Publications by authors named "Hong Hua"

243 Publications

Design and demonstration of a vari-focal optical see-through head-mounted display using freeform Alvarez lenses.

Opt Express 2019 May;27(11):15627-15637

Alvarez lenses offer accurate and high-speed, dynamic tuning of optical power through a lateral shifting of two lens elements, making them an appealing solution to eliminate the inherent decoupling of accommodation and convergence seen in conventional stereoscopic displays. In this paper, we present a design of a compact eyepiece coupled with two lateral-shifting freeform Alvarez lenses to enable a compact, high-resolution, optical see-through head-mounted display (HMD). The proposed design is able to tune its focal depth from 0 to 3 diopters, rendering near-accurate focus cues with high image quality and a large undistorted see-through field of view (FOV). Our design utilizes an 1920x1080 color resolution organic light-emitting diode (OLED) microdisplay to achieve a >30 degree virtual diagonal FOV, with an angular resolution of <0.85 arcminutes and an average optical performance of > 0.4 contrast over the full field. We also experimentally demonstrate a fully functional benchtop prototype using mostly off-the-shelf optics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.27.015627DOI Listing
May 2019

The Effect of Winter Temperature on Patients with Ischemic Stroke.

Med Sci Monit 2019 May 23;25:3839-3845. Epub 2019 May 23.

Department of Neurology, National Key Clinical Department and Key Discipline of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND The incidence of ischemic stroke increases in winter. This study aimed to explore the effect of winter temperatures on the risk factors, etiology, coagulation, and degree of neurological impairment in patients with ischemic stroke using temperature and rainfall data from the Guangzhou Meteorological Bureau during the winter months of December, January, and February. MATERIAL AND METHODS We divided 112 patients with ischemic stroke into low-temperature and non-low-temperature groups. The low-temperature group experienced an average daily winter temperature of <13°C for five consecutive days within the 14 days before hospital admission and an average temperature of <13°C on admission. The non-low-temperature group experienced an average daily temperature of >13°C in the 14 days before hospital admission and an average daily temperature of >13°C on admission. Neurological deficits were scored and monitored using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) for disability in stroke. Blood pressure and coagulation indices of prothrombin time (PT) and thromboplastin time (TT) were recorded. RESULTS Compared with the non-low-temperature group, the low-temperature group showed a significantly increased proportion of patients with hypertension and large artery atherosclerotic stroke, more prolonged PT, and higher NIHSS scores. However, TT was reduced in the low-temperature group (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS When the average winter temperature was <13°C, the risk factors, etiology, coagulation factors, and degree of neurological impairment of patients with ischemic stroke were significantly different from patients with ischemic stroke during warmer temperature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.916472DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6556065PMC
May 2019

Effects of ray position sampling on the visual responses of 3D light field displays.

Opt Express 2019 Apr;27(7):9343-9360

A 3D light field display typically reconstructs a 3D scene by sampling either the projections of the 3D scene at different depths or the directions of the light rays apparently emitted by the 3D scene and viewed from different eye positions. These light field display methods are potentially capable of rendering correct or nearly correct focus cues and therefore addressing the well-known vergence-accommodation conflict problem plaguing the conventional stereoscopic displays. However, very limited efforts have been made to investigate the effects of light ray sampling on the quality of the rendered focus cues and thus the visual responses of a viewer in light field displays. In this paper, by accounting for both the specifications of a light field display system and the ocular factors of the human visual system, we systematically model and analyze the ray position sampling issue in the reconstruction of the light field and characterize its effect on the quality of the rendered retinal image and on the accommodative response in viewing a 3D light field display. Using a recently developed 3D light field display prototype, we further experimentally validated the effects of ray position sampling on the resolution and accommodative response of a light field display, of which the result matches with theoretical characterization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.27.009343DOI Listing
April 2019

Methods of optimizing and evaluating geometrical lightguides with microstructure mirrors for augmented reality displays.

Opt Express 2019 Feb;27(4):5523-5543

Waveguide or lightguide technology has been widely used in the state-of-the-art, see-through, near-eye displays to reduce system weight and form factor. Although a few of the current products use a geometrical lightguide as an optical combiner, its design and performance assessment methods have been barely discussed. In this paper, by taking into account the factors affecting retinal image quality, we presented novel methods for quantifying and evaluating the optical performances and artifacts of geometrical lightguides based on microstructure mirror arrays, and proposed new merit functions and a novel process for systematic optimization of such lightguides. A lightguide design example implementing the evaluation and optimization methods are demonstrated, and the resulted lightguide is then further utilized as a combiner for the design of a lightweight, glasses-like, see-through, near-eye display.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.27.005523DOI Listing
February 2019

Primary Clinical Evaluation of Photodynamic Therapy With Oral Leukoplakia in Chinese Patients.

Front Physiol 2018 22;9:1911. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Department of Oral Medicine, Peking University School of Stomatology, Beijing, China.

