced to be at the C of glucose unit by H-H COSY NMR and H-C HSQC NMR spectra. In addition, three cellulose 6-acetamido-6-deoxy-2,3-bis(phenylcarbamate)s were prepared from the 6-amino-6-deoxy cellulose prepared with the techniques optimized in the present study. The developed cellulose derivatives were used as chiral selectors with which chiral stationary phases (CSPs) were prepared. The CSPs exhibited enantioseparation power to some chiral compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2021.117756DOI Listing
May 2021

[Clinical efficacy of posterior percutaneous endoscopic cervical discectomy for single level cervical spondylopathy with intraspinal ossification].

Zhongguo Gu Shang 2021 Jan;34(1):20-5

Department of Pain, Huazhong University of Science and Technology Union Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen 518052, Guandong, China.

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness and security of posterior percutaneous endoscopic cervical discectomy (PPECD) in the treatment of single level cervical spondylopathy with intraspinal ossification.

Methods: Twenty three patients with single level cervical spondylopathy with intraspinal ossification were treated by posterior percutaneous endoscopic cervical discectomy between August 2017 and July 2019. There were 16 males and 7 females, aged from 29 to 74 years old with an average of (50±13) years.The disease duration were 3 to 120 months with a median of 6 months. There were 9 cases of cervical spondylotic radiculopathy, 6 cases of cervical spondylotic myelopathy, and 8 cases of mixed cervical spondylopathy. According to the characteristics of ossification, 17 cases were osteophytes on the posterior edge of the vertebral body;3 cases were protrusion ossification;3 cases were posterior longitudinal ligament ossification. According to the position of ossification in spinal canal, 14 cases were medial and lateral type, 5 cases were central type, and 4 cases were mixed type. Posterior percutaneous cervical endoscopic cervical discectomy in patients performed by the same surgeon. Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score and visual analogue scale(VAS) were compared separately before and after operation. At 3 months after operation, clinical effect was assessed according to modified Macnab standard.

Results: All operations were successful. The operative time was 30 to 155 (69.1±27.2) min. The bedridden time was 2 to 3(3.0±0.9) h, length of postoperative hospitalization was 2 to 7(4.1± 1.5) d. Three dimensional CT reconstruction of the cervical spine at 3 days after operation showed that ossified tissue of 13 cases were completely removed, and 10 cases were left after operation, and the residual was located at the posterior edge and/or center of the upper vertebral body. VAS score at discharge from hospital was significantly lower than that before operation (=9.35, <0.001), and 21 cases had a score of 0 to 3. Postoperative JOA score was significantly higher (=7.29, <0.001). At 3 months after operation, according to modified Macnab standard to evaluate clinical effect, 18 cases got exellent results, 4 good and 1 fair, with an excellent and good rate of 95.6%(22/23).

Conclusion: For an experienced surgeon, percutaneous posterior cervical endoscopic discectomy is safe and reliable in treating single level cervical spondylopathy with intraspinal ossification, and can obtain good clinical results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12200/j.issn.1003-0034.2021.01.005DOI Listing
January 2021

Hypofractionated versus conventionally fractionated image-guided volumetric-modulated arc radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer: a phase II randomized trial from China.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 02 26;13(5):6936-6944. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Beijing Hospital, National Center of Gerontology, Institute of Geriatric Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, P. R. China.

Purpose: To determine the safety of hypofractionated imaging-guided (IG) volumetric-modulated arc radiotherapy (IG-VMAT; 70 Gy/28 fractions over 5.5 weeks) versus conventionally fractionated regimen (IG-VMAT; 80 Gy/40 fractions over 8 weeks) in Chinese patients with localized prostate cancer.

Method: In this randomized non-comparative phase II trial, 92 patients with localized prostate cancer were assigned to receive either hypofractionated IG-VMAT (HFRT; 70 Gy/2.5Gy/28f) or conventionally fractionated IG-VMAT (CFRT; 80 Gy/2Gy/40f). Primary endpoint was grade 2 or higher late gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity at 2 years. The GI/GU toxicity and biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS) were compared between the two treatment groups.

Results: Median follow-up was 26 months. The incidence of grade 2 or higher late GI/GU toxicity was low in both groups; the 5-year cumulative incidence of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade 2 or higher GI/GU toxicity at 2 years was 7.6% with HFRT versus 10.3% with CFRT ( = 0.707). Biochemical control was not significantly different between the two groups; the 2-year bRFS was 94.6% for HFRT versus 95.0% for CFRT ( = 0.704).