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has demonstrated promising results in the treatment of oral leukoplakia. This study evaluated the clinical efficacy and side effects of PDT in the treatment of Chinese patients with oral leukoplakia. Twenty-nine patients with oral leukoplakia were enrolled in this study, including patients with both homogenous and non-homogenous lesions and various dysplastic tissues. All patients received PDT using a 632 nm laser at 500 mW/cm power density at a dosage of 90-180 J/cm and with aminolevulinic acid (ALA) used as a photosensitizer. A fixing and restricting complex as well as high laser power density for PDT in oral cavity was applied. An overall response rate of 86.2% was achieved in this study, including 55.2% complete remission and 31.0% partial remission. The only adverse events observed in subjects were transient local ulcer and pain. It is observed the PDT utilizing ALA showed strong effectiveness in patients with moderate to severe dysplasia, as less treatment time per cm of lesion is required. Topic ALA-PDT is effective to treat oral leukoplakia, especially for that with the presence of dysplasia. A fixing and restricting complex as well as high laser power density for PDT in oral cavity should be considered as an optimal choice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2018.01911DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6350274PMC
January 2019

PGC-1α Participates in the Protective Effect of Chronic Intermittent Hypobaric Hypoxia on Cardiomyocytes.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2018 5;50(5):1891-1902. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Department of Physiology, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang,

Background/aims: Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) or hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury is always characterized by Ca2+ overload, energy metabolism disorder and necrocytosis of cardiomyocytes. We showed previously that chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (CIHH) improves cardiac function during I/R through improving cardiac glucose metabolism. However, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms of CIHH treatment improving energy metabolism in cardiomyocytes are still unclear. In this study, we determined whether and how CIHH protects cardiomyocytes from Ca2+ overload and necrocytosis through energy regulating pathway.

Methods: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: control (CON) and CIHH group. CIHH rats received a hypobaric hypoxia simulating 5,000-m altitude for 28 days, 6 hours each day, in hypobaric chamber. Rat ventricular myocytes were obtained by enzymatic dissociation. The intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and cTnI protein expression were used to evaluate the degree of cardiomyocytes injury during and after H/R. The mRNA and protein expressions involved in cardiac energy metabolism were determined using quantitative PCR and Western blot techniques. PGC-1α siRNA adenovirus transfection was used to knock down PGC-1α gene expression of cardiomyocytes to determine the effect of PGC-1α in the energy regulating pathway.

Results: H/R increased [Ca2+]i and cTnI protein expression in cardiomyocytes. CIHH treatment decreased [Ca2+]i (p< 0.01) and cTnI protein expression (p< 0.01) in cardiomyocytes after H/R. Both mRNA and protein expression of PGC-1α increased after CIHH treatment, which was reversed by PGC-1α siRNA adenovirus transfection. Furthermore, CIHH treatment increased the expression of HIF-1α, AMPK and p-AMPK in cardiomyocytes, and pretreatment with AMPK inhibitor dorsomorphin abolished the enhancement of PGC-1α protein expression in cardiomyocytes by CIHH (p< 0.01). In addition, PGC-1α knock down also abolished the increased protein level of GLUT4 (p< 0.01) and decreased the protein level of CPT-1b (p< 0.05) in cardiomyocytes by CIHH treatment.

Conclusion: CIHH treatment could reduce the calcium overload and H/R injury in cardiomyocytes by up-regulating the expression of PGC-1α and regulating the energy metabolism of glucose and lipid. The HIF-1α-AMPK signaling pathway might be involved in the process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000494869DOI Listing
November 2018

Incidence and mortality trends in oral and oropharyngeal cancers in China, 2005-2013.

Cancer Epidemiol 2018 12 2;57:120-126. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Radiology & Medicine, New York University College of Dentistry, New York, 10010, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Oral and oropharyngeal cancers are among the most common cancers globally. This study aimed to assess the incidence and mortality trends of oral and oropharyngeal cancers in China between 2005 and 2013.

Methods: Estimates of national trends of oral and oropharyngeal cancers were based on the data from Chinese Cancer Registry Annual Reports. The crude incidence rates of oral and oropharyngeal cancers between 2015 and 2035 were evaluated. The age-standardized rate was based on the world standard population.

Results: It was estimated that 285,857 new cases and 132,698 deaths were related to oral and oropharyngeal cancers in China between 2005 and 2013, with mouth and tongue cancers being the most frequently diagnosed and the leading causes of death among all oral and oropharyngeal cancers. The incidence rates of oral and oropharyngeal cancer fluctuated from 1.69 to 1.89 per 100,000 person-years, and the mortality rate showed an increasing trend, ranging from 0.77 and 0.84 per 100,000 person-years. Males were more susceptible than females to oral and oropharyngeal cancers. The incidence and mortality rates of oral and oropharyngeal cancers were significantly higher in urban regions. The crude incidence rates of oral cancers are projected to increase from 2.26 to 3.21 per 100,000 person-years over the next 20 years in China.

Conclusion: The incidence of oral and oropharyngeal cancers fluctuated, whereas the mortality rate showed an upward trend from 2005 to 2013. A heavier burden from oral and oropharyngeal cancers is predicted in the next two decades in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canep.2018.10.014DOI Listing
December 2018

Tannic acid-loaded mesoporous silica for rapid hemostasis and antibacterial activity.

Biomater Sci 2018 Nov;6(12):3318-3331

Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, PR China.

Massive blood loss and bacterial infection are major challenges for global public health. In this study, we developed tannic acid (TA)-loaded mesoporous silica (MS) nanoparticles for both hemorrhage control and effective antibacterium via covalent conjugation and electrostatic adsorption. The TA-absorbed MS could significantly relieve hemolysis and facilitate blood contact, therefore efficiently promoting protein adhesion and the contact activation pathway of the coagulation cascade with desirable hemostasis. Comparably, with increasing TAs absorption, the bleeding control and antibacterial performance were improved simultaneously, especially for 15TMS. Hemostasis tests demonstrated that the 15TMS could reduce the hemostatic time by 65% both in vitro and in vivo, with lower blood loss and could exhibit better antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis as well as promote wound healing. However, the TAs-loaded MS via chemical grafting (15T-g-MS) significantly reduced the surface area of MS, by replacing the Si-OH on the MS, and thus it exhibited worse bleeding control and antibacterial efficacy than 15TMS. Furthermore, all the samples exhibited excellent cell viability. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the 15TMS would be a promising material platform for designing hemostats in more extensive clinical application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8bm00837jDOI Listing
November 2018

Molecular analysis of oral microflora in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome by using high-throughput sequencing.

PeerJ 2018 28;6:e5649. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

Department of Oral Biology, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, National Engineering Laboratory for Digital and Material Technology of Stomatology, Beijing Key Laboratory of Digital Stomatology, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Background: The objective of this study was to characterize the oral microflora profile of primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) patients, thereby revealing the connection between oral bacterial composition and dental caries, and to identify the "core microbiome" in the oral cavities of pSS patients and systemic healthy individuals by using a high-throughput sequencing technique.

Methods: Twenty-two pSS patients and 23 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Their clinical data and oral rinse samples were collected. The V3-V4 hypervariable regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene of samples were amplified and analyzed by high-throughput sequencing on the Illumina Miseq PE300 platform.

Results: Both two groups were age- and sex-matched. There were significantly higher decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) and decayed, missing and filled surfaces (DMFS) in the pSS group than in the control group ( < 0.01). Alpha diversity was depleted in pSS patients, compared with healthy controls ( < 0.01), while beta diversity between the two groups was not significantly different. Seven discriminative genera (LDA > 4) were found between the two groups in LEfSe (LDA Effect Size) analysis. The relative abundance of in pSS patients was fourfold higher, while , , , , and were significantly lower in pSS patients than in healthy controls. However, the correlation between and DMFT/DMFS was not significant ( > 0.05). In Venn diagram analysis, nine genera shared by all samples of two groups, which comprised 71.88% and 67.64% in pSS patients and controls, respectively.

Discussion: These findings indicate a microbial dysbiosis in pSS patients; notably, might be recognized as a biomarker in pSS patients. The core microbiome in pSS patients was similar to the systemic healthy population. These provide insight regarding advanced microbial prevention and treatment of severe dental caries in pSS patients. This study also provides basic data regarding microbiology in pSS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.5649DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6166617PMC
September 2018

Comparison of six display modes for a multi-resolution foveated laparoscope.

Surg Endosc 2019 01 11;33(1):341-351. Epub 2018 Sep 11.

Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, Arizona Simulation Technology and Education Center, Arizona Health Sciences Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, USA.

Background: To overcome the field of view and ergonomic limitations of standard laparoscopes, we are developing a multi-resolution foveated laparoscope that can simultaneously obtain both wide- and zoomed-in-view images through a single scope. To facilitate the effective access to the dual views of images with different resolution and field coverage acquired by our laparoscope, six different display modes have been developed. Each of the six display modes has inherent advantages and disadvantages. This study compares the six display modes through a human-subject experiment, which was conducted with an emulated laparoscope using a 4K camera.

Methods: Twenty-four subjects without medicine background performed three evaluation trials of a touching task with each of the display modes. Various objective measurements including task completion time, the number of collisions, gaze position, and tooltip position, and subjective preference for the display modes were recorded.

Results: For all the measurements except for task completion time and moving speed of tooltip, there were statistically significant differences among the display modes. Although the focus plus warped context view mode was selected as one of the least preferred modes, it showed the best task performance.

Conclusions: The unblocked wide context view was useful to provide a situational awareness even when it was severely distorted in some of the display modes, and information continuity played an important role in improving task performance. Moreover, the position change of viewing window coupled to the location of region of interest helped improve task performance, by providing an additional cue for spatial awareness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-018-6445-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7523741PMC
January 2019

Diagnostic value of oral "beefy red" patch in vitamin B12 deficiency.

Ther Clin Risk Manag 2018 7;14:1391-1397. Epub 2018 Aug 7.

Department of Oral Medicine, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing, China,

Background: Vitamin B12 deficiency, which may cause serious neuropsychiatric damage, is common in the elderly. The non-specific clinical features of B12 deficiency and unreliable serum parameters make diagnosis difficult. We aimed to evaluate the value of oral "beefy red" patches as a clinical marker of B12 deficiency.