Conclusion: Hypofractionated IG-VMAT appears to be equivalent to conventionally fractionated IG-VMAT in terms of toxicity in Chinese patients with localized prostate cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.202551DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7993676PMC
February 2021

Optical storage of Ince-Gaussian modes in warm atomic vapor.

Opt Lett 2021 Mar;46(5):1021-1024

We report on the optical storage of Ince-Gaussian modes in a warm rubidium vapor cell based on electromagnetically induced transparency protocol, and we also qualitatively analyze how atomic diffusion affects the retrieved beams after storage. Ince-Gaussian modes possess very complex and abundant spatial structures and form a complete infinite-dimensional Hilbert space. Successfully storing such modes could open up possibilities for fundamental high-dimensional optical communication experiments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.414762DOI Listing
March 2021

Effects of Bacillus megaterium L222 on quality and bacterial diversity of Sichuan paocai.

Food Res Int 2021 Feb 15;140:109994. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

College of Biomass Science and Engineering and Healthy Food Evaluation Research Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China; Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology of Ministry of Education of Sichuan Province, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China. Electronic address:

Bacillus sp. was found in the Sichuan paocai, but their possible effects on Sichuan paocai fermentation are still elusive. In this study, the effect of Bacillus megaterium L222 isolated from high-quality homemade Sichuan paocai on the flavor characteristics and bacterial diversity was investigated. Overall, 7 organic acids, 16 free amino acids, and 48 volatile substances were detected in the B. megaterium L222-inoculated paocai (BMP) and spontaneously fermented paocai (SP) within 7 days. The metabolites produced in BMP were significantly different from that in SP, and 13 main flavor-related metabolites were the discriminant markers. The contents of free amino acids in BMP were much higher than that in SP. Compared to the SP group, the BMP group could better maintain the high level of alcohols, which improved the synthesis of esters, and controlled the increase of the content of sulfides. The representative bacteria in BMP were Weissella, Lactococcus, Bacillus, Leuconostoc, and the inoculation of B. megaterium L222 could significantly increase the amount of Weissella and inhibit the growth of opportunistic pathogen and other bacteria during the fermentation process of paocai. This study presents an important basis for the development of B. megaterium L222 as a starter for paocai fermentation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109994DOI Listing
February 2021

Exploration of SQC Formula Effect on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus by Whole Transcriptome Profile in Rats.

Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets 2021 Feb 25. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Endocrinology Department, Teaching Hospital of Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu 610075. China.

Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic metabolic disease that has turned up as dimensions of the pandemic all over the world. In China, some traditional Chinese herbal formulas have enjoyed a high reputation in T2DM treatment for centuries.

Methods: In this study, ShenQi compound (SQC) is proposed, a formula has been performed on T2DM clinical therapeutics in China for many years. The efficacy of SQC in diabetic rat model by measuring food and water intake and examining islet microcirculatory index involves islets microvessel quantity and density, islets size, pancreatic microvascular wall thickness is evaluated. Meanwhile, gene microarray experiments were performed to explore the molecular mechanism of SQC treatment. In addition, a western medicine, metformin was employed as a comparison.

Results: The results indicated that SQC could effectively improve polydipsia, polyphagia and weight loss caused by diabetes as well as pancreatic tissue damage and vascular injury for T2DM. Meanwhile, the gene microarray experiments indicated that SQC may improve the T2DM through affecting the biological functions related to detection of chemical stimulus involved in sensory perception of smell, G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway, cytoplasmic translation. In addition, SQC presented curative effect by regulated function associated with translation, while metformin presented curative effect by regulated function associated coagulation.

Conclusion: SQC is an effective therapeutic drug on T2DM, and present curative effect by regulated function associated with translation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871530321666210225125141DOI Listing
February 2021

Quality of Vision Following LASIK and PRK-MMC for Treatment of Myopia.

Mil Med 2021 Feb 25. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Navy Refractive Surgery Center, Naval Medical Center San Diego, San Diego, CA 92134, USA.

Introduction: Femtosecond-assisted thin flap, laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) and photorefractive keratectomy with mitomycin-C (PRK-MMC) are the two most common refractive surgical procedures used to enhance visual capability in the U.S military. The purposes of the study were to examine effects on quality of vision following LASIK and PRK-MMC using a novel computer-based quick contrast sensitivity function (qCSF) test.