Methods: A diagnostic study was conducted in patients complaining of oral soreness, burning sensation, or severe recurrent oral ulcers. Patients underwent clinical examination and laboratory investigations, including complete blood count and estimation of serum B12, folate, iron, and ferritin levels. Resolution of clinical signs and symptoms after 1 month of B12 supplement was regarded as the diagnostic gold standard.

Results: Of 136 patients, 70 had B12 deficiency. Among these patients, the oral "beefy red" patch was observed in 61, abnormal mean corpuscular volume (MCV) was noted in 30, and serum cobalamin levels <200 and <350 pg/mL were seen in 59 and 67 cases, respectively. The "beefy red" patch demonstrated the highest diagnostic validity (Youden index 0.84) and reliability (consistency 91.9% [95% CI: 87.3%-96.5%]), followed by the serum cobalamin levels and MCV. The combination of "beefy red" patch with cobalamin <350 pg/mL exhibited better diagnostic value than the combination of "beefy red" patch with cobalamin <200 pg/mL, with accuracy of 0.81 vs 0.74 and reliability of 90.4% (95% CI: 85.5%-95.4%) vs 86.8% (95% CI: 81.1%-92.5%).

Conclusion: The combination of oral "beefy red" patch and serum cobalamin level <350 pg/mL appears to be useful for diagnosis of B12 deficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S159889DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6086100PMC
August 2018

High-performance integral-imaging-based light field augmented reality display using freeform optics.

Opt Express 2018 Jun;26(13):17578-17590

A new integral-imaging-based light field augmented-reality display is proposed and implemented for the first time, to our best knowledge, to achieve a wide see-through view and high image quality over a large depth range. By using custom-designed freeform optics and incorporating a tunable lens and an aperture array, we demonstrated a compact design of a light field head-mounted-display that offers a true 3D display view of 30° by 18°, maintains a spatial resolution of 3 arc minutes across a depth range of over 3 diopters, and provides a see-through field of view of 65° by 40°.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.26.017578DOI Listing
June 2018

Disruption of endothelial barrier function is linked with hyposecretion and lymphocytic infiltration in salivary glands of Sjögren's syndrome.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 2018 10 4;1864(10):3154-3163. Epub 2018 Jul 4.

Center for Salivary Gland Diseases of Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Peking University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Sciences, Ministry of Education, and Beijing Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Receptors Research, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an inflammatory autoimmune disease that causes hyposecretion in salivary glands. Endothelial tight junctions (TJs) play crucial roles in salivation and barrier function of blood vessels. However, whether the alteration of endothelial TJs were involved in pathogenesis of SS was still unknown. Here, the ultrastructure and function of endothelial TJs in submandibular glands (SMGs) were detected by transmission electron microscopy and in vivo paracellular permeability assay in different aged NOD mouse model for SS. CFSE-labeled lymphocytes were injected into tail vein to trace the infiltration, while claudin-5 expression and distribution were detected by immunofluorescence, qRT-PCR, and western blot. Results showed that the stimulated salivary flow rate was gradually decreased and lymphocytic infiltration was found as age increased in 12- and 21-week-old NOD mice, but not 7-week-old NOD mice. Blood vessels were dilated, while endothelial TJ width and paracellular tracer transport were increased in 12-week-old NOD mice. Moreover, the injected CFSE-labeled lymphocytes were observed in SMGs of 12-week-old NOD mice. Claudin-5 level was increased and relocalized from the apical portion of neighboring endothelial cells to lateral membranes and cytoplasm in 12-week-old NOD mice. Additionally, the alteration of claudin-5 expression and distribution was further confirmed in labial salivary glands and bilateral parotid glands from SS patients. In cultured human microvessel endothelial cell line (HMEC-1), IFN-γ stimulation significantly increased claudin-5 expression. Taken together, we identified that the endothelial TJ barrier was disrupted and contributed to the development of salivary hyposecretion and lymphocytic infiltration in SS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbadis.2018.07.002DOI Listing
October 2018

Correlation Between Oral Lichen Planus and Thyroid Disease in China: A Case-Control Study.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2018 18;9:330. Epub 2018 Jun 18.

Department of Oral Medicine, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing, China.

Background: A possible relationship between oral lichen planus (OLP) and thyroid disease has received attention in recent years.

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between OLP and thyroid diseases in Chinese ethnic patients.

Methods: 192 OLP patients, 123 patients with oral lichenoid lesions (OLLs), and 162 controls were recruited in this case-control study. All participants received screening for thyroid function and underwent ultrasound. Sex and age of the patients in the three groups were matched. The prevalence of thyroid diseases in the subjects was analyzed. Using logistic regression, the odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals was appraised for associations between OLP, OLL, and different types of thyroid diseases [Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), hypothyroidism, and thyroid nodule].

Results: The prevalence of thyroid diseases in the OLP group (72.4%) and OLL group (68.3%) was higher than the control group (49.4%) with statistical significance. The OR of HT was 3.16 (1.87-5.33) for OLP, 2.09 (1.18-3.70) for OLL, while the OR of thyroid nodule was 2.31 (1.30-4.09) for OLP.

Conclusion: Our study suggested a close relationship between OLP/OLL and HT and thyroid nodule in a Chinese population. The possible mechanism behind this association warrants further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2018.00330DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6015892PMC
June 2018

The Value of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography Combined with Real-Time Strain Elastography in the Early Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer.

Aging Dis 2018 Jun 1;9(3):480-488. Epub 2018 Jun 1.

4Departments of Pathology, Xuan Wu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053, China.

To evaluate the performance of a combination of real-time strain elastography (RTSE) and contrast-enhanced transrectal ultrasound (CETRUS) for prostate cancer detection. Patients with serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels of ≥4.0 ng/ml were prospectively enrolled between June 2014 and December 2016. 153 prostate nodules diagnosed by conventional ultrasound were prospectively enrolled and examined by CETRUS and RTSE before a biopsy. Multivariate logistic regression models were established for CETRUS, and CETRUS combined with RTSE to diagnose prostate malignancy. The diagnostic performances of CETRUS, RTSE, and their combined use were evaluated with the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The multivariate logistic regression for CETRUS combined with RTSE showed that enhanced strength, enhanced uniformity, and elasticity scores were the independent predictors of prostate malignancy. The area under the ROC curve of CETRUS combined with RTSE (0.921±0.023) was higher than that of CETRUS and RTSE (0.88±0.029 and 0.80±0.038, respectively; both <0.05). Moreover, the sensitivity, accuracy and negative predictive value of CETRUS combined with RTSE were 92.1%, 86.2%, and 84.6%, respectively. The omission diagnostic rate of CETRUS combined with RTSE (7.9%) was reduced. And the diagnostic accuracy of CETRUS combined with RTSE was significantly higher than that of CETRUS and RTSE (<0.05). While the diagnostic accuracy of CETRUS was close to the RTSE, the difference was not statistically significant (>0.05). The combined RTSE with CETRUS approach significantly improved the sensitivity and overall accuracy for correctly identifying prostate cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14336/AD.2017.0704DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5988602PMC
June 2018

Estimating the acute effects of fine and coarse particle pollution on stroke mortality of in six Chinese subtropical cities.

Environ Pollut 2018 Aug 8;239:812-817. Epub 2018 May 8.

Department of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510080, China. Electronic address:

While increasing evidence suggested that PM is the most harmful fraction of the particle pollutants, the health effects of coarse particles (PM) have been inconclusive, especially on cerebrovascular diseases, we thus evaluated the effects of PM, PM, and PM on stroke mortality in six Chinese subtropical cities using generalized additive models. We also conducted random-effects meta-analyses to estimate the overall effects across the six cities. We found that PM, PM, and PM were significantly associated with stroke mortality. Each 10 μg/m increase of PM, PM and PM (lag03) was associated with an increase of 1.88% (95% CI: 1.37%, 2.39%), 3.07% (95% CI: 2.35%, 3.79%), and 5.72% (95% CI: 3.82%, 7.65%) in overall stroke mortality. Using the World Health Organization's guideline as reference concentration, we estimated that 3.21% (95% CI: 1.65%, 3.01%) of stroke mortality (corresponding to 1743 stroke mortalities, 95% CI: 896, 1633) were attributed to PM, 5.57% (95% CI: 0.50%, 1.23%) stroke mortality (3019, 95% CI: 2286, 3777) were attributed to PM, and 2.02% (95% CI: 1.85%, 3.08%) of stroke mortality (1097, 95% CI: 1005, 1673) could be attributed to PM. Our analysis indicates that both PM and PM are important risk factors of stroke mortality and should be considered in the prevention and control of stroke in the study area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.04.102DOI Listing
August 2018

Digitally switchable multi-focal lens using freeform optics.

Opt Express 2018 Apr;26(8):11007-11017

Optical technologies offering electrically tunable optical power have found a broad range of applications, from head-mounted displays for virtual and augmented reality applications to microscopy. In this paper, we present a novel design and prototype of a digitally switchable multi-focal lens (MFL) that offers the capability of rapidly switching the optical power of the system among multiple foci. It consists of a freeform singlet and a customized programmable optical shutter array (POSA). Time-multiplexed multiple foci can be obtained by electrically controlling the POSA to switch the light path through different segments of the freeform singlet rapidly. While this method can be applied to a broad range of imaging and display systems, we experimentally demonstrate a proof-of-concept prototype for a multi-foci imaging system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.26.011007DOI Listing
April 2018

A Novel Droplet-Fabricated Mesoporous Silica-Based Nanohybrid Granules for Hemorrhage Control.