Materials And Methods: This prospective clinical study included 58 active duty U.S. military service members who elected LASIK (n = 29) or PRK-MMC (n = 29) refractive surgery for myopia (nearsightedness) treatment. Monocular photopic and mesopic quality of vision of the right eyes in spectacle correction preoperatively and unaided right eyes at four postoperative follow-up visits (1 week, 2 weeks, 1 month, and 3 months) were examined using the qCSF device. Two qCSF parameters, area under a log CSF (AULCSF) between 1.5 and 18 cycles per degree, and CSF cutoff acuity (CSF Acuity), were collected using a 50-trial setting at a 4-m testing distance. General linear model (GLM) Repeated-measures Analysis of Covariance was used to examine effects on quality of vision following LASIK and PRK-MMC. Post hoc testing with Bonferroni correction was used for pairwise comparisons, and preoperative cylinder refraction was used as a covariate. Two-tailed independent t-test was used to compare preoperative and postoperative parameters between LASIK and PRK-MMC. Pearson's correlation, Bland-Altman plots, and multiple linear regression were used to examine the relationship among the qCSF and other vision tests.

Results: Quality of vision, AULCSF, and CSF Acuity returned to the preoperative baseline at postoperative 2 weeks under mesopic condition and at postoperative 1 month under photopic condition after PRK-MMC. In comparison, photopic and mesopic quality of vision were not significantly different from the baseline at any of the four postoperative visits following LASIK. Changes of CSF Acuity from the baseline after LASIK were significantly better under photopic than mesopic condition by 0.067 ± 0.014 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR); P < .001). Quality of vision was not significantly different between the LASIK and PRK-MMC groups at postoperative 1 and 3 months. When predicting photopic AULCSF (overall model fit R2 = 0.47), 5% contrast acuity (beta = -0.43), visual acuity in 100% contrast (beta = -0.18), and residual refraction in spherical equivalent (beta = 0.20) were significant predictors (P ≤ .001), while high-order aberrations (beta = -0.07, P = .22) were not significant predictors. Visual acuity (beta = -0.12, P = .07) and high-order aberrations (beta = -0.04, P = .58) were not significant predictors of mesopic AULCSF. Bland-Altman plots show that photopic CSF Acuity and visual acuity had a mean difference of 0.19 ± 0.01 logMAR with limits of agreement (LOAs) at -0.01 and 0.39 logMAR. Photopic CSF Acuity and 5% contrast acuity had a mean difference of -0.06 ± 0.01 logMAR with LOAs at -0.33 and 0.21 logMAR.

Conclusion: Quality of vision recovers at postoperative 1 week after LASIK and at postoperative 1 month after PRK-MMC. The standard black-on-white high-contrast, chart-based visual acuity test is weak in predicting quality of vision. The qCSF detects mild-to-moderate visual changes and is suitable for quality of vision assessment following refractive eye surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/milmed/usab071DOI Listing
February 2021

The Relationship Between Family Support and e-Learning Engagement in College Students: The Mediating Role of e-Learning Normative Consciousness and Behaviors and Self-Efficacy.

Front Psychol 2021 4;12:573779. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

School of Nursing, University of South China, Hengyang, China.

Due to the current COVID-19 pandemic, colleges and universities have implemented network teaching. E-learning engagement is the most important concern of educators and parents because this will directly affect student academic performance. Hence, this study focuses on students' perceived family support and their e-learning engagement and analyzes the effects of e-learning normative consciousness and behaviors and self-efficacy on the relationship between family support and e-learning engagement in college students. Prior to this study, the relationship between these variables was unknown. Four structural equation models revealed the multiple mediating roles of e-learning normative consciousness and behaviors and self-efficacy in the relationship between family support and e-learning engagement. A total of 1,317 college students (mean age=19.51; 52.2% freshman) voluntarily participated in our study. The results showed that e-learning normative consciousness and behaviors and self-efficacy played significant and mediating roles between students' perceived family support and e-learning engagement. Specifically, these two individual variables fully mediated the relationship between students' perceived family support and e-learning engagement. The multiple mediation model showed that family members can increase family support of their children by creating a household environment conducive to learning, displaying positive emotions, demonstrating the capability to assist their children, advocating the significance of learning normative consciousness and behaviors, and encouraging dedicated and efficient learning. The findings complement and extend the understanding of factors influencing student e-learning engagement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.573779DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7890012PMC
February 2021

Susceptibility and Attenuated Transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 in Domestic Cats.

J Infect Dis 2021 04;223(8):1313-1321

Beijing Key Laboratory for Animal Models of Emerging and Remerging Infectious Diseases, Institute of Laboratory Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Comparative Medicine Center, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Domestic cats, an important companion animal, can be infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). This has aroused concern regarding the ability of domestic cats to spread the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019. We systematically demonstrated the pathogenesis and transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 in cats. Serial passaging of the virus between cats dramatically attenuated the viral transmissibility, likely owing to variations of the amino acids in the receptor-binding domain sites of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 between humans and cats. These findings provide insight into the transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 in cats and information for protecting the health of humans and cats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiab104DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7928776PMC
April 2021

The Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Blood Lipids in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Int J Endocrinol 2021 30;2021:8849688. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Department of Endocrinology, First Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, No. 85 Jiefang South Road, 030000 Taiyuan, Shanxi Province, China.