J Biomed Nanotechnol 2018 Apr;14(4):649-661

Uncontrolled hemorrhage is one of the leading cause for death in both civilian and military trauma. The zeolite-based hemostatic agent currently available in clinic exhibits great exothermic reaction and poor biodegradability. To overcome these limitations, in this study, we developed a novel mesoporous silica (MS)-based calcium alginate nanohybrid granule (-MS/CA) for hemorrhage control. The -MS/CA was prepared by an pore-forming, droplet process and the granule prepared was 2-3 mm in size with rough and macroporous surface. The -MS/CA could significantly accelerate water absorption and block off the damaged tissue, and thereby efficiently promoted platelet and plasma protein adhesion, enhanced wound adherence, facilitated the contact activation pathway of coagulation cascade with desirable hemostasis. Hemostasis test demonstrated that the -MS/CA granule could reduce about 50% hemostatic time both and and decrease blood loss. Meanwhile, the nanocomposite of -MS/CA exhibited excellent cell viability and did not induce hemolysis. Furthermore, the preparation process for multipore -MS/CA is low-cost, quick and easy to achieve large-scale production. Owing to the superior hemostatic performance and simple preparation process, we believe that this study will provide an alternative approach for hemorrhage control in some specific injury types, and have immense potential for commercial and clinical application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jbn.2018.2527DOI Listing
April 2018

Discovery of N-arylpyrroles as agonists of GPR120 for the treatment of type II diabetes.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2018 03 8;28(5):841-846. Epub 2018 Feb 8.

Cardiovascular and Metabolism Research, Janssen Research and Development LLC, 1400 McKean Rd., Spring House, PA 19477, USA.

The discovery of a novel series of N-arylpyrroles as agonists of GPR120 (FFAR4) is discussed. One lead compound is a potent GPR120 agonist, has good selectivity for related receptor GPR40 (FFAR1), has acceptable PK properties, and is active in 2 models of Type 2 Diabetes in mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2018.02.013DOI Listing
March 2018

Stimulation of cell responses and bone ingrowth into macro-microporous implants of nano-bioglass/polyetheretherketone composite and enhanced antibacterial activity by release of hinokitiol.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2018 Apr 31;164:347-357. Epub 2018 Jan 31.

Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, 200237, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Poor osteogenesis and bacterial infection lead to the failure of implants, thus enhancements of osteogenic activity and antibacterial activity of the implants have significances in orthopedic applications. In this study, macro-microporous bone implants of nano-bioglass (nBG) and polyetheretherketone (PK) composite (mBPC) were fabricated. The results indicated that the mBPC with the porosity of around 70% exhibited interconnected macropores (sizes of about 400 μm) and micropores (sizes of about 10 μm). The apatite mineralization ability of mBPC in simulated body fluid (SBF) was significantly improved compared with macroporous nBG/PK composite (BPC) without micropores and macroporous PK (mPK). Drug of hinokitiol (HK) was loaded into mBPC (dmBPC), which displayed excellent in vitro antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. The MC3T3-E1 cells proliferation and ALP activity were significantly promoted by mBPC and dmBPC as compared with BPC and mPK. The micro-CT and histological evaluation showed that both mBPC and dmBPC containing nBG and micropores induced higher new bone formation into porous implants than mPK and BPC. The immunohistochemistry analysis indicated that the expression of BMP-2 in mBPC and dmBPC exhibited obviously higher level than mPK and BPC. The results suggested that the incorporation of nBG and micropores in mBPC obviously improved the osteogenic activity, and mBPC load with HK also promoted osteogenesis, indicating good biocompatibility. The dmBPC with HK significantly enhanced osteogenesis and antibacterial activity, which had great potential as bone implant for hard tissue repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2018.01.058DOI Listing
April 2018

Evaluation of the content quality of websites for recurrent aphthous ulcers and oral lichen planus.

BMC Oral Health 2017 12 29;17(1):170. Epub 2017 Dec 29.

Department of Oral Medicine, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, 22 Zhongguancun Avenue South, Haidian District, Beijing, 100081, China.

Background: The Internet is one of the most popular resources for people to obtain medical information; however, only a limited number of studies have reported the quality of the available health information related to oral mucosal diseases. The present study aimed to evaluate the quality of information on websites for recurrent aphthous ulcers (RAU) and oral lichen planus (OLP), in both Chinese and English.

Methods: Common search engines, BaiDu, Google, and Yahoo in Chinese; and Bing, Google, and Yahoo in English were used to identify websites providing content related to the oral mucosal diseases. The first 100 links for keywords "recurrent aphthous ulcers" and "oral lichen planus" were visited and content was downloaded within 24 h. Two separate trained researchers use the validated DISCERN rating instrument and JAMA benchmarks to evaluate the content. The rating scores were analyzed and the quality was assessed according to the scores and content of websites.

Results: A total of 145 websites for RAU and 128 of OLP were analyzed. Based on the DISCERN instrument, the quality of the content in websites for both diseases, whether in English or Chinese, was not high, generally scoring 2 to 3 (max. 5). Only 13 of the RAU websites and 21 of the OLP websites fulfilled the four criteria of the JAMA benchmarks. Generally, the scores of the English websites were higher than those of the Chinese websites. During the twelve searches, only four (Yahoo of RAU in Chinese, Bing and Yahoo of RAU in English, and Google of OLP in Chinese) showed moderate correlation between the website's ranking and their rating scores. People cannot obtain high quality medical information if they only look at the top ranked sites on the viewing lists. Websites belonging to universities or medical centers had relatively higher scores compared with the others.

Conclusions: The quality of the content on websites relating to RAU and OLP in Chinese and English was moderate. More good quality websites and information are needed in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12903-017-0467-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5747117PMC
December 2017

High-throughput RNA sequencing reveals distinct gene signatures in active IgG4-related disease.