Purpose: Studies have found that vitamin D supplementation may improve blood lipids in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome, but the results are controversial, so this study will further analyze the effect of vitamin D supplementation on blood lipids in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

Methods: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CNKI, and Wanfang databases were searched up to May 2020, to identify randomized controlled trials of the effect of vitamin D supplementation on blood lipids in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. The Cochrane risk of bias tool was applied to assess the risk of bias, and RevMan5.3 software was used for statistical analysis.

Results: Ten studies were included in this study, including 543 subjects. The results of the meta-analysis showed that, compared with placebo, vitamin D supplementation can significantly reduce total cholesterol level (WMD = -11.32, 95% CI = [-14.51, -8.41], < 0.00001), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level (WMD = -4.83, 95% CI = [-7.52, -2.14], =0.0004), and triglyceride level (WMD = -8.23, 95% CI = [-13.08, -3.38], =0.0009, but the effect on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level is not statistically significant (WMD = -0.32, 95%CI = [-1.24, 0.60], =0.50).

Conclusion: Vitamin supplementation can significantly reduce total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. However, it has no significant effect on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/8849688DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7868162PMC
January 2021

Two new steroidal sapogenins from (synonym ) rhizomes and their antifungal activity.

J Asian Nat Prod Res 2021 Feb 15:1-10. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Key Lab. of Biomass Energy and Material, Jiangsu Province, Key Lab. of Chemical Engineering of Forest Products, National Forestry and Grassland Administration, Nanjing 210042, China.

Two novel acylated steroidal sapogenins, 3-acetoxy-1, 2, 4, 5, 7-pentahydroxy-spirost-25(27)-en-6-one () and (25S)-3-acetoxy-1, 2, 4, 5, 7-pentahydroxyspirostan-6-one (), together with two known steroidal sapogenins ( and ), were isolated from rhizomes. Their structures were elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS) data. In addition, the antifungal activities of the isolated compounds against and were evaluated. Compound significantly inhibited growth, which was comparable to the positive control (sodium benzoate and carbendazim). Compound showed the highest potency to inhibit growth compared to other compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10286020.2021.1886088DOI Listing
February 2021

Biotransformation of artemisinic acid to bioactive derivatives by endophytic Penicillium oxalicum B4 from Artemisia annua L.

Phytochemistry 2021 May 12;185:112682. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Soochow University, Suzhou, 215123, China. Electronic address:

As a biosynthetic precursor of the antimalarial drug artemisinin, artemisinic acid (AA) is abundant in Artemisia annua L. with a content of 8-10-fold higher than artemisinin, but less effective. In this study, the biotransformation of AA was carried out with an endophytic fungus Penicillium oxalicum B4 to extend its utility. After 10-day-culture of the endophyte with AA at 2 mg/mL, eight biotransformation metabolites were isolated from the culture broth, including five undescribed metabolites, namely 3α,14-dihydroxyartemisinic acid, 14-hydroxy-3-oxo-artemisinic acid, 15-hydroxy-3-oxo-artemisinic acid, 12, 15-artemisindioic acid and 1,2,3,6-tetradehydro-12, 15-artemisindioic acid. The fungal enzymes possess the selective capacity to hydroxylate, carbonylate and ketonize the allyl group of AA. The major biotransformation metabolite was the hydroxylated product 3-α-hydroxyartemisinic acid (33.3%) in the cultures of early stage (day 1-6), whereas most of the other biotransformation products were synthesized in the later stage (day 8-10). Compared with AA, some metabolites (3α,14-dihydroxyartemisinic acid, 15-hydroxy-3-oxo-artemisinic acid and 1,2,3,6-tetradehydro-12, 15-artemisindioic acid) possessed stronger cytotoxic activity to the human colon carcinoma cell line (LS174T) and promyelocytic leukemia cell line (HL-60). The metabolites 12, 15-artemisindioic acid and 3-α-hydroxyartemisinic acid exhibited significant inhibitory activity to the lipopolysaccharide-induced nitrite production of RAW 264.7 cells at 10.00 μM and 2.50 μM, respectively. The results demonstrated the potential of fungal endophytes on biotransforming AA to its bioactive derivatives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2021.112682DOI Listing
May 2021