Sci Rep 2017 12 14;7(1):17567. Epub 2017 Dec 14.

Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing, 100044, China.

We aimed to characterize the molecular differences and effects from prednisone treatment among IgG4-related disease with salivary gland lesions (RD-SG), without SG lesions (RD-nonSG), and IgG4-related retroperitoneal fibrosis (RF). RNA sequencing was conducted on blood from 25 RD-SG, 11 RD-nonSG, 3 RF and 10 control subjects. Among these, 8 RD-nonSG and 12 RD-SG patients were subjected to treatment with prednisone and/or glucocorticoid-sparing agents. Six RD patients had a longitudinal time point. The mRNA levels of IgG4 and IgE, genes specific for Th2 cells, eosinophils, and neutrophils were over-expressed in RD-SG and RD-nonSG. A B-cell signature was suppressed in patients group versus controls, while Th1, Th2, Treg, and eosinophil gene signatures were increased in patients without treatment. Interestingly, Tfh genes and B cell signature were decreased at flare disease state. Prednisone treatment led to increased neutrophil, but decreased Treg signatures. Serum IgG4 levels correlated with the eosinophil and neutrophil gene signatures in RD-SG patients, and with a B cell signature in only RD-nonSG patients. IgG4, IgE, and cell-specific signatures are regulated in patients, suggesting the imbalance of immune and inflammatory cells in IgG4-related disease. Prednisone treatment selectively modulates Treg, eosinophil, and neutrophil signatures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-17602-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5730556PMC
December 2017

Design and prototype of an augmented reality display with per-pixel mutual occlusion capability.

Opt Express 2017 Nov;25(24):30539-30549

State-of-the-art optical see-through head-mounted displays for augmented reality (AR) applications lack mutual occlusion capability, which refers to the ability to render correct light blocking relationship when merging digital and physical objects, such that the virtual views appear to be ghost-like and lack realistic appearance. In this paper, using off-the-shelf optical components, we present the design and prototype of an AR display which is capable of rendering per-pixel mutual occlusion. Our prototype utilizes a miniature organic light emitting display coupled with a liquid crystal on silicon type spatial light modulator to achieve an occlusion capable AR display offering a 30° diagonal field of view and an angular resolution of 1.24 arcminutes, with an optical performance of > 0.4 contrast over the full field at the Nquist frequency of 24.2 cycles/degree. We experimentally demonstrate a monocular prototype achieving >100:1 dynamic range in well-lighted environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.25.030539DOI Listing
November 2017

The Association of Thyroid Disease and Oral Lichen Planus: A Literature Review and Meta-analysis.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2017 9;8:310. Epub 2017 Nov 9.

Department of Oral Medicine, Peking University Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing, China.

Background: The objective of this study was to systemically evaluate the association between oral lichen planus (OLP) and thyroid disease.

Method: Eleven electronic databases were searched for any clinical study published up until August 2016 that explored an association between OLP and thyroid disease, complemented with manual searching. The titles and abstracts of all studies identified from the electronic searches were then assessed independently to determine inclusion of the study. The population of interest was patients with OLP, and the exposure was the presence of thyroid disease in OLP patients. Statistical analyses were conducted using Review Manager 5.2. The odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate the association between OLP and thyroid disease.

Results: Eight studies were included for review, and of these, four case-control studies were included in the final meta-analysis. The mean Newcastle-Ottawa Scale score evaluating the methodological quality of the four studies was 6.5. The OR was 2.10 (95% CI: 1.47-3.01), indicating a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of thyroid disease between the OLP and control groups. Heterogeneity was satisfactory ( = 0%, <25%). An approximately symmetrical funnel plot suggested no obvious publication bias. Two articles showed a higher correlation between OLP and hypothyroidism (OR 1.83, 95% CI: 1.16-2.89), with satisfactory heterogeneity ( = 0%, <25%).

Conclusion: This meta-analysis indicated a significantly high prevalence of thyroid disease among OLP patients compared with controls, suggesting that routine screening for thyroid disease could be beneficial to OLP patients. However, due to the small number of studies included, further studies are needed to confirm the results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2017.00310DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5684121PMC
November 2017

High dynamic range head mounted display based on dual-layer spatial modulation.

Opt Express 2017 Sep;25(19):23320-23333

The human visual system can perceive a much wider range of contrast than the addressable dynamic range afforded by the state-of-art head mounted displays (HMD). Increasing the dynamic range of HMDs becomes critical especially for augmented reality applications where the dynamic range of outdoor scenes can be as large as 14 orders of magnitude. In this paper, we present the integrated work of the design, implementation, calibration, and image-rendering algorithm of a high dynamic range HMD system. By using a pair of LCoS microdisplays as the spatial light modulators, accompanied with the relay optics to optically overlay the modulation layers, we demonstrate the reconstruction of high dynamic range images with high accuracy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.25.023320DOI Listing
September 2017

Systematic characterization and optimization of 3D light field displays.

Opt Express 2017 Aug;25(16):18508-18525

One of the key issues in conventional stereoscopic displays is the well-known vergence-accommodation conflict problem due to the lack of the ability to render correct focus cues for 3D scenes. Recently several light field display methods have been explored to reconstruct a true 3D scene by sampling either the projections of the 3D scene at different depths or the directions of the light rays apparently emitted by the 3D scene and viewed from different eye positions. These methods are potentially capable of rendering correct or nearly correct focus cues and addressing the vergence-accommodation conflict problem. In this paper, we describe a generalized framework to model the image formation process of the existing light-field display methods and present a systematic method to simulate and characterize the retinal image and the accommodation response rendered by a light field display. We further employ this framework to investigate the trade-offs and guidelines for an optimal 3D light field display design. Our method is based on quantitatively evaluating the modulation transfer functions of the perceived retinal image of a light field display by accounting for the ocular factors of the human visual system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.25.018508DOI Listing
August 2017

Discovery of an Isothiazole-Based Phenylpropanoic Acid GPR120 Agonist as a Development Candidate for Type 2 Diabetes.

ACS Med Chem Lett 2017 Sep 27;8(9):947-952. Epub 2017 Jul 27.

Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research, Janssen Research & Development, LLC, Welsh & McKean Roads, Box 776, Spring House, Pennsylvania 19477, United States.

We have discovered a novel series of isothiazole-based phenylpropanoic acids as GPR120 agonists. Extensive structure-activity relationship studies led to the discovery of a potent GPR120 agonist , which displayed good EC values in both calcium and β-arrestin assays. It also presented good pharmaceutical properties and a favorable PK profile. Moreover, it demonstrated antidiabetic activity in C57BL/6 DIO mice. Studies in WT and knockout DIO mice showed that it improved glucose handling during an OGTT via GPR120. Overall, possessed promising antidiabetic effect and good safety profile to be a development candidate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsmedchemlett.7b00233DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5601374PMC
September 2017

Correlation between polymorphisms of the NR3C1 gene and glucocorticoid effectiveness in patients with pemphigus vulgaris.

Sci Rep 2017 09 19;7(1):11890. Epub 2017 Sep 19.

Department of Oral Medicine, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing, China.

Glucocorticoid (GC) resistance is the major obscule in the treatment of pemphigus vulgaris (PV) for both patients and clinicans with unclear mechanism. A hypotheis for this resistance is the mutations or polymorphisms present in the nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1 (NR3C1) gene that encodes receptors for steroid hormones. This study aimed to investigate the association between NR3C1 gene polymorphisms and GC effectiveness in PV patients. 94 PV patients (64 GC-sensitive and 30 GC-resistant) and 100 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this case-control study. The genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in BCL1, Arg23Lys, Asn363Ser 1548 t-insert, and le747Met, together with tag-SNP sites of the NR3C1 gene were evaluated. No significant differences were observed in genotypic and allelic frequencies of the 16 SNPs between PV patients and healthy volunteers. However, SNPs rs 11745958 C/T (OR: 8.95) and rs17209237 A/G (OR: 4.07) may be associated with an increased risk of GC resistance, while rs 33388 A/T (OR: 0.45) and rs7701443 A/G (OR: 0.51) may indicate a decreased risk of GC resistance in PV patients. NR3C1 gene variation may be associated with GC resistance in PV patients. More extensive genetic analyses and mechanistic analysis are required for further exploration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-12255-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5605666PMC
September 2017

Quaternary Ammonium Groups Modified Starch Microspheres for Instant Hemorrhage Control.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2017 Nov 24;159:937-944. Epub 2017 Aug 24.

The State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, 200237, PR China; Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, 200237, PR China; Engineering Research Centre for Biomedical Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, ShanghaiShanghai, 200237, PR ChinaPR China. Electronic address:

Instant rapid hemostasis is crucial not only for decreasing mortality in these conditions, but also for optimal recovery. The hemostatic agents on the market suffer from inefficiency hemostasis, nondegradability, high cost and potential safety issues. It is necessary to develop a hemostatic agent with rapid hemostatic performance, potent biodegradation and improved biocompatibility. The aim of this work was to develop a novel type of cationic modified starch microspheres (CS) and investigate its hemostatic performance. CS was firstly developed via enzymatic hydrolysis and then assembled with quaternary ammonium groups by etherification reaction with microsporous starch. The result showed that CH-Ngroups were successfully grafted on the backbone of CS. The zeta potential of CS was increased by 19 mv and the viscosity was improved with a tenfold. Rapid water absorption ratio (304.2%, only 81.8% of pure Starch) and high swelling capacity of CS (1008%, nearly quadruple higher than pure Starch), together with its porous structure, enhanced the physical hemostatic efficacy. In addition, in vitro coagulation studies showed that CS induced the adhesion of red blood cell and platelet, and thus activated the blood chemical coagulation system due to the positive charge. In vivo studies in rabbit liver injuries model further confirmed the dramatic improvement in the hemostatic capacity of CS because the synergistic effects of the chemical activation mechanism and physical absorption mechanism. Furthermore, the degradation of CS was greatly improved by the modification. This study suggested the quaternary ammonium groups modified starch microspheres could serve as an effective and promising hemostatic agent for instant rapid hemostasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2017.08.024DOI Listing
November 2017
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